96,661 results

  • Hydrologic Implications of Woody Vegetation Change in Indigenous Snow Tussock Grasslands: A Case Study at Glendhu

    Mills, Florence (2018)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Shrub encroachment in grassland ecosystems is an increasingly pressing issue globally and locally in New Zealand. New Zealand’s grassland ecosystems, specifically tussock grasslands, are also experiencing woody vegetation change from both native and exotic shrub species. Tussock grasslands are important landscape features as they offer a range of essential ecosystem services, in particular, clean freshwater for downstream users is a key hydrologic service provided by indigenous snow tussock grasslands. Increased water yield has been attributed to low evapotranspiration (ET) rates as tussock plants have the ability to reduce transpiration under water limited conditions. It is unknown whether shrub species have the same ability to repress transpiration as tussock and, therefore, may reduce water yields from tussock dominated catchments. Research was undertaken at Glendhu, Eastern Otago, to assess the potential impacts on water yield associated with the woody vegetation change from snow tussock (Chionochloa rigida) to mānuka (Leptospermum scoparium) that is occurring in the catchment. Water loss, in terms of evapotranspiration, was compared between mānuka and snow tussock. Meteorological equipment, including automatic weather stations and eddy covariance towers, were deployed for a nine-month sampling period, from late spring 2016 through to winter 2017, to collect environmental inputs for ET equations and actual evapotranspiration data respectively. Mānuka evapotranspiration rates were 2.4 mm day-1 compared to snow tussock average ET rates of 1.2 mm day-1. Across all evapotranspiration methods, mānuka was found to have higher ET rates than snow tussock vegetation which, potentially, could have a significant impact on the water yield from the catchment. A 30% cover of mānuka in the catchment could result in a decline in annual catchment water yield of at least 4%. Results from this research indicate that woody vegetation at Glendhu will likely have adverse implications for the hydrological services associated with tussock headwater catchments. Three management options are considered to address the implications of woody vegetation change in tussock dominated catchments; 1) ‘do nothing’ and allow the vegetation change to continue, which may result in a compositional shift in vegetation cover of these catchments towards a mosaic of exotic and native species, and a loss of ecosystem services associated with indigenous land cover, 2) partially manage grasslands to preserve values associated with indigenous vegetation and reduce the occurrence of exotic species, and 3) actively manage the grasslands through removal of native and exotic shrub species to preserve the ecosystem values associated with tussock vegetation, specifically the hydrological services. Implementation of the second management option is recommended to move towards restoring these grasslands to the native shrub and forest vegetation that would have once dominated the mid-altitudinal slopes of Glendhu, prior to anthropogenic disturbance. Findings offered from this research may help in defining future management agendas in tussock grasslands which will be dependent upon the vegetation that is deemed to hold the highest societal values.

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  • The impact of heat, pulsed electric fields and pH on the properties of ovomucin-depleted egg white

    Liu, Yafei (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The thesis aimed to understand the effect of pH combined with either heat or pulsed electric fields (PEF) processing on protein aggregation and subsequent pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysis of ovomucin-depleted egg white (OdEW) solutions. The OdEW hydrolysates obtained from the simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion were assessed for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity through in vitro experiments. OdEW solutions (10% v/v, pH 4, 5, 7, and 9) were exposed to either isothermal heating at 50-85°C for 10 min or PEF at 1.4-1.8 kV/cm under low (259-288 kJ/kg), intermediate (453-503 kJ/kg), and high (653-695 kJ/kg) specific energy input. Solution turbidity was spectrophotometrically determined and distribution of proteins in soluble and insoluble fractions of OdEW solutions was analyzed using qualitative sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). OdEW proteins were more prone to both heat- and PEF-induced protein aggregation at pH 5 than at other pH values studied. OdEW solutions showed no or minimal turbidity at low or intermediate PEF energy inputs. At the highest PEF energy input, OdEW solutions varied in their turbidity which was similar or lower than solution turbidity after heat treatment at 60°C, depending on solution pH. Heat treatment at 65°C and above resulted in s higher turbidity in the OdEW solutions. Upon simulated gastrointestinal digestion, protein digestibility of untreated and treated OdEW solutions was determined by measuring the production of peptides during hydrolysis. PEF treatment at 695 kJ/kg (1.7 kV/cm) at pH 4 significantly enhanced the digestibility of OdEW proteins. Heat treatment did not affect protein digestibility at 60°C but significantly enhanced the digestibility of OdEW proteins at 80°C. Furthermore, OdEW solutions at pH 4, exposed to PEF at 695 kJ/kg (1.7 kV/cm) or heat at 80°C (10 min), had a similar protein digestibility, with PEF treatment resulting in a much lower solution turbidity. Qualitative sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was utilized to monitor changes in proteolysis patterns of major OdEW proteins following either heat or PEF treatment. Ovotransferrin was more susceptible to pepsin hydrolysis than lysozyme. Ovalbumin showed the highest proteolysis resistance to both pepsin and pancreatin. Qualitative sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS/MS) was utilized to identify both intact proteins and hydrolyzed protein fragments during the digestion. Ovalbumin produced several proteolysis fragments, and a ~ 40 kDa fragment showed comparable digestive stability to intact ovalbumin, persisting till the end of pancreatin hydrolysis. Antioxidant activity of the OdEW hydrolysates was determined using 2,2-Di(4-tert-octylphenyl)-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), 2,2-Azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), and Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. PEF treatment of OdEW solutions at pH 4 and 695 kJ/kg (1.7 kV/cm) enhanced the antioxidant activity of OdEW hydrolysates, to similar or even higher levels than heat treatment at 80°C (10 min), by the DPPH or ORAC method. PEF (1.7 kV/cm, 695 kJ/kg) or heat (80°C, 10 min) treatments of OdEW solutions at pH 4 significantly enhanced the anti-inflammatory activity of OdEW hydrolysates. At a concentration of 1 mg/mL, OdEW hydrolysates showed 35.9% and 35.5% inhibition of interleukin-8 (IL-8) production of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated HT-29 cells due to prior heat and PEF treatment, respectively. This study demonstrated that PEF treatment of the thermolabile OdEW solutions had advantages over conventional heat treatment as it enabled the retention of high solution clarity, while significantly enhancing the gastrointestinal digestion of OdEW proteins. PEF treatment provides the potential for wider utilization of OdEW including the use in protein-fortified drinks with desirable qualities such as high visual clarity and good digestibility.

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  • The Role of Analytics in Higher Education

    Mahroeian, Hamidreza (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Higher education institutions are increasingly accumulating a significant amount of data on students, teachers, facilities and curricula (Bichsel, 2012; Gantz & Reinsel, 2012, Siemens & Long, 2011). In the last decade, analytics has become an important area of research within the educational technology area. This research presents a current conception of analytics and its possible contribution to better support decision-making and possible challenges relating to the deployment of analytics in the higher education sector in New Zealand. Seven research-intensive public universities in New Zealand participated in a survey. Respondents were recruited from institutional senior management responsible for executing operational and strategic initiatives, as well as individuals whose portfolios are related to the management of data and analytics (n=82). The study found inconsistent understanding of the meaning of analytics across respondents. In particular, three forms of conception of analytics were identified: structural, functional and structural-functional. These kinds of conception have, to a larger extent, influenced respondents’ views on the value of analytics in shaping policy and practice. Also, respondents mentioned some challenges related to institutional uptake and implementation of analytics in higher education. These challenges were: difficulties in extracting data from multiple databases, maintaining data quality, ethical and privacy issues, and lack of professional development opportunities. In addition, surprising findings revealed that across institutions, universities in New Zealand see the potential use of analytics in such areas as student services support and institutional research administration. Respondents also saw potential in building institutional capability in analytics to manage performance. Overall, the research found that the higher education sector in New Zealand primarily views the potential use of analytics in monitoring, performance, and in the extraction of transactional data from siloed database systems that can be used to examine learning and teaching environments. Respondents widely acknowledged the potential role of analytics in supporting institutions to meet their strategic objectives. This study broadly contributed to a better understanding of the current conception and value of analytics in higher education, and in particular within the New Zealand context. Also, the current study contributes to our overall understanding of how higher education institutions engage with analytics to support various initiatives. Furthermore, the research presents the overall place regarding the use of analytics in higher education within the New Zealand context.

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  • Perceptions and acceptability of Low Carbohydrate, High Fat (LCHF) diets among Māori whānau in Dunedin

    Arthur, Te Huri (2018)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    OBJECTIVE: Low carbohydrate, high fat (LCHF) diets are currently much debated in both the media and the academic literature. However, little is known about the acceptability of these diets among Māori, who commonly consume diets high in carbohydrates, and how they might interpret recommendations to follow these diets. This study aims to investigate how LCHF diets are perceived by members of the Māori community (Dunedin) and some of the barriers and facilitators to following this type of diet. METHODS: Face-to-face interviews was conducted with n=18 Māori participants, (13 females, 5 males). They were recruited by word of mouth around the University of Otago and door approaches in low decile neighborhoods. Interviews focused on their perceptions about carbohydrates, such as how often they ate carbohydrates, and their food habits including high carbohydrate and high-fat foods. Other questions included the participants' thoughts on the LCHF diet, and if they would be willing to try an LCHF diet. Interview transcripts were analysed by inductive thematic analysis. RESULTS: Māori are highly motivated to living healthy lives. Motivating factors include family, culture, achieving a desired body weight and fear of developing diet-related diseases experienced by other family members. Participants’ knowledge and views of dietary fat are diverse. Saturated fat is still considered by many as unhealthy however, saturated fat from natural (less processed) sources is perceived by a significant number of participants as being healthy. As a staple food in Māori diets, starchy carbohydrates appeal because they are cheap, satiating and convenient. LCHF diets are viewed positively because it emphasizes eating fewer processed foods, which are associated with poor health outcomes and resembles diets of pre – colonised Māori. Barriers to LCHF diets were the cost of foods, concern for children’s food preference, lack of time, information, understanding and meal ideas. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that perceptions of the LCHF diet by Māori adults is divided and their understanding is not based on sound evidence. Significant barriers and facilitators cause indecision in the application of the LCHF diet. Further research is needed to determine whether Māori perception of LCHF is accurate. KEYWORDS: Carbohydrates, High Fat, Diet, Nutrition, Processed foods, Saturated fat, Māori, Health, Traditional foods

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  • Moisture transport processes and control of relative humidity in refrigerated facilities : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Engineering at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Sujau, Maumoon

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Increasingly air relative humidity (RH) is becoming an important design and operational variable for refrigerated facilities. An integrated dynamic model of the main heat and moisture transfer mechanism in a refrigerated facility was developed. Specific features of the model that enabled RH to be predicted were: • Multiple air zones to represent variation of temperature and RH with position. • A single zone evaporator model with dehumidification based on a straight line approach to the saturation condition at the surface temperature. • Condensation and evaporation of water from surfaces and structures in the facilities. • Evaporator defrost assuming that a fraction of the defrost heat melts frost and the rest heats the evaporator and refrigerant mass. • Hot gas bypass with liquid refrigerant desuperheating to prevent the compressor operating into vacuum. • Moisture sorption by packaging associated with the product. The model was validated against data collected from a walk-in cool store 3.3m wide by 4.4m long by 3.0m high. The cool-store was cooled by an air cooled direct expansion HFC-134a refrigeration system with electric defrost, a suction line heat exchanger and electronic evaporation pressure regulating (EPR) valve for temperature control. To mimic the different design and operating conditions extra sensible and latent heat loads were provided by the cool store lights, up to 5 kW of electric heaters, and an ultrasonic humidifier. For the validation room trials fan speed, coil size, sensible load, latent loads and temperature set point were varied. Other conditions were held constant as far as possible and the room was operated for at least two defrost cycles. For the coolstore the model computed about 70 ordinary differential equations and more than 160 algebraic equations which were solved using Matlab 6.5, with the ODE45 solver. The measured and predicted store air temperature, RH, refrigerant suction and discharge temperatures and pressures showed good agreement for most of the trials during both pull-down and the mainly steady-state operation between defrosts. Differences in measured and predicted RH and refrigeration system operating conditions were largely explained by uncertainty in model input data, measurements and calibration; and imprecision of the actual refrigeration control system and particularly the hot gas bypass capacity control and the expansion valves. This suggests that the model is a useful tool for the design and optimisation of passive or active RH control strategies for refrigerated stores. Trials were also undertaken to quantify the effect of defrost frequency on the coolstore performance. Defrost efficiency and defrost duration were both proportional to defrost interval and doubled as defrost interval increased from 6 hours to 30 hours. For short defrost intervals; temperature control was poorer due to the frequent pull-downs. For longer defrost interval the room RH was lower and temperature control was poorer due to frost induced decline of evaporator performance The optimal defrost interval for the particular cool store was 8 to 12 hours. Overall energy use did not change significantly due to the use of EPR temperature control and the low latent heat loads used.

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  • A physiological investigation of the adaptive significance of juvenility in Pennantia corymbosa Forst : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Botany at Massey University

    Hollows, David Grant

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The responses of the juvenile and adult growth forms of Pennantia corymbosa Forst. to a range of light intensities, leaf temperatures, shoot water potentials and wind velocities were investigated. Results tend to indicate that the small-leafed divaricating juvenile is better adapted to open habitats than the adult. Responses to light intensity were similar for both growth forms. Measurements of photosynthetic rates at various light intensities after pretreatment at low and high irradiances revealed little difference in response between juvenile and adult, with both showing a similar increase in photosynthetic rates and light saturation points after the pretreatment light intensity was increased. Granal stacking in chloroplasts from juvenile and adult leaf palisade was reduced after growth at the higher pretreatment light intensity to the same extent in juveniles and adults. Solarization, despite the presence of a hypodermis, was greater in the adult, while the activity of Ribulose -1,5- diphosphate carboxylase was greater in the juvenile. The indication that the juvenile is better adapted to open habitats is also supported by the results of experiments into the response of photosynthetic rates to a range of temperatures. The data revealed a higher mean temperature optimum for the juvenile than for the adult leaves (21°C c.f. 18°C). The hypothesis that the juvenile might be better adapted to edaphic water stress was tested by withholding water for 14 days and measuring the rates of photosynthesis and transpiration as shoot water potential decreased. Rates of photosynthesis and transpiration declined in both juvenile and adult leaves as shoot water potential decreased. However, the juvenile was able to maintain a higher rate of photosynthesis at comparable low water potentials than the adult which indicates that the juvenile is the more drought tolerant of the two. Leaves of the juvenile also retain water better than those of the adult under moderately windy conditions. When plants were grown in a wind tunnel at wind speeds of up to 12 m secˉ¹ stomatal closure (as measured using a leaf diffusion resistance meter) occurred at lower wind speeds in the juvenile than the adult leaves. The results obtained during this investigation thus support the hypothesis that the small-leafed divaricating juvenile of Pennantia is better adapted to a dry, exposed habitat than is the large-leafed orthotropic adult.

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  • Red meat from pasture : sustainable livelihoods for small mixed farmers in China's Yunnan Province : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master in Applied Science in Agribusiness Management at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    McDermott, Alan Kent

    Thesis
    Massey University

    China's pattern of food consumption is changing. The demand for high quality red meat is rapidly increasing, especially in the more affluent coastal regions. The pastoral livestock farmers in Southwest China have low and declining incomes, and operate in a highly uncertain environment. This environmental uncertainty is derived from the seasonal climate, land tenure policies, and a dealer-dominated supply chain in which information is scarce, ambiguous, and untimely. The researcher spent two years in China's Yunnan Province working on a pastoral development project. During this assignment, the researcher undertook a case study of the small, mixed livestock and cropping farmers involved in the project, together with an evaluation of alternative strategies for pastoral development and enhancing livestock production. The case study also involved an overview of agricultural extension and the red meat supply chain in the study area. The current farm production systems are environmentally, financially and socially unsustainable. Farm output is low and achieved inefficiently at considerable cost to future productive potential. Farmers are not investing in farm improvements because they lack confidence in their ability to generate a return from such investments. Confidence is low because farmers do not trust other supply chain participants, and they perceive a low level of control over the operating environment. This is resulting in a vicious cycle of unsustainability. There are numerous market opportunities emerging due to changes food consumption. Farmers have three broad strategic options for taking advantage of these opportunities: invest in technologies to raise output and quality, further process to add value and increase consumer acceptance of red meat and co-operate within the supply chain. The technologies extended as part of the development project were demonstrated to yield significant benefits in terms of production and profit. However, adoption has been low because many of the technologies did not consider local constraints, extension has not widely occurred and uncertainty in the operating environment did not encourage investment. For farmers to be able to successfully implement these strategies farmers need to be empowered and a more enabling environment created. This empowerment involves changing farmers' perception of locus of control, sharing control and supply chain participants learning about each other. Co-operation between farmers and the rest of the supply chain should provide benefits along the whole chain. A model for co-operative and sustainable development is proposed and limitations of this model are discussed. Title: Red Meat from Pasture: Sustainable Livelihoods for Small Mixed Farmers in China's Yunnan Province. Degree: Master of Applied Science in Agribusiness Management Author: Alan Kent McDermott Year: 2001 Keywords: Southwest China; pastoral livestock systems; supply chain management; sustainable livelihoods; trust; perceptions of control; extension of technology.

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  • Real-time implementation of a dual microphone beamformer : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Engineering in Computer Systems at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Yoganathan, Vaitheki

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The main objective of this project is to develop a microphone array system, which captures the speech signal for a speech related application. This system should allow the user to move freely and acquire the speech from adverse acoustic environments. The most important problem when the distance between the speaker and the microphone increases is that often the quality of the speech signal is degraded by background noise and reverberation. As a result, the speech related applications fails to perform well under these circumstances. This unwanted noise components present in the acquired signal have to be removed in order to improve the performance of these applications. This thesis contains the development of a dual microphone beamformer in a Digital Signal Processor (DSP). The development kit used in this project is the Texas Instruments TMS320C6711 DSP Starter Kit (DSK). The switched Griffiths-Jim beamformer was selected as the algorithm to be implemented in the DSK. Van Compernolle developed this algorithm in 1990 by modifying the Griffiths-Jim beamformer structure. This beamformer algorithm is used to improve the quality of the desired speech signal by reducing the background noise. This algorithm requires atleast two input channels to obtain the spatial characteristics of the acquired signal. Therefore, the PCM3003 audio daughter card is used to access the two microphone signals. The software implementation of the switched Griffiths-Jim beamformer algorithm has two main stages. The first stage is to identify the presence of speech in the acquired signal. A simple Voice Activity Detector (VAD) based on the energy of the acquired signal is used to distinguish between the wanted speech signal and the unwanted noise signals. The second stage is the adaptive beamformer, which uses the results obtained from the VAD algorithm to reduce the background noise. The adaptive beamformer consists of two adaptive filters based on the Normalised Least Mean Squares (NLMS) algorithm. The first filter behaves like a beam-steering filter and it's only updated during the presence of speech and noise signal. The second filter behaves like an Adaptive Noise Canceller (ANC) and it is only updated when a noise alone period is present. The VAD algorithm controls the updating process of these NLMS filters and only one of these filters is updated at any given time. This algorithm was successfully implemented in the chosen DSK using the Code Composer Studio (CCS) software. This implementation is tested in real-time using a speech recognition system. This system is programmed in Visual Basic software using the Microsoft Speech SDK components. This dual microphone system allows the user to move around freely and acquire the desired speech signal. The results show a reasonable amount of enhancement in the output signal, and a significant improvement in the ease of using the speech recognition system is achieved.

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  • The relationship between perceptions of recovery and pain beliefs in occupational overuse syndrome : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Allison, Lucinda

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Occupational Overuse Syndrome (OOS or RSI) is an umbrella term for a range of conditions characterised by pain and discomfort in the soft tissues and muscle weakness. Cognitive-behavioural theory suggests that the beliefs of people in pain can influence their functioning and research findings support a relationship between pain beliefs and levels of pain and functioning. However there has been little research into how beliefs influence recovery from the range of OOS conditions. The main goals of this study were to examine the relationship between pain beliefs and recovery and between pain and functioning. Sixty-four people with OOS completed questionnaires to determine their pain beliefs and levels of pain and functioning. Correlations provided little support for a relationship between beliefs and recovery but supported a relationship between pain and functioning. This study highlighted the limitations of the beliefs research and recommended that future research investigate the influence of the interaction of beliefs and treatment on recovery. It also highlighted the importance of distinguishing between the different types of OOS rather than treating them all as the same condition.

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  • The requirements of dry fertilizer placement in direct drilled crops by improved chisel coulter : a thesis ... for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Agricultural Mechanisation at Massey University, Palmerston North

    Choudry, Muhammad Afzal

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dry fertiliser placement as a function of design criteria for direct drills. The study was conducted in three parts. 1. Rectangular turf blocks (140 × 140 × 200 mm) of undisturbed soil were taken from a Tokomaru concretionery silt loam soil, site of permanent pasture. Seed and fertiliser placement was achieved by removing 2.5 mm diameter soil cores at 20% (d.b.) soil moisture content. Ammonium sulphate (21-0-0) was applied at the rate of 60 kg N haˉ¹. It was either mixed with rape seed (Brassica napus L. c. Tower) or separated from the seed by 10 or 20 mm of soil, horizontally or vertically. A control treatment had no fertiliser. Where seed and fertiliser were mixed or separated vertically by a 10 mm soil core, seedling emergence was reduced significantly (P < 0.01) compared to control. Where separated horizontally by either 10 or 20 mm of soil, or vertically by 20 mm of soil emergence counts were similar to no fertiliser placement. Initiation of emergence was significantly (P < 0.05) delayed when seed and fertiliser were either mixed or horizontally separated by 10 mm or vertically separated by 10 or 20 mm. Horizontal separation of fertilizer by 20 mm from seed produced significantly more height, weight and total yield than the mixed or 10 mm placements, harvested 5 weeks after sowing (P <0.01) were obtained with direct drilled plots compared to plots cultivated a week before drilling. This trend was more pronounced at lower soil moistures (19-20% db) at the time of drilling than higher ones (23-37%). 3. Direct drilling of large turf blocks (1.8 m × 660 mm × 200 mm) was carried out in the laboratory using both the improved chisel coulter and the modified version. The blocks were extracted from the same pasture as in 1 above. Horizontal and vertical placements of ammonium sulphate and mono-ammonium phosphate fertilisers at 20mm from the rape seed and at rates of either 30 or 60 kg-N haˉ¹ largely resulted in higher germination and fewer dead seeds compared to mixed seed and fertiliser placements. Placements of fertiliser in wet soil and horizontal placements in dry soil tended to produce higher germination percentages and fewer viable seeds. The interaction of fertiliser × placement indicated that mono-amnonium phosphate (16-9-0) mixed with rape seed was likely to cause more dead seeds than at 20mm placement. It appears from the results of these 3 experiments that the horizontal separation of fertiliser by 20mm from rape seed was desirable from the point of view of germination, seedling emergence, initiation of emergence, delay in maximum seedling emergence and yield characteristics of plants. With this fertiliser placement arrangement plant populations in uncultivated soil were greater (up to 30%) than in cultivated soil. The improved direct drilling chisel coulter was capable of achieving this fertiliser placement objective without modification.

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  • The regulation of takeovers in New Zealand and returns to shareholders : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for a Master of Business Studies at Massey University

    Kittle, Andrew Gordon

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Between 1 January 1996 and 30 June 2001 takeovers in New Zealand were governed by a set of regulations that formed part of New Zealand Stock Exchange ("NZSE") listing rules. The NZSE rules were relatively light in their approach to governing takeovers and received much criticism throughout their tenure. Prior to 1 January 1996 takeovers had been regulated by the Companies Amendment Act 1963. We examine the returns to targets and bidders between 1 January 1990 and 30 June 2000 to determine how effective the rules were in promoting shareholder wealth. The change in regulations between 1995 and 1996 also presents an opportunity to examine the impact on returns from moving from a lightly regulated regime to one which is more regulated with a greater amount of required disclosure. We find that returns to both targets and bidders were lower under the NZSE regime than under the Companies Amendment Act 1963. This result is attributed to several specific aspects of the Companies Amendment Act 1963 such as the ability of the target to recover defense costs from bidder and a set period for which the offer must remain open.

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  • Reducing the length of a Goldberg Based Personality Questionnaire using Item Response Theory & Confirmatory Factor Analysis : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Science in Psychology at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Phillips, Nathan Conrad

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Objectives: This study seeks to reconstitute an existing personality questionnaire by identifying the items that capture the best quality information as measured through item Response Theory (IRT). This process will reduce the length of this measure and increase its measurement precision. Method: A polytomous IRT model (Graded Response: Samejima, 1969) will be used to assess the psychometric properties of each item in this questionnaire and produce item level graphs in order to select the best three items for each of the 26 first-order factors. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) will be used to assess the model fit and unidimensionality before and after the IRT selections are made. This will illustrate the improvement gained through both the deletion of redundant items and the selection of high-quality items. Results: This questionnaire was reduced from 246 items down to 78 items with three high-quality items identified for each of the 26 first-order factors. The model fit considerably improved through this selection process and the reduction of information was minimal in comparison to the amount of items that were deleted. Conclusions: This study illustrated the power of using IRT for test development. The item selections are not only of benefit for the organisation that supplied the data for this study, but also the original developers as well as any other users of these items as they are freely available via an online source.

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  • The renneting properties of skim milk solutions supplemented with milk protein concentrate : the effect of hydration and storage of the milk protein concentrate : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Physics at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Hunter, Robin James

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of storage and hydration of milk protein concentrate with 85% protein (MPC85) on the renneting properties of skim milk solutions supplemented with MPC85. The following techniques were used in this investigation: solubility testing, rheology, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), and mass spectrometry. The solubility of MPC85 samples which had been stored for different periods at temperatures ranging from 30°C to 50°C was found to decrease as storage time increased. In addition, as the storage temperature increased, so did the rate at which solubility decreased. This decrease in solubility dropped to approximately 22% of its original amount. Similar experiments were also performed on samples stored at 20°C (ie approximate room temperature), but showed no change over the time frame of the experiment. Rheology experiments were performed on 10% (w/w) skim milk supplemented with 2.5% MPC85 (w/w). The experimental conditions, such as temperature (30°C), reconstitution time frame, and rennet concentration (100 μL per 50 g sample), remained constant throughout testing. The rheological properties of the samples showed a large decrease in the formed gel strength ot the renneted samples, and an increase in gelation time, as storage time and or temperature were increased. Additionally, the viscoelastic moduli (G' and G") and fracture stress also decreased as storage time and/or temperature were increased. This again excludes samples prepared from MPC85 stored at 20°C which showed no change. The rheological properties of skim milk solutions supplemented with MPC85, with respect to hydration time was studied using three MPC85 powders of low, medium, and high solubility. Hydration time was varied between 1 and 24 hours, and results showed that samples made from high and medium solubility MPC85 increased gel strength with hydration, with high solubility MPC85 producing the stronger gels. Samples prepared with low solubility MPC85, produced very weak gels which only changed minimally with hydration time. Aggregation and gelation times for each set of samples were different, but did not change with hydration time. PAGE was used to analyse the composition of MPC85 to attempt to gain an understanding of what caused the change in properties with storage time and temperature. Experiments revealed that a large decrease in the solubility of caseins, and whey proteins decreased in solubility only minimally. Mass spectrometry was used to analyse samples stored at 50°C, and it was found that the casein proteins suffered glycation. Whey proteins were also analysed, but data proved too noisy for any conclusions. In general this thesis aims to provide useful information on the effects of storage and hydration of MPC85. especially with regard to the production of skim milk solutions supplemented with MPC85.

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  • The repertoire of the New Zealand Symphony Orchestra 1951-2000 : analysis and comparison with four leading overseaes orchestra : a thesis meeting the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Music at Massey University, Wellington

    Taylor, Claude Brechin

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The publicly-performed repertoire of the New Zealand Symphony Orchestra is assembled and analysed for the period 1951-2000. The data is organised in spreadsheets, in a manner allowing analysis from numerous standpoints:- repertoire diversity; composition period; programme structure; regional origin; individual composer contributions; item categories; representation of New Zealand compositions; conductor and other influences on programme choice. These are displayed over 5- and 10-year performance periods, or as developing trends. To position the orchestra in the international context, and provide additional data for assessment of the adopted analysis methods, the equivalent data for four leading overseas orchestras (the New York, Berlin and Vienna Philharmonics, and the Manchester Hallé) were similarly assembled and combined with the New Zealand data; these provide both similarities and contrasts. In respect of composition period, the New Zealand orchestra provided a very stable distribution from the Classical period onwards, with steady incorporation of repertoire from the period 1951-2000. Although the size of the data set is smaller than those of the New York, Berlin and Manchester orchestras the diversity with respect to composers is superior. But performances of New Zealand compositions were overall very infrequent.

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  • Methods of inoculating cypress with Seridium species to screen for resistance and pathogen variability : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Applied Science in Plant Health at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Tsatsia, Helen Tekula

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The cypress species are grown for their timber value, ornamental beauty and shelter. Their existence is threatened by the presence of cypress canker disease caused by fungal pathogens of the genus Seiridium. The long term solution for controlling this disease is to breed for cypress clones that are resistant to cypress canker. Screening for resistance is conducted by artificially inoculating cypress plants with the pathogen's inoculum. This study aimed at developing reliable methods of artificial inoculation that are suitable for New Zealand's climatic conditions. Infection of cypress plants in nature is caused by conidia but mycelial inocula are more commonly used in artificial inoculation. Several methods of inducing sporulation of Seiridium species were investigated Addition of plant substrates was shown to increase sporulation of cultures of Seiridium isolates. Studies comparing the two types of inocula (mycelial plugs and conidial suspensions) showed that mycelium inocula caused a higher percentage of canker lesions than spore inocula. Conidial inocula offer a more consistent pathogenicity. Experiments to determine the effective spore load revealed that the percentage of canker increased with the increase of inoculum load. Pathogenicity varied between species and individual colonies of Seiridium isolates. Infection of cypress in nature is thought to occur through wounds and in this work, wounding was required for infection under both glasshouse and outdoor conditions. Inoculation of the main stem and side branches showed disease symptoms develop more rapidly on side branches than on the main stem. Investigations on in vitro inoculation of tissue cultured plants and excised side shoots showed the possibility of screening cypress ramets under different environmental conditions. Temperature and percentage relative humidity were found to influence the percentage of successful inoculations on cypress plants.

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  • Savings, investment and financial development in Fiji : an econometric analysis : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Applied Economics at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Edmonds, Fiona

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The vital role of savings, investment and financial sector development in the growth process has been at the heart of economic policy reforms in many developing countries. The key purpose of this study is to examine the determinants of savings (i.e. national and private), investment (i.e. private corporate and non-residential) and the relationship between finance and growth (i.e. causality, stock market development and McKinnon's complementarity hypothesis) for the case of Fiji. This study applies the Auto-regressive Distributed Lag procedure to cointegration and the modified WALD test for non-Granger causality to time series data for various models over the period 1961-2005. The study sets the economic growth literature in the historical perspectives for Fiji and undertakes a comprehensive empirical examination that will enhance the knowledge and future development of economic policies aimed at increasing economic growth. The importance of savings, investment, and the financial sector in contributing to economic growth in developing countries has been clearly highlighted in the literature. Fiji has been chosen as the case study in this analysis due to poor growth performance during the past 20 years. The military coups of 1987 led to political instability and policy failures that had a disastrous impact on the economy through low levels of economic activities. The economic uncertainty experienced by the nation led to various negative effects on capital accumulation, savings, investment and the financial sectors development. This not only diminished business activities, but also affected the household sector in terms of consumption, savings, investment, higher prices and social development. In the wake of the 1987 political and economic crisis, extensive macroeconomic, financial and trade sector reforms were undertaken which represented a revolutionary break from the past policies of import protection, high rates of inflation, agricultural dependence and financial repression. Given the devastating political, economic and social crises, and the poor performance of the economy, this study evaluates the key financial factors to enhance growth. In particular, savings, investment and financial sector development and the policy implications for long term economic growth are investigated. These considerations point to the need for undertaking in-depth investigations to bring together theoretical and empirical analysis in the context of Fiji's economic development. First, the savings-growth performance is examined using an empirical framework based on the lifecycle model. Second, the analysis examines investment and the role of capital formation in growth acceleration in the post independence period based on the theoretical considerations of the neo-classical investment theories. Third, financial sector development and economic growth relationships are examined. In particular, the direction of causality between the financial sector and economic growth, the impact of stock market and financial liberalisation, and the applicability of McKinnon's complementarity hypothesis are investigated for Fiji. The political and economic turmoil that Fiji has experienced suggest various actions required to improve the performance of the economy and also the key economic factors necessary to enhance growth. The findings initiate a number of policy implications that require attention in order to address Fiji's poor economic performance. This is particularly important to reduce the high incidence of poverty which still remains a challenge for policymakers.

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  • The rescue, reform and restoration of childhood : a hundred years of child labour in Britain (1780-1880) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Social Anthropology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Stillman, Terry

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Over the past twenty years, child labour has drawn heightened attention from the global community, especially through debates over labour standards and international trade. The plight of these working children in the present-day Third World is however not unlike the plight of those children who were once employed in the fields, factories, mines and workshops of Britain. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries it was the industrialisation of the British economy that intensified the exploitation of children and normalised their labour. Today, it is globalisation and the World Market that assumes this role, overwhelming the lives of millions of children in the Third World. The interests of working children in Britain were clearly of low priority in the years prior to the 1840 s, just as they are today in many underdeveloped countries around the globe. This thesis aims to draw attention to these similarities by revisiting the past and by trying to unravel the interconnected narratives that have produced the countless theories that seek to explain this phenomenon. This study also analyses the relationships between child labour on the one hand, and economic development and the socioeconomic structures of a society on the other and challenges the simplistic common belief that poverty is the cause of child labour and that child labour can be reduced only through economic development. One important conclusion of this study is that child labour is affected by the transformation of the economic and social structure rather than merely dictated by the economic necessities of households that supply child labourers. Thus the one thing that becomes abundantly clear from this study is that when it comes to understanding and evaluating child labour - regardless as to whether it is the spinning of cotton in a British mill of the nineteenth century or the weaving of carpets in a Pakistani factory of the twenty-first century - childhood and adulthood are interdependent and the ways in which children are treated are in turn a reflection of the values and priorities of adult society.

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  • The reformation of English military medicine and the army of Elizabeth I in Flanders, 1585-1603 : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in History at Massey University, Albany Campus, New Zealand

    Reed, Con Scott

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Queen Elizabeth the First committed an army to Flanders in 1585 to support the cause of the Protestant Provinces of the Low Lands against the Spanish. It had become established that medical 'practitioners' should accompany armed forces. The practitioners were a polyglot group levied from village healers, licensed and unlicenced practitioners, as well as apothecaries and barber-surgeons. Despite significant medical and surgical advances on the Continent of Europe, particularly from the advanced concepts espoused by Paracelsus, there is little evidence to support widespread use of new initiatives in the English army. Wounds of a kind new to most 'practitioners' were encountered, due to the introduction of gunpowder-fueled firearms and cannons. Severe and deforming wounds caused by the impact of low velocity bullets were the results of the new battle tactics. Burns from gunpowder mishaps needed new approaches in treatment. Some changes to initiate new concepts in military medicine did occur but were the result of informal pressures, probably learned in the field, and not by formal teaching. Significant changes in the recognition of the basics of hygiene in the armed forces occurred in the late sixteenth century and some attempts to implement these was found in the army disciplinary codes. The attitudes towards prisoners and wounded were also changing with compassionate treatment being shown to the victims of war. The need for hospitals for the wounded did not develop in England until after the Flanders campaign The English forces suffered extreme privations due to bad leadership resulting in loss of morale, starvation and desertion. Lack of pay for the troops was a major issue throughout the campaign.

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  • Ratio estimators in agricultural research : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Statistics at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Qiao, Chun Gui

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis addresses the problem of estimating the ratio of quantitative variables from several independent samples in agricultural research. The first part is concerned with estimating a binomial proportion, the ratio of discrete counts, from several independent samples under the assumption that there is a single underlying binomial proportion p in the population of interest. The distributions and properties of two linear estimators, a weighted average and an arithmetic average, are derived and merits of the approaches discussed. They are both unbiased estimators of the population proportion, with the weighted average having lower variability than the arithmetic average. These findings are obtained through a first principles analysis, with a geometrical interpretation presented. This variability result is also a consequence of the Rao-Blackwell theorem, a well-known result in the theory of statistical inference. Both estimators are used in the literature but we conclude that the weighted average estimate should always be used when the sample sizes are unequal. These results are illustrated by a simulation experiment and are validated using survey data in the study of lodging percentage of sunflower cultivar, Improved Peredovic, in Jilin Province, China in 1994. The second part of the research addresses the problem of estimating the ratio μͯ / μ, of the means of continuous variables in agricultural research. The distributional properties of the ratio X/Y of independent normal variables are examined, both theoretically and using simulation. The results show that the moments of the ratio do not exist in general. The moments exist, however, for a punctured normal distribution of the denominator variable if we only sample points for which | Y |>ε, ε being a small positive quantity. We draw out the practical rule-of-thumb that the ratio of two independent normal variables can be used to estimate μͯ / μ, when the coefficient of variation of the denominator variable is sufficiently small (less than or equal to 0.2). Lastly the thesis evaluates the relative merits of two common estimators of the ratio of the means of continuous variables in agricultural research, an arithmetic average and a weighted average, via simulation experiments using normal distributions. In the first simulation, the ratio and common coefficient of variation are changed while the sample size is kept moderately large. In the second simulation, the ratio and sample size are changed while the coefficient of variation is held constant. Results show that the weighted average always provides a better estimate of the true ratio and has lower variability than the arithmetic average. It is recommended that the weighted average be used for estimating the ratio from several pairs of observations. These results are tested using research data from rice breeding multi-environment trials in Jilin Province, China in 1995 and 1996. These data are used to demonstrate the diagnostic approach developed for assessing the 'safety' use of the arithmetic and the weighted average methods for estimating the ratio of the means of independent normal variables.

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  • The relationship of an instrumented T-group and personality changes in self-concept and self-actualization : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Clarke-Woolley, Cheryl

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The effectiveness of a self-administered, instrumented, sensitivity training method (PROCESS) was examined in terms of personality and changes in self-concept and self-actualization. Subjects included thirty-two third-year University students in Psychology, ten Nursing graduates in a University Nursing Studies programme, and five maximum security psychiatric patients. For the students, a marathon approach was used. A Case Study was made with the patients to subjectively compare group development in PROCESS to the developmental stages occurring in leader-led T- and Encounter groups. All three groups showed a decrease in discrepancy between their perceived Actual behaviour and their perceived Preferred behaviour from before to after their group experience. A holdout control procedure was used. The change was primarily accounted for by a change in Actual, and not Preferred behaviour. All three groups increased their mean scores on POI self-actualization scales, but the control groups' mean scores also increased over the experimental period. Women improved more than men in self-concept, but not in self-actualization. The predicted relationships between affiliation motivation and improvements in self-concept and self-actualization did not occur. Subjects with high PRF Affiliation did not improve more than subjects with low Affiliation. The PRF personality variables of Cognitive Structure and Social Recognition were negatively related to the pre- and post-measures, thus contaminating the findings. Rigid thinking and concern about others' attentions were related to lower self- concept and self-actualization scores. Difficulties with the Hawthorne effect, repeated testing with reflective measures, and the relationship of affiliation to Maslow's hierarchy, were discussed. Methodological, ethical, and theoretical problems with the study of self-administered, instrumented sensitivity groups were summarized. Adequate follow-up studies with behavioural criteria for effective changes as a result of experiencing groups seem to be the greatest need. In a subjective analysis of the group development, several stages of Bennis' and Shepard's, Schutz', and Tuckman's theories of group development were observed. PROCESS seems to be an innovative and viable alternative to traditional psychotherapeutic groups, with a more positive orientation, at least for normally intelligent patients as well as being an effective form of sensitivity training for university students.

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