88,783 results

  • Green Thoughts: The Forms, Affordances, and Politics of Garden Poetry

    Arthur, Jake (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The garden is a rich site for framing the flows and contestations of culture because it is, on the one hand, a social practice with its own extensive history, methods, and concerns, and, on the other, a rich literary image. This interwoven history makes it a worthwhile object of study, but it has also resulted in studies that are either decidedly broad, very specific, or that focus exclusively on one kind of garden at the expense of the other. This thesis seeks to address these obstacles by challenging the line between real gardens and their images. Applying a novel working definition of “form”, I argue that the constituent forms of real gardens can be conceptualised as a set of meaning-bearing resources which enable, when represented, kinds of figurative meanings. This thesis considers the real garden as reducible to three forms essential to all gardens: enclosure, internal arrangement, and cultivation by a gardener. Such a distillation allows us to interrogate persistent meanings of the garden image across literatures by fixing it as an object of inquiry. These three forms, I argue, enable political meanings, figuring the relationship of individuals to greater systems or wholes, their arrangement of elements, and dramatising the operation and limits of power. However, those forms have been emphasised, represented, and ultimately signified differently in images of various provenance and in various writers’ hands. My chapters trace the garden’s persistent forms across time and place. Two of my chapters address Civil War England. The first considers how gardens respond to a specific discursive context to imagine a dystopian state in Andrew Marvell’s “The Mower against Gardens” and the potential for utopian change in “The Garden”. In my second chapter, I turn to Lucy Hutchinson’s “Elegies”, considering how her poetic garden operates within the elegy and country house genres and responds to literary precedents like Marvell’s “Upon Appleton House” to characterise a grief that is intractably personal and political. My final two chapters shift in time and place to consider twentieth- and twenty-first-century New Zealand poetry, analysing in the third chapter the turn away from colonial settler verse in Ursula Bethell’s poetry towards the domestic garden as a site of home and belonging. Finally, my last chapter considers Jenny Bornholdt’s contemporary New Zealand verse, in which the garden image dramatises the power imbalance and artifice intrinsic to poetry itself. This thesis therefore seeks to produce general knowledge about how the garden, through its forms, can mean, while also producing specific knowledge about how garden images have meant in particular texts across different contexts. I argue that these are not contrary aims: a new approach to the garden as a set of forms proves an incisive tool with which to understand this important and variegated image.

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  • Investigating the Effects of Oocytes on Proliferation Rate and Gene Expression of Mouse Ovarian Surface Epithelium-Derived Cancer Lines

    Armstrong, Gina (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The origin of the most common form of ovarian cancer (OC), epithelial OC (EOC), remains a contentious issue. Due to disease heterogeneity, EOC is unlikely to originate from a single progenitor. This research explores an alternative hypothesis for the origin of EOC. During ovarian development, granulosa cells (GC) recruited from the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) associate with oocytes. During follicular growth, oocyte-secreted growth factors (OSF) facilitate GC phenotype and function. Thus, if oocytes are lost prematurely from non-growing follicles, naïve GC remain. These cells, devoid of their germ cell regulator, may proliferate leading to neoplastic transformation and heterogeneous tumour phenotypes. This study aimed to elucidate the effects of OSF on (i) proliferation of, and (ii) candidate gene expression in, two mouse OSE-derived cancer cell lines, namely mOSE T2 (p53-/-/Akt/c-myc) and BR (p53-/-/Brca1-/-/Akt/c-myc). The OSF tested were oocyte-secreted media (OSM) containing rat OSF, as well recombinant (rec) porcine (p) BMP15 and pGDF9. Tritiated-thymidine uptake was used as a measure of cell proliferation and quantitative PCR was performed to measure gene expression levels of Cdh1 (epithelial marker), Foxl2 (granulosa cell marker), Dab2 and Muc16 (cancer markers). Exposure of mOSE T2 cells to OSM, but not rec pBMP15+pGDF9, resulted in decreased (P<0.02) in Muc16 mRNA levels was observed only in the T2 cell line incubated with OSM, but not rec pBMP15+pGDF9 and the BR cell line remained unaffected. Interestingly, Muc16 and Bmpr2 mRNA levels were lower overall in the mOSE BR, compared to the T2, cell line. In summary, both proliferation rate and expression levels of the tumourigenesis marker Muc16 were reduced in the mOSE T2 cell line after the addition of OSF. This supports the alternative hypothesis that proliferation of naïve OSE-derived GC is kept in check by OSF however, upon premature loss of oocytes or more specifically in the absence of OSF, these cells may proliferate and develop into EOC. Importantly, OSF were unable to suppress proliferation rate and Muc16 mRNA levels in cancer cells with a Brac1 mutation.

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  • Towards the Making of User Friendly Public Space in China: An Investigation of the Use and Spatial Patterns of Newly Developed Small and Medium-Sized Urban Public Squares in Guangzhou and Shenzhen

    Nguyen, Ngoc Minh (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis investigates how new small and medium-sized public squares are designed and used on a daily basis in Guangzhou and Shenzhen, two major cities in the Pearl River Delta, China. Given an extreme lack of open public space in these cities, these newly developed public space are expected to improve the life of millions of Chinese urban citizens; however, many of them are frequently criticised as inconvenient for users. How to improve the performance of these small and medium-sized public squares is therefore a critical issue faced by the city planners and designers. However, to dates, academic studies of public space in China are primarily focused on the architectural expression of the space or the development of the ‘public sphere’ in China. Hence, information about the actual use of small and medium-sized public squares in China is virtually absent. In order to fill this gap in knowledge on how these new public space are designed and used, this thesis examines 13 small and medium-sized public squares that have been (re)developed over the last 15 years in Guangzhou and Shenzhen using primarily the space syntax methodology, including direct (non-participant) observations and space syntax analysis techniques. The thesis focuses on the examination of three aspects: static occupancy and its relation to actual physical settings, transient use of the space and its relation to urban configuration, and the location preferences by Chinese users and the underlying visual logic. The findings from this thesis document a significantly different way of using public squares in China, as compared to their Western counterparts. Specifically, these spaces are used primarily by the elderly and organised activity groups. This collective way of using public space in China in combination with a wide range of cultural specific activities such as “exercising”, “babysitting”, “playing chess/cards” and “group-singing” has resulted in different spatial use patterns. In particular, this thesis has documented a strong preference for visually exposed locations, with much activity occurring at the centre rather than at the edges of public space, which are the most popular locations in public space in the West. Apart from providing valuable insights about the use and design patterns of small and medium-sized public squares, this research also proposes a number of spatial principles that could provide some guidance for designers and policy makers in the making of more user friendly public space in China in the future. Last but not least, findings of this thesis also hope to stimulate further studies of public space in China, especially those using Space Syntax methods.

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  • Hypercommercial Television: An Introduction

    Johnson, R

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    This paper examines the introduction and spread of hypercommercial broadcasting on free-to-air television in New Zealand. It begins by defining the key terms and then moves to outline the circumstances under which such broadcasting developed. Drawing on a content analysis of television schedules, the paper will show the rapidity and extent to which networks chose to screen hypercommercial television forms with a specific focus on two particular examples of the genre.

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  • A Novel Method for Decentralised Peer-to-peer Software License Validation Using Cryptocurrency Blockchain Technology

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    Protecting software copyright has been an issue since the late 1970’s, and software license validation has been a primary method employed in an attempt to minimise software piracy and protect software copyright. This paper presents a novel method for decentralised peer-to-peer software license validation using cryptocurrency blockchain technology to ameliorate software piracy, and to provide a mechanism for all software developers to protect their copyrighted works.

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  • Faito'o Fakatonga: The Visual Practice of Traditional Medicine Making and Healing Practices From Tonga to Aotearoa

    Finau, Malia Lesieli

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This project is a moving image art project using the concept of Veitalatala (poetic documentary) (as defined by Talita Toluta’u (2014) that will explore faito’o (traditional medicine) and kau faito’o (native doctors), the practice of medicine making and healing practices from the Pacific to Aotearoa . This project will focus on telling stories of the Tongan matrilineal history of faito’o, the passing on of knowledge and how this is maintained today. I am a first generation New Zealand born Tongan living in Aotearoa. I will first explore the medicinal plants and their cultivation, how they are used and made into medicines in the country of origin, Tonga, then explore the new and different plants that are used by the kau faito’o in Aotearoa. This project focuses on traditional medicine making and healing practice from the Pacific to Aotearoa by exploring the hands of expert medicine makers and how processes of making are repeated, with bodily tacit knowledge. This research has developed into an interest in how practices are culturally maintained across generations in the Pacific. The time it takes to make medicine from plants and the patience of the maker are explored poetically through duration and extended footage. Narratives of making and of plant knowledge in particular are the focus of this project.

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  • Male relationship building that makes women roll their eyes: Implications for social work

    Eketone, Anaru (2008)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Since 1994 I have worked in three sectors dominated by women: health promotion, social work and social work education. One of the tasks when working in these female-dominated fields is that to maintain any sort of credibility you need to act and talk in ways that do not offend women. One of the personal challenges I have faced is to work in these areas and still find ways of meeting the need I have to still be a ‘bloke’. Even within my own household I am the only male (that includes the dog), so privately you hold on to your masculinity, i.e. the socially defined roles, through being a husband and father. But I have also found the need to express myself physically – very occasionally through physical work, but more often through sport, mau rakau and even watching physical sport. (For Valentine’s Day I bought my wife a season ticket to watch rugby at Carisbrook; she returned the favour by giving me a season ticket to our local symphony orchestra.) There is not a great deal written about social work and Maori masculinity. This article seeks to discuss issues around some of the differences in the ways that many males choose to interact with each other and the implications this type of masculinity has for social work practice. Four examples will be described of a particular version of masculine ways of relating, which will be followed by a discussion.

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  • Parenting Adopted Children and Supporting Adoptive Parents: Messages from Research

    Gibbs, Anita (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    This article considers adoption from the perspective of parents, especially the strategies that they employ to enhance attachments and build positive parent-child relationships. The article draws particularly on recent New Zealand research regarding intercountry adoptive parenting, as well as overseas literature on good adoptive parenting practice generally in domestic and intercountry adoption. It also considers the research on methods of supporting parents who adopt and whether there are gaps in legislation, policy or practice in New Zealand that could be closed by borrowing from good examples in the literature, and, or current practice examples. The author is an adoptive parent of Russian-born children and is actively involved in adoptive parent support networks.

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  • Participation in decision-making: The experience of New Zealand children in care

    Atwool, Nicola (2006)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    One of the objections to a children's rights perspective is that children are unable to accept the responsibilities that go with rights. If children are to attain the status of citizens and exercise the responsibilities of citizenship, participation during childhood is essential. Yet children are frequently excluded when important decisions have to be made. This paper examines children's participation in decision-making from the perspective of New Zealand children in care. The paper discusses the importance of children's participation in decision-making, outlines the current situation in New Zealand, and identifies both the blocks to children's participation and the resulting consequences. Particular attention is paid to the implications of this perspective for New Zealand's indigenous population. The paper presents arguments in favour of increasing children's participation and suggests changes necessary to achieve this.

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  • Te Waka Tangata: Using Waka as a Model for the Structures of Maori Organisation

    Eketone, Anaru (2002)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Peer Reviewed

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  • Life Story Work: Optional extra or fundamental entitlement?

    Atwool, Nicola (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    In Aotearoa New Zealand the importance of life story books is outlined in the policy of our statutory care and protection agency Child, Youth and Family. Many children in care do not have access to such a resource, however, suggesting that social workers view this as an optional extra or “nice to have” rather than integral to good practice. This article begins with an outline of practice in Aotearoa New Zealand. The function and purpose of life story work and theoretical underpinnings are explored in order to address the question posed in the article's title. I argue that life story work is a fundamental entitlement which is often overlooked in practice. The article concludes with a discussion of dilemmas and challenges before identifying changes needed in the New Zealand context.

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  • Birth Family contact for children in care: How much? How often? Who with?

    Atwool, Nicola (2013)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Irrespective of type of placement, contact with the birth family is one of the more contentious issues in decision-making for children in care. Despite widespread belief that contact with the birth family is beneficial for children and young people in care, this aspect of children's care experience has not received a great deal of attention. In this article I review the literature and draw on research I have undertaken to explore the views of children and young people in care, foster parents, and social work practitioners. The complexity of belonging to more than one family is discussed and tensions in relation to contact with the birth family are identified. It becomes clear that each situation is unique and that there is no “rule of thumb” that can be applied. Five key variables are identified: child or young person's developmental stage and history; child or young person's views and wishes; type of placement and future goals; cultural factors; and work with birth families. Practice guidelines in relation to these are developed in the final section.

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  • The Power of One: Why Auto-Ethnography, Solo Service-User Voice, and Reflective Case Study Analysis are Useful Strategies for Researching Family-Centred Social Work Practice

    Gibbs, Anita (2013)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Family-centred social work practitioners often reflect upon and talk about their everyday work with families, but they rarely write about it, other than in case notes or for formal reports. If social work practitioners were to adopt a range of easy-to-use research strategies that focus on either one service-user, or one family case, or one practitioner experience, then they may be empowered to write and publish more about their work. This may then lead to a series of practitioner pieces aimed at improving knowledge and methods in family-centred social work practice. This article explores three ‘One Voice strategies’: those of auto-ethnography, solo service-user voice and reflective case study analysis, and their usefulness to researching family-centred social work practice. It argues that using such strategies are valid in everyday social work and that practitioners can make a difference to our knowledge of effectiveness in practice by telling us about just one story – the power of one!

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  • Child protection and out of home care: Policy, practice and research connections Australia and New Zealand

    Fernandez, Elizabeth; Atwool, Nicola (2013)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    This article provides an outline of the early development of care and protection in Australia and New Zealand as a backdrop to an overview of child protection systems and policies and the current child protection profile in both countries. Key issues that have become the focus of policy reform are canvassed and legislative and policy initiatives to promote child safety as well as strengthen families are elaborated. An overview of trends in relation to out of home care, including routes into care, care arrangements and permanency policies is provided. The article profiles selected research studies from Australia focusing on outcomes of care: stability of care, mental health and educational outcomes of looked after children, abuse in care, and routes out of care through reunification and aging out. Other issues treated are the overrepresentation of indigenous children in care systems in both countries and the challenges of maintaining cultural connections. The article concludes with a brief comparative analysis identifying similarities and differences in child welfare systems in both countries.

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  • Court Records and the History of Male Homosexuality

    Brickell, Chris (2008)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Court records have played a central role in research on the history of sex and intimacy between men. They have revealed patterns of policing and punishment in countries where homosexuality has been illegal, and have also allowed historians to reconstruct aspects of men's daily lives in times past. Court documents are important sources in some of the most well-known histories of male homoeroticism, among them George Chauncey's Gay New York and the more recent Queer London by Matt Houlbrook.1 I have made extensive use of court documents, too, in my recently published book Mates & Lovers: A History of Gay New Zealand.2 These records were a key source of information, especially for those years beyond the reach of oral history: in effect, prior to the Second World War. In this article, I reflect upon my use of these sources by posing three sets of questions. First, what is there? What documents survive within the archives, and what are their conditions of access? Second, what types of cultural fragments remain inside the folders in the archives, and what do these reveal about the homoerotic past? Third, I consider whose voices are represented in these records: who is speaking, and under what circumstances? Court records have been controversial sources for the historical study of sexuality. They are often assumed to privilege official interpretations rather than folk ones, and to suppress the voices of 'ordinary' people under the weight of state sanctions. While the court files certainly do document the 'dominant voices' of society, I suggest that the situation is more complex than this. It is possible to examine the intricate relationships between the dominant and the marginal, and we can recognise the interplay of numerous, interwoven voices. While court records certainly do have their limitations, I suggest they are valuable sources with which to explore the experiences, meanings, identities and social changes that make up (homo)sexual histories.

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  • What do Social Work Students Think Social Work Research Is

    Gibbs, Anita (2012)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    In New Zealand, social work students often undertake social work research training as part of their first qualification in social work. The focus of this article is to consider what social work students think social work research is and whether they think social work research should be part of normal, everyday practice or not. Forty-three social work students from Otago University participated in a small research project during 2009 aimed at exploring their constructions of social work research. They emphasised that social work research should be compatible with social work values like empowerment and social justice, and bring about positive change of benefit of service users.

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  • Attachment and resilience: Implications for children in care

    Atwool, Nicola (2006)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Attachment theory and resilience theory have developed as two separate bodies of knowledge with their own genealogy. In this paper it is argued that the concepts of attachment and resilience should be regarded as complementary and that each is strengthened by such an approach. The cultural implications are discussed with particular reference to the indigenous population of Aotearoa New Zealand and a case is made for the importance of attachment as a crucial factor in minimising risk and maximising resiliency for children in need of care and protection.

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  • Practitioner Evaluation

    Gibbs, Anita (2000)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Practitioner evaluation: the idea that practitioners themselves undertake a systematic study of their own practice has been encouraged for a long time as an applied social work and health practice research strategy. It is viewed as an opportunity for practitioners to take advantage of the availability of information of data within their organisations; to reflect on the effectiveness of their work with clients without the need for a major research project; it is cost effective research; and it helps professionals bridge the gaps between research, practice and theory. In this piece I intend to outline what practitioner evaluation is, some opportunities and constraints of undertaking evaluative work, and consider some applications to social work practice; making a case throughout of the importance of practitioner evaluation as an ongoing and integrated activity into the daily lives of practitioners. Practitioners, incidentally, are not assumed to be only social workers: potentially a variety of statutory, voluntary and private welfare or care related staff may undertake practitioner evaluation.

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  • Control as both an outcome and predictor of intergroup discrimination

    Wu, Feifei (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    The primary aim of the present investigation was to examine the relationship between perceived control and distinct forms of intergroup discrimination (i.e., ‘evaluations and allocations’). Two studies were conducted. The first examined control as an outcome of intergroup discrimination. The second examined control as both an outcome and predictor of intergroup discrimination. Study 1 revealed that, participants who evaluated in-group members (i.e., ‘New Zealanders’) more positively than out-group (i.e., ‘Asians’) experienced an increased sense of control. These findings were replicated in Study 2. This study revealed New Zealanders who allocated more white noise to out-group members (i.e., ‘Asians’) than in-group members (i.e., ‘New Zealanders’) reported increased levels of control. Partial correlation revealed that these findings were not a function of group specific esteem, personal esteem, social identification or uncertainty. Study 2 which manipulated control via inclusion and exclusion feedback revealed that, in comparison to those in the baseline, participants with both lower and higher levels of control both showed increased discrimination. Intergroup discrimination was positively associated with increased control. The ramifications of these findings are discussed.

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  • Through the grapevine: In search of a rhetoric of industry-oriented science communication

    Szymanski, Erika Amethyst (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Rhetorical features of industry-oriented science communication texts structure meetings between science and industry communities and, consequently, structure research industry relationships. Industry-oriented science communication, however, remains dominated by metaphors of technology transfer and research utilization which continue to enact deficit model paradigms by drawing on essentially positivist constructions of scientific knowledge. In so doing, these models limit the capacity for science communication texts to make research relevant to industry practice and to facilitate research-industry collaboration as multidirectional knowledge sharing. Better metaphors for more relevant and more collaborative communication can, I argue, be found in material semiotic paradigms which would have science communicators align and overlap the multiply practiced worlds of science and industry instead of transferring acontextual, would-be universal knowledge to deeply emplaced sites of utilization. In interviews with and surveys of winemakers and growers in Washington State and New Zealand, I find that technology transfer paradigms configure wine industry members' interactions with research in ways which systematically eliminate moments in which this public participates in scientific processes. Winemakers and growers generally value and seek out scientific information, but also tend to perceive scientific and industry knowledge as complementary, with industry knowledge having the epistemic authority to judge new scientific findings. Textual analyses of research dissemination in these two settings outline science communication texts which limit valid knowledge to scientific knowledge alone, manifestly ignoring industry knowledge and the context-dependency of knowledge-making practices for industry use. These texts construct research practices as above and distant from the world of winemaker and grower practices rather than making scientific and industry practices adjacent and proximal. Material semiotic paradigms would in contrast have science communicators align and overlap the multiply practiced worlds of science and industry. Instead of transferring acontextual knowledge to sites of utilization, science communication would make it possible for industry readers to locate scientific knowledge practices with respect to their own practices, making science relevant to industry by drawing relationships amongst them. A collaborative rhetoric of industry-oriented science communication would, therefore, communicate scientific research as locatable practice in the context of its generation, recognizing the meaning-making practices of industry audiences and their potential contribution to the iterative process of creating applied scientific claims valid in both scientific and industry spaces.

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