91,631 results

  • Phosphate recovery from hydrothermally treated sewage sludge using struvite precipitation

    Munir, Muhammad; Li, Bing; Boiarkina, Irina; Baroutian, Saeid; Yu, Wei; Young, Brent (2017-09)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    New technologies are needed to recover phosphate from organic wastes, such as sewage sludge. Sewage sludge can be hydrothermally treated to make it safe but this process is expensive. Recovering a valuable by-product, such as phosphate, could improve the economics of hydrothermal treatment. Therefore, the technical and preliminary differential cost analysis of combining hydrothermal treatment with phosphate recovery (by precipitation of magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite)) was investigated. The effects of pH, magnesium ion dose, and either wet oxidation or thermal hydrolysis hydrothermal treatment were examined. Phosphate recovery was more sensitive to pH than magnesium ion concentration, with diminishing rates of recovery at high levels of both. Also, more struvite was recovered following wet oxidation treatment than thermal hydrolysis. Preliminary differential cost analysis showed that wet oxidation combined with precipitation at an optimal pH and magnesium ion dose could generate revenue.

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  • Take your mind off it: Coping style, serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region genotype (5-HTTLPR), and children's internalizing and externalizing problems

    Cline, JI; Belsky, J; Li, Z; Melhuish, E; Lysenko, L; McFarquhar, T; Stevens, Suzanne; Jaffee, SR (2015-11)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Individuals with the short variant of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region gene are more susceptible than individuals homozygous for the long allele to the effects of stressful life events on risk for internalizing and externalizing problems. We tested whether individual differences in coping style explained this increased risk for problem behavior among youth who were at both genetic and environmental risk. Participants included 279 children, ages 8-11, from the Children's Experiences and Development Study. Caregivers and teachers reported on children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and caregivers and children on children's exposure to harsh parenting and parental warmth in middle childhood, and traumatic events. Children reported how frequently they used various coping strategies. Results revealed that short/short homozygotes had higher levels of internalizing problems compared with long allele carriers and that short allele carriers had higher levels of externalizing problems compared with long/long homozygotes under conditions of high cumulative risk. Moreover, among children who were homozygous for the short allele, those who had more cumulative risk indicators less frequently used distraction coping strategies, which partly explained why they had higher levels of internalizing problems. Coping strategies did not significantly mediate Gene ?? Environment effects on externalizing symptoms.

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  • Fault diagnosis of an industrial plant using a Monte Carlo analysis coupled with systematic troubleshooting

    Boiarkina, Irina; Depree, Nicholas; Yu, Wei; Wilson, DI; Young, Brent (2017-08)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Efficiently troubleshooting a fortification issue at an industrial milk powder plant is a complex undertaking given the myriad of possible causes. Multiple causes, even when simple, are not easy to diagnose, however every single cause needs to be addressed in order to consistently meet product quality specifications. This paper uses statistical modelling in the form of Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the probable causes for unexpected excessive product variation. This approach alone, refines but does not completely solve, the production issues, so a systematic approach was required to definitively solve other root causes. This two-step fault diagnosis approach ensured that all of the differing causes proposed by plant personnel could be addressed, and sound recommendations for good manufacturing operations could be made and adopted.

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  • Intermittent auscultation (IA) of fetal heart rate in labour for fetal well-being

    Martis, R; Emilia, O; Nurdiati, DS; Brown, Julie (2017-02-13)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: The goal of fetal monitoring in labour is the early detection of a hypoxic baby. There are a variety of tools and methods available for intermittent auscultation (IA) of the fetal heart rate (FHR). Low- and middle-income countries usually have only access to a Pinard/La??nnec or the use of a hand-held Doppler device. Currently, there is no robust evidence to guide clinical practice on the most effective IA tool to use, timing intervals and length of listening to the fetal heart for women during established labour. Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of different tools for IA of the fetal heart rate during labour including frequency and duration of auscultation. Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (19 September 2016), contacted experts and searched reference lists of retrieved articles. Selection criteria: All published and unpublished randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or cluster-RCTs comparing different tools and methods used for intermittent fetal auscultation during labour for fetal and maternal well-being. Quasi-RCTs, and cross-over designs were not eligible for inclusion. Data collection and analysis: All review authors independently assessed eligibility, extracted data and assessed risk of bias for each trial. Data were checked for accuracy. Main results: We included three studies (6241 women and 6241 babies), but only two studies are included in the meta-analyses (3242 women and 3242 babies). Both were judged as high risk for performance bias due to the inability to blind the participants and healthcare providers to the interventions. Evidence was graded as moderate to very low quality; the main reasons for downgrading were study design limitations and imprecision of effect estimates. Intermittent Electronic Fetal Monitoring (EFM) using Cardiotocography (CTG) with routine Pinard (one trial) There was no clear difference between groups in low Apgar scores at five minutes (reported as < six at five minutes after birth) (risk ratio (RR) 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.24 to 1.83, 633 babies, very low-quality evidence). There were no clear differences for perinatal mortality (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.34 to 2.25; 633 infants, very low-quality evidence). Neonatal seizures were reduced in the EFM group (RR 0.05, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.89; 633 infants, very low-quality evidence). Other important infant outcomes were not reported: mortality or serious morbidity (composite outcome), cerebral palsy or neurosensory disability. For maternal outcomes, women allocated to intermittent electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) (CTG) had higher rates of caesarean section for fetal distress (RR 2.92, 95% CI 1.78 to 4.80, 633 women, moderate-quality evidence) compared with women allocated to routine Pinard. There was no clear difference between groups in instrumental vaginal births (RR 1.46, 95% CI 0.86 to 2.49, low-quality evidence). Other outcomes were not reported (maternal mortality, instrumental vaginal birth for fetal distress and or acidosis, analgesia in labour, mobility or restriction during labour, and postnatal depression). Doppler ultrasonography with routine Pinard (two trials) There was no clear difference between groups in Apgar scores < seven at five minutes after birth (reported as < six in one of the trials) (average RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.20 to 2.87; two trials, 2598 babies, I 2 = 72%, very low-quality evidence); there was high heterogeneity for this outcome. There was no clear difference between groups for perinatal mortality (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.09 to 5.40; 2597 infants, two studies, very low-quality evidence), or neonatal seizures (RR 0.05, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.91; 627 infants, one study, very low-quality evidence). Other important infant outcomes were not reported (cord blood acidosis, composite of mortality and serious morbidity, cerebral palsy, neurosensory disability). Only one study reported maternal outcomes. Women allocated to Doppler ultrasonography had higher rates of caesarean section for fetal distress compared with those allocated to routine Pinard (RR 2.71, 95% CI 1.64 to 4.48, 627 women, moderate-quality evidence). There was no clear difference in instrumental vaginal births between groups (RR 1.35, 95% CI 0.78 to 2.32, 627 women, low-quality evidence). Other maternal outcomes were not reported. Intensive Pinard versus routine Pinard (one trial) One trial compared intensive Pinard (a research midwife following the protocol in a one-to-one care situation) with routine Pinard (as per protocol but midwife may be caring for more than one woman in labour). There was no clear difference between groups in low Apgar score (reported as < six this trial) (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.35 to 2.31, 625 babies, very low-quality evidence). There were also no clear differences identified for perinatal mortality (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.19 to 1.67; 625 infants, very low-quality evidence), or neonatal seizures (RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.24 to 1.88, 625 infants, very low-quality evidence)). Other infant outcomes were not reported. For maternal outcomes, there were no clear differences between groups for caesarean section or instrumental delivery (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.35 to 1.38, and RR 1.21, 95% CI 0.69 to 2.11, respectively, 625 women, both low-quality evidence)) Other outcomes were not reported. Authors' conclusions: Using a hand-held (battery and wind-up) Doppler and intermittent CTG with an abdominal transducer without paper tracing for IA in labour was associated with an increase in caesarean sections due to fetal distress. There was no clear difference in neonatal outcomes (low Apgar scores at five minutes after birth, neonatal seizures or perinatal mortality). Long-term outcomes for the baby (including neurodevelopmental disability and cerebral palsy) were not reported. The quality of the evidence was assessed as moderate to very low and several important outcomes were not reported which means that uncertainty remains regarding the use of IA of FHR in labour. As intermittent CTG and Doppler were associated with higher rates of caesarean sections compared with routine Pinard monitoring, women, health practitioners and policy makers need to consider these results in the absence of evidence of short- and long-term benefits for the mother or baby. Large high-quality randomised trials, particularly in low-income settings, are needed. Trials should assess both short- and long-term health outcomes, comparing different monitoring tools and timing for IA.

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  • Decompression illness in divers treated in Auckland, New Zealand, 1996-2012

    Haas, RM; Sturge, Jacqueline; Sames, C; Schmidt, R; Tyson, A; Francombe, M; Richardson, D; Mitchell, Simon (2014-03)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    INTRODUCTION: The treatment of divers for decompression illness (DCI) in Auckland, New Zealand, has not been described since 1996, and subsequent trends in patient numbers and demographics are unmeasured. METHODS: This was a retrospective audit of DCI cases requiring recompression in Auckland between 01 January 1996 and 31 December 2012. Data describing patient demographics, dive characteristics, presentation of DCI and outcomes were extracted from case notes and facility databases. Trends in annual case numbers were evaluated using Spearman's correlation coefficients (??) and compared with trends in entry-level diver certifications. Trends in patient demographics and delay between diving and recompression were evaluated using regression analyses. RESULTS: There were 520 DCI cases. Annual caseload decreased over the study period (?? = 0.813, P < 0.0001) as did entry level diving certifications in New Zealand (?? = 0.962, P < 0.0001). Mean diver age was 33.6 (95% confidence limits (CI) 32.7 to 34.5) years and age increased (P < 0.0001) over the study period. Median (range) delay to recompression was 2.06 (95% CI 0.02 to 23.6) days, and delay declined over the study period (P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Numbers of DCI cases recompressed in Auckland have declined significantly over the last 17 years. The most plausible explanation is declining diving activity but improvements in diving safety cannot be excluded. The delay between diving and recompression has reduced.

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  • CORR Insights???: Is limited incision better than standard total hip arthroplasty? A meta-analysis

    Pitto, Rocco (2013-04)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This CORR Insights??? is a commentary on the article "Is Limited Incision Better Than Standard Total Hip Arthroplasty? A Meta-analysis" by Joseph T. Moskal MD and Susan G. Capps available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-012-2717-5

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  • Interactive effects of early and recent exposure to stressful contexts on cortisol reactivity in middle childhood

    Jaffee, SR; McFarquhar, T; Stevens, Suzanne; Ouellet-Morin, I; Melhuish, E; Belsky, J (2015-02)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background Given mixed findings as to whether stressful experiences and relationships are associated with increases or decreases in children's cortisol reactivity, we tested whether a child's developmental history of risk exposure explained variation in cortisol reactivity to an experimentally induced task. We also tested whether the relationship between cortisol reactivity and children's internalizing and externalizing problems varied as a function of their developmental history of stressful experiences and relationships. Method Participants included 400 children (M = 9.99 years, SD = 0.74 years) from the Children's Experiences and Development Study. Early risk exposure was measured by children's experiences of harsh, nonresponsive parenting at 3 years. Recent risk exposure was measured by children's exposure to traumatic events in the past year. Children's cortisol reactivity was measured in response to a social provocation task and parents and teachers described children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Results The effect of recent exposure to traumatic events was partially dependent upon a child's early experiences of harsh, nonresponsive parenting: the more traumatic events children had recently experienced, the greater their cortisol reactivity if they had experienced lower (but not higher) levels of harsh, nonresponsive parenting at age 3. The lowest levels of cortisol reactivity were observed among children who had experienced the most traumatic events in the past year and higher (vs. lower) levels of harsh, nonresponsive parenting in early childhood. Among youth who experienced harsh, nonresponsive parent-child relationships in early childhood and later traumatic events, lower levels of cortisol reactivity were associated with higher levels of internalizing and externalizing problems. Conclusions Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity to psychological stressors and the relationship between HPA axis reactivity and children's internalizing and externalizing problems vary as a function of a child's developmental history of exposure to stressful relationships and experiences.

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  • Privacy Preserving and Delegated Access Control for Cloud Applications

    Ye, Xin (2016-02)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    In cloud computing applications, users' data and applications are hosted by cloud providers. This paper proposed an access control scheme that uses a combination of discretionary access control and cryptographic techniques to secure users' data and applications hosted by cloud providers. Many cloud applications require users to share their data and applications hosted by cloud providers. To facilitate resource sharing, the proposed scheme allows cloud users to delegate their access permissions to other users easily. Using the access control policies that guard the access to resources and the credentials submitted by users, a third party can infer information about the cloud users. The proposed scheme uses cryptographic techniques to obscure the access control policies and users' credentials to ensure the privacy of the cloud users. Data encryption is used to guarantee the confidentiality of data. Compared with existing schemes, the proposed scheme is more flexible and easy to use. Experiments showed that the proposed scheme is also efficient.

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  • Oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies for the treatment of women with gestational diabetes

    Brown, Julie; Martis, R; Hughes, B; Rowan, J; Crowther, Caroline (2017-01-25)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a major public health issue with rates increasing globally. Gestational diabetes, glucose intolerance first recognised during pregnancy, usually resolves after birth and is associated with short- and long-term complications for the mother and her infant. Treatment options can include oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies.To evaluate the effects of oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies for treating women with GDM.We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register (14 May 2016), ClinicalTrials.gov, WHO ICTRP (14 May 2016) and reference lists of retrieved studies.We included published and unpublished randomised controlled trials assessing the effects of oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies for treating pregnant women with GDM. We included studies comparing oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies with 1) placebo/standard care, 2) another oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapy, 3) combined oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies. Trials using insulin as the comparator were excluded as they are the subject of a separate Cochrane systematic review.Women with pre-existing type 1 or type 2 diabetes were excluded.Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and trial quality. Two review authors independently extracted data and data were checked for accuracy.We included 11 studies (19 publications) (1487 women and their babies). Eight studies had data that could be included in meta-analyses. Studies were conducted in Brazil, India, Israel, UK, South Africa and USA. The studies varied in diagnostic criteria and treatment targets for glycaemic control for GDM. The overall risk of bias was 'unclear' due to inadequate reporting of methodology. Using GRADE the quality of the evidence ranged from moderate to very low quality. Evidence was downgraded for risk of bias (reporting bias, lack of blinding), inconsistency, indirectness, imprecision and for oral anti-diabetic therapy versus placebo for generalisability. Oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies versus placebo/standard careThere was no evidence of a difference between glibenclamide and placebo groups for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (risk ratio (RR) 1.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81 to 1.90; one study, 375 women, very low-quality evidence), birth by caesarean section (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.34; one study, 375 women, very low-quality evidence), perineal trauma (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.06 to 15.62; one study, 375 women, very low-quality evidence) or induction of labour (RR 1.18, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.76; one study, 375 women; very low-quality evidence). No data were reported for development of type 2 diabetes or other pre-specified GRADE maternal outcomes (return to pre-pregnancy weight, postnatal depression). For the infant, there was no evidence of a difference in the risk of being born large-for-gestational age (LGA) between infants whose mothers had been treated with glibenclamide and those in the placebo group (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.51 to 1.58; one study, 375, low-quality evidence). No data were reported for other infant primary or GRADE outcomes (perinatal mortality, death or serious morbidity composite, neurosensory disability in later childhood, neonatal hypoglycaemia, adiposity, diabetes). Metformin versus glibenclamideThere was no evidence of a difference between metformin- and glibenclamide-treated groups for the risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.38 to 1.30; three studies, 508 women, moderate-quality evidence), birth by caesarean section (average RR 1.20, 95% CI 1.20; 95% CI 0.83 to 1.72, four studies, 554 women, I2 = 61%, Tau2 = 0.07 low-quality evidence), induction of labour (0.81, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.07; one study, 159 women; low-quality evidence) or perineal trauma (RR 1.67, 95% CI 0.22 to 12.52; two studies, 158 women; low-quality evidence). No data were reported for development of type 2 diabetes or other pre-specified GRADE maternal outcomes (return to pre-pregnancy weight, postnatal depression). For the infant there was no evidence of a difference between the metformin- and glibenclamide-exposed groups for the risk of being born LGA (average RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.24 to 1.83; two studies, 246 infants, I2 = 54%, Tau2 = 0.30 low-quality evidence). Metformin was associated with a decrease in a death or serious morbidity composite (RR 0.54, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.94; one study, 159 infants, low-quality evidence). There was no clear difference between groups for neonatal hypoglycaemia (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.77; four studies, 554 infants, low-quality evidence) or perinatal mortality (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.06 to 14.55, two studies, 359 infants). No data were reported for neurosensory disability in later childhood or for adiposity or diabetes. Glibenclamide versus acarboseThere was no evidence of a difference between glibenclamide and acarbose from one study (43 women) for any of their maternal or infant primary outcomes (caesarean section, RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.70; low-quality evidence; perinatal mortality - no events; low-quality evidence; LGA , RR 2.38, 95% CI 0.54 to 10.46; low-quality evidence). There was no evidence of a difference between glibenclamide and acarbose for neonatal hypoglycaemia (RR 6.33, 95% CI 0.87 to 46.32; low-quality evidence). There were no data reported for other pre-specified GRADE or primary maternal outcomes (hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, development of type 2 diabetes, perineal trauma, return to pre-pregnancy weight, postnatal depression, induction of labour) or neonatal outcomes (death or serious morbidity composite, adiposity or diabetes).There were insufficient data comparing oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies with placebo/standard care (lifestyle advice) to inform clinical practice. There was insufficient high-quality evidence to be able to draw any meaningful conclusions as to the benefits of one oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapy over another due to limited reporting of data for the primary and secondary outcomes in this review. Short- and long-term clinical outcomes for this review were inadequately reported or not reported. Current choice of oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapy appears to be based on clinical preference, availability and national clinical practice guidelines.The benefits and potential harms of one oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapy compared with another, or compared with placebo/standard care remains unclear and requires further research. Future trials should attempt to report on the core outcomes suggested in this review, in particular long-term outcomes for the woman and the infant that have been poorly reported to date, women's experiences and cost benefit.

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  • EEG slow-wave coherence changes in propofol-induced general anesthesia: experiment and theory

    Wang, K; Steyn-Ross, ML; Steyn-Ross, DA; Wilson, MT; Sleigh, James (2014-10-29)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns recorded during general anesthetic-induced coma are closely similar to those seen during slow-wave sleep, the deepest stage of natural sleep; both states show patterns dominated by large amplitude slow waves. Slow oscillations are believed to be important for memory consolidation during natural sleep. Tracking the emergence of slow-wave oscillations during transition to unconsciousness may help us to identify drug-induced alterations of the underlying brain state, and provide insight into the mechanisms of general anesthesia. Although cellular-based mechanisms have been proposed, the origin of the slow oscillation has not yet been unambiguously established. A recent theoretical study by Steyn-Ross et al. (2013) proposes that the slow oscillation is a network, rather than cellular phenomenon. Modeling anesthesia as a moderate reduction in gap-junction interneuronal coupling, they predict an unconscious state signposted by emergent low-frequency oscillations with chaotic dynamics in space and time. They suggest that anesthetic slow-waves arise from a competitive interaction between symmetry-breaking instabilities in space (Turing) and time (Hopf), modulated by gap-junction coupling strength. A significant prediction of their model is that EEG phase coherence will decrease as the cortex transits from Turing-Hopf balance (wake) to Hopf-dominated chaotic slow-waves (unconsciousness). Here, we investigate changes in phase coherence during induction of general anesthesia. After examining 128-channel EEG traces recorded from five volunteers undergoing propofol anesthesia, we report a significant drop in sub-delta band (0.05-1.5 Hz) slow-wave coherence between frontal, occipital, and frontal-occipital electrode pairs, with the most pronounced wake-vs.-unconscious coherence changes occurring at the frontal cortex.

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  • Autonomous weapon systems: Is a space warfare manual required?

    van Esch, P; Northey, Gavin; Striluck, M; Wilson, H (2017-06)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The legalities for the use of Autonomous Weapon Systems (AWS) in space warfare are examined. Currently, there are manuals for air and missile warfare, naval warfare and cyber warfare, a clear gap in the literature is that there is no manual for space warfare. We find that the current jurisprudence of space is somewhat considered analogous to the high seas and in the absence of a Space Warfare Manual, legal jurisdiction may consider that certain treaties are only in effect when in the territory of that State. In turn, the effectiveness of those treaties may mitigate against any obligations related to the military operations of that same State using AWS in space. Whilst it is yet to be tested in the courts, there are significant gaps identified in Lex lata and supporting Declarations, Principles and Treaties in terms of space warfare. Such gaps could act as the foundations for both law reform and the requirement for the creation of a Space Warfare Manual.

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  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for pain in women with endometriosis

    Brown, Julie; Crawford, Tineke; Allen, C; Hopewell, S; Prentice, A (2017-01-23)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Endometriosis is a common gynaecological condition that affects women and can lead to painful symptoms and infertility. It greatly affects women's quality of life, impacting their careers, everyday activities, sexual and nonsexual relationships and fertility. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are most commonly used as first-line treatment for women with pain associated with endometriosis.To assess effects of NSAIDs used for management of pain in women with endometriosis compared with placebo, other NSAIDs, other pain management drugs or no treatment.We searched the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Specialised Register of Controlled Trials (October 2016), published in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, as well as MEDLINE (January 2008 to October 2016), Embase (date limited from 1 January 2016 to 19 October 2016, as all earlier references are included in CENTRAL output as a result of the Embase project), registers of ongoing trials and the reference lists of relevant publications. We identified no new randomised controlled trials. Unless we identify new evidence in the future, we will not update this review.We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) describing use of NSAIDs for management of pain associated with endometriosis in women of all ages.In the 2009 update of this review, two review authors (CA and SH) independently read and extracted data from each of the included studies. We analysed cross-over trials using the inverse variance method of RevMan to calculate odds ratios for binary outcomes.We identified no new trials for the 2016 update. This review includes two trials, but we included only one trial, with 24 women, in the analysis.The overall risk of bias was unclear owing to lack of methodological detail. Using the GRADE method, we judged the quality of the evidence to be very low. We downgraded evidence for risk of bias and for imprecision (wide confidence intervals and evidence based on a single small trial).Comparison of NSAIDs (naproxen) versus placebo revealed no evidence of a positive effect on pain relief (odds ratio (OR) 3.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61 to 17.69; one trial, 24 women; very low-quality evidence) in women with endometriosis. Evidence indicating whether women taking NSAIDs (naproxen) were less likely to require additional analgesia (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.01 to 1.29; one trial, 24 women; very low-quality evidence) or to experience side effects (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.09 to 2.47; one trial, 24 women; very low-quality evidence) when compared with placebo was inconclusive.Studies provided no data on quality of life, effects on daily activities, absence from work or school, need for more invasive treatment or participant satisfaction with treatment.Owing to lack of high-quality evidence and lack of reporting of outcomes of interest for this review, we can make no judgement as to whether NSAIDs (naproxen) are effective in managing pain caused by endometriosis. No evidence shows whether any individual NSAID is more effective than another. As shown in other Cochrane reviews, women taking NSAIDs must be aware that these drugs may cause unintended effects.

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  • A preliminary redating of the Holocene Roonka burials, south-eastern Australia

    Littleton, Judith; Petchey, F; Walshe, K; Pate, FD (2017-07)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Roonka is one of the most complete excavations of an Aboriginal burial ground in south-eastern Australia. The chronology of the site and the nature of its use have proven difficult to interpret. Previous dating and chronological interpretations of the site have emphasised a chronology of changing use and burial practices, but the nature of the site and the dates obtained do not clearly support these interpretations. We report on the direct dating of human bone from a further ten burials from the main excavation. In order to further investigate the cultural chronology set out by Pretty (1977), samples were selected to cover a range of burial types and preservation states. Comparison of these dates with the previous conventional dates and early AMS dates not only shows the impact of improving technology but demonstrates that multiple burial styles were in use contemporaneously. Moreover, the results suggest that use of the site may have been discontinuous. Consequently, interpretations that assume a chronological sequence for Roonka based on burial practice are not supported, while analyses based on a synchronic interpretation may ignore significant temporal change.

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  • The possibilities of ???doing??? outdoor and/or adventure education in physical education/teacher education

    Sutherland, S; Legge, Maureen (2016-10)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: Physical education has a long association with teaching outdoor and/or adventure education (OAE). As physical education teacher educators, with a special interest in teaching OAE, we wanted to examine perceptions of models based practices in physical education/teacher education. Purpose: This manuscript; explores and critiques a range of national and international perspectives on models based practices in OAE; challenges what stands for teaching OAE in PETE; and offers suggestions for future practice and research. Method: Papers were selected through a systematic review methodology. Data analysis: Using a process of inductive analysis and constant comparison we identified two main themes: Ways of doing this in PE and Ways of doing this in PETE. Discussion/Conclusion: Future recommendations include the pedagogical relevance and importance of understanding the socio-cultural context, the challenge of adventure education being a controlled orchestration and the need to pedagogically change the key of this orchestration, and employing innovative methodological approaches to further explore these issues.

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  • Randomized clinical trial of expressive writing on wound healing following bariatric surgery

    Koschwanez, H; Robinson, H; Beban, G; MacCormick, Andrew; Hill, Andrew; Windsor, John; Booth, Roger; J??llig, M; Broadbent, Elizabeth (2017-07)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Writing emotionally about upsetting life events (expressive writing) has been shown to speed healing of punch-biopsy wounds compared to writing objectively about daily activities. We aimed to investigate whether a presurgical expressive writing intervention could improve surgical wound healing.Seventy-six patients undergoing elective laparoscopic bariatric surgery were randomized either to write emotionally about traumatic life events (expressive writing) or to write objectively about how they spent their time (daily activities writing) for 20 min a day for 3 consecutive days beginning 2 weeks prior to surgery. A wound drain was inserted into a laparoscopic port site and wound fluid analyzed for proinflammatory cytokines collected over 24 hr postoperatively. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene tubes were inserted into separate laparoscopic port sites during surgery and removed after 14 days. Tubes were analyzed for hydroxyproline deposition (the primary outcome), a major component of collagen and marker of healing. Fifty-four patients completed the study.Patients who wrote about daily activities had significantly more hydroxyproline than did expressive writing patients, t(34) = -2.43, p = .020, 95% confidence interval [-4.61, -0.41], and higher tumor necrosis factor-alpha, t(29) = -2.42, p = .022, 95% confidence interval [-0.42, -0.04]. Perceived stress significantly reduced in both groups after surgery.Expressive writing prior to bariatric surgery was not effective at increasing hydroxyproline at the wound site 14 days after surgery. However, writing about daily activities did predict such an increase. Future research needs to replicate these findings and investigate generalizability to other surgical groups. (PsycINFO Database Record

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  • Pathophysiology of inner ear decompression sickness: potential role of the persistent foramen ovale

    Mitchell, Simon; Doolette, DJ (2015-06)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Inner-ear decompression sickness (inner ear DCS) may occur in isolation ('pure' inner-ear DCS), or as part of a multisystem DCS presentation. Symptoms may develop during decompression from deep, mixed-gas dives or after surfacing from recreational air dives. Modelling of inner-ear inert gas kinetics suggests that onset during decompression results from supersaturation of the inner-ear tissue and in-situ bubble formation. This supersaturation may be augmented by inert gas counterdiffusion following helium to nitrogen gas switches, but such switches are unlikely, of themselves, to precipitate inner-ear DCS. Presentations after surfacing from air dives are frequently the 'pure' form of inner ear DCS with short symptom latency following dives to moderate depth, and the vestibular end organ appears more vulnerable than is the cochlea. A large right-to-left shunt (usually a persistent foramen ovale) is found in a disproportionate number of cases, suggesting that shunted venous gas emboli (VGE) cause injury to the inner-ear. However, this seems an incomplete explanation for the relationship between inner-ear DCS and right-to-left shunt. The brain must concomitantly be exposed to larger numbers of VGE, yet inner-ear DCS frequently occurs in the absence of cerebral symptoms. This may be explained by slower inert gas washout in the inner ear than in the brain. Thus, there is a window after surfacing within which VGE arriving in the inner-ear (but not the brain) would grow due to inward diffusion of supersaturated inert gas. A similar difference in gas kinetics may explain the different susceptibilities of cochlear and vestibular tissue within the inner-ear itself. The cochlea has greater perfusion and a smaller tissue volume, implying faster inert gas washout. It may be susceptible to injury by incoming arterial bubbles for a shorter time after surfacing than the vestibular organ.

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  • Interventions for the prevention of OHSS in ART cycles: an overview of Cochrane reviews

    Mourad, S; Brown, Julie; Farquhar, Cynthia (2017-01-23)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles is a treatment-induced disease that has an estimated prevalence of 20% to 33% in its mild form and 3% to 8% in its moderate or severe form. These numbers might even be higher for high-risk women such as those with polycystic ovaries or a high oocyte yield from ovum pickup.The objective of this overview is to identify and summarise all evidence from Cochrane systematic reviews on interventions for prevention or treatment of moderate, severe and overall OHSS in couples with subfertility who are undergoing ART cycles.Published Cochrane systematic reviews reporting on moderate, severe or overall OHSS as an outcome in ART cycles were eligible for inclusion in this overview. We also identified Cochrane submitted protocols and title registrations for future inclusion in the overview. The evidence is current to 12 December 2016. We identified reviews, protocols and titles by searching the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Database of Systematic Reviews and Archie (the Cochrane information management system) in July 2016 on the effectiveness of interventions for outcomes of moderate, severe and overall OHSS. We undertook in duplicate selection of systematic reviews, data extraction and quality assessment. We used the AMSTAR (Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews) tool to assess the quality of included reviews, and we used GRADE methods to assess the quality of the evidence for each outcome. We summarised the characteristics of included reviews in the text and in additional tables.We included a total of 27 reviews in this overview. The reviews were generally of high quality according to AMSTAR ratings, and included studies provided evidence that ranged from very low to high in quality. Ten reviews had not been updated in the past three years. Seven reviews described interventions that provided a beneficial effect in reducing OHSS rates, and we categorised one additional review as 'promising'. Of the effective interventions, all except one had no detrimental effect on pregnancy outcomes. Evidence of at least moderate quality indicates that clinicians should consider the following interventions in ART cycles to reduce OHSS rates.??? Metformin treatment before and during an ART cycle for women with PCOS (moderate-quality evidence).??? Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol in ART cycles (moderate-quality evidence).??? GnRH agonist (GnRHa) trigger in donor oocyte or 'freeze-all' programmes (moderate-quality evidence). Evidence of low or very low quality suggests that clinicians should consider the following interventions in ART cycles to reduce OHSS rates.??? Clomiphene citrate for controlled ovarian stimulation in ART cycles (low-quality evidence).??? Cabergoline around the time of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) administration or oocyte pickup in ART cycles (low-quality evidence).??? Intravenous fluids (plasma expanders) around the time of hCG administration or oocyte pickup in ART cycles (very low-quality evidence).??? Progesterone for luteal phase support in ART cycles (low-quality evidence).??? Coasting (withholding gonadotrophins) - a promising intervention that needs to be researched further for reduction of OHSS.On the basis of this overview, we must conclude that evidence is currently insufficient to support the widespread practice of embryo cryopreservation.Currently, 27 reviews in the Cochrane Library were conducted to report on or to try to report on OHSS in ART cycles. We identified four review protocols but no new registered titles that can potentially be included in this overview in the future. This overview provides the most up-to-date evidence on prevention of OHSS in ART cycles from all currently published Cochrane reviews on ART. Clinicians can use the evidence summarised in this overview to choose the best treatment regimen for individual patients - a regimen that not only reduces the chance of developing OHSS but does not compromise other outcomes such as pregnancy or live birth rate. Review results, however, are limited by the lack of recent primary studies or updated reviews. Furthermore, this overview can be used by policymakers in developing local and regional protocols or guidelines and can reveal knowledge gaps for future research.

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  • Manufacturer suggested retail prices, loss aversion and competition

    Fabrizi, Simona; Lippert, Steffen; Puppe, C; Rosenkranz, S (2016-04)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    We study a model of vertical relations with imperfect retail competition in which a fraction of the consumers display reference-dependent demand with respect to the manufacturer???s suggested retail price. We demonstrate that in equilibrium the suggestion will either be undercut or complied with by the retailers, but never surpassed: undercutting occurs if competition is fierce, the impact from consumers affected by reference-dependent preferences is significant, and high price suggestions are credible; compliance occurs otherwise. We provide comparisons, and discuss implications, for consumer surplus for the scenarios with suggested retail prices, without vertical restraints and with resale price maintenance.

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  • Observations of freeze layer formation during heat balance shifts in cryolite-based smelting bath

    Liu, Jingjing; Taylor, Mark; Dorreen, M (2017-06)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The responses of a cryolite-based bath to shifts in heat input/output balance have been investigated in previous work. The effect of such heat balance shifts on bath superheat and on the frozen ledge, protecting the cell walls, is of most interest and has been investigated primarily in an experimental analogue to a smelting cell. In this paper, the microstructure and morphology of the freeze itself, as a function of the applied heat balance shift is investigated. Different layers were detected in the freeze, showing that both the freeze morphology and the phases present vary depending on bath conditions. The phase composition change was also analysed and compared with the bulk bath in different thermal states, created when the heat balance was shifted. Based on the investigation, a freeze growth mechanism is proposed.

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  • Dental wear and age grading at Roonka, South Australia

    Littleton, Judith (2017-07)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    In many hunter-gatherer populations, the teeth are used as a third hand or a tool. Much attention has been paid to wear and its relationship to gendered division of labor, but age is also a significant organizing factor in many societies. In this article, I analyze whether the pattern of wear at Roonka, Australia, reflects the age-graded acquisition of tasks.The remains analyzed come from Roonka and date from c6000 BP to 150 BP. In total 126 adults and juveniles were analyzed. Wear gradients were calculated for each tooth relative to wear on the first molar. Data were compared using nonparametric statistics and cluster analysis to assess the degree of patterning within the sample.Dental wear proceeded rapidly. There is no evidence of sex differences in the pattern of wear. Age differences do occur. While disproportionate anterior wear occurs among juveniles and young adults, by middle adulthood the pattern is less variable and involves the premolars. Old adults have a much flatter pattern of wear.The pattern of wear is consistent with ethnographic observations, which suggest a degree of latitude in the activities of juveniles and young adults. By middle age variability between individuals declines reflecting shared tasks and more intensive use of the teeth. The pattern of wear amongst old adults, however, is much flatter presumably due to changes in occlusion. While dental wear is informative about the organization of labor there is a need to take into account both patterns of activity and occlusion.

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