89,537 results

  • Opportunity and Uncertainty: Supervisors, examiners and graduates describe the Critical/Creative Nexus in practice in the Creative Writing PhD at the International Institute of Modern Letters (University of Victoria, Wellington, New Zealand)

    Jenner, Lynn (2017)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In December 2014 I held six exploratory interviews with participants in the PhD programme at the International Institute of Modern Letters (IIML), Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand to explore the relationships between the critical and creative components of the PhD as understood by these particular individuals. The interviews show a range of opinions regarding the purpose of the critical component, its form, the assessment of the critical and creative components and the degree structure.My aim for this research was to create a feedback loop of information about the critical/creative nexus from people who are members of the IIML community of practice. I hoped also to collect and share practical ideas from graduates, supervisors and examiners on how to work through or with the tensions surrounding the critical/creative nexus. In line with that, the purpose of this report is to make the whole content of the six interviews available so that readers can investigate issues which might be of particular interest to them.

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  • A Languages Strategy for Auckland: Why and What Are The Issues?

    Harvey, S; Warren, S

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    No abstract.

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  • Language Policy and Planning

    Harvey, S

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    No abstract.

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  • Molecular genetic analysis of IGF1 in Romney sheep and its role in growth

    Ellis, Olivia Margaret

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    In an effort to improve livestock breeding, recent focus has been on using marker-assisted selection (MAS) to increase the accuracy of the choices made in selecting breeding stock. MAS may increase the annual rate of genetic gain in livestock by as much as 15-30%. Traits that determine the economic value of livestock are of primary concern in livestock breeding. Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1: also known as somatomedin C) affects young animal growth and a range of other anabolic processes in adults from a number of species, but little is known about its role in sheep. Variation in the IGF-1 gene (IGF1) has also been reported in other animal species, but once again little is known about ovine IGF1 variation. Using a polymerase chain reaction – single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) approach, 50 New Zealand (NZ) Romney rams were investigated to ascertain whether variation existed in two regions (an exon 2 fragment and an exon 3 fragment) of ovine IGF1. Two PCR-SSCP banding-patterns were discovered for each region, with one or a combination of two banding patterns detected for each sheep. For each region, these patterns were named A and B, and upon sequencing a unique DNA sequence was identified. 150 lambs (obtained from the NZ Romney Progeny Test; 2007-present), that were the progeny of a single ram that produced lambs over two seasons (2007 and 2009) were investigated for the association analysis. Phenotypic data for growth and carcass traits were available for these lambs and statistical analyses (Minitab v17) were performed using stepwise regression to assess the effect of the presence or absence of the IGF1 variants on the various lamb phenotypes. In these analyses the presence of the exon 2 IGF1 A variant was associated (P = 0.049) with increased birth weight in the 2007 lambs, although this effect did not persist in the 2009 lambs, or when the data from both years was combined. For the 2009 lambs, the presence of exon 2 A was associated (P = 0.017) with an increased growth rate from birth to tailing and this effect persisted (P = 0.035) when the 2007 and 2009 lamb data was combined. Trends (0.05 < P < 0.2) were observed between the presence of exon 2 A and increased tailing weight and growth from birth to weaning in the 2009 lambs and these trends persisted when the data from the 2007 and 2009 lambs was combined. No effects were observed for the exon 3 genotypes in 2007, but in 2009, there was a trend for AA to be associated with increased tailing weight and weaning weight, with the tailing weight effect persisting when both years’ data was combined. Overall these results suggest that variation in IGF1 could be of value as a genetic marker to complement genetic evaluations for early growth in sheep.

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  • Influence of farm dairy effluent ammonium concentrations on soil N2O emissions

    Johnston, Tony

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Nitrous oxide (N₂O) is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) and the single-most ozone (O₃) depleting substance. Agriculture is the dominant source of anthropogenic N₂O emissions globally, and especially in New Zealand. Urine, synthetic nitrogen (N) fertiliser and farm dairy effluent (FDE) are the main sources of N₂O emissions from agricultural soils in New Zealand. Urine and synthetic N fertiliser have received considerable research attention to minimise their contribution to soil N₂O emissions due to the high N loadings and greater emission factors (EF) of these inputs. However, as the land application of Farm Dairy Effluent (FDE) is a less significant contributor to New Zealand’s overall N₂O emissions profile, research on this N-input is limited. The mass of FDE applied to land increased from, 18kt in 1990 to 39kt in 2013, and a recent increase in popularity of herd homes will further increase the mass of FDE produced. Thus, FDE requires further research. Limited data is available on the EF’s from the land application of FDE. In addition, an analysis of the literature suggests the NH₄⁺-N concentration of FDE is highly variable. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of FDE NH₄⁺-N concentration on soil N₂O emissions. A 35-day field trial was conducted, where 10 mm of FDE was applied to pasture at NH₄⁺-N concentrations of either 90, 150, 200, 300 or 400 mg NH4⁺-N L-1. The 150 and 400 mg NH₄⁺-N L-1 treatments contained 15N to monitor the fate of FDE NH₄⁺-N. N₂O gas samples were taken daily for the first week, then every 2-3 days for the remainder of the trial. Soil inorganic-N pools were monitored every 7 days. Pasture production was measured on days 19 and 35. Peak N₂O emissions occurred within 24 hrs of applying the FDE. The highest N₂O emisions were produced in the 400 mg NH4⁺-N L⁻¹ treatment averaging 65 kg N₂O ha⁻¹ day⁻¹. FDE treatments produced significantly more than the control until day 7. Emission factors ranged from 0.18 to 0.32 percent of total N applied, significantly less than the 1% currently used to calculate New Zealands GHG inventory. The emission period was relatively short due to low soil nitrate concentrations, and/or relatively dry soil conditions. Ammonium concentration is a key driver of N₂O emissions. Cumulative soil N₂O emissions increased linearly with FDE NH₄⁺-N concentration, however, it is likely this relationship may change in soils with a higher moisture content. Therefore, the use of a single relationship between the two variables for all environmental situations may not be possible. Further studies that analyse the influence of NH₄⁺-N concentrations on soil N₂O emissions, in a range of typical environments, are required to fully understand this relationship.

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  • Identification of the floral source of New Zealand honeys

    Petchell, Laura Eleanor (2009)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Depending on the nectar source, honey is either unifloral (derived mostly from one plant type), or polyfloral (derived from multiple plant types). Unifloral honey has characteristic sensory properties, and is therefore of greater commercial value. Currently, identification of floral source involves pollen counting, a specialised and labour intensive process. The current research was aimed at developing an alternative, rapid, chemistry-based method of floral identification. The aroma of honey depends on volatile compounds present; these may be derived from the plant from which nectar was taken. Therefore by identifying volatiles in honey it could be possible to identify floral source. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is a technique that is useful for the headspace analysis of volatile compounds; when coupled with GC-MS it provides a powerful tool for fingerprinting volatiles in honey. GC-MS chromatograms of ten New Zealand unifloral honey types were obtained after headspace SPME extraction. Statistical analysis of the GC-MS chromatographic data was used to discriminate between floral types. Probability plots were used to identify compounds indicative of floral source; this method discriminated between honey types with 90% success. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were used to study the structure of the data. Learning algorithms in Weka (machine-learning software) were used to build models of data to classify honey types. The logistic model tree algorithm classified 89.8% of samples correctly. Such a model has the potential to be used to classify future honey samples, once further samples have been tested to validate the model.

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  • Strata Movement Study Using a 250 m Deep Inclinometer Borehole, Huntly East Coalmine, New Zealand

    Du, Zhaodong (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Strata movement has adverse impacts on structures located on the surface and in the subsurface within a subsidence basin or affected area. Damages to a mine shaft may result from lateral movement and/ or vertical subsidence of the strata at a depth when the resultant stress is larger than the strength of the lining. My study was developed in collaboration with Solid Energy NZ Limited. My research concentrated on monitoring a 250 m deep borehole to assess changes of strata movement that occurred as underground mining approached the inclinometer borehole. The borehole was a simulation of a proposed shaft. The objectives of my research were to study strata movement characteristics above and adjacent to the North 5 coal mining area by monitoring the inclinometer and interpreting the reading data collected from the inclinometer borehole as the underground mining advanced; develop a model of subsidence using Phase2 software; then compare the modelling subsidence with what we have measured to identify any correlation or difference. The inclinometer borehole was located west of Te Ohaki Road, 300 m from the location of a proposed shaft in the adjacent panel in the Huntly East Mine. A total of 13 sets of inclinometer measurements were undertaken over two years from March 2009. Measurement stopped on 11 March 2011 because the probe could not be lowered through a depth of approximately 38 m in the borehole. My study uses ‘extraction vector’, and ‘movement trajectory of the borehole’ for analysing and interpreting the deep borehole movement in underground mining, and addresses the far field subsidence movement as to its potential impact on structures on the surface or in the subsurface. This thesis also introduces the concept of negative vertical additional friction, developed in China, which is a potentially helpful concept for this study, and the proposed shaft project. Three major movement zones were identified, two ‘shear zones’ from 135.0 to 135.5 m and from 166 to 170 m, and one ‘creeping zone’ from the surface to 115 m. The borehole movement was presented by the trajectory of the intersection of the borehole at depths of surface (1 m), 135 m, and 166 m. The two shear zones occurred on the bedding planes in Te Kuiti Group, the creeping zone occurred in the weak strata of the Tauranga Group and upper Te Kuiti Group. The borehole movements were non-linear, and the borehole lateral movement trajectories varied with depth. Three polynomial equations were developed from regression and modelling for indicating the relationship and predication between the nearest extraction distance and the induced lateral movement. The installation of an inclinometer borehole deeper than 120 m was not found in around 100 literature articles reviewed. No reports of use of inclinometer monitoring of ground movement induced by underground extraction were found in the literature reviewed. According to ASTM (2005), no standards are available yet for evaluation against precision and bias issues arising from use of borehole inclinometer. Therefore, the inclinometer borehole in this study may be one of the most complicated cases for monitoring and measurement of strata movement induced by the underground extraction in New Zealand.

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  • A Survey of Dihydroxyacetone in Nectar of Leptospermum Scoparium in Several Regions of New Zealand

    Williams, Simon Douglas (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Mānuka honey has been identified as having non-peroxide antimicrobial activity (NPA). This medical benefit has led to mānuka honey becoming a major export for New Zealand. Hives are currently located in preserved or regenerating mānuka bush. With the growth in the mānuka honey industry, interest has arisen to determine why mānuka trees produce the non-peroxide active honey. Identification of this reason will allow mānuka plantations to be planted that are expected to provide honey with a high level of non-peroxide activity. These plantations will also allow marginal land to become more productive due to mānuka being a resilient plant able to grow under harsh conditions. It has been shown that the majority of the non-peroxide activity arises from the presence of methylglyoxal (MGO). In fresh honey a minimal amount of MGO was present, but a large amount of dihydroxyacetone (DHA) was found. Previous work has shown that DHA can undergo chemical conversion into MGO under the correct conditions. A similar conversion is postulated to take place in honey, testing suggests that this conversion is a non-enzymatic reaction. Preliminary surveys have been carried out which have identified DHA in the nectar of mānuka owers. This thesis describes a wider survey of mānuka trees around New Zealand.The trees were sampled in the flowering seasons of 2009 and 2010 between October and January. Flowers were picked and frozen for processing and an aqueous soaking method was developed to extract the DHA and sugar from a pooling of 20 owers. Analyses of the samples were carried out by gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection. This method was further improved to include the nectar extraction and measurement of DHA levels within a single flower. To allow the DHA to be related back to honey, it was measured in ratio to the total sugar (Tsugar) in the nectar to give the ratio DHA/Tsugar. It was confirmed that DHA/Tsugar measured in the nectar of the mānuka flower does vary within and between the regions surveyed. Suggested causes of within region variation are the age of the tree, micro-environments and possibly genetics. Variation between regions is strongly suggested to be genetically linked. Using the work by Adam set al.(2008, 2009), it was possible to predict honey NPA values based upon the DHA/Tsugar found in the nectar and these values were comparable with the measured NPA of the honey as supplied by beekeepers. Only a poor correlation of DHA/Tsugar was found with the soil components measured by Kiefer(2010); with the leaf oil components measured by Janusch(2010) some correlation was found, when these were correlated across all the sampled regions. When each region was correlated individually, the correlation proved much stronger, suggesting a link, though most likely indirect, to the mānuka oil chemotype. Using these survey results, mānuka trees have been identified for the purpose of breeding and on-going study.

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  • An investigation of the stability of yacon storage roots under commercial conditions and the feasibility of preparing blackcurrant-yacon juice mixtures for the retail market

    Revell, Maria Teresa (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The stability of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) was investigated in yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius Poepp. & Endl., Asteraceae) storage roots and blackcurrant-yacon juice mixtures. The roots and syrup are from yacon plants grown for NZ Biotechnologies, the only company in New Zealand licensed to grow yacon commercially for export. The hydrolysis of FOS in storage roots packaged in a semi-permable polymer was significantly reduced compared to unpackaged roots from the same plant, stored in the same conditions (5 °C for up to 72 days). The effectiveness of the packaging was dependent upon a complete seal around the root, indicating the need for selection of relatively straight and smooth roots for successful packaging. Blackcurrant-yacon juice mixtures offer the prebiotic effect of FOS combined with the antioxidant activity of blackcurrant juice. This study was designed to assess the effect of pasteurisation conditions on carbohydrate and polyphenol concentrations and antioxidant activity. The reduction in active ingredients per mL can then be compensated for by the initial formulation before pasteurisation. The rates of hydrolysis and release of FOS, 1-kestose, sucrose, D-glucose and D-fructose were calculated and agreed with previous studies with the exception of 1-kestose. The initial concentrations of polyphenols (330.67-524.4 gallic acid equivalent mg L⁻¹) and anthocyanins (1013.11-1362.25 cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalent mg L⁻¹) were also similar to other studies. The concentration of both polyphenols and anthocyanins decreased with heating time, but this difference was statistically significant at a 99.95 % confidence level only for anthocyanins. The decrease of anthocyanin concentration with time in blackcurrant-yacon juice without pH stabilisation was correlated with the rate of FOS hydrolysis. This indicates that the presence of FOS stabilizes the anthocyanins possibly by formation of a complex or compound. This is supported by evidence from elsewhere that dietary fibre-type molecules can transport antioxidants to the large bowel, with associated health effects.

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  • Supercapacitor Assisted Inverter for the purposes of Input Ripple Control

    Gaylard, Carl (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis describes the use of a series/parallel supercapacitor to actively control the input ripple of a DC-AC power inverter through the use of a new inverter topology. The topology is made up of two 'sub-inverters' placed in series, with a supercapacitor which is in parallel with one and series with the other. By varying the current draw of each sub-inverter both the current flow into the inverter and the current flow in and out of the supercapacitor can actively be manipulated by adjusting the ratio of the current drawn by each sub-inverter. When the sub-inverter in series with the supercapacitor draws more current than the one in parallel the supercapacitor bank begins charging and more power is drawn by the inverter than is output, conversely when the parallel sub-inverter draws more current than the series one then the supercapacitor bank discharges and the inverter outputs more power than its input. By manipulating the ratio of the current draws the inverter can draw more power than it outputs during low periods of the output cycle and store it, and then release this energy during high periods of the output cycle. This technique overcomes the inefficiencies of using a conventional parallel input capacitor arrangement as the capacitor is charged in series with a load, resulting in only a negligible amount of energy lost in the path resistance.

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  • Assessment of Standing Herbage Dry Matter Using A Range Imaging Sytem

    Benseman, Mark (2013)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    It has been known for a long time that a device that could quickly and accurately ascertain dry matter content would be very useful to pastoral farmers. Despite many years of various products being developed there is still a lack of consistent and accurate measurements available. We present a proof of concept using a time of flight imaging system to measure standing herbage dry matter. Scenes of herbage were captured using the SoftKinitec DS325 range imaging camera. Each scene included range and intensity images as well as colour images. Simple statistical analysis of the images was carried out and related to dry matter content. Twenty data points were gathered in late autumn growing conditions. The best correlation achieved was 0.9 with a standard deviation of 337 kgDM/ha. This was achieved used a multivariate linear regression. The predictors used were average depth, and standard deviations of both depth and intensity frames. The worst correlation achieved using a multivariate linear regression was 0.89 with a standard deviation of 365 kgDM/ha. Thirteen data points were also gathered during severe drought conditions. The same statistical analysis resulted in a best fit of 0.52 and a standard deviation of 533 kgDM/ha. Range cameras show promise when compared to currently available methods of dry matter measurement.

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  • Molecular Characterisation of Immune Genes in Yellowtail Kingfish (Seriola lalandi)

    Broomfield, Grant Robert (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The effective and efficient introduction of a new candidate species for aquaculture depends greatly on the understanding of the physiology of the organism and the ability to monitor a candidates’ response to changes in their environment. For any farmed fish in an aquaculture setting, there will be a number of bottlenecks that restrict optimal growth and production. Being able to monitor and maintain health is one of these, with stress and pathogenic invasion from microbial organisms leading to a reduction in farming efficiency. Due to the very nature of aquaculture, stress and transmission of pathogens are very common, as fish are contained in close quarters. Thus, characterising and understanding the immune system of these fish will allow for better monitoring of fish health. Yellowtail Kingfish (Seriola lalandi) is a strong candidate for introduction into the New Zealand aquaculture industry. The selection of this fish as a candidate for aquaculture is based on its economically beneficial traits that have potential in both domestic and export markets, particularly in the sashimi market in Japan. Because of this, it is important to begin investigations into the immune response of this species, so aspects of its health can be monitored during farming. The focus of this investigation was to identify immune genes in this species and to begin profiling their expression during the development of the fish. Using bioinformatics approaches, the available gene databases and the implementation of a transcriptomic library prepared from the spleen tissue of S. lalandi, a number of immune genes were identified, which included, Immunoglobulin D (IgD), Recombination Activation Gene 1 (RAG1) and Interleukin-1β (IL-1b). Primers were designed for each gene, to enable confirmation of the gene sequences, by PCR and RACE-PCR. Using this approach, no confirmed sequence was obtained for IL-1b, however sequence was obtained for part of the RAG1 gene and a large part of the IgD gene, including the 3’end. The availability of these immune gene sequences, allowed methods to be developed for looking at gene expression. Primers were designed using the confirmed sequences for RAG1 and IgD, as well as the unconfirmed sequence for IL-1b. These were used in qPCR to examine the expression of each gene during development, within larvae at hatch, 3 dph, 12 dph and 18 dph. Expression of each gene was found to increase by 12 dph, but then decrease at 18dph, with IL-1b showing the highest relative expression. However, no significant difference in expression was seen statistically between any of the time points. Lastly, a protocol was developed for the histological sectioning of larval fish at different stages of development. A number of attempts were made to optimise an approach, with fish from 3 dph to 60 dph eventually being paraffin embedded, sectioned and stained with either toluidine blue or haematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Developing structures within the larvae, including immune tissues, were identified. Future work will use prepared sections to stain for the immune genes, to gain a better understanding of their role. Discovery of immune genes from kingfish, such as the ones characterised in this investigation, will allow the development of invaluable tools. These tools can be used to monitor the health of fish during both the developmental and adult stages. This paves the way for informative studies that will benefit the future aquaculture of this species.

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  • An Investigation of Factors that Contribute to Dihydroxyacetone Variation Observed in New Zealand Leptospermum scoparium

    King, Jessica (2013)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Honey derived from Leptospermum scoparium (commonly known as mānuka) is known to have anti-bacterial activity that is not entirely accounted for by the presence of hydrogen peroxide.1 This is known as non-peroxide activity (NPA). The discovery of this medical benefit has led to mānuka honey being a major export for New Zealand. In order to assure supply, mānuka trees are being investigated to determine why certain specimens yield honeys with a greater NPA than others. This might result in plantations of L. scoparium that would yield honey with a consistently high NPA. The compound responsible for the NPA is a 1,2-dicarbonyl known as methylglyoxal (MGO).2 The precursor to this molecule was found in nectar of the mānuka flowers and was identified as dihydroxyacetone (DHA).3 An investigation of DHA in the nectar of L. scoparium across different regions of New Zealand was carried out by Williams (2012).4 It was confirmed that trees vary within and between regions across New Zealand. This thesis describes different investigations into why the variation of DHA observed in various mānuka flowers is so great. Flowers were collected during flowering periods from 2011-2013 and were frozen prior to processing. The extraction method used ten flowers (10F) and samples were analysed by gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection (GC-FID). The DHA quantity was expressed with respect to the total sugar (Tsugar) in the nectar (DHA/Tsugar) in order to allow for comparison between samples. The study by Williams (2012) was extended to include the Northland region.4 Wild L. scoparium var. incanum specimens were collected from this region and it was determined that these trees only produced a low to moderate amount of DHA/Tsugar. Williams (2012) also investigated the DHA variability of trees in close proximity to each other as these are supposed to be genetically similar.4 This study was repeated in a different region and the findings were the same; that is trees that were in close proximity to each other can have different DHA/Tsugar. One possibility of why DHA is observed in mānuka flowers is that it is used to combat stress as a compatible osmolyte. This was tested using chemical additives and it was found that the DHA/Tsugar varied as a result of the Tsugar as opposed to the amount of DHA. This response was cultivar dependent. Different flower physiologies were also investigated. This included the andromonoecious nature of mānuka and the specific colour change in the hypanthium of the flower. Male flowers were found to have a larger amount of DHA/Tsugar as a result of a higher level of DHA than hermaphrodite flowers. This could suggest that DHA is being used in the hermaphrodite flowers for processes such as seed production. The DHA/Tsugar of flowers with different hypanthium colour was shown to be dependent on the variety type. The source and reason for DHA still remains unclear and therefore further study is required.

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  • Children and vulnerability

    Atwool, Nicola (2013)

    Book item
    University of Otago

    Peer Reviewed

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  • Maori concepts for social and community work

    Eketone, Anaru (2013)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    For those working in Māori communities or organisations, it is important to understand some of the inherent Māori cultural concepts that are important to those contexts. Many groups and projects have struggled to involve Māori people and communities, often because of a lack of understanding of important Māori values and processes. As a Māori person born and raised in Otago but belonging to the Ngāti Maniapoto and Waikato Iwi of the North Island, I know what it is like to learn the hard way about Māori processes. When I was growing up, issues around tapu and noa were translated as cleanliness, or showing respect; mana was not necessarily talked about, but was interpreted as politeness, respect and good manners. I seemed to know a lot of the right things to do, but not why, even though there were times where I felt paralysed in my ignorance. At the age of 21 I moved back to my tribal area for 12 years to work as a youth worker and learnt a lot from the families and the communities I was associated with, as well as from my hapū and relatives. That gave me confidence, so that when I moved back to Otago, I was in a position to learn even more from the communities and people in that region. I came to realise that Māori social and community work is multi-layered and complex. Māori communities are not homogenous and sometimes have competing factions, histories and approaches. There may be differing perspectives between mana whenua and mātaawaka, rural communities and urban ones, traditional and modern, those who speak te reo and those who do not, those who have succeeded in education and those that have not and those whose primary identification is tribal (Iwi), ethnic (Māori), half-caste, or national (Kiwi). One extended family can reflect all these differences and variations, despite this, there are values that are arguably integral to most social and community work involving Māori. Therefore, I will highlight some important Māori concepts and constructs that affect how Māori may view or be involved in community development or community organisations. The following concepts are not necessarily used in social and community work per se, but are concepts that need to be understood for good community work to take place. I will use some of my personal experiences to explain some of the underpinnings of why, in Māori social and community work, we do what we do. The definitions and explanations are, by necessity, brief and may not necessarily give justice to what can be very deep concepts. Some concepts may differ between Iwi as they are multi-layered, so that the more you investigate them, the deeper they go. Therefore, the end of this article will provide further reading for those seeking a greater understanding. It should be noted that while very basic at times, (and I apologise for this), the purpose of this article is to be explicit about the meanings of different values and concepts that I wish had been spelt out more clearly for me as a young youth worker and community worker.

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  • An investigation into the barriers and facilitators to acceptance, and use of Bay Navigator Pathways by general practitioners in the Western Bay of Plenty

    Reyneke, Anel (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Objectives This project aims to explore reasons for variable uptake of the Bay Navigator Pathways among General Practitioners in the Western Bay of Plenty Primary Healthcare Organisation (PHO). The project aims were to identify barriers and facilitators in the use of the Bay Navigator Pathways and develop recommendations for improving the utility of Bay Navigator Pathways by general practitioner users. Study design General practitioners (GP) were purposively sampled to include specific pre-determined criteria in order to cover a range of GP characteristics. GPs were interviewed using semi-structured qualitative interviews. Data saturation was reached after fifteen interviews. Interviews were transcribed in full. A thematic analysis was undertaken, informed by the Diffusion of Innovation Framework (an analytic model used in quality improvement research). Results An understanding of the barriers and facilitators that influenced the acceptance and use of the local general practice population was achieved. Unmet and unrealistic expectations from the onset of the Bay Navigator Initiative were identified. Low centrality of the Bay Navigator Pathways hindered the use and acceptance of the Bay Navigator Pathways. Initial and ongoing issues with technology and incompatibility of the different practice management systems were identified as a universal issue between interviewees. However, the trial period for the Bay Navigator Pathways still has a window for opportunity to improve acceptance and use. Lessons learned through this research should be taken into account to assist ongoing development of the Bay Navigator Pathways. Conclusion The research showed that general practitioners must exercise an expansive clinical and patient management skill set within the current health system. Adequate support through ongoing education and development of skill should be high on the agenda for Health Workforce New Zealand. General practitioners should have the ability to triage, investigate, treat and support patients in an effective, cost-effective way. Patients that need secondary care input should have a smooth transit from primary into secondary and again smooth transit of care back into primary with clear treatment plans and goals acceptable to the patient and their whanau. The New Zealand health system should be an entity that people can trust and rely on in time of need. Innovations like the Bay Navigator Pathways can be valuable tools to achieve these goals. There are no infallible rules when developing and implementing health care initiatives. Knowledge about the specific locally appreciated barriers and facilitators can inform healthcare developments in future.  

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  • Consumer Culture in China: Consumption Face

    Xia, Zhenhua (Raymond) (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    “Face” in China is one of the country’s most traditional social and cultural factors. Generally, “Face” in Chinese social life represents the image of a person’s social self (through the thesis I will use Face with a capitalised F to represent this specific concept). Many studies have indicated that in China Face influences consumption, and specifically, relates it to conspicuous consumption (Bao, Zhou, & Su, 2003; J. J. Li & Su, 2007; Monkhouse, Bradley R, & Stephan, 2012; N. Wong, Y. & Ahuvia, 1998). However, Chinese Face is a very general concept. This thesis specifically classifies which type of Chinese Face particularly influences consumption among other types: moral Face (Lien), social Face (Mien-tzu), renqing Face and interaction Face. These are types of Face that are referred to in existing studies and research. I name the type of Face that relates to consumption, “Consumption Face”. The aim of my study is to clarify the influence and role of Consumption Face on Chinese consumption patterns, the mechanism by which these patterns take place, and also consider how they will develop in future. I review the geopolitical nature of China as well as Chinese culture from ideology to values and norms, and in particular, the socio-political changes that occurred after the establishment of the Peoples Republic of China as background regarding the formation of Face and the place of consumption in current Chinese life. The recent rapid development of consumption in China and social needs in modern China increase the importance of identifying and conceptualising Consumption Face. This is from the basis that Chinese tend to strive for self-actualisation by using consumption to signal their social status and wealth. To do this on the basis of a broad literature review, this thesis aims to define Consumption Face and to develop a three-dimensional construct of it as a foundation for further analysis. Following the trend of globalisation and commercialisation after the late-1970s when China opened its economy, Chinese people were considered, or hypothesised by Western scholars and others, to be more Westernised. Young Chinese especially are now considered to be more individualistic, and thus less influenced by Face than was the situation in the former traditional collectivistic Chinese society. To study the influence of Consumption Face on consumption now and in the future, I conducted a series of studies to answer two questions: 1. To what extent does Consumption Face influence purchase decisions between different categories of products and brands? 2. To what extent does the influence of Consumption Face on purchase decisions differ between young consumers and preceding generations? To do this, I developed a Consumption Face Influence (CFI) measurement. I used this measurement construct to test different age cohorts for their consumption behaviour in regard to the purchase of luxuries and necessities. This test crossed the contexts of public consumption and private consumption. The test was also applied to measure CFI across the contexts of product categories and brands. The findings do not support the hypothesis that young Chinese consumers are less influenced by Consumption Face than their parents and older generations. CFI was even stronger for young Chinese than for their preceding generation for luxury consumption. The results also reveal that the dominant motivation for Chinese conspicuous consumption is not conspicuousness, but instead conformity. Simply using theories formulated by Western scholars to understand Chinese consumer behaviour may be misleading. Consequently, from a practical perspective, trading with China, doing business with Chinese, and undertaking marketing targeted at China, could and should engage and apply knowledge of Chinese consumption behaviour and understand behaviour related to Face. This thesis contributes to marketing literature by identifying and conceptualising a new type of social influence toward consumption patterns which is becoming vital in China but which tends to be overlooked due to its implicit attribute. My research verifies that Consumption Face exists and profoundly influences the purchasing behaviour of young modern Chinese. It also contributes to the Face research field by classifying different types of Face for future relevant research to help specify their research scope, and by adding one more conceptualisation to the theory: Consumption Face. The conceptualisation of Consumption Face provides a new tool to investigate and analyse Chinese marketing phenomena, both as applied by them and applied to them, within substantial and sound interpretive dimensions. The tool could complement relevant research that applies Western developed concepts. This thesis suggests a developed measurement set of CFI that can help further research in the future; not only the research of Chinese in China, but also research applying to Chinese immigrants in overseas countries as well as to cross-cultural studies applied to other ethnicities.

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  • Cultural Distance and Ethnic Migrant Entrepreneurship: A Qualitative Comparative Inquiry of Challenges, Resources and Opportunity Exploitation in Malaysia

    Abd Hamid, Hamizah (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The core puzzle in entrepreneurship studies is entrepreneurial opportunities (Suddaby, Bruton, & Si, 2015). In enhancing the understanding of entrepreneurial opportunities, this research explores how cultural similarities and differences between countries influence entrepreneurial activities in a selected host country. This study focuses on the experiences of ethnic migrant entrepreneurs (EMEs) from three migrant sending countries: Indonesia, Pakistan and South Korea (Korea hereafter), in a single host country, Malaysia. Cultural distance (CD) (Kogut & Singh, 1988) calculated using Hofstede’s (2015) indices is employed as a construct to illustrate cultural similarities and differences of country pairings, in which Indonesia as a country is most culturally similar to Malaysia, followed by Pakistan and Korea. The institutional approach (North, 1990; Scott, 2014) frames this study, particularly through North’s (1990, 2005) classification of formal and informal institutions, combined with Scott’s (1995, 2014) conceptualisation of regulative, normative and cognitive institutional pillars. The Forms of Capital model (Bourdieu, 1983; Nee & Sanders, 2001; Vershinina, Barrett, & Meyer, 2011) and the concept of entrepreneurial opportunities (Eckhardt & Shane, 2003; Shane, 2000, 2003; Shane & Venkataraman, 2000) provide complementing theoretical and conceptual basis for this research. Views from the field of ethnic migrant entrepreneurship are incorporated to deepen the contextualised understanding of this study. The rich and in-depth findings of the research are a result of adopting a qualitative approach employing multiple case studies (Eisenhardt, 1989; Yin, 2014), enabling a real-life investigation of the context based on detailed narratives (Flyvbjerg, 2006). The three migrant-sending countries are represented as three case studies for this research. This study relied on primary and secondary sources of data. Primary data were obtained from interviews with 32 EMEs in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Additionally, eight supplementary interviews were held with home country trade leaders in the host country, embassy representatives, community leaders and a trade representative from the host country’s official trade agency arm of the government. Secondary data sources, such as trade reports, business directories, community-based magazines and newspapers and websites, were used throughout the research for verification of interviewees’ statements where appropriate. The results of this study indicated that cultural similarities influence ethnic migrant entrepreneurship activities within three aspects: the institutional environment of the host country, sources of key business support and the exploitation of entrepreneurial opportunities. This study produced several propositions which can enrich the discussion on entrepreneurship in international settings. This research offers (a) a link in connecting the institutional-individual gap in discussing entrepreneurship through an institutional lens and (b) a more balanced view of culture in researching international business. As a growing field in international business, researchers are recommended to study underexplored countries, such as Malaysia, in assisting them in examining the selected entrepreneurship phenomenon (Terjesen, Hessels, & Li, 2016). Practice-wise, international entrepreneurs or entrepreneurs across borders will find this study beneficial for future undertakings of international ventures and this research will be useful for policymakers in tailoring trade-related policies in relation to the potential contributions of migration.

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  • Children in Care

    Atwool, Nicola (2010)

    Report
    University of Otago

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  • God and the Meaning of Matter: Theological Engagements with the New Materialisms

    Lewthwaite, Sonya Christine (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Post-structuralism and feminism have been uneasy allies in feminism’s third wave. Critics of feminism’s cultural turn are calling for a critical theory and emancipatory politics that takes materiality as its starting point, without losing the central insights gained in radical attention to the operation of power through language. This thesis explores the promise of the “new materialist” turn for addressing the crisis of post-structural emancipatory politics, and seeks a theological engagement with the ontological propositions of some central figures implicated in this theoretical shift, including Diana Coole and Karen Barad. Taking up Jane Bennett’s argument that Christianity is inherently dualistic and that divine transcendence supports a life/matter binary, this thesis uses Rowan Williams’s articulation of the doctrine of creation to respond to the implication that the Christian understanding of divine transcendence is incompatible with non-dichotomous accounts of culture and nature or meaning and matter. The doctrines of creation ex nihilo and divine transcendence (which assert a fundamental dichotomy, rather than a dualism, between God and creation) prompt us to think of creation as a material, finite, and vital whole. Williams’s theology of language moreover suggests that reflection on the non-dichotomy of matter and meaning may be one way into a reflection on the existence of a transcendent God.

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