95,838 results

  • Improving students' writing: The impact of teacher knowledge and student-focused practice

    Limbrick, Elizabeth; Buchanan, Pauline; Goodwin, Marineke; Schwarcz, Helen (2008)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    A report on research which found that targeted writing instruction based on evidence from students??? writing brought substantial improvements in student achievement, while teachers deepened their understanding of both the writing process and teaching writing. Teacher confidence was greater where leadership supported professional discussion and peer support.

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  • Science in the M??ori-medium curriculum: Assessment of policy outcomes in P??taiao education

    Stewart, Georgina (2011)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This second research paper on science education in Ma??ori-medium school contexts complements an earlier article published in this journal (Stewart, 2005). Science and science education are related domains in society and in state schooling in which there have always been particularly large discrepancies in participation and achievement by Ma??ori. In 1995 a Kaupapa Ma??ori analysis of this situation challenged New Zealand science education academics to deal with ???the Ma??ori crisis??? within science education. Recent NCEA results suggest Pu??taiao (Ma??ori-medium Science) education, for which a national curriculum statement was published in 1996, has so far increased, rather than decreased, the level of inequity for Ma??ori students in science education.What specific issues impact on this lack of success, which contrasts with the overall success of Kura Kaupapa Ma??ori, and how might policy frameworks and operational systems of Pu??taiao need to change, if better achievement in science education for Ma??ori-medium students is the goal? A pathway towards further research and development in this area is suggested.

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  • Sodium content of processed foods in the United Kingdom: analysis of 44,000 foods purchased by 21,000 households.

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Capelin, C; Dunford, EK; Webster, JL; Neal, BC; Jebb, SA (2011)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    In the United Kingdom, sodium reduction targets have been set for a large number of processed food categories. Assessment and monitoring are essential to evaluate progress.

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  • Narrative knowledging in TESOL

    Barkhuizen, Gary (2011)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This article introduces the special-topic issue on Narrative Research in TESOL. It begins by describing the concept of narrative knowledging and continues with a discussion of narrative (co)construction, analysis, and reporting, integrating into the discussion research issues related to TESOL narrative research interrogated by the authors in this issue. This broad discussion is organized in the form of a framework which delineates the generic, mutually informing stages and participants, and their interrelationships, in narrative research projects.

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  • A simple explanation of Benford's Law

    Fewster, Rachel (2009)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Benford???s Law, also known as the first-digit law, has long been seen as a tantalizing and mysterious law of nature. Attempts to explain it range from the supernatural to the measure-theoretical, and applications range from fraud detection to computer disk space allocation. Publications on the topic have escalated in recent years, largely covering investigation of the law in different data sources, applications in fraud and computer science, and new probability theorems. The underlying reason why Benford???s Law occurs is, however, elusive. Many researchers have verified for themselves that the law is widely obeyed, but have also noted that the popular explanations are not completely satisfying. In this article we do nothing rigorous, but provide a simple, intuitive explanation of why and when the law applies. It is intended that the explanation should be accessible to school students and anyone with a basic knowledge of probability density curves and logarithms.

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  • Modeling a Low-Cost Frequency Selective Wall for Wireless Friendly Indoor Environments

    Sung, GH; Sowerby, Kevin; Williamson, Allan (2006)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    A simple, low-cost frequency selective (FS) wall which filters out a particular frequency with about 30 dB attenuation is constructed by covering an existing wall with a custom designed Frequency Selective Surface (FSS). With 10 mm air spacing between the FSS cover and the wall surface, independence between the two can be achieved. Under such a scenario, performance of the FS wall can be evaluated by cascading the FSS and the wall responses individually. Good agreement between the cascaded evaluation and the actual measured transmission response was found.

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  • Neuroserpin Regulates the Density of Dendritic Protrusions and Dendritic Spine Shape in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons

    Borges, Victor; Lee, Tet; Christie, David; Birch, Nigel (2010-09)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Neuroserpin is a member of the serpin superfamily that is expressed principally in neurons of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Neuroserpin???s spatial-temporal expression during development and in the adult brain suggests possible roles in synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity. This is supported by behavioral changes in transgenic mice overexpressing neuroserpin. We have used an embryonic rat primary hippocampal neuron culture model to investigate whether neuroserpin can regulate elements of synaptic morphology that may be involved in these changes in cognitive function. Neuroserpin localized to axonal and dendritic compartments in cultured neurons and accumulated in synapsin-positive presynaptic terminals. Increased expression of neuroserpin resulted in an increase in the density of dendritic protrusions and alterations in dendritic spine shape. Our results identify neuroserpin as a new regulator of structural plasticity and suggest a cellular mechanism that may contribute to neuroserpin???s effects on cognition.

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  • Comparison of life cycle carbon dioxide emissions and embodied energy in four renewable electricity generation technologies in New Zealand

    Rule, Bridget; Worth, ZJ; Boyle, Carol (2009)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    In order to make the best choice between renewable energy technologies, it is important to be able to compare these technologies on the basis of their sustainability, which may include a variety of social, environmental, and economic indicators. This study examined the comparative sustainability of four renewable electricity technologies in terms of their life cycle CO2 emissions and embodied energy, from construction to decommissioning and including maintenance (periodic component replacement plus machinery use), using life cycle analysis. The models developed were based on case studies of power plants in New Zealand, comprising geothermal, large-scale hydroelectric, tidal (a proposed scheme), and wind-farm electricity generation. The comparative results showed that tidal power generation was associated with 1.8 g of CO2/kWh, wind with 3.0 g of CO2/kWh, hydroelectric with 4.6 g of CO2/kWh, and geothermal with 5.6 g of CO2/kWh (not including fugitive emissions), and that tidal power generation was associated with 42.3 kJ/kWh, wind with 70.2 kJ/kWh, hydroelectric with 55.0 kJ/kWh, and geothermal with 94.6 kJ/kWh. Other environmental indicators, as well as social and economic indicators, should be applied to gain a complete picture of the technologies studied.

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  • Development of a single-sided flux magnetic coupler for electric vehicle IPT charging systems

    Budhia, Mickel; Boys, John; Covic, Grant; Huang, C-Y (2013)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Inductive power transfer is a practical method for recharging electric vehicles because it is safe, convenient, and reliable. The performance of the magnetic couplers that transfer power determines the overall feasibility of a complete system. Circular couplers are the most common topology in the literature; however, they have fundamentally limited coupling. Their flux patterns necessarily limit the operational air gap as well as tolerance to horizontal misalignment. A new polarized coupler topology [referred to as a double D (DD)] is presented, which overcomes these difficulties. DDs provide a charge zone five times larger than that possible with circular pads for a similar material cost and are smaller. A 0.31-m2 DD enables 2 kW of power transfer over an oval area measuring 540 mm ?? 800 mm with a 200-mm air gap. Leakage magnetic fields have been investigated and show that circular and DD couplers operating under similar power transfer conditions produce similar levels. Both topologies can be designed and operated to ensure compliance with international guidelines.

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  • Three-dimensional slope stability analysis of South Peak, Crowsnest Pass, Alberta, Canada

    Brideau, Marc-Andre; Pedrazzini, A; Stead, D; Froese, C; Jaboyedoff, M; van Zeyl, D (2011)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    South Peak is a 7-Mm3 potentially unstable rock mass located adjacent to the 1903 Frank Slide on Turtle Mountain, Alberta. This paper presents three-dimensional numerical rock slope stability models and compares them with a previous conceptual slope instability model based on discontinuity surfaces identified using an airborne LiDAR digital elevation model (DEM). Rock mass conditions at South Peak are described using the Geological Strength Index and point load tests, whilst the mean discontinuity set orientations and characteristics are based on approximately 500 field measurements. A kinematic analysis was first conducted to evaluate probable simple discontinuitycontrolled failure modes. The potential for wedge failure was further assessed by considering the orientation of wedge intersections over the airborne LiDAR DEM and through a limit equilibrium combination analysis. Block theory was used to evaluate the finiteness and removability of blocks in the rock mass. Finally, the complex interaction between discontinuity sets and the topography within South Peak was investigated through three-dimensional distinct element models using the code 3DEC. The influence of individual discontinuity sets, scale effects, friction angle and the persistence along the discontinuity surfaces on the slope stability conditions were all investigated using this code

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  • Performance analysis of individual blade pitch control of offshore wind turbines on two floating platforms

    Namik, H; Stol, Karl (2011-06)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Individual blade pitch state space (IBP SS) control and disturbance accommodating control (DAC) that reject wind speed perturbations are applied on a 5MW wind turbine mounted on the barge and tension leg floating platforms for performance comparison in above rated wind speed region. The DAC used in this study is simply an IBP SS controller with a wind speed disturbance rejection component. For each controller implemented onshore and on the floating platforms, 60 10-min simulations with a variety of wind and wave conditions, where applicable, are carried out in accordance with the IEC-61400-3 standard design load case 1.2 for fatigue load testing. Results show that even with large tower load reductions by the IBP SS controller on the barge platform, these loads are still at least two and up to five times more than that for an onshore wind turbine. DAC on the barge platform has little impact on further improving the performance of the IBP SS controller. DAC on the tension leg platform manages to achieve loads comparable to that of the onshore system. Power and rotor speed regulation are improved and tower side??? side load is reduced. Only the tower fore???aft load is 24% higher than the onshore wind turbine.

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  • A solution business model: Capabilities and management practices for integrated solutions

    Storbacka, Kaj (2011-07)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The developed solution business model framework assists firms wishing to design solution business models by categorizing capabilities and management practices necessary for the effective management of such a business model. The developed framework integrates findings from a wide variety of research streams with the empirical data collected in an abductive research process, involving ten firms with multi-national operations. The framework consist of a solution process with four phases (develop solutions, create demand, sell solution, and deliver solution) and three groups of cross-functionality issues (commercialization, industrialization, and solution platform). The framework identifies twelve capability categories, and sixtyfour capabilities and management practices pertinent to the effective management of solution business. The research points to the importance of cross-functional alignment within firms. An effective solution business model requires the intricate coordination of resources and business processes across all functions.

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  • Practical Wisdom: A Mundane Account

    Hursthouse, Rosalind (2006-06)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The prevailing accounts of Aristotle's view of practical wisdom pay little attention to all the intellectual capacities discussed in Nicomachean Ethics Book 6. They also contrast the phronimos with the wicked, the continent or the incontinent, rather than with those who have ???natural virtue??? (innate or habituated), and thereby they neglect the importance of experience, through which those capacities are acquired. When we consider them, we can see what sort of experience is needed and hence what sort aspirants to full virtue should be trying to acquire. It turns out that much of the knowledge such experience yields is just plain worldly knowledge. But it is not to be despised on that account. The phronimos must meet a threshold of knowledge that he will, indeed, share with some of the wicked, but will have a superior version that goes beyond theirs.

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  • Hypoxia-Activated Prodrugs: Substituent Effects on the Properties of Nitro seco-1,2,9,9a-Tetrahydrocyclopropa[c]benz[e]indol-4-one (nitroCBI) Prodrugs of DNA Minor Groove Alkylating Agents

    Tercel, Moana; Atwell, Graham; Yang, S; Stevenson, Ralph; Botting, KJ; Boyd, Maruta; Smith, E; Anderson, Robert; Denny, William; Wilson, William; Pruijn, Frederik (2009)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Nitrochloromethylbenzindolines (nitroCBIs) are a new class of hypoxia-activated prodrugs for antitumor therapy. The recently reported prototypes undergo hypoxia-selective metabolism to form potent DNA minor groove alkylating agents and are selectively toxic to some but not all hypoxic tumor cell lines. Here we report a series of 31 analogues that bear an extra electron-withdrawing substituent that serves to raise the one-electron reduction potential of the nitroCBI. We identify a subset of compounds, those with a basic side chain and sulfonamide or carboxamide substituent, that have consistently high hypoxic selectivity. The best of these, with a 7-sulfonamide substituent, displays hypoxic cytotoxicity ratios of 275 and 330 in Skov3 and HT29 human tumor cell lines, respectively. This compound (28) is efficiently and selectively metabolized to the corresponding aminoCBI, is selectively cytotoxic under hypoxia in all 11 cell lines examined, and demonstrates activity against hypoxic tumor cells in a human tumor xenograft in vivo.

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  • Most programs stop quickly or never halt

    Calude, Cristian; Stay, M (2008)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The aim of this paper is to provide a probabilistic, but non-quantum, analysis of the Halting Problem. Our approach is to have the probability space extend over both space and time and to consider the probability that a random N-bit program has halted by a random time.We postulate an a priori computable probability distribution on all possible runtimes and we prove that given an integer k >0, we can effectively compute a time bound T such that the probability that an N-bit program will eventually halt given that it has not halted by T is smaller than 2???k. We also show that the set of halting programs (which is computably enumerable, but not computable) can be written as a disjoint union of a computable set and a set of effectively vanishing probability. Finally, we show that ???long??? runtimes are effectively rare. More formally, the set of times at which an N-bit program can stop after the time 2N+constant has effectively zero density.

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  • Legislative Intent in Law's Empire

    Ekins, Richard (2011)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This article considers Dworkin's influential argument against legislative intent in chapter 9 of Law's Empire. The argument proves much less than is often assumed for it fails to address the possibility that the institution of the legislature may form and act on intentions. Indeed, analysis of Dworkin's argument lends support to that possibility. Dworkin aims to refute legislative intent in order to elucidate his own theory of statutory interpretation. That theory fails to explain plausibly legislative action. Dworkin's argument does not refute legislative intent but instead suggests there is reason to think that the legislature is capable of intentional action.

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  • Relational Well-Being and Wealth: M??ori Businesses and an Ethic of Care

    Spiller, Michelle; Erakovic, Ljiljana; Henare, Manuka; Pio, E (2011)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Care is at the heart of the M??ori values system, which calls for humans to be kaitiaki, caretakers of the mauri, the life-force, in each other and in nature. The relational Five Well-beings approach, based on four case studies of M??ori businesses, demonstrates how business can create spiritual, cultural, social, environmental and economic well-being. A Well-beings approach entails praxis, which brings values and practice together with the purpose of consciously creating well-being and, in so doing, creates multi-dimensional wealth. Underlying the Well-beings approach is an ethic of care and an intrinsic stakeholder view of business.

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  • Young adults' narratives of relational development with stepfathers

    Kinniburgh-White, R; Cartwright, Patricia; Seymour, Frederick (2010)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Young adults (N 1???4 25) who grew up in stepfamilies in New Zealand took part in narrative interviews on relationships development with their stepfathers. Initially interview data were analyzed using thematic analysis that indicated the importance of perceptions of the stepfather???s personal qualities; warmth and support; discipline issues; and perceptions of his impact on the family. In addition, a narrative analysis examined five types of stories, which ranged from Continuous Positive Regard to Continuous Struggle. Positive stepfather???stepchild relationships were characterized by stepfather warmth and support, and stepchild acceptance. Boundary-related discipline issues underlay many stepfather???stepchild difficulties. Implications for stepfather roles, stepfamily parental alli- ance, and relationships with stepchildren are discussed.

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  • Dynamic Horizontal Cultural Transmission of Humpback Whale Song at the Ocean Basin Scale

    Garland, EC; Goldizen, AW; Rekdahl, ML; Constantine, Rochelle; Garrigue, C; Hauser, ND; Poole, MM; Robbins, J; Noad, MJ (2011-04-26)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Cultural transmission, the social learning of information or behaviors from conspecifics [1-5], is believed to occur in a number of groups of animals, including primates [1, 6-9], cetaceans [4, 10, 11], and birds [3, 12, 13]. Cultural traits can be passed vertically (from parents to offspring), obliquely (from the previous generation via a nonparent model to younger individuals), or horizontally (between unrelated individuals from similar age classes or within generations) [4]. Male humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) have a highly stereotyped, repetitive, and progressively evolving vocal sexual display or "song" [14-17] that functions in sexual selection (through mate attraction and/or male social sorting) [18-20]. All males within a population conform to the current version of the display (song type), and similarities may exist among the songs of populations within an ocean basin [16, 17, 21]. Here we present a striking pattern of horizontal transmission: multiple song types spread rapidly and repeatedly in a unidirectional manner, like cultural ripples, eastward through the populations in the western and central South Pacific over an 11-year period. This is the first documentation of a repeated, dynamic cultural change occurring across multiple populations at such a large geographic scale.

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  • Measuring the Ionic Flux of an Electrochemically Actuated Conducting Polymer Using Modified Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopy

    Laslau, Cosmin; Williams, David; Wright, Bryon; Travas-Sejdic, Jadranka (2011-04-20)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    We propose a modification of a scanning ion conductance microscope suitable for probing an electrode in an operating electrochemical cell. We demonstrate its use by measuring salt concentration variations near a conducting polymer electrode as the polymer is electrochemically oxidized and reduced. The electrochemical control circuit is opened to isolate the working electrode, at a frequency sufficiently high that the electrode capacitance maintains the electrode potential. The local solution conductivity variations are detected through the probe current during the open-circuit time. We demonstrate two-stage ion exchange during oxidation and reduction of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) films that develops strongly with repeated cycling and is correlated with actuation changes. Spatial composition variations of the film, caused by redox current distribution over the surface, and electromigration to the probe tip, causing local solution composition changes, have clear and characteristic effects on the measured transients.

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