91,117 results

  • Age, growth and feeding ecology of five co-occurring fishes in southern New Zealand

    Jiang, Weimin (2002)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    x, 340 leaves :ill. (some col.) ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Marine Science

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  • Pavlova and pineapple pie : mixed parentage and Samoan-Pakeha identities in New Zealand

    Keddell, Emily (2000)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    x, 168 leaves :ill., forms ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Community and Family Studies

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  • Foregone profit in the wine industry

    Neuninger, Rosemarie; Mather, Damien William; Duncan, Tara (2015-06-02)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Background and Aims: Wine awards are frequently used as extrinsic cues for wine categories. The aim of this paper is to show the forgone profit arising from failures to make optimal use of awards when positioning wine brands to consumer segments. Methods and Results: Four award statuses were tested: a well-known award, multiple awards, a fictitious award used as a control (an award without consumer trust) and, no award. Participants tasted eight wine samples: the first four without extrinsic cues; the next four used extrinsic cues with varying award status. Each sample was rated for liking, likelihood to buy and price willing to pay. Low-involvement consumers’ perceived liking and price willing to pay were improved by multiple (real gold) awards compared to high-involvement consumers. Conclusions: Trust in awards increased the price consumers were willing to pay for wine with an award. For high-involvement consumers who distrusted awards, multiple wine awards and fictitious awards negatively influenced perceived liking, likelihood to buy and price willing to pay. Significance of the Study: This is the first study to report on the combined influence of wine awards and consumers’ sensory perceptions of wine on perceived liking, likelihood to buy and price willing to pay.

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  • Copyright Payments in Eighteenth-Century Britain, 1701–1800

    Fielding, David; Rogers, Shef (2015-06)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

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  • 11 week Beta-Hydroxy beta-Methylbutyric acid (HMB) supplementation: Effects on body composition and exercise performance in trained athletes.

    McIntosh, Nicholas Dean (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Background: Originally used in the farming industry to ‘bulk up’ cattle, interest in the leucine metabolite, beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), has been growing following a clinical trial which demonstrated significant improvements in strength and body composition in humans. Subsequent trials reaffirmed that previously untrained individuals benefitted from supplementation. However, trials involving athletes have demonstrated mixed results with short (0.05), nor was there a statistically significant difference with respect to skin fold measurements (p>0.05). Conclusion: The increase in body mass found in this study is consistent with other long term (>6 week) HMB supplementation studies. These gains in body mass may have influenced running performance as a larger mass is required to be moved. As no significant differences in body composition or strength were seen, the findings of this study suggest caution needs to be taken when supplementing with HMB as negative performance effects may occur. Therefore close attention to the type of activities required by the athlete needs to be considered prior to supplementation.

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  • Understanding the Etiology of Electoral Violence: The Case of Zimbabwe

    Fielding, David (2015-06)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Recent theoretical and empirical work indicates that incumbent governments are likely to attempt to influence election outcomes by violent means (rather than by bribery and fraud) when their level of popular support is relatively low. However, evidence also suggests that in some countries electoral violence can be quite easy to thwart through peaceful means. This may seem surprising when the incumbent has control over an extensive and well-equipped state security apparatus. The analysis of Zimbabwean data in this paper suggests an explanation: the incumbent prefers to avoid the direct involvement of the state security apparatus when intimidating voters (perhaps because such involvement would undermine the incumbent’s legitimacy abroad), and relies instead on informal groups with very limited organizational capacity. One consequence in Zimbabwe is that the intimidation is heavily focused in places where the incumbent is relatively popular, ceteris paribus.

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  • Does Charity Begin at Home or Overseas?

    Knowles, Stephen; Sullivan, Trudy (2015-06)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    We conduct a field experiment to analyse whether a representative sample of the population has a preference for giving money to an international development charity or to a charity helping families in need in the home country. The majority of participants reveal a preference for giving to the local charity, rather than the international development charity. Participants were given the option of commenting on why they chose the charity they did, and we conduct a qualitative analysis of these responses. We also analyse quantitatively whether participants’ individual characteristics are correlated with the choice of charity.

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  • The Role of Planning in Contemporary Urban India: Consequences and Lessons from the Hyderabad Metropolitan Rail: Telangana, India

    Whitworth, Joseph James (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Rapid urbanisation in India has led to its cities becoming increasingly fragmented and subject to massive congestion. Further, the agencies in control of urban development have been widely criticised in planning literature for their role in poor governance processes, corruption and public exclusion. Hyderabad, the largest city and capital of Andhra Pradesh (now Telangana), has suffered from these same issues and its residents endure increasingly poor mobility. In line with Central Government policy which advocates for metro rail as an urban transport solution, Hyderabad has entered into the world’s largest Public Private Partnership (PPP) to develop and begin implementing the Hyderabad Metro Rail (HMR). Given the scale and significance of the project, and the various stakeholders involved, the HMR provides an interesting insight into the current state of planning and urban development in India. This research addresses the implications of the planning process in Hyderabad, and how these are manifesting in the Metro Rail project. The thesis focusses on the role planning plays, and the degree to which it is used in the project. Specifically, the thesis analyses the impacts of the planning process on the wider public, and communities in the city. Further, the research addresses implications on the HMR as a result of broader failures in the planning and regulatory frameworks in the city. Based on intensive fieldwork amongst bureaucrats, planners, non-governmental organisations, academics, journalists, religious communities and business communities the thesis finds that poor planning frameworks have led to underutilisation of, and inadequacies in, the planning process. Further, it shows that the interaction between master planning and regulation falls significantly short of the necessary level for such a large project. In addition, coordination between urban local bodies is lacking, and the understanding of each agencies role in the project is minimal. This planning process has led to inadequacies in consultation with citizens, and exacerbation of impacts on low and middle class communities in the city.

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  • Development and evaluation of CPT-Vs correlation for Canterbury, New Zealand soils of the shallow Christchurch and Springston formations

    McGann, C.R.; Bradley, B.A.; Cubrinovski, M.; Taylor, M.L.; Wotherspoon, L.M. (2014)

    Reports
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Field Study for Evaluating Winter Thermal Performance of Auckland School Buildings

    Su, Bin (2015-02)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Auckland has a temperate climate with comfortable warm, dry summers and mild, wet winters. An Auckland school normally does not need air conditioning for cooling during the summer and only needs heating during the winter. The Auckland school building thermal design should more focus on winter thermal performance and indoor thermal comfort for energy efficiency. This field study of testing indoor and outdoor air temperatures, relative humidity and indoor surface temperatures of three classrooms with different envelopes were carried out in the Avondale College during the winter months in 2013. According to the field study data, this study is to compare and evaluate winter thermal performance and indoor thermal conditions of school buildings with different envelopes.

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  • Worm on the Run – A versatile force-sensing platform for the study of freely moving nematodes

    Nock, V.; Alkaisi, M.M.; Wang, W.; Johari, S. (2015)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Model-specific tests on variance heterogeneity for detection of potentially interacting genetic loci

    Hothorn, L.A.; Libiger, O.; Gerhard, D. (2012)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    Background: Trait variances among genotype groups at a locus are expected to differ in the presence of an interaction between this locus and another locus or environment. A simple maximum test on variance heterogeneity can thus be used to identify potentially interacting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Results: We propose a multiple contrast test for variance heterogeneity that compares the mean of Levene residuals for each genotype group with their average as an alternative to a global Levene test. We applied this test to a Bogalusa Heart Study dataset to screen for potentially interacting SNPs across the whole genome that influence a number of quantitative traits. A user-friendly implementation of this method is available in the R statistical software package multcomp. Conclusions: We show that the proposed multiple contrast test of model-specific variance heterogeneity can be used to test for potential interactions between SNPs and unknown alleles, loci or covariates and provide valuable additional information compared with traditional tests. Although the test is statistically valid for severely unbalanced designs, care is needed in interpreting the results at loci with low allele frequencies.

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  • Exploring the engagement of New Zealand diagnostic radiographers with research

    Haven, Jennifer (2013)

    Conference item
    Unitec

    Research question: To what extent are New Zealand diagnostic radiographers engaged with research and why?

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  • Building natural disaster response capacity: sound workforce strategies for recovery and reconstruction in APEC economies

    Chang-Richards, A. Y.; Seville, E.; Wilkinson, S.; Walker, B. (2013)

    Reports
    University of Canterbury Library

    This report examines and compares case studies of labour market policy responses in APEC economies to natural disasters. It first reviews the policies and practice within APEC economies and internationally in managing the labour market effects of natural disasters. By using comparative case studies, the report then compares recent disaster events in the Asia-Pacific region, including: - the June 2013 Southern Alberta floods in Canada; - the 2010 and 2011 Queensland floods in Australia; - the 2010 and 2011 Canterbury earthquakes in New Zealand; - the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan; and - the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China.

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  • The Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition 1955-58 - How the crossing of Antarctica moved New Zealand to recognise its Antarctic heritage and take an equal place among Antarctic nations

    Hicks, Stephen Walter (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The thesis analyses the expedition (TAE) led by Dr.Vivian Fuchs and Sir Edmund Hillary from three vantage points: 1)the years from 1948 to 1955 leading up to the expedition 2) the interaction between the IGY and the TAE projects and 3) the role of the US Navy as the expedition unfolded. The thesis also investigates key events including the purchase of the ship Endeavour from Britain, the competition for leadership of the UK and NZ parties, the 'dash to the Pole' by Hillary, and the search for base sites and routes to the Polar Plateau. The thesis contains an overview historical introduction, a comprehensive literature review as well as a broad-based set of conclusions.

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  • Pocket beach wave processes and current systems investigated via field and numerical modelling studies: A case study of Okains Bay

    Eisazadeh Moghaddam, Arash (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Confined coasts in general, and pocket beach environments in particular, are under huge development pressures worldwide, not least due to their sheltered nature and perceived shoreline stability. However, understanding of their physical functioning is poor in comparison to that of open coast beaches. This study aims to improve understanding in terms of the existing gaps in knowledge of wave processes and nearshore currents, and also to examine the importance of local wind and tide factors in generating nearshore currents, in micro-tidal pocket beaches. The boundaries of embayments are generally recognized as important controls of their beach processes and responses, yet little detailed knowledge exists of how the exact embayment dimensions and characteristics influences these processes. One key embayment feature the influence of which is poorly understood is the downcoast headland. In this thesis, field observations plus Zanuttigh and Van der Meer’s (2008) approach, and the SWAN wave model were used to evaluate the downcoast headland effects on wave processes within Okains Bay, an example pocket beach environment. The results showed that incident wave heights and directions were significantly influenced by wave reflection processes from the downcoast headland inside the bay. The intensity of reflection effects on wave characteristics inside the pocket beach varied according to approaching wave direction. Reflection effects reduced when waves approached from angles close to parallel to the headlands, increasing towards headland-perpendicular wave approaches. Field observations and the XBeach model were used to examine whether or not tides can significantly influence nearshore currents within example and model pocket beach environments. Results indicated that tides can be the primary driver of nearshore currents close to the bed inside micro-tidal pocket beaches, depending on incident wave conditions. In areas of micro-tidal pocket beaches exposed to direct approaching waves, currents were wave driven, while in areas further into the bay that experienced headland filtering of their wave environment, currents were mainly tide generated. The results of this study demonstrated how the current circulation system within micro-tidal pocket beaches is related to the incoming directions of offshore waves. If high energy waves approach oblique or normal to the shoreline (with the assumption that the shoreline is at 90° to the headlands), the current system was found to consist of longshore currents influenced by headlands, plus a rip current in the center of the shoreline or a toporip in proximity to headlands. The location of the rip current or toporip was determined by the direction of approaching incident waves. This study also examined the behavior of local winds in a pocket beach environment and their consequent effects on nearshore currents. Results for Okains Bay show that local winds tended to blow in offshore and onshore directions, as the bay is located in a valley, so orographic effects channel and shift the wind directions to angles close to offshore and onshore directions inside the bay. Results also indicated that local winds influence the hydrodynamic currents of pocket beaches that are confined by elevated topography, producing semi-cross shore influences since the winds are topographically channelled to blow in predominantly offshore and onshore directions. This research significantly refines our understanding of micro-tidal pocket beach wave and current processes, including quantification of the filtering effects of headlands on their wave environments, revealing the various and variable influences of tides and winds compared to in open coast beaches; and, significantly, highlighting the role of downcoast headland wave reflection effects. With regard to the latter, this research elucidates some key process differences between pocket and embayed beaches and clarifies reasons why the application of embayed beach models that include refraction and diffraction but exclude reflection effects to the study of pocket beaches is inappropriate for studying pocket beaches. This research also provides methodological and topic suggestions for future research on pocket beach environments, including how to use the improved hydrodynamic knowledge of this study in future studies seeking to better understand pocket beach sediment systems, a topic that was beyond the scope of the current research.

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  • 'The Inside View' Investigating the use of Narrative Assessment to Support Student Identity, Wellbeing, and Participation in Learning in a New Zealand secondary school.

    Guerin, Annette Patricia (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    New Zealand education policies and documents (Ministry of Education, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011a, 2014a) situate students at the centre of assessment processes that are underpinned by the New Zealand Curriculum. They identify building student assessment capability as crucial to achieving improvement in learning. Documents recognize the impact of quality interactions and relationships on effective assessment. However these core beliefs about assessment are not observed to guide teaching practices for all students. Disabled students remain invisible in assessment data and practices within New Zealand secondary schools. There appears to be little or no assessment data about learning outcomes for this group of students. This thesis investigates possible ways to recognize the diversity of student capability and learning through the use of narrative assessment. It challenges the absence of disabled students in assessment landscapes as educator roles and responsibilities within assessment, teaching and learning are framed within an inclusive pedagogy. This research project focuses on how a team of adults and two students labeled as disabled make sense of assessment and learning within the context of narrative assessment in the students’ regular high school. The project examines the consequences of narrative assessment on student identity, wellbeing and participation within learning. The study offers opportunities to observe how specialists from outside of the school respond to the use of narrative as they work with the two student research participants. This study undertakes a critical inquiry that recognises the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi – partnership, protection and participation – as pivotal to inclusive practice where all students are valued as learners. It investigates how narrative assessment can honour these principles in everyday teaching practice. The project aims to inform education policy and practice, with a view to enriching learning outcomes and opportunities for disabled students who are frequently marginalized by inequitable assessment processes. It is argued that narrative assessment can support the construction of student identity and wellbeing. It can support the recognition of disabled students as partners in their learning. However the value of narrative assessment can be undermined by the responses of educators and other professionals who continue to work within deficit models of assessment, teaching and learning. Within this thesis adult participants from family and education contexts have clear ideas about the value and validity of assessment practices and processes that do not respect a presumption of competence or a need to establish a relationship with a student being assessed. Their views challenge everyday practices that fulfill assessment contracts, but ignore Treaty of Waitangi and New Zealand Curriculum commitments. Their views can inform better ways of working between specialists and schools supporting disabled students.

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  • Economic policy in New Zealand 1936-1939

    Oxnan, D. W. (1941)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The aim of this survey is twofold. First, it attempts to describe and analyse the more important aspects of the Labour Government’s economic policy, and second, it attempts to demonstrate how the achievement of this policy is conditioned by the characteristics of the New Zealand economy. The economic policy of the Labour Government is important for several reasons. First, both the “recovery measures” of the previous Government during the depression, and Labour’s policy after the depression tend to show that New Zealand, in common with other countries, is experiencing a definite trend towards an extension of State control of economic life. Secondly, since the 1890’s the Dominion has indulged in economic and social experiments which have attracted the attention of economists not only in New Zealand but also abroad. The economic and social policy of the Labour Government thus appears to be an acceleration of this long term trend. In addition it is generally recognised that conditions in New Zealand are more favourable to economic experimentation than those existing in most other countries. In examining this policy it is of fundamental importance to realise that the Ottawa Agreements of 1932, mark the end of an era when New Zealand could confidently rely on a large and expanding overseas market for her exports. Moreover the rise of economic rationalism, the progress of agrarian protectionism, the developments in the alternative sources of supply and the declining rate of growth of population in the consuming countries, all have forcibly demonstrated the inherent weakness of the New Zealand economy. Consequently the post depression years have witnessed a conscious expansion of New Zealand’s secondary industries. Although the social and economic policy of the Labour Government is in many respects similar to that of the Liberal Administration of Balance and Seddon in the early ‘nineties’ of last century, it has certainly been carried out under far less favourable circumstances. It is mainly for these reasons that this subject provides a fruitful field for economic research. To cover the whole of the policy in detail and would be beyond the limits of a brief survey of this nature. It would be possible to write a detailed survey on any one aspect of the policy. Nevertheless, it is felt that a broad treatment of policy is not entirely unfruitful. On the contrary a wide survey has much to commend it, for a detailed analysis of one aspect only tends to lose sight of the nature of the policy as a whole. Thus the first two chapters are devoted to an analysis of the Labour Government’s Programme and the economic factors limiting the achievement of this programme. The remaining chapters are concerned with the development of policy. Separate chapters deal in turn with Monetary Policy, Marketing, Transport, Rationalisation of Industry, Import and Exchange Control, and Labour and Social Legislation. In a concluding chapter, the threads are drawn together and an evaluation of the policy attempted. It should be noted that the period under review extends from 1936 to 1939 inclusive. It does not deal with the policy after the outbreak of war in September 1939, because this has created new problems and has thus modified to a certain extent the direction of Government policy. At the outset, originality is disclaimed. Much has already been written on particular aspects of policy, but little if any, on the policy as a whole. The material has been collected from all available relevant literature, consisting of numerous pamphlets, periodicals, articles and officials publications. A detailed account of references is given in the bibliography. Finally it is not proposed to reveal anything which is not already known to competent economists. This survey merely aims to make a comprehensive and critical analysis of the economic policy followed by the Labour Government in the years 1936-39.

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  • The failure of corporate failure models to classify and predict : aspects and refinements

    Alexander, P. B. (1991)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Much has been written about the use of multiple discriminant analysis in corporate distress classification and forecasting. Classification and prediction models are notoriously difficult to establish in such a way that they will stand the ultimate test of time. Many articles severely criticise the use of the technique yet there are aspects which may improve our ability to develop satisfactory models. We are probably yet a long way off from being able to do so with any great degree of satisfaction, yet it behoves us to try to develop models that do justice to the assumptions and the theory. This thesis explores several important aspects of the model-building process and concludes that some of the more conventional criticisms of the models developed so far are less important than claimed. It suggests that more critical than the failure to meet the conditions of multivariate normality, the equality of the variance-covariance matrices, and the use of a priori probabilities are the need for: a satisfactory model specification that can be theoretically justified, the strict use of random sampling, the efficient use of sample data, the search for stable mean vectors which are significantly different from each other, and ex ante validation. If these requirements are met then the MDA technique is robust enough to cope with breaches of the assumptions.

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  • Optical probes of free charge generation in organic photovoltaics

    Barker, Alexander J. (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) show considerable promise as a source of low cost solar energy. Improving our understanding of the processes governing free charge photogeneration in OPVs may unlock the improvements in efficiency required for their widespread implementation. In particular, how do photogenerated charge pairs overcome their mutual columbic attraction, and what governs the branching between bound and free charge pairs that is observed to occur shortly after their creation? Ultrafast laser techniques such as transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy are the only tools capable of probing the time scales associated with these processes (as short as 10⁻¹⁴ seconds). Challenges include achieving sufficient sensitivity to resolve the tiny signals generated in thin films under solar-equivalent excitation densities, and distinguishing and quantifying overlapping signals due to separate phenomena. We present the development of a versatile and ultra-sensitive broadband TA spectrometer, along with a comprehensive analysis of the noise sources limiting sensitivity. Through the use of referenced shot-to-shot detection and a novel method exploiting highly chirped broadband probe pulses, we are capable of resolving changes in differential transmission < 3 × 10⁻⁶ over pump-probe delays of 10⁻¹³–10⁻⁴ seconds. By comparing the absorption due to photogenerated charges to measurements of open-circuit voltage decay in devices under transient excitation, we show that TA is able to quantify the recombination of freely extractable charge pairs over many decades of pump-probe delay. The dependence of this recombination on excitation density can reveal the relative fraction of bound and free charge pairs. We apply this technique to blends of varying efficiency and find that the measured free charge fraction is correlated with published photocharge yields for these materials. We access a regime at low temperature where thermalized charge pairs are frozen out following the primary charge separation step and recombine monomolecularly via tunneling. The dependence of tunneling rate on distance enabled us to fit recombination dynamics to distributions of recombination rates. We identified populations of charge-transfer states and well-separated charge pairs, the yield of which is strongly correlated with the yield of free charges measured via their intensity dependent recombination. We conclude that populations of free charges are established via long-range charge separation within the thermalization timescale, thus invoking early branching between free and bound charges across an energetic barrier. Subject to assumed values of the electron tunneling attenuation constant, we find critical charge separation distances of ~ 3–4nm in all materials. TA spectroscopy probes the absorption of excited states, with the signal being proportional to the product of population density and absorption cross-section of the absorbing species. We show that the dependence of signal on probe pulse intensity can decouple these parameters, and apply a numerical model to determine the time-dependent absorption cross-section of photogenerated excitons in thin films of semiconducting polymers. Collectively, this thesis presents spectroscopic tools and applications thereof that illuminate the process of free charge generation in organic photovoltaics.

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