90,065 results

  • Transient fixation on a non-native language associated with anaesthesia

    Webster, Craig (2001)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Questioning the distinction between intra- and extra-musical meaning: Comment on ???Towards a neural basis for processing musical semantics??? by Stefan Koelsch

    Davies, Stephen (2011)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Artists' intentions and artwork meanings: some complications

    Davies, Stephen (2013-04)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Artists' intentions are among the primary data retrieved by art appreciators. However, artistic creation is not always deliberate; artists sometimes fail in their intentions; artists' achievements depend on artworld roles, not only intentions; factors external to the artist contribute to artwork meaning; artworks stand apart from their creators; and interpretation need not be exclusively concerned with recovering intended meaning.

    View record details
  • Saturated fat has been unfairly demonised: yes.

    Petousis-Harris, Helen (2011-12)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Hybridization in the sea: gametic and developmental constraints on fertilization in sympatric species of Pseudechinus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea)

    Mcclary, DJ; Sewell, Mary (2003)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The constraints of gametic compatibility and developmental competence on hybrid production were examined in three sympatric species of the echinoid Pseudechinus in southern New Zealand. Differences were noted in embryonic temperature sensitivity between the species. Pseudechinus novaezealandiae embryos appeared to be better adapted to cooler temperatures than those of Pseudechinus huttoni, while Pseudechinus albocinctus embryos tolerated a wider range of temperatures than either of its sympatric congeners. Such differences were mirrored by the kinetics of gamete interaction between all possible reciprocal crosses of the three species. There appeared to be some physiological incompatibility between the eggs of P. novaezealandiae and the spermatozoa of the other two species. P. novaezealandiae spermatozoa were, however, capable of fertilizing both P. huttoni and, to a lesser extent, P. albocinctus ova. Hybrid echinoplutei resulting from the P. huttoni (female)??P. novaezealandiae (male) cross did not, however, become competent to metamorphose. The probabilities of settlement of echinoplutei resulting from the other reciprocal crosses involving the gametes of P. novaezealandiae were also low. It appears that a combination of physiological (gametic incompatibility) and genetic (developmental incompetence) factors contribute to maintaining the integrity of the P. novaezealandiae lineage. These factors were not useful in understanding how P. albocinctus and P. huttoni remain distinct species. This species-pair was characterized by reciprocal gamete compatibility as well as developmental competence to settlement. Thus, gamete incompatibility, while important for some groups, cannot provide the basis for speciation in the New Zealand members of the genus Pseudechinus.

    View record details
  • Drainage mechanism of microbubble dispersion and factors influencing its stability

    Feng, Wanhua; Singhal, Naresh; Swift, Simon (2009)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Microbubble dispersion stability is a desirable characteristic in applications such as separation processes and in-situ bioremediation. This study investigates the effects of surfactant concentration, pH and ionic strength on the stability of dispersions of rhamnolipid, a common anionic biosurfactant. Microbubble dispersions of rhamnolipid and the non-ionic synthetic surfactant tergitol 15-S-12 were prepared by intensive stirring at 8000 rpm with solutions of 500???4000 mg l???1 surfactant concentration at pH 6???8. The ionic strength tests were performed with 1000???3000 mg l???1 sodium chloride. Dispersion stability increases for higher surfactant concentrations, but decreases with rising pH and increasing salt concentration. However, increasing the pH in the co-presence of salt enhances dispersion stability. A modified model showing improved fits to liquid drainage from the dispersions is presented and it is shown that liquid drainage occurs in three distinct phases, instead of two phases as previously assumed in the literature

    View record details
  • Characterization and antimicrobial efficacy of acetone extracted aniline oligomers

    Gizdavic Nikolaidis, Marija; Bennett, J; Zujovic, Z; Swift, Simon; Bowmaker, Graham (2012-08)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The spectroscopic characterization of acetone extracted aniline oligomers (AEAO) of oxidative polymerization of aniline using potassium iodate (KIO3) as oxidant is performed. The chemical structures of AEAO and parent polyaniline (PANI) are investigated by using FTIR, Raman, EPR and NMR spectroscopies. The results showed that aniline oligomers are with cross-linked structure and confirmed similarity of structure with PANI. Antimicrobial activities of AEAO, acetone extracted functionalized aniline oligomers (AEFAO) and commercial oligomers (CO) are determined against Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. The length of the polymer chain is shown to contribute to the antimicrobial efficacy of these materials; long-chain functionalized polyaniline (fPANI) polymers are more effective against Gram-negative bacteria than AEFAO and CO. The potential of AEFAO as novel antimicrobials and correlation of their antimicrobial mechanism with the long-chain fPANI polymers are investigated

    View record details
  • M??ori and Pacific student experiences with every-day colonialism and racism

    Mayeda, David; 'Ofamo'oni, IF; Dutton, Hilary; Keil, Moeata; Lauaki-Vea, E (2014)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Although M??ori and diverse Pacific students are underrepresented in New Zealand???s university system, significant numbers of M??ori and Pacific tertiary students are demonstrating high academic excellence. Following indigenous and Pacific research protocols, this paper draws from seventeen focus group interviews conducted in 2013 with ninety high-achieving M??ori and Pacific students from a large university in New Zealand. Despite attaining high academic success, research participants expressed dissatisfaction in having to cope with forms of everyday colonialism and racism while pursuing their advanced educational degrees. Research findings illustrate specific ways that everyday colonialism and racism emanate in an indigenous and Pacific context. Participants explain how majority group students express surprise at M??ori and Pacific achievement, attribute academic achievement to ethnic-specific equity support services, and denigrate such services that exist in order to offset social discrimination. Additionally, participants offer input into the ways that university culture is largely Eurocentric and marginalising of indigenous and Pacific values. A conceptual map is presented that outlines how resistance to everyday colonialism and racism operates as a protective factor against adverse educational outcomes

    View record details
  • Severe vitamin D deficiency presenting as hypocalcaemic seizures in a black infant at 45.5 degrees south: a case report

    Wallis, Katharine (2008)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    A 5 month old black infant presented to the Emergency Department in the spring with generalised seizures. He was found to have severe vitamin D deficiency and hypocalcaemia. The baby had been born healthy in the autumn at 45.5 degrees south to parents of African extraction, had been fully breast-fed since birth and had spent some time in day care over the winter months. His mother was a professional working woman who had not taken any vitamin or nutritional supplements during pregnancy or lactation.

    View record details
  • The first decade of nurse practitioners in New Zealand: A survey of an evolving practice

    Gagan, MJ; Boyd, Michal; Wysocki, K; Williams, DJ (2014)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    BACKGROUND: Nurse practitioners (NPs) have been registered in New Zealand (NZ) since 2002. This article describes a sample of their practices and outcomes across a variety of healthcare specialties. The PEPPA model was used as a guide for the organization of data, the discussion of findings, and recommendations for the future. METHODS: Two e-mailed surveys of registered NPs (including qualitative and quantitative data) were conducted by the professional organization, NPNZ in 2011 and 2012. CONCLUSIONS: After 10 years, NPs in NZ demonstrated efficient practice and have produced measurable improved healthcare outcomes. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: NP practices are continuing to develop and are contributing to increased access to health care and improved health outcomes in NZ.

    View record details
  • Efficacy of several candidate protein biomarkers in the differentiation of vaginal from buccal epithelial cells.

    Simons, Joanne; Vintiner, SK (2012-11)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Currently, there is no accurate method to differentiate vaginal epithelial cells from buccal epithelial cells in biological samples typically encountered in forensic casework. This study tested the expression of a selection of candidate proteins in buccal and vaginal epithelial cells. We investigated six candidate biomarkers, such as loricrin, vimentin, stratifin, cytokeratin 4, cytokeratin 13, small proline-rich protein 2, and involucrin, using Western blot analysis on whole protein extracts and immunohistochemistry (IHC) on intact cells in an attempt to identify cell-specific markers that would differentiate these cells by microscopy. Involucrin, loricrin, and stratifin showed differential expression during Western blot analysis and were carried through to IHC. Although proteins unique to vaginal epithelial cells and buccal epithelial cells were not identified from among the proteins tested, the increased expression levels of two proteins, loricrin and stratifin in vaginal cells, when compared to buccal cells, do provide encouraging results in the search for epithelial cell-specific markers.

    View record details
  • Obesity prevention: The role of policies, laws and regulations

    Swinburn, Boyd (2008-06-05)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The commercial drivers of the obesity epidemic are so influential that obesity can be considered a robust sign of commercial success - consumers are buying more food, more cars and more energy-saving machines. It is unlikely that these powerful economic forces will change sufficiently in response to consumer desires to eat less and move more or corporate desires to be more socially responsible. When the free market creates substantial population detriments and health inequalities, government policies are needed to change the ground rules in favour of population benefits. Concerted action is needed from governments in four broad areas: provide leadership to set the agenda and show the way; advocate for a multi-sector response and establish the mechanisms for all sectors to engage and enhance action; develop and implement policies (including laws and regulations) to create healthier food and activity environments, and; secure increased and continued funding to reduce obesogenic environments and promote healthy eating and physical activity. Policies, laws and regulations are often needed to drive the environmental and social changes that, eventually, will have a sustainable impact on reducing obesity. An 'obesity impact assessment' on legislation such as public liability, urban planning, transport, food safety, agriculture, and trade may identify 'rules' which contribute to obesogenic environments. In other areas, such as marketing to children, school food, and taxes/levies, there may be opportunities for regulations to actively support obesity prevention. Legislation in other areas such as to reduce climate change may also contribute to obesity prevention ('stealth interventions'). A political willingness to use policy instruments to drive change will probably be an early hallmark of successful obesity prevention. ?? 2008 Swinburn; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

    View record details
  • Reduction in overweight and obesity from a 3-year community-based intervention in Australia: The 'It's Your Move!' project

    Millar, L; Kremer, P; de Silva-Sanigorski, A; McCabe, MP; Mavoa, H; Moodie, M; Utter, J; Bell, C; Malakellis, M; Mathews, L; Roberts, G; Robertson, N; Swinburn, Boyd (2011-11)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Summary: 'It's Your Move!' was a 3-year intervention study implemented in secondary schools in Australia as part of the Pacific Obesity Prevention In Communities Project. This paper reports the outcome results of anthropometric indices and relevant obesity-related behaviours. The interventions focused on building the capacity of families, schools and communities to promote healthy eating and physical activity. Baseline response rates and follow-up rates were 53% and 69% respectively for the intervention group (n=5 schools) and 47% and 66% respectively for the comparison group (n=7 schools). Statistically significant relative reductions in the intervention versus comparison group were observed: weight (-0.74kg, P<0.03), and non-significant reductions in prevalence of overweight and obesity (0.75 odds ratio, P=0.12) and body mass index (-0.22, P=0.06). Obesity-related behavioural variables showed mixed results with no pattern of positive intervention outcomes. In conclusion, this is the first study to show that long-term, community-based interventions using a capacity-building approach can prevent unhealthy weight gain in adolescents. Obesity prevention efforts in this important transitional stage of life can be successful and these findings need to be translated to scale for a national effort to reverse the epidemic in children and adolescents.

    View record details
  • Transnationals' experience of dying in their adopted country: a systematic review

    Bray, Yvonne; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Gott, Caryl (2015-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    BACKGROUND: Social and emotional challenges of migration and integration include managing memories and perceptions of country of birth, leaving loved relatives behind, and the challenges of maintaining traditions, such as cultural food and practices. For many migrants, the strong connection with their birth country is never completely severed, which may become pertinent at particular events and stages in life with inherent emotional impact. This may be particularly the case for end-of-life experience. OBJECTIVE: We undertook a systematic review of published evidence of research to identify the lived experience of migrants dying in a country different from their country of birth. DESIGN: The search terms [transnationals OR migran* OR immigran*] AND [emotions OR belonging OR acculturation OR national identity] AND [dying OR end-of-life OR contemplation of dying] AND [palliative care OR terminal care] were used on the following electronic databases: MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, EBSCO, Geobase, PsychINFO, and Scopus to the end date of January 2014. No date limit was imposed. All research methodologies were included. The search was restricted to human subjects and English language. RESULTS: Seven qualitative studies met the criteria. Thematic analysis of these studies identified three main themes: sense of dual identity, importance of traditions from their country of origin, and dying preferences. CONCLUSION: Findings have implications for the provision of palliative end-of-life care for dying transnationals, particularly in relation to providing support for migrants who are dying to resolve social and emotional issues.

    View record details
  • Creating healthy food environments through global benchmarking of government nutrition policies and food industry practices.

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Swinburn, Boyd (2014)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Unhealthy processed food products are increasingly dominating over healthy foods, making food and nutrition environments unhealthier. Development and implementation of strong government healthy food policies is currently being circumvented in many countries by powerful food industry lobbying. In order to increase accountability of both governments and the private sector for their actions, and improve the healthiness of food environments, INFORMAS (the International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Research, Monitoring and Action Support) has recently been founded to systematically and comprehensively monitor food environments and policies in countries of varying size and income. This will enable INFORMAS to rank both governments and private sector companies globally according to their actions on food environments. Identification of those countries which have the healthiest food and nutrition policies and using them as international benchmarks against which national progress towards best practice can be assessed, should support reductions in global obesity and diet-related NCDs.

    View record details
  • Towards global benchmarking of food environments and policies to reduce obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases: design and methods for nation-wide surveys

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Swinburn, Boyd; International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) (2014)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    INTRODUCTION: Unhealthy diets are heavily driven by unhealthy food environments. The International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) has been established to reduce obesity, NCDs and their related inequalities globally. This paper describes the design and methods of the first-ever, comprehensive national survey on the healthiness of food environments and the public and private sector policies influencing them, as a first step towards global monitoring of food environments and policies. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A package of 11 substudies has been identified: (1) food composition, labelling and promotion on food packages; (2) food prices, shelf space and placement of foods in different outlets (mainly supermarkets); (3) food provision in schools/early childhood education (ECE) services and outdoor food promotion around schools/ECE services; (4) density of and proximity to food outlets in communities; food promotion to children via (5) television, (6) magazines, (7) sport club sponsorships, and (8) internet and social media; (9) analysis of the impact of trade and investment agreements on food environments; (10) government policies and actions; and (11) private sector actions and practices. For the substudies on food prices, provision, promotion and retail, 'environmental equity' indicators have been developed to check progress towards reducing diet-related health inequalities. Indicators for these modules will be assessed by tertiles of area deprivation index or school deciles. International 'best practice benchmarks' will be identified, against which to compare progress of countries on improving the healthiness of their food environments and policies. DISSEMINATION: This research is highly original due to the very 'upstream' approach being taken and its direct policy relevance. The detailed protocols will be offered to and adapted for countries of varying size and income in order to establish INFORMAS globally as a new monitoring initiative to reduce obesity and diet-related NCDs.

    View record details
  • Nonhomogeneous analysis of epicardial strain distributions during acute myocardial ischemia in the dog.

    Hashima, AR; Young, Alistair; McCulloch, AD; Waldman, LK (1993-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    To study the nonuniform mechanical function that occurs in normal and ischemic ventricular myocardium, a new method has been developed and validated. An array of 25 lead markers (approximately 4 x 4 cm) was sewn onto the epicardium of the anterior free wall of the left ventricle in an open-chest, anesthetized canine preparation. Biplane cineradiography was used to track marker positions throughout the cardiac cycle before and during episodes of acute ischemia induced by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. To estimate two-dimensional nonhomogeneous deformations in the region at risk and its border zone with normally perfused tissue, surfaces defined by bicubic Hermite isoparametric finite element interpolation were fitted by least squares to the three-dimensional marker coordinates in successive cine frames. Global smoothing functions prevented ill-conditioning in areas of low marker density. Continuous distributions of systolic finite strains referred to the end-diastolic state were obtained under normal and ischemic conditions without the conventional assumption of homogeneous strain analysis. Substantial regional variations in epicardial strains were observed in both the normal and ischemic heart. The method was validated in regions of small to moderate strain variations by comparing the continuous distributions of strain components with piecewise-constant measurements made using marker triplets and homogeneous strain theory. The influence of marker density was examined by recomputing strains from surfaces fitted to subsets of the original array. Further validation of moderate to large strain variations was obtained by simulating a nonuniform distribution of stretch across a planar sheet and computing strains both analytically and using the current method. The new method allows for more comprehensive measurements of distributed ventricular function, providing a tool with which to quantify better the nonhomogeneous function associated with regional ischemia.

    View record details
  • A metabolite-sensitive, thermodynamically constrained model of cardiac cross-bridge cycling: implications for force development during ischemia.

    Tran, Kenneth; Smith, Nicolas; Loiselle, Denis; Crampin, Edmund (2010-01-20)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    We present a metabolically regulated model of cardiac active force generation with which we investigate the effects of ischemia on maximum force production. Our model, based on a model of cross-bridge kinetics that was developed by others, reproduces many of the observed effects of MgATP, MgADP, Pi, and H(+) on force development while retaining the force/length/Ca(2+) properties of the original model. We introduce three new parameters to account for the competitive binding of H(+) to the Ca(2+) binding site on troponin C and the binding of MgADP within the cross-bridge cycle. These parameters, along with the Pi and H(+) regulatory steps within the cross-bridge cycle, were constrained using data from the literature and validated using a range of metabolic and sinusoidal length perturbation protocols. The placement of the MgADP binding step between two strongly-bound and force-generating states leads to the emergence of an unexpected effect on the force-MgADP curve, where the trend of the relationship (positive or negative) depends on the concentrations of the other metabolites and [H(+)]. The model is used to investigate the sensitivity of maximum force production to changes in metabolite concentrations during the development of ischemia.

    View record details
  • Active Video Games and Weight Management: Is There a Future?

    Maddison, Ralph; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Jull, Andrew; Marsh, Samantha; Direito, A (2013)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    We evaluated the effects of an active videogame (AVG) intervention (Sony [Tokyo, Japan] PlayStation?? EyeToy??) compared with non-AVGs on body composition, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and snack food consumption among overweight 10???12-year-old children over 24 weeks. Our research showed a treatment effect on body mass index and percentage body fat in favor of the intervention group. There was no difference between groups for total physical activity levels, but there was an increase in self-reported AVG play and reductions in non-AVG play and snack food consumption in the intervention group. Research is needed to determine how to augment the effects observed in this study.

    View record details
  • Technology and market conditions toward a new competitive landscape in the wireless access market

    Beltran, Hector; Gutierrez, Jairo; Melus, Jose Luis (2010)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This article argues that the wireless telecommunication market is about to witness a shift in business models and market structure as a result of the deployment of new broadband access technologies, spectrum management techniques, policy-based network management, and the drive of new entrants to compete against the incumbents. The article discusses four agents of evolutionary changes: a range of broadband wireless access standards and technologies that are front-runners in the industry's efforts to embody the next generation of wireless networks; new provider-customer relationships facilitated through changes in the usual contract patterns that will allow consumers to enter short-term and spot contracts with the new wireless providers; an overview of the current debate on spectrum management; and an explanation of how autonomic communications and policy-based management would support the new structure. Finally, the article asserts the necessity for the integration of the heterogeneous technologies that make up this emerging, hybrid wireless landscape, and describes the economic characteristics of a new competitive scenario.

    View record details