92,991 results

  • Pragmatic visionary : the prescriptions of American independent filmmaker John Sayles : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Media Studies at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Stanley, Vivienne Frances

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis is concerned with the exploration and analysis of the style, themes and issues of American independent filmmaker John Sayles. Up until the time of writing (2001) Sayles has made and released twelve feature length films and from this oeuvre I have chosen eight films for analysis: Baby, It's You (1983); The Brother From Another Planet (1984); Matewan (1987); Eight Men Out (1988); City of Hope (1991); Passion Fish (1992); Lone Star (1996); and Limbo (1999). Having selected these films as the focus of my research I will then ask the following questions: ♦ Are there consistencies in themes, issues and characters in Sayles films? ♦ If the answer to the above is yes: • What are the salient characteristics of these consistent features? and • Do the salient characteristics of these consistent features indicate a particular authorial worldview, if you will, a Sayles' Weltanschauung?

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  • Production in the New Zealand textile and garment industry with particular reference to short runs : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology in Industrial Management and Engineering at Massey University

    Maxwell, David Peter

    Thesis
    Massey University

    "The textile and garment industry in New Zealand is a very diverse industry covering a wide variety of products and operations. The industry has the difficulty of being composed of a large number of small individual firms running independently (1) ". The above quote is one typical of those found in three articles relating to production in the New Zealand textile and garment industry i.e. a) Holden Report (2) b) New Zealand Textile Institute conference 1974 (3) c) Working paper for textile and garment industry research (1) . Short run production is an aspect of the industry in New Zealand which has been identified as one which requires further analysis. "Greatest immediate problem in the textile industry is the production of small batches or runs (1) ". [FROM INTRODUCTION]

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  • Improving granular fertiliser aerial application for hill country farming : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Agricultural Engineering at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand. EMBARGOED until 7 August 2022

    Chok, Sue

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Soil fertility and pasture productivity varies significantly over hill country farms. Therefore conventional aerial fertiliser application of a single application rate is inefficient. Automation of the aircraft hopper door increases control of fertiliser application. This includes the ability to achieve variable rate application, where multiple application rates can be applied over the farm. Ravensdown Limited has installed variable rate application technology (VRAT) on their Pacific Aerospace Cresco (PAC) 600 aircraft to improve the aerial application of granular fertiliser to hill country farms. The objective of this study was to measure and improve the performance of the VRAT system. Various aspects of the system’s performance were examined; including hopper flow dynamics, control of the hopper door, estimation of a fertiliser particle’s landing position from a known release point, collection of field data, and prediction of wind effects on the ground fertiliser distribution. Performance trials, bench testing and static hopper flow tests were used to improve the VRAT system. Three performance trials were carried out. Each had a different sampling configuration: grid, nested grid and line. Sampling configuration varied because the objective of each trial differed, and there were advantages and disadvantages to each configuration. Accuracy, precision, level of off-target application, and capability of the VRAT system to vary application rate was measured. The trials observed accurate application rates, and improved precision when compared to pilot operated hopper doors. Off-target application occurred because the buffer was insufficiently sized, and did not consider the forward motion of particles, wind effects, and the mechanical/hydraulic limitations of the VRAT system. Bench testing, modelling and field trials can be used to improve the sizing of buffers under varying field conditions. Statistical tests showed the VRAT system was capable of applying different application rates to application zones. While some parts of aerial topdressing can be controlled, there are other factors that cannot be controlled and are a source of variation. Several factors are discussed. Particle bounce out of the collectors was observed after the second performance trial. This issue under-estimated the field application rate in the first two performance trials. Additional trials were completed to improve the capture efficiency by 38% for superphosphate, and provided correction factors for DAP and urea. Wind contributes to variability in aerial applications, and automation of the hopper door is unlikely to significantly mitigate its effects. Ravensdown Limited wished to develop a wind displacement calculator tool. The calculator uses a single particle granular fertiliser ballistics model to predict the displacement of the transverse spread pattern and swath width by wind. To achieve this, the ballistics model was validated for superphosphate, urea, di-ammonium phosphate (DAP), and a 70% superphosphate/30% Flexi-N blend. The model was validated from two data sets for each fertiliser type. From the first data set, the propeller wash component was excluded because fertiliser particles leave the hopper door in a mass flow. Therefore in the initial time steps, the particles are not singular and the propeller wash does not significantly influence their motion. There was good agreement between the field and modelled transverse spread patterns. Additionally, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test statistically showed that the two distributions were similar. The development of the wind displacement calculator tool and production of wind displacement look up tables is described. From a limited number of inputs, the calculator predicts the displacement of the peak mass in a transverse spread pattern. To decrease modelling time, wind displacement look up tables were created from the tool for superphosphate, urea and DAP. In conclusion, the VRAT system will improve fertiliser application to hill country. However, aerial topdressing is highly variable and some factors cannot be controlled. Ballistics modelling can be used to minimise these factors and improve understanding of the variability. The model and wind displacement calculator should be used with care, as they are based on assumptions, which may not be completely representative of field conditions.

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  • Beef hydrolysis by Zyactinase™ enzymes : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand. EMBARGOED until 17 October 2018

    Ahmad, Noriza Binti

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Protein hydrolysis is the term that applies to all possible ways of splitting proteins to produce products with lower molecular weight. There is a continuous search for novel products derived from waste materials. In the developed nations considerable amount of meat off-cuts are discarded each year. Utilizing these leftovers by developing new technology for protein recovery and modification and production of a broad spectrum of food ingredients greatly enhances its final value. The aim of this research was to partially hydrolyse beef meat protein with a commercial kiwifruit product called ZyactinaseTM, which is essentially freeze-dried kiwifruit to determine the effect of various processing conditions that influence the extent of beef meat hydrolysis. Secondly to determine the peptide and amino acid profile of the beef meat sample after hydrolysis. Thirdly to determine the relative reaction of ZyactinaseTM on various beef meat protein fractions. This study also aimed to evaluate the rate and the extent of partial enzymic hydrolysis of lean beef using ZyactinaseTM enzymes in order to obtain a better understanding of protein hydrolysis reaction. Lean beef minced was partially hydrolysed using the Zyactinase enzymes for different processing times (up to 360 minutes), temperatures (27°C to 70°C) and varying enzyme concentrations. No pH adjustment on the raw material was carried out except for pH studies. The hydrolysates were collected and analysed for total nitrogen content and degree of hydrolysis. The method used to characterize the extent of protein hydrolysis was SN-TCA index (fraction of nitrogen soluble in trichloroacetic acid) also called non-protein nitrogen NPN. Peptide and amino acid in protein hydrolysates were analysed by HPLC and different protein fractions in the hydrolysates were characterised by SDS-PAGE. The relationship between the reaction temperature, enzyme concentration and processing time to the total nitrogen and NPN were determined. The total nitrogen content remained relatively constant throughout the hydrolysis process. In addition, the NPN content increased as the temperature, processing time and enzyme concentration increased. The optimum pH range for the enzyme’s activity was 4 – 5.6 and optimum temperature was 60°C. Furthermore, most of the higher molecular weight protein bands on SDS- PAGE disappeared after hydrolysis and lower molecular weight protein bands increased in intensity. Zyactinase was also found to digest protein in the myobrilla and sarcoplasmic meat fractions at similar rates as whole beef meat. The results provide basic understanding of the kiwifruit enzymes action toward protein that may lead to improved methods for recovering meat protein or developing new food materials.

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  • Understanding the molecular basis of the strength differences in skins used in leather manufacture : a dissertation presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand. EMBARGOED until 31 December 2018

    Naffa, Rafea Mustafa

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Although skin structure and its physical properties have been extensively studied, little research has been devoted to understanding the links between them. A comprehensive study of the molecular components of four animal skins commonly used to manufacture shoes, clothing and furniture was therefore undertaken in order to attempt to identify a common indicator of skin strength. The molecular architecture of the protein components of each skin was analysed using polarising, confocal and transmission-electron microscopy (TEM), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and amino-acid and cross-link analysis; glycosaminoglycans were quantified and visualised using TEM; and, for the sake of completeness, total carbohydrate and lipid content were measured using a colorimetric assay and thin layer chromatography respectively. Differences in these properties were then related to different physical characteristics of each skin. The results showed that an individual mechanical property of skin such as tensile strength is complex and related to different combinations of molecular properties. For example, deer and cow skins are the strongest of the skins examined, however they derive their strength from different combinations of molecular properties. Cow skin collagen fibrils have the largest diameter, but deer skin fibrils have the smallest. On the other hand, the fibrils in deer skin frequently change direction, and have a “wavy” or crimped appearance in contrast to the fibrils in cow skin which are aligned in two main directions approximately 60 and 90 degrees apart, differences that are also reflected in the types and amount of their collagen crosslinks. Deer skin fibrils contain a higher proportion of trivalent crosslinks while cow skin fibrils contain a higher proportion of tetravalent links. For the two weaker skins, goat skin fibrils are more crimped than those of sheep skin, but both fibrils have diameters intermediate between those of cow- and deer skins and have lower mature to immature crosslink ratio. In deer skin, glycosaminoglycans are observed by TEM to link fibrils in regular arrays and are present in higher concentrations than in cow, sheep and goat skins. This study showed the relationship between the molecular structure of skin and its mechanical functions is complex, arising from different combinations of molecular features rather than just one.

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  • Production of 2, 3-butanediol from rennet whey permeate by Klebsiella pneumoniae immobilized in alginate gel : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology in Biotechnology at Massey University

    Lee, Hung Kiong

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The successful immobilization of cells of Klebsiella pneumoniae(NCIB 8017) in sodium alginate gels was demonstrated. A cell to alginate ratio of 1ml original cell culture to 1.25ml sodium alginate solution(20g/l) was found to be optimum for butanediol production from rennet whey permeate. Preliminary batch fermentation studies revealed that immobilized cells incubated in a non-agitated mode produced a higher concentration of 2,3-butanediol than those in an agitated mode. Smaller beads(1.8mm diameter) produced higher quantities of 2,3-butanediol than larger beads(5.5mm diameter), while bead storage at 4°C in either 0.1M Tris-HC1 buffer or the gelating agent proved satisfactory although some activation was required to realise the full butanediol producing potential of the beads. Supplementation of 3g/l calcium chloride to the whey permeate was non-inhibitory to butanediol production and led to enhanced calcium alginate bead stability. Acclimatization of cells in high lactose concentration prior to cell immobilization did not result in enhanced butanediol production or lactose utilization. Product and substrate inhibition effects were not detected. In batch fermentation, a butanediol productivity of 0.11g/l.h was obtained. In continuous fermentation in a CSTR, the productivity was increased to 0.74g/l.h. Using packed columns operated in the vertical mode, similar productivities to those using the CSTR was attained. However, the columns suffered from an accumulation of carbon dioxide bubbles. This problem was overcome by placing a stainless steel mesh inside the column, and operating at an angle of 10° to the horizontal. Under these conditions, a butanediol productivity of 2.40g/l.h was achieved, representing an improvement over values reported in the literature.

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  • Prevalence and diversity of Arcobacter spp. in poultry meat in New Zealand : a thesis presented in the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Veterinary Microbiology and Public Health at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Bhandari, Shrawan

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The microaerophilic bacterium Arcobacter has received increased attention in recent years as an emerging foodborne human pathogen. Although phenotypically related, arcobacters differ from campylobacters in their ability to grow aerobically and at lower temperatures. Poultry are considered a significant reservoir of this organism, with an isolation rate of up to 72% in faecal samples, and up to 100% in meat samples. To date, four species; A. butzleri, A. skirrowii, A. cryaerophilus, and A. cibarius have been isolated from poultry. The first three species have also been found to be associated with human and animal illnesses such as diarrhoea, bacteraemia, mastitis and abortions. The organisms are also found in raw meat products as well as in surface and ground water. Since most laboratories still do not use appropriate isolation techniques, the occurrence of this organism in food sources and their role in human illnesses is greatly underestimated. This is the first investigation of the prevalence of arcobacters in poultry meat in New Zealand. The aim of this study was to compare the most commonly used Arcobacter isolation methods. In addition, this study aimed to estimate the prevalence of Arcobacter spp. in retail poultry in New Zealand. Other aims include comparison of genetic diversity of Arcobacter spp. isolated from three different poultry producers, and by different methods, and estimation of overall genetic diversity of arcobacters present in New Zealand. During the period of May to October 2005, a total of 150 fresh, whole, retail poultry carcass produced by three different producers were purchased through two supermarket outlets in Palmerston North, New Zealand. Isolation of Arcobacter was done by seven different techniques. Arcobacter-like organisms were identified presumptively by phenotypic tests; temperature tolerance, aerotolerance, motility , and oxidase production. These presumptive arcobacters were confirmed by a species-specific multiplex PCR (m-PCR) either as A. butzleri, A. cryaerophilus or A. skirrowii. DNA sequencing was done for selected isolates from both species to further confirm the PCR results. The PCR positive isolates were subjected to Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) following restriction digestion with Eagl. It was found that 55.3 % of 150 retail poultry sold in New Zealand were harbouring Arcobacter species. Two species; A. butzleri and A. cryaerophilus were detected by m-PCR which was later confirmed by sequencing. A total of 189 isolates were detected by six methods from 83 retail poultry samples. A. butzleri was the predominant species and was detected in 51.3% of the samples, whereas A. cryaerophilus was detected only in 8% of the samples. A. butzleri and A. cryaerophilus accounted for 92.6% (n=175) and 7.4% (n-14) of the isolates, respectively. A. butzleri was the only Arcobacter species present in 46.6% samples, and A. cryaerophilus only in 3.3% of the samples. Both species were detected simultaneously in 4.6% of the samples. There was a wide variation among the prevalence rate of Arcobacter spp. in retail poultry from different producers varying from 30 to 98%. There was also a wide variation among the isolation rates of different methods varying from 3.3 to 39.3%. The best isolation method was found to be Arcobacter-broth enrichment followed by passive filtration through a sterile filter of 0.45μm, onto blood-agar plates. No single isolation method detected all arcobacters. PFGE of Arcobacter isolates demonstrated the occurrence of multiple genotypes of both A. butzleri and A. cryaerophilus in the retail poultry from the same producers, and even in a single poultry. The possible explanations for the large amount of heterogeneity include multiple sources of contamination, the occurrence of multiple parent genotypes for both species in a single poultry carcass, and a high degree of genomic recombination among the progeny of historical parent genotypes. This study highlights the high prevalence of Arcobacter spp. in poultry meat in New Zealand. It also indicates prevalence of arcobacters in poultry carcass varies greatly with the choice of isolation method and none of the currently available methods are appropriate for the detection of all species of arcobacters in New Zealand. Therefore, two or more methods should be used in parallel. The level of contamination of poultry carcass may vary with the processing practices of a slaughterhouse. To eliminate or reduce arcobacters in retail poultry, maintenance of slaughter hygiene is of utmost importance. This may be achieved by regular microbiological monitoring of carcasses according to the HACCP principles. Further studies comparing the fingerprinting pattern of Arcobacter spp. isolates obtained from retails poultry with human isolates are necessary to test the hypothesis that poultry meal is an important source for Arcobacter infection in human.

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  • The therapist's experience of disbelief in working with dissociative identity disorder

    Thomas, Susie

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Disbelief of patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder remains a common, yet relatively unexplored phenomenon within psychotherapeutic literature. In treating DID, therapists and healthcare professionals alike are subject to strong unconscious forces that make both diagnosis and treatment of DID difficult for the practitioner. In this dissertation the writer’s own process with both clinical literature and patient work is explored, as part of a hermeneutic literature review into the nature of disbelief of DID. The therapist's countertransference is seen as pivotal to conceptualising disbelief, as a 'to be expected' part of treatment. Disbelief is examined through the lenses of the imperative to not-know and the difficulty with the multilateral self. The imperative to not-know is explored as a defensive process, that acts to prevent knowing, though an investment in -K, resulting from the patient's need for early life survival (Bion,1962). The therapist’s difficulty with the multilateral self is then examined as a protective response based on the degree of dissociation that occurs in DID, as well as the reliance on a unitary model of self. Qualities that enhance the practitioner's ability to treat DID with such difficult, evasive, and overwhelming dynamics are explored, including the development of negative capability and an ability to maintain the complexities, by entering into uncertainty and not-knowing. The therapist’s ability to 'stand in these spaces' is seen as central to restoring linking and K in effective DID treatment (Bromberg, 1996; Bion, 1962). An interdisciplinary cross pollination of ideas is sought, in order that an ongoing fruitful engagement regarding countertransference, disbelief, and DID can be of benefit to the patient.

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  • Selective laser melting of duplex stainless steel

    Davidson, Karl

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Duplex stainless steels are a special class of alloys characterised by the equal amounts of austenite and ferrite in the microstructures, achieved through a balanced composition of the alloying elements. The dual phase structure makes them strong, tough and resistant to corrosion in extreme environments, combining the good properties of both the constituent phases. As a result, duplex steels became very useful and important in a wide range of applications including oil and gas, food and beverages, civil construction and architecture, and medical devices and implants. While the dual phase structure is essentially the reason for all the useful attributes of duplex steels, the same may also act as a hindrance to their performance, during and after the application of secondary processes. Thermo-mechanical interactions might lead to a loss of the equal phase duplex structures and machinability attributes are not often encouraging due to work hardening and formation of strong and continuous chips. Considering the significant properties and the applications, and problems associated with the secondary processing, the material system kept the challenges of improving existing methods and finding alternative ways of manufacturing alive. The past decade saw a tremendous growth in the additive manufacturing technologies, as a few of the more promising techniques grew beyond the simple rapid prototyping solutions. In particular with the metal powders, the selective laser melting process became a strong contestant in terms of the near net shape consolidation and higher densities. At the time this research project started, there was no evidence of any a priori data related to the laser based processing of duplex stainless steel powder through a layer-wise consolidation. This was the research gap identified and the research proposal was developed to answer the questions that will arise encompassing the possible immediate responses of duplex steels to laser melting conditions, process-structure-property relationships and abnormalities if any that may arise from the structures altered significantly due to the non-equilibrium conditions. Experimental plans were then drawn, appropriate equipment identified and the proposed research was conducted as planned, achieving the set objectives. Duplex stainless steels were proved to be suitable for processing by selective laser melting. Structural distortions were noted to arise due to the laser interactions, but post-process heat treatment procedures were observed to be effective in rectifying the problems to varying degrees. The maximum bulk density levels reached were at around 95%, while the mechanical and other properties showed no significant losses. The transformation of the duplex stainless steels from the hard to the soft magnetic states as a result of the structural alterations induced by selective laser melting is an additional research outcome. Further, the machinability of the material in the as-built state was found to be better than in the wrought case. As far as the published literature commonly available goes, the initial experimental trials conducted as part of this research were the first to apply selective laser melting to duplex steel powders. Other original contributions include the establishment of the ensuing metallographic and mechanical attributes of the samples printed with varying conditions and establishment of the anomalous magnetic responses and the unexpected improvement in the machinability responses.

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  • Incorporating indigenous values into teacher professional learning and development for culturally responsive classroom management.

    London, Porsha Chantelle (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis sought to investigate and explore shifts in teacher practice when culturally diverse teachers (Māori and non-Māori) work towards becoming culturally responsive classroom managers. It is an inquiry into the impact of the Professional Learning and Development (PLD) on teachers‘ beliefs, values and classroom practices through the implementation of the pedagogical framework; Mana ki te Mana. This framework proposes that mana (authority with integrity) has the potential to be a significant motivational factor in the learning and teaching context. A fundamental principle of Mana ki te Mana is supporting teacher practice to become more inclusive, moving away from a functional/deficit view of behaviour to a sociocultural/agentic lens. The study occurs in the context of a unique whole-school behaviour intervention and intensive professional learning and development. From 2014 to 2016, the Ministry of Education (MoE) in Aotearoa New Zealand (NZ) funded Huakina Mai (‗opening doorways‘), an Indigenous whole-school behaviour intervention pilot, in three primary schools in Aotearoa NZ. This initiative aims to improve teachers‘ culturally responsive classroom management (CRCM) and ultimately shift achievement outcomes for Māori students through targeted professional learning and systemic school change. This doctoral research presents the findings from the study of one particular element of the Huakina Mai pilot project: the impact of the PLD on teachers‘ classroom practices over the period of one year (2014–2015) of intensive PLD at three unique school settings. This thesis reports the findings of three sets of data collection intervals from three schools in the South Island of Aotearoa NZ (Mānuka, Willow and Nikau) that participated in the study. Data was collected at three intervals over one year (Fullan, 2001). Case study and grounded theory methodologies were utilised in conjunction with kaupapa Māori Theory. Interviews and observations were carried out in 2014-2015. The interview questions prompted the participants to reflect on their personal and professional beliefs, values and classroom practices in relation to the pedagogical framework Mana ki te Mana. The findings make particular reference to self-reported changes in teacher practice demonstrated in teacher classroom management approaches and the use of language evidenced in qualitative teacher interviews and observation data. Overall, the findings indicate that all of the participants experienced some improvements in their CRCM practices and gained new knowledge through Mana ki te Mana. Some participants reported transformational shifts in their practice, and these were linked to contextual differences between the case study sites. Rapid changes occurred when teachers‘ practice was deprivatised and when communities of learning emerged and acted as platforms for teachers to try out new practices in a supported context. Supported settings allowed for critical conversations and dialogues within culturally safe environments and mutually caring relationships to form and grow. Relationships between staff members emerged as being integral to managing the change process, reducing stress, increasing mentoring and leadership and in building confidence as teachers addressed unconscious and often confronting practices. The organisation leadership of the school context was vital in supporting practitioners to participate in continuous learning throughout the professional learning and development. These contexts created strong leadership direction through the Māori strategic priorities, shared vision, goals and organisational practices that embodied a collective responsibility for te ao Māori worldview learning and whole school change. This study highlighted that shifts in teachers CRCM practices occur when there are close links between the theory and practice. That is, when teachers have strategies, resources, mentoring/coaching, and access to literature to support them to implement new approaches while becoming critically reflective and aware of their own changes in their thinking, theorising and practice. In particular, the findings indicate that four key constructs emerge as part of the change process. These constructs provide the foundation for the emerging practice based framework that proposes that changes in classroom management (moving from Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) and other Behaviour Management (BM) approaches to Māori relationship- based approaches) does not happen in isolation from key ontological (shifts in the critical beliefs that shape individuals sense of unique identity), epistemological and pedagogical processes within principal frameworks that govern teaching and learning practice.

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  • Improving the seismic performance of structures with Direction and Displacement Dependent Viscous dampers.

    Khanmohammadi Hazaveh, Nikoo (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Modern structures demand greater protection from natural hazards, such as strong winds and severe earthquakes. Structures have traditionally been designed to sustain significant sacrificial damage to absorb and dissipate the input energy, while preserving life safety. However, this approach causes significant direct and indirect economic cost, which leads to long term societal costs. Instead of damaging the main structural elements to absorb energy, supplemental energy absorbing dissipation devices can be incorporated to protect structures, creating low damage structures. In particular, devices capable of respectably dissipating energy without requiring inspection, repair or replacement are highly desirable in this role. Fluid viscous dampers are one well-known, highly repeatable damping device with numerous experimental and analytical investigations. However, while viscous dampers can reduce displacement demand, they can increase the overall base shear demand for nonlinear structures or with high levels of added damping, as they provide resistive forces in all four quadrants of the force-displacement hysteresis loop. This thesis presents analytical and experimental studies on improving seismic structural performance using novel Displacement and Direction Dependent (D3) viscous devices. These proposed devices offer the adaptability of semi-active devices in an entirely passive device design, and thus include the high reliability and low complexity of passive devices. A number of structural applications such as linear, nonlinear, and rocking systems, utilising D3 devices are described and analysed. A distinguishing feature of this research is the novel design of a large-scale D3 device developed and experimentally validated. This design dramatically extends the capabilities of viscous devices by readily manipulating the device response to structural demands. In particular, the unique ability to use these devices to reshape or sculpt structural hysteretic behaviour in a fully passive device offers significant new opportunities in low damage structures with dissipation devices, which were previously only possible using much more costly, complex, and less robust, active or semi-active devices. Time history analysis of linear structures and rocking systems with bi-linear elastic hysteresis, shows response reductions in both displacement and base-shear demand are only available with the 2-4 control method and devices, which dissipate energy only for motions towards equilibrium. These results indicate the robustness of simple 2-4 viscous dampers could be used to better mitigate structural response damage and potential foundation damage. These results extend prior results with semi-active, stiffness based devices to passive, velocity based dissipation devices. To enable guidelines for adding a 2-4 device into the design procedure, damping reduction factors (RFξ) are developed, as they play an important role in design and thus provide a means of linking these novel devices to standard design procedures. Three methods are presented to obtain damping reduction factors and equivalent viscous damping of a structure with a 2-4 semi-active viscous damper. In the first method, the relationship between RFξ and the damping of a structure with the 2-4 viscous devices can be obtained by calculating the area enclosed by the forcedeformation diagram. The second and third methods are a modified version of the Eurocode8 (EC8) formula for damping reduction factors and smoothed results from time-history analysis, respectively. Finally, a simple method is proposed to incorporate the design or retrofit of structures using 2-4 viscous D3 dampers and standard design approaches. Given the potential and link to standard design procedures, the D3 device design concept is presented and experimental tests undertaken on a prototype device. Sinusoidal displacement inputs provide a range of velocity inputs and device forces used to characterize the damping behaviour of the prototype and illustrate the ability to provide controllable viscous damping in any single or multiple quadrant(s) of the force-displacement response. Performance is characterized in term of device design dimensions and parameters. The overall results provide a proof-of-concept for a new class of relatively low cost passive device that enable customized hysteretic behaviour for any given structural application. The overall outcomes of the thesis are experimentally validated in combination via the seismic performance of a 1/2 scale, two storey steel frame building with passive 2-4 D3 dampers subjected to uni-directional shake table testing. Performance in mitigating structural response and foundation demand are assessed by evaluating base shear, maximum drift and acceleration. The test results show very good agreement with the nonlinear time history analysis and a numerical structural model. Overall, this research presents a methodology for designing, testing and applying this new generation of viscous damping devices in enhancing seismic structural performance. The results show the ability to obtain simultaneous reductions in displacement, base-shear and acceleration demand for nonlinear and linear structures using passive 2–4 D3 viscous fluid dampers. This device is entirely passive and provides a unique retrofit option that would not require strengthening of columns and foundations.

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  • Multi-regional system-dynamics modelling of integrated energy-system and transport sectors using UniSyD

    Leaver, Jonathan; Shafiei, Ehsan; Davidsdottir, Brynhildur (2017-12-20T13:30:03Z)

    Conference item
    Unitec

    Overview UniSyD Background UniSyD Structure Case Study & Sample Results Conclusions

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  • Exploring the home literacy beliefs of parents with young children in New Zealand.

    du Toit, Frederik C (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Research has shown that parents make important contributions to their children’s English literacy acquisition and that there are cultural differences in how parents approach this task. Increased immigration has contributed to a diverse society in New Zealand, with a quarter of the population foreign born, yet very little quantitative research on New Zealand parents’ home literacy beliefs (PHLBs) is available. Improving our understanding of PHLBs will assist teachers and other stakeholders to support parents of young readers, especially parents who may not speak English as their mother tongue. PHLBs have been characterized in past research as skill-based, entertainment based or an approach which may include elements of both. The aim of this study was to explore and develop our understanding of New Zealand PHLBs. Participants in this study were 300 parents of children under the age of seven. They were the parent in the family who spends the most time with their child to promote their English literacy skills. An online questionnaire based on Anderson’s (1995) Parents’ Perceptions of Literacy Learning Interview Schedule was used to collect data. Demographic information and responses to 33 Likert-scale items related to literacy acquisition were used in quantitative data analysis. Composite high scores on the scale indicated that PHLBs aligned with an emergent approach to literacy acquisition in which fun and entertainment considerations were central. Low scores were congruent with a skills-based perspective in which parents preferred didactic teaching techniques. Nine independent variables were used in the analyses: parent level of education, household income, parent gender and age, main home language, immigration status, how long the parent has been helping the child and the children’s gender and age. Relations between the demographic variables and parents’ composite score were analysed in a correlation matrix. The predictive capacity of the variables were analysed in a hierarchical multiple regression. Analyses of variance were performed to investigate group differences in terms of language and immigrant background on measures derived from the questionnaire, including factors obtained from Factor Analyses of the current data. The most significant predictors of parents’ beliefs were their main home language (L1), how long they have been helping their child and their immigration status, which support the social nature of children’s literacy acquisition within the home environment. Significant differences existed in the beliefs of parents who speak English L1, including immigrants who speak English L1, and those who speak other languages as L1. There were also significant differences in the beliefs of participants who were born in New Zealand and immigrants, as well as between parents who have been helping their children for short periods of time versus long timeframes. Consistent with previous research, there was a large amount of variability in home literacy beliefs across parents; however, in the two new factors established from the current research, variance focused more on a ‘Parent-as-Teacher’ factor and there was much less variance in a ‘Parent-as-Model’ factor. These new factors will be discussed along with previous conceptualisations of parent/home literacy influences.

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  • OGLE-2017-BLG-0329L: A Microlensing Binary Characterized with Dramatically Enhanced Precision Using Data from Space-based Observations

    Han C; Novati SC; Udalski A; Lee C-U; Gould A; Bozza V; Mróz P; Pietrukowicz P; Skowron J; Szymański MK; Poleski R; Soszyński I; Kozłowski S; Ulaczyk K; Pawlak M; Rybicki K; Iwanek P; Albrow MD; Chung S-J; Hwang K-H; Jung YK; Ryu Y-H; Shin I-G; Shvartzvald Y; Yee JC; Zang W; Zhu W; Cha S-M; Kim D-J; Kim H-W; Kim S-L; Lee D-J; Lee Y; Park B-G; Pogge RW; Kim W-T; Beichman C; Bryden G; Carey S; Gaudi BS; Henderson CB; Dominik M; Helling C; Hundertmark M; Jørgensen UG; Longa-Peña P; Lowry S; Sajadian S; Burgdorf MJ; Campbell-White J; Ciceri S; Evans DF; Haikala LK; Hinse TC; Rahvar S; Rabus M; Snodgrass C (2018)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    Mass measurements of gravitational microlenses require one to determine the microlens parallax PIe, but precise PIe measurement, in many cases, is hampered due to the subtlety of the microlens-parallax signal combined with the difficulty of distinguishing the signal from those induced by other higher-order effects. In this work, we present the analysis of the binary-lens event OGLE-2017-BLG-0329, for which PIe is measured with a dramatically improved precision using additional data from space-based Spitzer observations. We find that while the parallax model based on the ground-based data cannot be distinguished from a zero-PIe model at 2o level, the addition of the Spitzer data enables us to identify 2 classes of solutions, each composed of a pair of solutions according to the well-known ecliptic degeneracy. It is found that the space-based data reduce the measurement uncertainties of the north and east components of the microlens-parallax vector PIe by factors ~ 18 and ~ 4, respectively. With the measured microlens parallax combined with the angular Einstein radius measured from the resolved caustic crossings, we find that the lens is composed of a binary with components masses of either (M1,M2) ~ (1.1,0.8)\ M. or ~ (0.4,0.3) M. according to the two solution classes. The first solution is significantly favored but the second cannot be securely ruled out based on the microlensing data alone. However, the degeneracy can be resolved from adaptive optics observations taken ~ 10 years after the event.

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  • The abuse of patriarchal power in Rome: the rape narratives of Ovid’s Metamorphoses.

    Tinkler, K. (2018)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    By around 8AD the Metamorphoses, a single poem divided into fifteen books, had been completed by Publius Ovidius Naso. The text, written in the meter of epic, links together over two hundred myths through the theme of transformation. In the poem there is an unprecedented prevalence of rape stories. The Metamorphoses is essentially an encyclopaedia of Greek and Roman myth. Ovid includes stories of rape to be faithful to these traditional myths. It is not his inclusion of these stories which triggers interest, but the way in which he treats them. Ovid uses repeated imagery and terminology when representing rape victims, constructing an overall image of the disenfranchised female who has been victimised by the patriarchal system of Rome. This thesis argues that, by examining the abuses of power in interpersonal relationships Ovid implicitly points to patriarchal dynamics in Rome under Augustus. The topic of rape is chosen because it perfectly embodies the idea of the voiceless, powerless victim who is violated by the dominant and oppressive male figure. There are several key stories in the text that will be examined repeatedly, from different angles, to support this argument. The main source used will be the Metamorphoses however evidence will be draw from other ancient sources and the argument will be supplemented by scholarship on the subject. The poet’s prior work, the Ars Amatoria, was controversial at the time of production and it remains a controversial topic in modern scholarship. The text was deemed to be a promotion of rape culture and his attitude towards women was, at best, considered dismissive.1 Due to the nature of this text, as well as other earlier works, secondary scholarship has developed a tendency to brand the poet’s work as “insincere, immoral, shallow and rhetorical.”2 As this academic dismissal appears to have strengthened over time, it is often necessary to source information from much earlier publications in order to present a balanced argument. 1 Amy Richlin argues that Ovid actually took pleasure in violence, condemning his work as “pornographic.” (Richlin, 1992: 158) This sentiment is shared by Eva Keuls (Keuls, 1990: 221-224). 2 A.H. Griffin, “Ovid’s ‘Metamorphoses,’” Greece and Rome 24 (1977) 58.

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  • The relationship between perceived co-worker loafing and elements of work plus the role of protestant work ethic.

    Roddick, Danny (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This study examined the relationships perceived co-worker loafing has with job performance, undesirable work behaviours and job satisfaction. The study also examined whether Protestant work ethic moderated these relationships. Two-hundred and twenty one participants from a range of ages and occupations participated in a survey measuring these variables. Perceived co-worker loafing was negatively related to the social subdimension of job performance as well as job satisfaction. Several of the subdimensions of Protestant work ethic moderated the relationship between perceived co-worker loafing and one subdimension of job performance as well as several subdimensions of job performance and work behaviours. There was not a significant relationship between perceived co-worker loafing and work behaviours, however Protestant work ethic was still found to be a consistent moderator between this relationship. Protestant work ethic was also found to be a more nuanced variable than expected, with different subdimensions resulting in both positive and negative interactions.

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  • The effect of team learning behaviours on team effectiveness in virtual teams.

    Sim, Joshua Y.J. (2018)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The present study serves as an updated study on team virtuality in relation to team effectiveness and team learning behaviour. Because computer-mediated communication that virtual teams are based on is improving every year, and because the global workforce is increasingly exposed to and becoming comfortable with technology, older research on virtual teams might prove to be outdated. Also, past research has not taken a deeper look into the reasons for virtuality’s effects on team effectiveness, particularly in relation to team learning behaviours. Through a worldwide survey of individuals who are part of work teams, the present study was able to find that different aspects of virtuality affected or related to team effectiveness differently. Workplace mobility was negatively related to team performance errors, but team distribution was significantly negatively related to team performance. Variety of practices negatively moderated two of the team learning behaviour to team effectiveness relationships, but team distribution positively moderated a similar team learning behaviour to team performance relationship. Overall, virtuality is not simply the obstacle to team effectiveness as past research has painted it to be, but may be more complex than originally thought. It is hoped that the present study will update researchers on the current state of virtual team research, and inspire more practical future research.

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  • Structure and dynamics of lowland podocarp-broadleaved forest in the Central North Island, New Zealand : the effects of different silvicultural regimes on stand structure and tree species composition.

    Roschak, Christian (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Podocarp-broadleaved forests and their alliances form one of the largest forest groups in New Zealand and cover an area of approximately 2.9 million hectares. Their vast exploitation and deterioration in the past 150 years called for sustainable forest management as an imperative need. As a consequence, commercial harvesting of these forests is restricted to private land only and is strictly controlled by the Ministry of Primary Industries under the Forests Act 1949 as amended in 1993. The Act demands sustainable management of podocarp-broadleaved forest in a form of selective harvesting of podocarps that is limited to single trees or small groups. But there is concern that selective harvesting of podocarps in this forest type is not sustainable due to the complex structure of those forests. This thesis explores the regeneration dynamics in an old-growth podocarp-broadleaved forest in the Central North Island and how past harvesting has altered its structure. Tree core analysis is an important tool to obtain information on tree age and growth. As Beilschmiedia tawa is the dominant tree species in this forest and as little is known about the suitability of tree cores of this species in age and increment studies, their prospects and limitations are elaborated first. The second study examines the structure of old-growth podocarp-broadleaved forests and the natural processes that drive recruitment success and failure. In the third study, the impact of different sizes of harvesting gaps on tree species regeneration and subsequent growth is investigated. The final chapter evaluates harvesting prescriptions in the Forests Act on the basis of key findings of the above studies. The results demonstrate that false and missing rings are common features in B. tawa tree cores but that individual errors in the form of overestimation and underestimation of calculated increments cancel each other out on a stand basis, making stand level predictions reliable. They further illustrate that the scarcity of large-scale disturbances in old-growth podocarp-broadleaved forest is responsible for a regeneration gap of the podocarps Dacrydium cupressinum, Dacrycarpus dacrydioides, Prumnopitys ferruginea, Prumnopitys taxifolia and Podocarpus totara but that harvesting can improve their growth conditions significantly if the gaps created are large enough. This is, however, not in accordance with the low-impact harvesting prescriptions in the Forests Act, while the results presented here show that selective harvesting of emergent podocarps is not sustainable and accelerates the decline of those species in this forest type.

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  • Empowering leadership : an examination of fit with individual needs.

    Ryder, Samantha (2018)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The shift from traditional hierarchical structures toward flexible structures at work requires increasing levels of employee autonomy and has prompted organisations to rely on empowering leadership behaviours. Yet, employees may differ with regards to their preference for empowering behaviours, and therefore the degree of congruence between leader behaviours and employee preferences may influence important workplace outcomes. The current study investigated whether, and how, levels of congruence between empowering leadership behaviours and employee preference for empowering leadership impacted employees’ behavioural engagement and job satisfaction. Data was collected from an online survey of 151 employees in two white collar organisations. The results of the polynomial regression analysis revealed that levels of congruence between employee preference for empowering leadership and the leaders’ empowering behaviours influenced job satisfaction and behavioural engagement. Based on the outcomes of the study, theoretical and practical implications are discussed along with recommendations for future research.

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  • The development of a new technique for the normalisation of the University of Canterbury adaptive speech test- filtered words (UCAST-FW).

    Gibbins, J. M. (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Low-pass filtered word tests, in which a speech sample is degraded using a low-pass filter (LPF), are one class of low-redundancy test commonly used in the diagnosis of auditory processing disorder (APD). Due to the high level of redundancy within the auditory system and in spoken language, a normal listener is able to fill in the missing speech information and achieve auditory closure even when the speech signal is degraded. The ability to achieve auditory closure is compromised in individuals with APD, which allows filtered speech tests to be used in the diagnostic assessment of APD. One example of this type of test is the University of Canterbury Adaptive Speech Test – Filtered Words (UCAST-FW; O’Beirne, McGaffin and Rickard, 2012). However, the validity and reliability of speech tests are affected by a number of factors, including the homogeneity of the word list. While the UCAST-FW is sensitive enough to discriminate between children with and without APD (Rickard, Heidtke & O’Beirne, 2013), the large variance in the spectral content of its individual test items has resulted in it being somewhat heterogeneous in regards to recognition performance under the same levels of filtering. This creates inherent vulnerabilities within the sensitivity and specificity of a diagnostic test, with increased interitem variability and reduced inter-patient variability. The present study aimed to compensate for differences in word recognition performance among each word in the UCAST-FW by adjusting the level of filtering such that each word is equally difficult. The performance of 61 English speaking adult listeners with normal hearing was examined on their ability to discriminate speech items both before normalisation (n = 30) and after (n = 31). Psychometric functions (percentage correct vs. LPF frequency) were generated for each word, and were used to calculate relative adjustments for the level of low-pass filtering. These adjustments were performed using a novel method of normalisation that adjusts the levels of low-pass filtering relative to the average performance and takes into consideration the psychometric slope of each of the test words rather than just the midpoint of the function. Results from this study show this normalization technique was successful in achieving a more homogenous word list for both open and closed set testing paradigms, relative to the prenormalisation testing, as indicated by a more normally distributed cluster of psychometric functions.

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