91,802 results

  • It's Your Shout! A New Way of Measuring Use Wear on Glass Bottles

    Platts, Maeve (2018)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    It was not until 1922 that glass manufacturing was available in New Zealand and prior to this, glass bottles were considered valuable and useful objects. This lack of glass encouraged reuse. Reuse has implications for consumption analyses and the interpretation of bottle glass assemblages but to date there has been no systematic method of documenting this. The following research examines if it is possible to quantify evidence of wear on glass bottles in a way that can be applied to archaeological specimens. With the presumption that continued use of a bottle will leave physical evidence, a scale was produced for measuring the use wear on glass bottles. The scale was then employed on five different sites located in Christchurch. These sites consisted of a warehouse/brewery, a pub/inn, a bottle exchange and two domestic sites. The aim was to discover if it was possible to measure use wear on glass bottles and to see if there was any variation in the extent of use wear and, therefore reuse, within these sites and among different bottle types. This enabled the results to be used to contribute to a broader interpretation of the social life of Victorian Christchurch with an emphasis on the drinking culture of the time.

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  • Identification and functional analysis of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae effector-triggered immunity in Nicotiana spp. and Arabidopsis thaliana : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Plant Science at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Choi, Sera

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) is the causal agent of bacterial canker in commercially important cultivars of kiwifruit (Actinidia delicosa and A. chinensis) worldwide, including New Zealand. Like many gram-negative pathogens, Psa is expected to utilise type III effectors to promote virulence in host plants. In order to better understand Psa effector-triggered immunity and susceptibility, we aimed to investigate multiple molecular characteristics of Psa type III effectors and their recognition mechanisms in model plants, Nicotiana spp. and Arabidopsis thaliana. Nicotiana tabacum and N. benthamiana are widely-used model plants for Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression (agroinfiltration) of effectors for functional characterization. Firstly, we screened multiple characteristics of effectors from two Psa strains, Psa NZ V13 and Psa NZ LV5. The former is a strongly virulent and the latter is a weakly virulent strain in kiwifruit. By using agroinfiltration in Nicotiana spp. to express individual effector proteins, we observed diverse subcellular localisation for Psa effectors. Additionally, we identified multiple Psa effectors that can trigger HR-like cell death (HCD) in both N. tabacum and N. benthamiana. Using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), we identified that some Psa effector-triggered HCD requires the immunity regulator SGT1, suggesting that the Psa effector-triggered HCD could be a result of immunity activation. We focused on one Psa NZ V13 effector, HopZ5, which belongs to the YopJ-like acetyltransferase family. HopZ5 triggers hypersensitive response (HR) in Arabidopsis accession, Ct-1. Another Arabidopsis accession, Col-0, does not develop an HR but shows immunity in response to HopZ5. The gene that confers HopZ5-triggered HR in Ct-1 was identified as SOBER1 (SUPPRESSOR OF AVRBST-ELICITED RESISTANCE 1) by using recombinant inbred lines derived from two parental accessions, Ct-1 and Col-0. SOBER1 is a known suppressor of Xanthomonas effector AvrBsT-triggered immunity. Interestingly, AvrBsT also belongs to YopJ family. Uniquely, SOBER1 specifically suppressed HCD triggered by several YopJ-like acetyltransferase effectors in N. benthamiana, including HopZ5 and HopZ3 from Psa. This suggests a common mechanism shared between a subset of YopJ-like acetyltransferase effectors is suppressed by SOBER1. Finally, we identified one Arabidopsis accession, Ga-0, which carries a truncated SOBER1 variant but does not develop an HR upon HopZ5 delivery. Using bulked- segregant analysis of an F2 population derived from a cross between Ct-1 and Ga-0, we mapped the locus conferring HopZ5-recognition in Ct-1 to the upper arm of Chromosome 3.

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  • A case study of mental health communication programme delivery during mass violence in southern Thailand, 2004-2014 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Communication at Massey University, Manawatū, New Zealand

    Buaniaw, Aruneewan

    Thesis
    Massey University

    In response to long-term mass violence in southern Thailand, the Thai government set up the 12th Mental Health Centre (the key site of this study) in 2004 for mental health healing and rehabilitation, and to provide various mental health programmes for affected groups. This case study examines how those programmes were planned, implemented, and evaluated between 2004 and 2014. The successes and challenges of mental health communication programme delivery in such a situation were also identified. The development of Centre 12’s programme reflects different but interrelated policy shifts: the reactive programme (2004–2005); the targeted groups policy (2005–2010); the general age-group targets (2011–2014); and the emerging phase of severe and complicated cases (2014 on). Key findings showed four stages in Centre 12’s programme framework: planning, media/message development, implementation, and evaluation. Within these phases, Centre 12 largely focused on media/message development, reflecting the nature of the public relations work force in Thailand and concern with religion differences. Print materials were verified by experts and media were produced with cultural sensitivity. Religious-based booklets were deemed noteworthy because of the participatory process in media production, testing, and refinement. Interpersonal and group communications were the main delivery channels. Additionally, training programmes for deliverer groups such as public health practitioners, community leaders, religious leaders, teachers, and radio DJs were crucial because these groups were trusted by local people and could reduce suspicion. Programme evaluation was a significant challenge, shown in Centre 12’s difficulties measuring programme outcomes, impacts, and knowledge utilisation. The Centre 12 case also contains some lessons in delivery in a mass violence situation: mental health communication programmes should focus on community-based approaches and coordinate with community partners, informal, flexible styles of partnership are most suitable for uncertain situations, and programme deliverers need to be concerned with cultural sensitivities. Last, leadership is an important factor for disaster management; however, organisations should set a system of recovery rather than rely on an individual leader. This case study considers wider implications for the government, campaign planners, communication and health communication scholars and practitioners, and those facing similar circumstances in the current unstable geopolitical environment.

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  • Nurse practitioners in rural primary health care in New Zealand : an institutional ethnography : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Nursing, Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Adams, Sue

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Nurse practitioners are an effective and appropriate health workforce for delivering health services to underserved and rural populations. Since 2001, New Zealand has been registering nurse practitioners through a robust educational, regulatory, and legislative framework, and from 2014, all nurse practitioners are authorised prescribers. However, the numbers of nurse practitioners working in rural primary health care have been slow to materialise. Despite an ageing demographic, the increasing prevalence of long term conditions, ongoing health inequalities, and a declining rural medical workforce, there remains a persistence to pursue the general practitioner-led model of care. The purpose of this study was to critically examine the work required to establish nurse practitioner services in rural primary health care in New Zealand. Institutional ethnography, developed by Dorothy Smith, provided the overall approach to the inquiry. The activities and experiences of people in local settings are textually organised by the institutional ruling relations. This inquiry explored the work and experiences that nurses undertook on their journey to become nurse practitioners and deliver services in rural primary health care, and how these were institutionally shaped and coordinated. Interviews were initially conducted with nurse practitioners and nurse practitioner candidates as the primary informants. The interviews were analysed using a mapping technique to identify text-based work processes and show connections, tensions, and contradictions with authoritative or ruling texts. Further data was collected through secondary informant interviews and the tracing and identification of texts. The findings revealed that there were multiple texts and discourses being enacted locally, which facilitated or hampered their work to become nurse practitioners. The ongoing institutional domination of medicine retained general practitioner-led primary care, despite policy and nursing professional texts that promoted social justice. Service fragmentation and frequent changes in policy, structure, and management of organisations at local and national level, resulted in further challenges and work processes by the nurse practitioners to maintain and implement services. Together with the lack of a cohesive national policy and implementation framework for nurse practitioners, the opportunity for nurse practitioners to meet the health needs of the rural population of New Zealand continues to be discounted.

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  • New Zealand’s National Standards policy: How should we view it a decade on?

    Thrupp, Martin (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    In this short article, I consider how teachers might judge the National Standards system these days and also how the policy might be understood more generally. These are important questions coming up to the 2017 election because the National Standards system has been such a central feature of the current Government’s approach to education. Teachers will be aware of teacher and principal colleagues who are supportive of National Standards while others are much less so. Conflicting views amongst teachers and principals about the value of the National Standards is also apparent from a recent New Zealand Council for Educational Research (NZCER) national survey (Bonne, 2016). School websites indicate diverse views as well. There are some primary school websites that reflect enthusiasm about National Standards and some that barely mention them.

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  • Quantifying macrodetritus fluxes from a small temperate estuary

    Gladstone-Gallagher, Rebecca Vivian; Sandwell, Dean R.; Lohrer, Andrew M.; Lundquist, Carolyn J.; Pilditch, Conrad A. (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Empirical measurements of estuary-to-coast material fluxes usually exclude the fraction of primary production that is exported as macrodetritus (marine plant litter), potentially leaving a gap in our understanding of the role of estuaries as outwelling systems. To address this gap, we sampled water and suspended material seasonally from the mouth of Pepe Inlet, Tairua Estuary, New Zealand. From samples collected hourly over 24 h, we calculated the lateral tidal fluxes (import, export, net flux) of macrodetritus, particulate and dissolved forms of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). Annually, the inlet was a net exporter of N and P (5145 and 362 kg respectively). However, macrodetritus accounted for 87%). Nevertheless, seasonal pulses in the source and supply of macrodetritus may have consequences for the temporal scales over which this resource subsidy affects receiving ecosystems (e.g. intertidal sandflats). These mensurative investigations are useful to inform estuarine nutrient budgets that quantify the ecosystem services provided by temperate estuaries (e.g. contribution to fisheries food webs).

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  • Getting students to engage with readings

    Weijers, Dan M. (2017)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Ever wondered how many of your students attempt or complete their readings? Ever worried that when students do attempt the readings that they fail to remember or even understand the important points? If we are to implement a flipped approach to our teaching, then we need our students to be able to read complex texts independently. I will discuss a strategy that I use in my philosophy classes to train students into becoming independent readers, and encourage them to complete all of the reading set for the class.

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  • Introduction—‘Nine years of National-led education policy’

    Thrupp, Martin (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    It is a pleasure to guest-edit this special issue on ‘Nine Years of National-led Education Policy’. As the journal of the faculty where I have worked for much of my career, I am rather fond of the Waikato Journal of Education. One of my earliest papers was published in the very first issue. That article was on the politics of scapegoating schools and teachers for wider socio-economic problems (Thrupp, 1995). It has been a theme that my work has come back to repeatedly and is mentioned in this introduction as well.

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  • How volunteering reduced the impact of the Rena oil spill: Community responses to an environmental disaster

    Hamerton, Heather; Sargisson, Rebecca J.; Smith, Kelly; Hunt, Sonya (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Following the Rena oil spill off the Bay of Plenty coast in New Zealand and subsequent volunteer clean-up programme, we interviewed 39 volunteers and 9 people involved in the volunteer organisation. We aimed to learn about people’s responses to an environmental disaster, what factors motivate people to volunteer, and how volunteering after a disaster assists individuals and communities to adjust to changing circumstances. The oil spill had an emotional, physical, cultural, social and spiritual impact on both individuals and communities. People were motivated to volunteer from a sense of duty and history of volunteering, a concern and sense of collective responsibility for the environment for current and future generations, a desire to contribute to their community, and to connect with others and cope with their negative responses. There was a strong typical New Zealand “can do” response in that volunteers expressed they had time and capability to help so they just wanted to get on with it. After volunteering, most participants reported a sense of satisfaction, renewed social ties, and renewed optimism. The clean-up programme brought communities together, resulting in timely removal of oil from beaches and coastline and demonstrating that citizen volunteers can contribute to oil spill mitigation.

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  • Eutrophication in coastal New Zealand lakes and the mitigation potential of phosphorus immobilization using clay based amendments

    Whitley, Samuel

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Water amendments were analysed in-vitro to identify their potential for phosphate sequestration in coastal lakes and water bodies, in an effort to reduce their phosphorus levels. The potential amendments were identified: Allophane, BauxsolTM (re-purposed from aluminium processing) and PhoslockTM (lanthanum treated Bentonite), along with several other clays such as Kaolinite, Bentonite, and Illite as a comparison. Each Amendment was placed in a solution of phosphate, agitated, then left to settle over 24 hours. The remaining phosphate in the solution was measured with a UV spectrometer (880nm, ascorbic acid analysis). The results showed that the common clays (kaolinite, Bentonite, illite) had very low adsorbance potential, with an average of 6.15ppm of phosphate adsorbed out of a total of 50ppm, PhoslockTM adsorbed 33.7ppm while allophane and BauxsolTM adsorbed 11ppm out of 50 ppm. The adsorption experiment was then repeated at variable pHs’. The experiment showed that PhoslockTM was the most effective at adsorbing phosphorus, and has an adsorption coefficient two orders of magnitude above the common clays, and has great potential for use in the lake. Allophane and BauxsolTM also show promise, however at higher pHs’ their adsorption capability was hindered. Further experiments will need to focus on a final evaluation of PhoslockTM’s effectiveness in reducing Phosphorus levels in the lake.

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  • A qualitative descriptive study of youth with Crohn's disease

    Lynch, Teresa

    Thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This qualitative descriptive study explores the experience of four youth between the ages of 16-21 years who were diagnosed with Crohn’s disease within 18 months of commencement of this study. Patients with Crohn’s disease have been reported as coping well with the diagnosis and subsequent treatment of their condition, although other researchers have argued that these people needed a lot of support and assistance to live with the daily symptoms, severity of their disease and efforts to cope. Single, semi-structured audio-taped interviews were carried out to discover the participant’s feelings, perceptions and thoughts. Thematic analysis of the verbatim-transcribed interviews was conducted. This study has identified three main themes that describe young peoples’ experiences coping with a chronic lifelong condition that significantly impacts aspects of their lives. These themes are: 1) Stress as integral to living with Crohn’s disease, 2) The paradoxical relationship between fear and hope and 3) What helps and what hinders. Each theme is discussed in relation to school, study, work, social situations, family, peers, and the future. Clearly articulating what it is like for youth to live with Crohn’s disease will contribute to the ‘promoting wellness’ literature and inform the collaborative endeavours of patients, their support networks and health professionals in relation to the delivery of health care. Working closely with other health care professionals, skilled and well-informed nurses are in an ideal position to coordinate the seamless provision of services to people with chronic illness.

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  • Living with peripheral vascular disease: A one-person case study

    Richardson, Jim

    Thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This single-person case study, informed by phenomenology, describes the meaning for Tom (the participant) of living with peripheral vascular disease (PVD). Data collection included one face-to-face semistructured conversation and a further brief telephone conversation to seek Tom’s confirmation of the study findings. The data was analysed using Colaizzi’s (1978) phenomenological seven-step descriptive analysis framework. The findings are presented in the form of five narrative themes that best represent Tom’s experience of living with PVD. They include Living in a Mindset, A Male Thing, Facing Reality, A Weird Existence and A Heightened Awareness. They reveal how living with peripheral vascular disease has been incorporated into Tom’s way of life. The themes demonstrate how Tom managed his ulcers, how he accommodated his limitations, his state of vulnerability and how he continued to lead a “weird” yet rewarding life, despite the hardship he endured. The unexplained weirdness of Tom’s story has been presented in a way that aims to facilitate understanding of the phenomenon. Some of the significance of this study therefore lies in the tactful action of the phenomenologically informed approach, which enables the reader to understand the puzzle and weirdness of why Tom delayed treatment and acted as he did. The study facilitates the potential to heighten the awareness and challenge assumptions of nurses and other health professionals as they attempt to interpret a chronic illness experience from the patient’s perspective. A key suggestion made from the study findings is that health professionals should include in their practice routine assessments for patient fears and self-imposed delays to treatment in order to facilitate the provision of timely and suitable interventions. Further research allowing patients’ voices to be heard is necessary to substantiate the extent of this problem and how it can most appropriately be resolved.

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  • Surrender to the drama: The enacted process in the psychotherapeutic relationship: A systematic literature review with clinicial illustrations

    Chetwynd-Talbot, Jo

    Thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This dissertation is a systematic literature review, with clinical illustrations. The interpersonal phenomenon of enactment in the psychotherapeutic relationship is explored with the aim of producing phenomenological, or rich description to inform clinical practice. This is a relatively contemporary topic in the psychoanalytic literature. Not every aspect of the therapeutic relationship can be symbolized in language from the outset. A communication occurs which becomes manifest in action and this has a strong feature of surprise, feeling unusual to the therapist, as if she is unwittingly taking part in a drama. This emerges from within the transference-countertransference matrix. The therapist can be engaged in fulfilling a wish, repeating an old pattern, generating a new, nurturing response to the patient, or in enacting their own conflicts, sometimes leading to negative therapeutic outcomes. Being ‘recruited in’ to feel a difficult or overwhelming feeling engendered in the relationship, (often hitherto dissociated affect), the therapist is in a position to regulate and/or moderate for the patient, and thereafter to articulate a more conscious understanding. Classical and relational therapists note the ubiquitous nature of enactments, and also hold different views as to the therapist’s subjective involvement, ranging from the solipsistic to the mutual. In reviewing the literature, it emerges that ‘enacting’ is regarded by some clinicians as ‘living in the second best of worlds’, (where interpretation is preferable to taking part), and again by others as signaling turning points in a therapy, enabling the greatest of affective communication, and leading to dynamic change. A clinical illustration in the form of a vignette of an enactment is central to the dissertation, drawn from the author’s own practice. The powerful unconscious projective and intersubjective process is examined for its component parts. Deep empathy for the patient unfolds in this drama, and the consequent therapeutic action is described. In conclusion, it seems that enactments offer a potent means by which to engage another affectively – perhaps to bring to life (i.e. with feelings) that which has been split off in traumatic times. Allowing such powerful processes to touch us as therapists can be uncomfortable, and can release the potential for deep therapeutic benefits.

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  • The therapist's difficult emotional experience and racism: A modified systematic literature review

    Abels, Carlyn

    Thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This dissertation is a modified systematic literature review on the topic of difficult countertransferential feelings and racism in the therapeutic dyad. This paper explores and synthesizes the literature relating to the understanding of the psychodynamic processes that underpin the countertransferential feelings in an inter-racial and similar-racial dyad. Clinical vignettes illustrating difficult countertransferential feelings are explored by examining the theories of Freud and Klein, as well as the literature on race and racism of past and contemporary authors. The aim of this dissertation is to offer a psychoanalytic explanation to help understand the underlying psychodynamic processes that are likely to emerge in an inter-racial and similar-racial therapeutic dyad. The themes which emerged from the literature are grouped and presented using clinical vignettes to illustrate the points discussed. Limitations of the study are identified, as are the implications for further research on the topic of difficult countertransferential feelings and racism in the therapeutic dyad.

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  • The measurement of muscle parameters on the medial gastrocnemius using diagnostic ultrasound

    Gilmour, Roslyn Anne

    Thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The Physiotherapy profession has a growing interest in the use of Diagnostic Ultrasound as an adjunct tool for assessment; biofeedback during treatment; rehabilitation evaluation and research. It has not been endorsed as a reliable measurement tool of muscle architecture, and research remains incomplete on the topic. Measurement of muscle architecture is of particular interest and relevance to physiotherapists since it could serve to objectify assessment and treatment practices in current use. The purpose of this study was to recreate the methodology of published authors using Diagnostic Ultrasound to measure parameters of muscle architecture, and to conduct a Pilot study to test reliability when used for this purpose. The methodology of previous researchers was reproduced, and intra-rater reliability tested on three adults using a test-retest design. The medial gastrocnemius muscle was imaged with Diagnostic Ultrasound with the ankle held passively in two different positions. The study demonstrated results similar to other authors, and overall intrarater reliability was demonstrated. Additional methodological aspects were investigated, and results indicated some aspects significantly impacted on reliability. A larger number of participants would be required for results to be statistically significant. The complexity of testing for reliability in all its aspects became apparent, and the study resulted in more questions being raised.

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  • The contribution of medio-lateral balance during activities in sitting and standing in hemiplegic subjects

    Recordon, Anne

    Thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Research on balance in the medio-lateral direction is sparse compared to that undertaken in the anterior-posterior direction. There is a correlation between poor medio-lateral balance and falls investigated in elderly and recently in subjects with hemiplegia. Investigations into the muscle activity required for medio-lateral balance in normal and hemiplegic subjects suggest falls may occur as a result of poor timing, modulation and duration of specific muscle activity essential for medio-lateral balance. Further, there is support for retraining medio-lateral balance using task related functional activities. The results of a single subject design experiment undertaken as part of this dissertation indicated that medio-lateral balance in a hemiplegic subject, can be retrained using body weight support treadmill training, two years after stroke. Results from this study therefore provide support for this physiotherapy technique being effective in improving medio-lateral balance in subjects with hemiplegia.

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  • Managing disequilibrium: A grounded theory study of therapists working in groups with people with eating disorders

    Brinkman, Robyn

    Thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This study has used a qualitative grounded theory research methodology to systematically identify what happens for therapists who facilitate groups for people with eating disorders. Eight therapists who had worked in groups with people with eating disorders were interviewed about their group experiences. A conceptual model of ‘managing disequilibrium’ emerged as the core concern of participants in this study, and this involved three stages. In the first stage therapists experienced shifting self-equilibrium during the group session that included a diverse range and intensity of experiences. In the second stage therapists subsequently engaged in a process of counterbalancing to manage disequilibrium while still in a group session. In the third stage therapists sought to re-establish equilibrium after a group session had ended. Therapists’ self-relationship, personal issues, clinical experience, and cognitive processes have been demonstrated to play a significant role in therapists’ management of disequilibrium; and strategies for in-group and post-group management have been described. Disequilibrium and countertransference have been compared and understood to bring different perspectives to therapists experiences in groups. Where countertransference emphasises theory and clinical practice, disequilibrium emphasises therapists’ subjective experiences and their instinctive need to compensate for difficult experiential phenomena during their clinical practice.

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  • Living with motor neurone disease: An interpretive study

    Brott, Tamzin

    Thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    While there have been many aspects of Motor Neurone Disease explored in previous studies, none have captured the experience from the perspective of people who live with it. This study has asked the question “What is the meaning of living with Motor Neurone Disease?” with the reply being the direct voice of people who have been diagnosed and live with Motor Neurone Disease day in, day out. The philosophy informing this study and the analysis is that of Heideggerian hermeneutic phenomenology. Its domain of inquiry is lived experience, the individual’s experiences within their life-world. This approach, along with van Manen’s four life world existentials, lived body, lived space, lived other, and lived time, reveals the impact of living with a body that is increasingly becoming unready-to-hand, and the impact this has on participation in occupations, and on being-in-the-world. Seven participants where interviewed to obtain rich narratives of the experience of living with Motor Neurone Disease. These narratives informed the findings of this study and uncovered the initial impact of living with an increasingly ‘wobbly body’. A body that is changing, the journey of understanding why, and learning to manage the wobbly body at home and in public is an initial finding. A further finding is that of the challenge to remaining a vital being. A further focus was on the need of roles and occupations in our lives to define who we are, and what happens when the roles that used to define us are no longer available, due to a changing body. The impact of strangers involved in care, the numbers who arrive, and the trust issues that are inherent in those relationships are another aspect of the findings. Healthcare professionals, and others involved in the care of people living with Motor Neurone Disease, become both trusted others and at times experts. It is important for this group of people to understand the impact of this relationship failing or when the trust is broken. All of the above areas highlighted are important for healthcare professionals, and others who live and work alongside people who experience life with Motor Neurone Disease, to be cognisant of and integrate them into education and practice. By attempting to understand what it is like to live with a body that is not ready-to-hand, the number of strangers and others who enter their lives and the trust issues alongside this, the relationship between healthcare professionals and those they work alongside will be enhanced.

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  • Serious illness in the psychotherapist: Denial, disclosure and the therapeutic relationship: A review of the literature

    Mitchell, Christopher D.

    Thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The objective was to examine and discuss, by means of a systematic literature review, the experience of serious illness in the psychotherapist and its implications for the therapeutic relationship. Consistent with evidence-based practice in the allied health professions, the study admitted quantitative, qualitative and illustrative evidence and applied a rigorous systematic research methodology. The research showed that, there was a division between those authors who attempted to maintain a neutral and anonymous stance, in respect of their serious illness, in order to minimise its impact upon the therapeutic process, and those who allowed disclosure of and feelings about their serious illness, to be used as a therapeutic tool. The former adhered to a non-relational understanding of psychotherapeutic healing, whilst the latter placed the therapeutic relationship at the heart of this process. The research revealed a paucity in the literature and the recommendation is, that further research be undertaken, particularly in relation to intersubjective approaches to the therapeutic relationship in the face of serious illness, and to the phenomenon of mental illness in the therapist.

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  • Who needs who?: Therapist dependency and its impact on the therapeutic relationship: A modified systematic review with clinical illustrations

    McMillan, Meg

    Thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This dissertation takes an alternative view of dependency in the therapeutic relationship. Instead of viewing dependency as a client problem to be addressed by the omnipotent, healthful, altruistic therapist, this modified, systematic, literature review conceptualizes dependency as a core relational dynamic, common to therapist and client. It is proposed that the tension between strivings for dependency and connection on the one hand and for autonomy and independence on the other, is life long and will be present in the therapy both as material brought by the client and as part of the therapeutic relationship. The premise is that both client and therapist will bring their own dependency issues into the therapeutic relationship and that this material may be either conscious or unconscious. Five dependency styles are theorized; with successful maturation following a progress from dependency to independency, to a mature dependency. Mature dependency allows the individual, to move freely and appropriately between independence and dependence, separation and connection and is seen as essential for intimate relationships. Co-dependence and counter-dependence are viewed as defensive styles arising out of the frustration of early developmental needs for dependence and separation. The potential impact of varying dependency styles on the therapeutic relationship is discussed, with particular reference to how counter-dependent and dependent or co-dependent styles may challenge or limit the therapy relationship. It was found that unless therapists are aware of their own dependency issues these may be projected onto clients or adversely affect their clinical decisions. Clinical examples illustrate the points made. Central to the discussion are the ways in which therapists may be dependent on clients. The potential conflict in acknowledging these dependency needs is explored and the importance of the therapist being conscious of her dependency is stressed. It is concluded that it is essential for psychotherapists to acknowledge their dependency, both to safeguard the integrity of the profession and to ensure safe clinical practice. Further areas for associated research are suggested.

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