89,537 results

  • Mountain Bike Experience and Affect

    Hagen, Scarlett (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This research explores mountain bike experiences, with an emphasis on the affective ride sensations that are felt when descending. The concept of affect negotiates the relationships between social history, the mountain bike subculture and riding practice. These contexts intertwine to enable the realisation of heightened and deep affective experiences. Utilising the voices of dedicated recreational mountain bikers, this thesis describes the functional exchanges in the mountain bike subculture. The complex social-body relationship is explored using Bourdieusian theories of field, habitus and capital. Such concepts provide a framework for examining the research material, and help connect the interview responses thematically. The mountain bike social history locates these relationships, and values the past in the creation of the narrative. The descriptive accounts from riders illustrate the role that affective sensations play in their involvement. The research follows a qualitative bricolage methodology, where phenomenology is nested within social constructivism. Dual methods were used to ensure the embodied phenomenological accounts were grounded in the social. The qualities of the mountain bike subculture, environment and trail components are encompassed in the complexity of lived affective experiences. Semi-structured interviews were used to gather data from 12 mountain bike riders. Using a postmodern lens, the researcher’s reflexivity is entwined in the research process and acts as a point of reference. The postmodern lens accounts for the fluid and flux nature of action sport, and appreciates the role of self-referentiality in deep conceptualisations of affect. The findings extend theoretical constituents on mountain biking by defining affect inducing terrain and obstacles. Affective terrain is examined, with individual obstacles such as jumps, drops, chutes and fast sections creating distinctive ride moments. The riders describe the affective sensations such as weightlessness, gravity acting in and on the body, and their primal cravings for speed. The results provide information for industry professionals to design and maintain mountain bike tracks that are desired by dedicated riders. Trail managers may use these insights for planning, site selection, terrain, gradient, elevation and the inclusion of specific obstacles. The findings highlight how the strongest ride affects are evoked by the accumulation of affective moments on various technical and challenging obstacles. The results found that affective assemblages are created through interlinking terrain-bike-body associations. The corpus of data provides richly textured descriptions of the sensuous mountain biking body, and extends theoretical strands for this affective action sport. This thesis contributes to theoretical knowledge in the areas of affective theorising, action sport, subcultural studies and mountain biking.

    View record details
  • Mana & Magna Carta: The New Zealand Experience of a Medieval Legacy

    Jones, C. (2016)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    View record details
  • The role of political ideology in the international mainstream news media framing of refugees and LGBT refugees

    Kenix, L.J.; Jarvandi, R. (2016)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    This research examines mainstream press coverage of refugees in general and the coverage of lesbian, gay and transsexual refugees in the international refugee crisis. This study is an attempt to further understand how various newspapers around the world actively, and perhaps ideologically, construct media frames. Articles about refugees and lesbian, gay and transsexual refugees were randomly sampled between 2011 and 2016 and analysed in accordance with their publication in 18 different mainstream news publications from The United States, Australia, and The United Kingdom. An effort was made to sample articles from opposing ends of the ideological political spectrum in mainstream news content. Two coders analysed articles to ascertain the presence of five news frames in coverage of the refugee crisis: attribution of responsibility, human interest, conflict, morality or economic frames. In addition to the presence of these five frames, this research also explored whether the level of responsibility for the refugee crisis was conceptualized at either the individual or governmental level. The results of this content analysis were then contrasted against the politically ideological categorization of each media outlet. Examining content at the ideological level of influence (Shoemaker & Reese, 2013) could reveal active media framing that may have very real, lived, consequences for lesbian, gay and transsexual refugees as well as refugees in general. Media representation also could influence how the rest of the world understands their plight and who is responsible for refugees as well as homosexual and transsexual refugees. This research explores the consequences of these findings for refugees and for the lesbian, gay and transsexual international community. Finally, the implications of these findings for objective newspaper reporting around the world are considered.

    View record details
  • The organizational-level communication of African LGBT refugee NGOs on social media

    Kenix, L.J.; Abikanlu, O.E. (2016)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    Roughly forty percent of countries continue to categorize homosexuality as illegal. Punishment ranges from imprisonment, fines, sanctions, beatings, to death. However, refugee status is still granted largely on the basis of the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, which found that the term refugee applies only to a person who has a “well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion.” Very few countries allow sexual orientation as grounds for refugee status given that applicants must prove that sexual orientation constitutes a ‘particular social group or political opinion’ as mandated by the 1951 Convention. There are nineteen countries that recognize persecution due to sexual orientation as a justified reason for gaining refugee status if an applicant can demonstrate a fear of persecution based on their membership in this particular social group. Canada was the first to recognize lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) refugees in 1991. The proportion of refugees who seek asylum due to their sexual orientation is extraordinarily low and applications are often unsuccessful.

    View record details
  • To react or deliberate? : the utility of New Zealand's counterinsurgent communication during the international campaign against terrorism.

    Rout, Matthew William (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis examines New Zealand’s counterinsurgent communication – that is, its press releases that focus on the ‘war on terror’ – from 9/11 for a period of ten years. The aim is to understand the effectiveness of a counterinsurgent’s press releases in an era where the number of key audiences in a counterinsurgency has grown and targeting any of them is near-impossible, with a particular focus on how the different requirements of each key audience compromises the utility of communication for others. The thesis identifies two narratives present in New Zealand’s counterinsurgent communication: the ‘deliberative’ and ‘reactive’. The former is understood to be honed by technocrats over time in a measured fashion – it is deliberated upon – while the latter is quickly crafted by politicians during the emotive shockwave that follows an attack – it is a reaction. It also proposes that these two narratives have differing functions, the deliberative serves to justify the counterinsurgent’s cause and legitimise them as an actor to both their own support population and the insurgent support population while the reactive helps control and direct the negative emotions generated by a terrorist attack within the counterinsurgent’s support audience, mobilises domestic support for action and also reinforces ingroup bonds with international allies. Using population-centric counterinsurgency theory combined with insights on insurgent’s strategies and the characteristics of counterinsurgents, it outlines five key opposing qualities that define these narratives. The thesis creates an analytical framework that fuses framing theory with these five opposing qualities and extracts the necessary data from a decade’s worth New Zealand government press releases given by the Prime Minster, Foreign Affairs Minister and Minister of Defence using content analysis. Each deliberative and reactive framing task is examined using a combination of qualitative and quantitative assessments to provide a comprehensive understanding of the utility of these two narratives with regard to three key audiences: the insurgent support population, the domestic audience and the allied audience. The findings suggest that these two different narratives to some degree, compromised the overall utility of New Zealand’s communication, specifically the justness of New Zealand’s cause and, consequently, their legitimacy as a counterinsurgent. Furthermore, the thesis argues that the reactive was of limited utility for the insurgent support audience, mixed utility for the domestic audience and utility for the allied audience, while the deliberative narrative was of utility for the insurgent support audience, mixed utility for the domestic audience and limited utility for allied audience. It also concludes that the reactive was used more frequently following attacks, to a wider international rather than domestic audience and its use declined over time while the deliberative was used more for the domestic audience and was used more consistently over the period than the reactive. Finally, it warns that while democracies may be suited to fighting conventional conflicts, they are not so well placed with regard to communicating in counterinsurgencies, particularly when they have low direct stakes and high indirect stakes.

    View record details
  • Crossing cultural boundaries or the embodiment of colonialism? Teaching the Middle Ages in New Zealand

    Jones, C. (2016)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    View record details
  • Reservoir computing approaches to EEG-based detection of microsleeps.

    Ayyagari, Sudhanshu (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Long-haul truck drivers, train drivers, and commercial airline pilots routinely experience monotonous and extended driving periods in a sedentary position, which has been associated with drowsiness, microsleeps, and serious accidents. Consequently, the detection and preferably prediction of the microsleeps in subjects working in these high-risk occupations is very important to workplace safety. Therefore, the aim of this project was EEG-based characterization and early detection of microsleeps during a sustained attention task. The overall approach was to identify reliable physiological cues of lapses of sustained attention and microsleeps, to develop a microsleep system which could be used to detect, or better yet, predict the onset of microsleeps in real time and trigger an alert to rouse the user from an impending microsleep. The main motivation of this project was to develop a state-of-the-art lapse detection system by employing novel classifier schemes based on reservoir computing (RC), specifically echo state networks (ESNs) with cascaded-leaky-integrator-neurons and liquid state machines (LSM) to increase current benchmark performances on microsleep detection. This is the first project and study to have implemented and evaluated EEG-based microsleep detection using RC models for the characterization and detection of microsleeps from the underlying EEG. Moreover, the novelty of the ESN-based cascaded-leaky-integrator neuron approach is in its simplicity (as networks with only 8 or less neurons could achieve optimal performance) and its superior microsleep detection performance. In this research, previously collected behavioral EEG data from fifteen healthy male, non-sleep-deprived volunteers performing a 1D-visuomotor tracking task for 1 hour, was used to form classifier models capable of detecting microsleeps with second-scale resolution. The performance of the microsleep detector was measured both in terms of its ability to detect the lapses-of-responsiveness states and microsleep states (in 1-s epochs). The previous lapse detection benchmark performance on this data, used a simple linear discriminant analysis (LDA)-based classifier, fitted with a meta-learner model. This LDA-based system reported the best performance in terms of its mean phi correlation (φ) = 0.39± 0.06, receiver operator characteristics. An epoch length of 2 s and an overlap window of 1 s (50%) between successive epochs were used in the analysis (AUC-ROC) = 0.86 ± 0.03, and precision recall (AUC-PR) = 0.43± 0.09. Models based on EEG power spectra, and power in the traditional bands, were used to detect the changes in the EEG during microsleeps. Normalized EEG epochs with z-scores > 30 were excluded from analysis, resulting in rejection of 8.3% of the epochs. This process was referred to as data pruning. Reduced features from 6 independent feature reduction schemes including, principal components analysis (PCA), kernel PCA (KPCA), probabilistic PCA (PPCA), symmetric neighbourhood embedding (SNE), Nearest neighbour embedding (NNE), and stochastic proximity embedding (SPE) were passed as an input to the classifier models. Classifier models evaluated included the RC-based models including the ESNs with sigmoidal neurons, cascaded ESNs with leaky-integrator neurons and LSMs. The RC-based models were compared to other standard classifier models, such as, support vector machines with polynomial kernel (SVMP), LDA, spiky neural networks (SNN), and k-nearest neighbour (KNN) classifiers. Best microsleep detection was achieved using cascaded ESNs with cascaded-leaky-integrator neurons and 50-60 PCs from PCA of the overall 544 power spectral features. This configuration resulted in φ = 0.51 ± 0.07 (mean ± SE), AUC-ROC = 0.88 ± 0.03, and AUC-PR = 0.44 ± 0.09. LSM-based detectors had a lower performance of φ = 0.42 ± 0.06, AUC-ROC = 0.83 ± 0.03, and AUC-PR = 0.43±0.06, compared to the cascaded-leaky-ESN approach. The PCA-based feature reduction modules showed the highest overall performances of the 6 feature-reduction schemes evaluated. This high performance of PCA-modules was found on all classifier schemes. PPCA-based methods followed the PCA schemes in terms of the best microsleep detection performances. Analysis also showed that creating multiple microsleep detection models (ensemble learning) and combining them to form an overall detector resulted in an improvement in performance over a single classifier model. Microsleep detection was also found to have higher accuracy than the other metrics of flatspots, video microsleeps and definite microsleeps. To study the effect of pruning the data, performances were determined for the classifiers when presented with unpruned data in its entirety for training. Performance was compared with a previous study which used a long short-term memory (LSTM) recurrent neural network (RNN) for which φ = 0.38 ± 0.07, AUC-ROC = 0.84 ± 0.02, and AUC-PR = 0.41 ± 0.08). Similar to the pruned datasets, ESNs with cascaded-leaky-integrator neuron models outperformed all the other classifier schemes and set a new benchmark for EEG-based microsleep detection of φ = 0.44 ± 0.06, AUC-ROC = 0.88 ± 0.04, and AUC-PR = 0.45 ± 0.09. This performance, albeit lower than for the pruned datasets, is deemed the best overall performance for microsleep detection as it was for the full behavioural dataset. In summary, the cascaded-leaky-integrator-ESN approach has provided a new benchmark performance for microsleep detection, which is significantly higher (p = 0.012) than by all previous approaches. Notwithstanding, the performance of these EEG‐based microsleep detection systems is still considered to be modest. Further research is needed to identify additional cues in the EEG leading to devices capable of more accurate detection and prediction of microsleeps.

    View record details
  • The effects of winter forage crop grazing of hillslopes on soil erosion in South Otago

    Penny, Veronica May

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Agricultural development has lead to deforestation, intensification and increased erosion worldwide. In New Zealand, increasing cow numbers has led to greater demand for forage crops to feed stock off-farm in winter. Expansion of dairying on flat land has pushed wintering systems on to rolling to steep land, particularly in the Southland and South Otago regions. While the impacts of forage crop grazing on soil compaction and overland flow of sediment and nutrients has been studied, there has been no previous work done on the direct influence of this farming practice on soil transport. This study used a novel technique to quantify the volume of soil transported downslope beneath the hooves of cows that were grazing kale over the 2015 winter period. Steel ball bearings were buried in the soil prior to grazing, and the distance they had moved was determined after winter, and used to infer soil transport. A linear relationship was found between soil transport flux and slope gradient of up to 0.25 m m-1, with stock track formation on steeper slopes causing greater spatial variability of soil transport rates and non systematic dependence of soil transport hillslope gradient; further research is required to describe this relationship. The steep slope of the relationship for gradients <0.25 indicates that rapid downslope transport occurs relative to gradient under forage crop grazing. This soil transport results in erosion on convex sites, at rates that exceed soil production rates, leading to unsustainable soil loss in these areas. Soil transport under conventional cultivation was also determined in this study, using the same methodology. No linear relationship was found between transport rates and gradient. However, despite the lack of relationship, downslope soil transport rates under cultivation exceeded those under cow grazing, indicating that significant soil transport results from this practice. The combination of soil transport under grazing and cultivation allows the impact of the forage crop grazing system as a whole to be understood.

    View record details
  • Organics in New Zealand: consumer perception and purchase behaviour of organic food

    Chamberlain, Hannah M.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of New Zealand consumer perception and purchase behaviour of organic food. Research in this area is of importance as the popularity of organic food has been increasing in New Zealand and many other countries. Many studies have investigated consumer perception of organic food in other countries, but there is limited literature available that is specific to New Zealand. Data was collected using a mixed method survey involving the mall-intercept technique and mail survey. A mall intercept survey of consumers was carried out in three locations around Christchurch, Canterbury, with a total of 97 respondents. 72 responses were obtained at the time of the mall intercepts. An additional 78 questionnaires with postage-paid return envelopes were given to consumers who did not have time to respond on the day, with 25 mail responses received. Descriptive (i.e. frequencies and averages) and inferential (i.e. one-way Anova and independent sample t-tests) statistics were used to analyse the data. This study contributes to knowledge about the perceptions and purchase behaviour of New Zealand consumers in regards to organic food. The most frequently bought organic food items are fruit/vegetables, followed by dairy and meat/eggs. The most important benefits of organic food perceived by New Zealand consumers were found to be health and well-being of current and future generations, animal welfare protection, no/minimal pesticides, no/minimal food additives and good taste. The biggest barrier to the purchase of organic food for New Zealand consumers was shown to be high price, followed by limited availability of organic food and limited choice/variety of organic food options. Except for gender, demographic factors were generally not found to have a statistically significant effect on consumer perception or purchase behaviour for organic food. The results of an independent sample T-test indicate a statistically significant relationship between gender and the importance placed on the attributes of more nutritious, health benefits, no/minimal fertilisers, no/minimal food additives and animal welfare protection. The means for these attributes suggested that they were significantly more important to women than to men. The only significant result to take note of for the effect of income would be for the attribute of biodiversity protection. The calculated means suggested that biodiversity protection was significantly less important to respondents with a high income. The attributes no/minimal pesticides and climate protection were significantly more important to the group of respondents with undergraduate degrees. The conclusions of this study indicate which attributes are the most important to consider in future research of the production of organic food for New Zealand consumers, and give an indication of the attributes that should be emphasised in the marketing of organic food in New Zealand. Key words: consumer perceptions, New Zealand, organic food, purchase behaviour

    View record details
  • Vulnerability of transients and freedom campers in uncontrolled camping grounds: Coes and Chamberlains Fords

    Winchester, Henry

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Transient communities throughout the country are faced with the same risks as other fixed communities. However, how are these risks communicated and how vulnerable are these communities? Many families in New Zealand travel to locations their families have been visiting for generations. Within Canterbury, there are many locations where this phenonemon occurs. This research investigated Coes Ford and Chamberlains Ford, which are located along the Selwyn River in Canterbury, New Zealand. This research has three aims: first, to understand the hazards and risks that are present at both Coes Ford and Chamberlains Ford; secondly, to understand how these hazards and risks are communicated through various means; and, thirdly, based on the research, to develop a framework that improves the assessment and communication of risk to transients at Coes Ford and Chamberlains Ford and similar sites. In order to achieve these aims a review of the current hazard management literature defining risk, resilience, preparedness and vulnerability of transients, helped assist and develop the transient community vulnerability assessment framework. Along with a review of the literature, questionnaires, field observations and interviews were used to understand the hazards present and the community at each sites. The transient framework developed helped in understanding each site in regard to the makeup of each location, the hazards present and the potential impact of an adverse event. The results indicated that there were substantive differences between the Coes Ford and Chamberlains Ford communities. These were that there was a number of international visitors at both sites, with both sites having the majority of visitors from Europe. The majority of these visitors were aged between 18 and 34. The ethnic makeup of both the Coes Ford and Chamberlains Fords communities, when comparing their awareness of water quality and flooding issues, saw the Europeans the least aware of the potential of adverse events occurring, but they had the most awareness of and knew where to check if such an event was likely which could be due to the number of responders. This study concluded that the awareness of hazards in transient communities’ changes and there was a need to be aware that not all communities were homogeneous, as each transient community was different and this has been reflected in the findings of this research.

    View record details
  • Multi-scale analysis of carbon stocks and process indicators in the agro-ecosystem of Canterbury, New Zealand

    Welsch, Johannes

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Increasing interest in characterising carbon dynamics in the agricultural landscape has been driven by the clear need for greenhouse gas mitigation strategies in response to global climate change. However, little quantitative information is available about carbon stocks and processes in agro-ecosystems. Better understanding of carbon stocks and processes is of particular importance in New Zealand, where farmland occupies large areas across the country and ongoing change in farming practices, land management and intensification are affecting carbon stocks and processes and ultimately, agricultural sustainability. This study aimed to quantify and understand variation in above- and below-ground carbon stocks and processes in shelterbelts and paddocks at multiple scales within the agro-ecosystem of Canterbury, New Zealand. In an initial pilot study across four farms showed that variability in above- and below-ground carbon stocks among-farms was smaller than between shelterbelt and paddocks. Using this knowledge to determine appropriate sampling intensity, I quantified carbon stocks and processes within shelterbelts across 34 farms, focussing particularly on understanding how within-shelterbelt-scale (e.g. soil moisture, pH), shelterbelt-scale (e.g. shelterbelt type, age, and tree biomass), farm-scale (e.g. land use) and landscape-scale (e.g. soil type) factors was related to variability of these variables. Total above- and below-ground carbon pools in shelterbelts were similar for exotic and native shelterbelts (152.6 ± 131 t C ha-1 and 110.8 ± 128 t C ha-1, respectively [mean ± standard errors]), although native shelterbelts were on average half the age of exotic shelterbelts (16 and 27 years, respectively). The above-ground biomass carbon pool represented about 62% and soil carbon pool 33% in both native and exotic shelterbelts. Most variability in carbon stocks was explained at the shelterbelt scale by shelterbelt type, age and size, whereas farm scale played a minor role and soil type was unimportant. Carbon cycle processes varied primarily at the shelterbelt and paddock level. Leaf litter decomposition and microbial activity were twice as high and invertebrates were more active in native shelterbelts compared to exotic shelterbelts, and variability in these indicators were best explained by within-shelterbelt factors (e.g., soil moisture, pH, organic and labile carbon) and shelterbelt characteristics (age, biomass, and vegetation type). Therefore, above-ground shelterbelt-scale factors drive carbon cycle process indicator rates and biological activity in the Canterbury agro-ecosystem, rather than land use or landscape factors. These field data were used in GIS-based spatial carbon model which expored and evaluated a number of agricultural land use, cover and management scenarios and their impact on soil carbon stocks over the enxt 10 years (2014 – 2024) in combination with quantifying the amount of shelterbelt area needed to offset the potential soil carbon loss. While the model default settings predicted an increase in soil carbon stocks, the literature based alternative scenarios, commonly predicted a decrease of 10%, 6%, 34% in soil carbon stocks in the alternative dairy, sheep and beef and arable scenarios. This study shows that native shelterbelts in agro-ecosystems have considerable potential for increasing carbon pools and enhancing carbon cycle process, particularly as they age through time. Contrary to current assessments, this study was not able to provide definate evidence on the effect of further intensification and land clearing on carbon stocks in Canterbury. Future studies should include long-term investigation of carbon stocks and processes across a wider variety of shelterbelt and farm types.

    View record details
  • Hearth and Home: A History of the Rural Kitchen in New Zealand, 1840-1940

    Cooper, Catherine Elizabeth (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Taking as its basic assumption the belief that there are vital cultural insights to be found in the details of the daily round, this research examines everyday patterns of life for rural Pākehā and Māori families in New Zealand between 1840 and 1940. It intersects fundamental quotidian routines at a particular point of coalescence, using the kitchen space as a framing device to capture some of the key processes by which rural people produced, cooked, and shared food. The kitchen was the nexus of a web of social relations that stretched across and connected distant places, but it was also a space in which intimate personal relationships could be built and fostered. As such, it is the perfect vantage point from which to examine the overarching structures of the rural economy and rural society while also capturing the diversity of individual experiences. Divided into six thematic chapters, the thesis begins with a reconstruction of the historical kitchen space. Utilising personal manuscripts, housing reports, and photographs, Chapter One integrates material, emotional, and symbolic constructions of the kitchen to consider what it has meant to be “at home” in New Zealand, and how that manifested in the form and function of rural kitchens. The three chapters that follow examine key processes which animated the space, following the logical progression of provisioning, cooking, and eating. Chapter Two reconstructs food gathering systems to demonstrate the physiological and psychological importance of land to rural people, offering stories of adaptability, resourcefulness, and survival within a broader narrative of dispossession and dispute. Chapter Three traces the development of cooking technology from open fire to electric oven, but highlights important economic, cultural, infrastructural, and personal reasons why this progression was not unilinear or universal. Chapter Four considers meals as social rituals, arguing that the sharing of food has been an important mechanism for the formation and maintenance of community relationships in rural New Zealand. Chapter Five analyses the dissemination of knowledge about food and cookery in New Zealand communities, assessing not only what sources of information were available to rural people but also how they incorporated that knowledge into their daily practices. Finally, Chapter Six offers various perspectives on the labour rural women performed within the structures of the home and family, arguing that the kitchen was not necessarily a stultifying place of work as subsequent historical analyses have suggested, and that many women found satisfaction in their domestic tasks. Evincing the central importance of food and foodways in shaping our homes, daily routines, and communities, this thesis offers a searching look in through the window of the historical kitchen, showing individuals at work and at rest, capturing moments of sorrow and joy, and demonstrating the enduring social and cultural significance of the ritual of breaking bread. The rhythms and routines of country life are brought into sharp focus, revealing the important insights that may be reaped by bringing together rurality, race, and gender as intersecting forms of cultural difference: heretofore largely untilled ground in New Zealand history.

    View record details
  • Opportunity Identification and Exploitation for Technology Commercialization across Borders

    Nadayama, Naoto (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    MNEs’ technology commercialization across borders is a challenging task, because it involves high uncertainty in relation to both new technologies and foreign markets. Even if they develop a potential technology, they cannot easily identify where the technology could be a source of competitive advantage in the world. Scholars of technological innovation and also scholars of international business discuss that MNEs need to organize opportunity identification and exploitation for new business development under uncertainty. To contribute to the discussion, this thesis aims to analyze a dynamic process in which an MNE identifies and exploits new business opportunities in foreign markets with their own technologies. Specifically, it focuses on administrative aspects, analyzing organizational process as an organizational mechanism in an MNE. This thesis explores an empirical study through a single case of Valio Limited, a Finnish dairy product manufacturer. Data about technology commercialization in the case company was collected by semi-structured interviews and secondary data. After a description about an empirical context of the case, I described and analyzed organizational processes for technology commercialization with respect to opportunity identification and exploitation. In addition, I analyzed how the case company’s three technologies were commercialized on the basis of the organizational processes. Firstly, this thesis finds out that the case company’s technology commercialization is organized by an organizational process for domestic business, as well as by two kinds of organizational processes for international business: “deliberate approach” and “serendipitous approach”. While the case company deliberately identifies new business opportunities in the strategic foreign countries, it also identifies the opportunities by serendipity in foreign countries that are not strategically important. Secondly, this thesis finds out that three technologies of the case company were commercialized in an idiosyncratic internationalization path, even though their commercialization was based on the same organizational processes. It would be because an actual process of opportunity identification and exploitation in MNEs would be influenced by managerial decision making about each opportunity under uncertainty, with various factors as well as managerial cognition. Thirdly, this thesis finds out that the decision making is influenced by managers’ evolutionary learning of opportunity, from the MNE’s existing commercialization of the technology in home/foreign countries. Furthermore, it is also influenced by co-evolutionary learning of the opportunity with external players. Finally and most essentially, on the basis of these findings, this thesis is concluded with a proposition of a framework about MNEs’ internationalization with the utilization of strategic resources. In this framework, MNEs’ internationalization is analyzed as a dynamic process of opportunity identification and exploitation under uncertainty.

    View record details
  • Kripke’s Wittgenstein’s Sceptical Solution and Donald Davidson’s Philosophy of Language

    Hossein Khani, Ali (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This thesis is an attempt to investigate the relation between the views of Wittgenstein as presented by Kripke (Kripke’s Wittgenstein) and Donald Davidson on meaning and linguistic understanding. Kripke’s Wittgenstein, via his sceptical argument, argues that there is no fact about which rule a speaker is following in using a linguistic expression. Now, if one urges that meaning something by a word is essentially a matter of following one rule rather than another, the sceptical argument leads to the radical sceptical conclusion that there is no such thing as meaning anything by any word. According to the solution Kripke’s Wittgenstein proposes, we must instead concentrate on the ordinary practice of meaning-attribution, that is, on the conditions under which we can justifiably ascribe meaning to each other and the utility such a practice has in our life. Davidson has also argued that following rules is neither necessary nor sufficient for explaining success in the practice of meaning something by an utterance. According to his alternative view of meaning, a speaker’s success in this practice is fundamentally a matter of his utterance being successfully interpreted by an interpreter in the way the speaker intended. On the basis of these remarks, Davidson raises objections to Kripke’s Wittgenstein’s sceptical argument and solution. In this thesis, I will argue that Davidson has failed to fully grasp the essentially sceptical nature of the argument and solution proposed by Kripke’s Wittgenstein. I will argue that as a result of this Davidson’s objections and his alternative solution to Kripke’s Wittgenstein’s sceptical argument are mistaken. These criticisms are pursued via an investigation of Davidson’s problematic reading of Quine’s sceptical arguments for the thesis of the indeterminacy of translation. Having criticized Davidson’s actual response to Kripke’s Wittgenstein, I will claim that Davidson’s best option for resisting the sceptical problem is to adopt a form of non-reductionism about meaning. Claudine Verheggen’s recent claim that Davidson’s use of the notion of triangulation will help to establish non-reductionism will be argued to be a failure. I will urge that the main obstacle in defending a non-reductionist view is the problem of accounting for the nature of self-knowledge of meaning and understanding. After discussing Davidson’s account of self-knowledge and Crispin Wright’s objection to this account, I will argue that, although Wright’s objection is ultimately unsuccessful, Davidson’s account fails for other reasons. Finally, I tentatively suggest that the resources for an alternative response to the sceptical problem can possibly be extracted from Davidson’s account of intending, which has some features suggestive of a judgement-dependent account of meaning and intention.

    View record details
  • Tag it!: AR annotation using wearable sensors

    Nassani, A.; Bai, H.; Lee, G.; Billinghurst, M. (2015)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    In this paper we describe a wearable system that allows people to place and interact with 3D virtual tags placed around them. This uses two wearable technologies: a head-worn wearable computer (Google Glass) and a chest-worn depth sensor (Tango). The Google Glass is used to generate and display virtual information to the user, while the Tango is used to provide robust indoor position tracking for the Glass. The Tango enables spatial awareness of the surrounding world using various motion sensors including 3D depth sensing, an accelerometer and a motion tracking camera. Using these systems together allows users to create a virtual tag via voice input and then register this tag to a physical object or position in 3D space as an augmented annotation. We describe the design and implementation of the system, user feedback, research implications, and directions for future work.

    View record details
  • Communication between Engineers: Information flow interactions between engineers

    Bagalkot, A.; Pons, D. (2016)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    Intense competition in Industries calls for new products to be developed in lesser time. Concurrent engineering is regarded as one of the best practices to achieve this. As projects become geographically dispersed, communication as well as coordination and awareness can be impeded by the spatial and temporal barriers.

    View record details
  • Engineers perceptions of confidential information

    Balasubramanian, V.; Pons, D. (2016)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    PROBLEM: Professional engineers are expected, by their code of ethics to not disclose confidential information of the employer or client. However the codes and the literature are largely silent on what exactly comprises confidential information. NEED: There is a need to better understand what type of employer/client information is confidential in the engineering context. The purpose of this project was to determine what types of information are important. APPROACH: Practising engineers were survey by a questionnaire. Results were analysed statistically. FINDINGS: Key results: The definition of confidential information in the engineering context is complex. Large organisations feel they can clearly distinguish between trade secrets and information that is free to reuse, compared to small organisations. Engineering graduates feel they can take away knowledge of quality systems, whereas engineering managers feel not. Mechanical engineers feel they can take away customer needs and problems in the product, whereas civil engineers not. ORIGINALITY: The work determines what types of information are important, and what importance engineers assign to this information, in different situations.

    View record details
  • QuakeCoRE and NeSI's strategic partnership towards earthquake resilience via High Performance Computing

    Clare, R.M.; Bradley, B.A.; Sun, D.; Bae, S.; McGann, C. (2016)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    QuakeCoRE is a Centre of Research Excellence fostering innovative research in earthquake resilience for New Zealand. Significant portions of this research require large-scale computationally-intensive numerical simulations of the following three modules: (1) Earthquake-induced ground motion shaking over a region, (2) Deformations and damage to the built environment from this shaking, (3) Environmental, economic, and social impacts as a result of built environment damage. A desired paradigm shift in these simulation modules is being undertaken via collaboration between QuakeCoRE and NeSI, using parallelised computing on NeSI HPC resources and inter-disciplinary scientific workflows. This poster provides an overview of the numerical computations both currently undertaken, and envisaged in the future, for these three major numerical simulation modules and how they are intended to both grow the capability of leading researchers, as well as increase the utilization of scientific tools by the wider QuakeCoRE researcher community.

    View record details
  • Green Thoughts: The Forms, Affordances, and Politics of Garden Poetry

    Arthur, Jake (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The garden is a rich site for framing the flows and contestations of culture because it is, on the one hand, a social practice with its own extensive history, methods, and concerns, and, on the other, a rich literary image. This interwoven history makes it a worthwhile object of study, but it has also resulted in studies that are either decidedly broad, very specific, or that focus exclusively on one kind of garden at the expense of the other. This thesis seeks to address these obstacles by challenging the line between real gardens and their images. Applying a novel working definition of “form”, I argue that the constituent forms of real gardens can be conceptualised as a set of meaning-bearing resources which enable, when represented, kinds of figurative meanings. This thesis considers the real garden as reducible to three forms essential to all gardens: enclosure, internal arrangement, and cultivation by a gardener. Such a distillation allows us to interrogate persistent meanings of the garden image across literatures by fixing it as an object of inquiry. These three forms, I argue, enable political meanings, figuring the relationship of individuals to greater systems or wholes, their arrangement of elements, and dramatising the operation and limits of power. However, those forms have been emphasised, represented, and ultimately signified differently in images of various provenance and in various writers’ hands. My chapters trace the garden’s persistent forms across time and place. Two of my chapters address Civil War England. The first considers how gardens respond to a specific discursive context to imagine a dystopian state in Andrew Marvell’s “The Mower against Gardens” and the potential for utopian change in “The Garden”. In my second chapter, I turn to Lucy Hutchinson’s “Elegies”, considering how her poetic garden operates within the elegy and country house genres and responds to literary precedents like Marvell’s “Upon Appleton House” to characterise a grief that is intractably personal and political. My final two chapters shift in time and place to consider twentieth- and twenty-first-century New Zealand poetry, analysing in the third chapter the turn away from colonial settler verse in Ursula Bethell’s poetry towards the domestic garden as a site of home and belonging. Finally, my last chapter considers Jenny Bornholdt’s contemporary New Zealand verse, in which the garden image dramatises the power imbalance and artifice intrinsic to poetry itself. This thesis therefore seeks to produce general knowledge about how the garden, through its forms, can mean, while also producing specific knowledge about how garden images have meant in particular texts across different contexts. I argue that these are not contrary aims: a new approach to the garden as a set of forms proves an incisive tool with which to understand this important and variegated image.

    View record details
  • Investigating the Effects of Oocytes on Proliferation Rate and Gene Expression of Mouse Ovarian Surface Epithelium-Derived Cancer Lines

    Armstrong, Gina (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The origin of the most common form of ovarian cancer (OC), epithelial OC (EOC), remains a contentious issue. Due to disease heterogeneity, EOC is unlikely to originate from a single progenitor. This research explores an alternative hypothesis for the origin of EOC. During ovarian development, granulosa cells (GC) recruited from the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) associate with oocytes. During follicular growth, oocyte-secreted growth factors (OSF) facilitate GC phenotype and function. Thus, if oocytes are lost prematurely from non-growing follicles, naïve GC remain. These cells, devoid of their germ cell regulator, may proliferate leading to neoplastic transformation and heterogeneous tumour phenotypes. This study aimed to elucidate the effects of OSF on (i) proliferation of, and (ii) candidate gene expression in, two mouse OSE-derived cancer cell lines, namely mOSE T2 (p53-/-/Akt/c-myc) and BR (p53-/-/Brca1-/-/Akt/c-myc). The OSF tested were oocyte-secreted media (OSM) containing rat OSF, as well recombinant (rec) porcine (p) BMP15 and pGDF9. Tritiated-thymidine uptake was used as a measure of cell proliferation and quantitative PCR was performed to measure gene expression levels of Cdh1 (epithelial marker), Foxl2 (granulosa cell marker), Dab2 and Muc16 (cancer markers). Exposure of mOSE T2 cells to OSM, but not rec pBMP15+pGDF9, resulted in decreased (P<0.02) in Muc16 mRNA levels was observed only in the T2 cell line incubated with OSM, but not rec pBMP15+pGDF9 and the BR cell line remained unaffected. Interestingly, Muc16 and Bmpr2 mRNA levels were lower overall in the mOSE BR, compared to the T2, cell line. In summary, both proliferation rate and expression levels of the tumourigenesis marker Muc16 were reduced in the mOSE T2 cell line after the addition of OSF. This supports the alternative hypothesis that proliferation of naïve OSE-derived GC is kept in check by OSF however, upon premature loss of oocytes or more specifically in the absence of OSF, these cells may proliferate and develop into EOC. Importantly, OSF were unable to suppress proliferation rate and Muc16 mRNA levels in cancer cells with a Brac1 mutation.

    View record details