91,089 results

  • A Palladium-Catalysed Allylic Alkylation Cascade: Towards the Total Synthesis of Thromboxanes A₂ and B₂

    Turner, Claire Alison (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The design and development of new chemical reactions is crucial to the ongoing success of organic synthesis research. In this work the scope and utility of a recently discovered regioselective palladium-catalysed allylic alkylation (Pd-AA) cascade was explored through increasing the range of non-symmetric pyran-based biselectrophiles and β-dicarbonyl bis-nucleophiles that can be used in this reaction. Four differentially protected tri-substituted dihydropyrans based on glucose were synthesised, including 2,3-unsaturated silyl glycosides and α,β-unsaturated lactones. These substrates were assessed as bis-electrophiles in the Pd-AA cascade. One silyl glycoside bis-electrophile, possessing a carbonate leaving group, was shown to be an excellent substrate for reaction with a number of cyclic bis-nucleophiles. Furthermore, a series of regioisomeric methylated 4-hydroxycoumarins were synthesised, tested and found to be equally effective as bis-nucleophiles in the Pd-AA cascade with both acyclic and cyclic bis-electrophiles. Advances made during this research include a novel Ferrier reaction with silanol nucleophiles, which was found to produce silyl glycosides, albeit in low yields. Additionally, several Perlin aldehydes were generated by the Ferrier-type hydrolysis of 3,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-D-glucal and led to the discovery of discrepant structural assignments in the literature. Furthermore, a ¹³C NMR shielding template was generated as a tool for the stereochemical assignment of tri-substituted dihydropyrans. An extended variant of the Pd-AA cascade was achieved by employment of the bisnucleophile Meldrum’s acid with the optimal tri-substituted bis-electrophile in the presence of H₂O. The reaction afforded a γ-butyrolactone that could serve as a potential intermediate en route to the synthesis of the biologically interesting compounds thromboxanes A₂ and B₂. This extended Pd-AA cascade, although currently unoptimised, is capable of performing five synthetic transformations in one-pot and holds the potential to improve on the current syntheses of the thromboxanes.

    View record details
  • The impacts of Meta Data Management on Social Dynamics: A Research Case Study

    Mayberry, Torrance (2013)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Meta data management practices often overlook the role social dynamics play in harnessing the value of an organisation’s unique business language and the behaviours it creates. Using evidence from literature, interviews and cognitive ethnography, this research case sets out to explain the impacts of meta data management on social dynamics. The emerging themes (that is, newness, continual adaption, engagement tension, production tension, inefficiency and unreliability) represent salient factors by which organisations can be constrained in exploiting the worth of their meta data. This research emphasises the critical importance of organisations having a deeper understanding of the purpose and meaning of information. This understanding is a strength for creating value and for exploiting the worth arising in networks and in the social dynamics created within those networks. This strength contributes to organisations’ economic growth and is interdependent with their ability to manage complex phenomenon in a growing interconnected society.

    View record details
  • Collaborative Software Visualization in Co-located Environments

    Anslow, Craig (2013)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Most software visualization systems and tools are designed from a single-user perspective and are bound to the desktop and IDEs. These design decisions do not allow users to analyse software collaboratively or to easily interact and navigate visualizations within a co-located environment at the same time. This thesis presents an exploratory study of collaborative software visualization using multi-touch tables in a co-located environment. The thesis contributes a richer understanding of how pairs of developers make use of shared visualizations on large multi-touch tables to gain insight into the design of software systems. We designed a collaborative software visualization application, called Source-Vis, that contained a suite of 13 visualization techniques adapted for multi-touch interaction. We built two large multi-touch tables (28 and 48 inches) following existing hardware designs, to explore and evaluate SourceVis. We then conducted both qualitative and quantitative user studies, culminating in a study of 44 professional software developers working in pairs. We found that pairs preferred joint group work, used a variety of coupling styles, and made many transitions between coupling and arrangement styles. For collaborative group work we recommend designing for joint group work over parallel individual work, supporting a flexible variety of coupling styles, and supporting fluid transitions between coupling and arrangement styles. We found that the preferred style for joint group work was closely coupled and arranged side by side. We found some global functionally was not easily accessible. We found some of the user interactions and visual interface elements were not designed consistently. For the design of collaborative software visualizations we recommend designing visualizations for closely coupled arrangements with rotation features, providing functionality in the appropriate locality, and providing consistent user interactions and visual interface design. We found sometimes visualization windows overlapped each other and text was hard to read in windows. We found when pairs were performing joint group work the size of the table was appropriate but not for parallel individual. We found that because the table could not differentiate between different simultaneous users that some pair interactions were limited. For the design of multi-touch tables we recommend providing a high resolution workspace, providing appropriate table space, and differentiating between simultaneous user interactions.

    View record details
  • The intraovarian cellular origins of GDF9 and BMP15 in the mouse and aspects of their biological properties

    Mester, Brigitta (2013)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) and growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) are both members of the TGF-ß protein superfamily and are known to be essential for normal follicular development in mammals. Several studies have highlighted the species-specific effects of BMP15 and GDF9, which could be attributed, at least in part to the differences in the follicular expression patterns and to different forms of the secreted proteins. In the mouse, GDF9 is required for follicular development, whereas BMP15 appears to be only required near ovulation with contradictory reports as to the timing of BMP15 expression. However, mouse BMP15 and GDF9 are known to have the capability of acting together synergistically. The aims of this thesis were to characterise in the mouse ovary, the expression patterns (localisation and levels) of Bmp15 and Gdf9 mRNA throughout follicular development, and to determine the peri-ovulatory expression of the corresponding proteins. In situ hybridisation and quantitative PCR analyses of ovarian samples and follicular cells collected from control and superovulated mice confirmed that Gdf9 and Bmp15 mRNA are expressed exclusively in oocytes from primary and early secondary stage follicles respectively. qPCR analysis of denuded oocytes (DO) revealed a tight correlation, and therefore co-regulation, between the expression levels of Bmp15 and Gdf9 irrespective of follicular developmental stage, with steady expression until the preovulatory LH surge when down-regulation of Bmp15 and Gdf9 occurred. Throughout the follicular developmental stages examined, Gdf9 was expressed in greater abundance relative to Bmp15, with a Bmp15:Gdf9 mRNA ratio of 1:4.12. [...] In conclusion, oocyte-derived Bmp15 and Gdf9 mRNA expression is co-regulated throughout follicular development in mice, with Gdf9 being more abundant than Bmp15, which might be an important factor in determining high ovulation quota. The expression of the target genes is down-regulated as the oocyte reaches developmental competence following the preovulatory LH surge. Protein expression data provided evidence that in vivo the immature mouse oocyte is capable of secreting all BMP15 protein forms previously detected in vitro. After the preovulatory LH surge, all visible protein forms are associated with the somatic follicular cells, in particular with the expanded cumulus mass. Of particular interest is the presence of the large protein complexes in the cumulus cell lysates, which suggests a storage and activation process involving ECM proteins, similar to the mechanism reported for other TGF-ß superfamily members, such as TGF-ß1 and myostatin. The finding that the BMP15 precursor protein is biologically active with a different activity to that of the processed mature protein form suggests that the full-length precursor protein may regulate or provide at least a portion of the biological activity of BMP15 in mice.

    View record details
  • The question of survival: understanding the impact of liberalisation and development on indigenous peoples in Mindanao, Philippines

    Pueblos, Adora Penaco (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis aims to study the impact of mineral resource development on the indigenous peoples in the Philippines, focussing primarily on the consequential effect of the destruction of their ancestral domains and loss of access to their sacred spaces as it relates to their survival. Further, it seeks to bring to the widest attention possible their little known struggles against the invading and destructive forces of development, particularly large-scale mining, in their traditional areas. Most of all, this research ambitions to (1) debunk the prevailing research trend of dismissing emotions as irrational, illogical and useless in research because it is unquantifiable, and therefore, unscientific; and (2) critique Western-influenced paradigms on development by shedding light on the limitations of Eurocentric commitment to orthodox discourses that valorise resource development as supreme over cultural meanings and view environment as something completely detached from humans. In this study is presented the conflicting sides found at the heart of this age-old problem: the opposing views of government/mining companies on one hand, and those of the indigenous peoples on the other, their differing perceptions and stance on the issue of exploitation and control of natural resources found in ancestral domains. This research explored the deep emotional connections of indigenous peoples to their ancestral domains and how these are inexorably linked to their cultural identity. The data illustrate their profound sufferings in the hands of development agents and, paradoxically, the Philippine government itself through its open-arms policy on foreign investments and liberalised mining laws, heavily compounded by the unwarranted deployment of the military to ensure a smooth transition in approved mining areas. Using de-colonising methodologies and research approaches to tackle the issue, empirical data gathered are drawn from participant observation, semi-structured interviews and informal indigenous communities, and later organised according to themes evident upon collation of data. The findings are linked to a wider theoretical context and complemented with analyses of academic literature orientated to post-structural political ecology, emotional geographies and indigenous geographies that support the arguments in this study. As well as highlighting potential areas for future studies on indigenous peoples, this research points to the root cause of the problem to a people’s fundamental loss of power that denies them their control over their emotional spaces, resources and destiny. Accordingly, this fundamental relation needs to be given greater consideration in policy formulation and implementation of regulations that govern environment, natural resources and ancestral domains.

    View record details
  • "Winning Hearts and Minds"? An Exploration of New Zealand Peacekeeping, Masculinities, and Identity in the Solomon Islands

    Stevens, Kiri (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Close attention to the practices of masculinity, and individual negotiations of identity are often rendered invisible when exploring the implications of having soldiers engaged as peacekeepers in communities emerging from conflict. Using a feminist post-structural framework and qualitative interviews, I investigate whether involvement in peacekeeping is producing new gender and identity experiences for some New Zealand soldiers. Specifically, I explore the perceptions of two New Zealand Army Reserve Force soldiers who participated in the Regional Assistance Mission to the Solomon Islands. Additionally, I engage with the reflections of seven Solomon Islanders to understand the impacts that these new understandings of gender and identity might have for conflict resolution and gender equality in local communities. My research finds that the practices that soldiers value and consider most useful to be a successful soldier are changing as a result of their involvement in peacekeeping. New ideas about masculinity in the armed forces are being engendered by the need for soldiers to express a sense of equality and respect towards local people. The changing nature of soldering is resulting in the emergence of practices that offer alternatives and/or challenge hegemonic and racialized militarized masculinities over those more traditionally valued in the armed forces. However, at the same time, some soldiers continue to place value on practices associated with hegemonic militarized masculinities, such as a belief in the continued need to carry weapons to create security. I further suggest that Solomon Islanders interpreted participating soldiers' behaviours through broader historical-cultural narratives about different countries forces and their perceived cultural sensitivity. Therefore, soldiers' everyday resistances to racial narratives and militarized masculinities were important for creating a sense of trust and respect with local residents. However, while some Solomon Islanders welcomed the sense of security that soldiers produced, the carrying of weapons by soldiers undermined local conflict resolution practices. By focussing on men and masculinities, my research contributes to discussions about hegemonic and militarized masculinities in peacekeeping, and challenges ideas that see men, masculinities and other aspects of identity as static or unconnected to historical and social practices.

    View record details
  • Energy security in New Zealand politics: risk perceptions and political agendas

    Tyndall, Lucy Sarah Moor (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Energy security is a subjective concept, as to different actors it invokes different meanings and thoughts about risk. It is highly political because it is at the heart of the debate between the environmental consequences of burning fossil fuels and the economic consequences of constraining this consumption. How a government perceives energy security provides an important indication of how they intend to approach the complexity of current energy issues. No more important is energy security to consider than in New Zealand. As this thesis will show, the term is used in New Zealand's policy-making circles but it is not referred to consistently. This thesis will use the Copenhagen School's Theory of Securitisation and delineate the key features of energy security in New Zealand politics. It will show that there has been two distinct rhetorical politicisations of energy security that argue for two divergent energy policies. First, the Clark Labour Government used a strategy of politicisation to bring energy security risks onto the political agenda. This sought to legitimise strong government leadership in the energy sector to support the development of robust climate change policy. The second rhetorical politicisation is at the heart of the Key National Government, where energy security is subsumed to the immediate concern for economic growth in the wake of the global economic recession. Thus there is a heightened concern for short-term risk to security of energy supply and New Zealand's role in contributing to global energy security. The nature of energy security issues and how they are integrated with other policy challenges remain in dispute. Consequently, energy security is a highly contested and politicised concept in New Zealand politics.

    View record details
  • Segment reporting in Hong Kong listed firms : an empirical assessment of IFRS no.8

    Li Yuanyuan

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    IFRS 8 and its counterpart HKFRS 8 supersedes IAS 14 and HKAS 14 in 2006 to upgrade segment information disclosure that is increasingly becoming important financial information in investment decision making. This study attempts to document the quantity and usefulness of segment information disclosure by Hong Kong listed firms as a consequence of implementing HKFRS 8. The study employs the value relevance of accounting information theory as a measure of usefulness of segment disclosure where segmental data are analysed by the portfolio return approach and regression analysis. Purposive sampling method is used to obtain samples from Hong Kong listed firms. The study results indicate that implementation of HKIFRS 8 has not improved the quantity of segment information, but improved the usefulness of segment information disclosed by Hong Kong listed firms. This is because the “management approach” under HKIFRS 8 leads to segment disclosure reflecting the real financial position of firms.

    View record details
  • Evolution Made Visible: The Worlds of Thomas Jeffery Parker (1850-1897) the Noted New Zealand Zoologist

    Crane, Rosemary Helen Beatrice (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    A biographical approach to the working life of Thomas Jeffery Parker FRS (1850-1897) provides scope for an in-depth investigation of how zoological knowledge became visible in late-nineteenth century New Zealand. A noted zoologist, Parker arrived in Dunedin in 1880 to a joint appointment as Professor of Biology in the University of Otago and Curator of the Museum. He had spent eight years working as demonstrator in Thomas Henry Huxley’s (1825-1890) laboratory in London. He brought with him a conviction that evolution provided the fundamental organising principle of biology. Once in Dunedin he set about making evolution visible. This study examines the various facets of Parker’s work that achieved this goal. I explore the lively debates arising from the public lectures he gave, in which he promoted evolution. In Dunedin, founded by Scottish Free Church Presbyterians in 1848, public interest in science-and-religion remained high throughout the late-nineteenth century. This study suggests that Parker’s own religious sensibilities lay between the agnosticism of Huxley and the faith of his Wesleyan father, the anatomist William Kitchen Parker (1823-1890). I also investigate Parker’s role in disseminating popular versions of biology, from the podium and through articles, to various audiences. His roles in the sociable side of scientific activities included organizing exhibits for conversaziones and international exhibitions. Parker’s efforts are placed within the context of Dunedin’s vibrant rational entertainment scene. Parker exchanged, bought, sold and collected specimens for the Otago University Museum in order to provide a comprehensive teaching collection. I appraise Parker’s previously little-understood role in museum collection building and explore his material practices in creating objects and their display according to evolutionary principles. Parker’s embryological studies of kiwi and phylogeny of the moa formed a major contribution to New Zealand biology. Methodologically speaking, he followed a traditional path of comparative anatomy. A close-reading of his more than forty papers of technically dense work reveal a conservative mind and a dedication to developmental morphology. Aware of changing epistemologies, he incorporated a statistical approach to his analyses. In this study, I suggest Parker created knowledge through drawing. Analysis of his illustrations reveals his concern with clear exposition. I show how the he used illustrations as part of the process of visual communication not simply as an adjunct. Generations of students learnt zoology using Parker’s system of ‘types’ a pedagogy he inherited from Huxley. They assimilated evolutionary principles via A Textbook of Zoology, which organized the animal kingdom in a typically late-nineteenth century progressive fashion. This two-volume book, co-authored with William Aitcheson Haswell (1854-1925) in Sydney and published posthumously, remains in print. An analysis of its creation shows how disciplinary shifts within zoology were fixed to the page. This study also uses Parker to explore wider concerns in the history of science. These include praxis and materiality, the popularization of science, the rise of the learned journal and broader aspects of print culture, and the geographic location of knowledge creation.

    View record details
  • Maximising the Potential of Existing Urban Infrastructure: Can Infrastructure Reuse Provide Successful Public Spaces?

    Kean, Gemma (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    There is great potential for innovative and creative public spaces beyond the traditional park or plaza to exist, yet this is still what most local authorities provide for in their public space policies. As cities intensify there is a need to provide additional public space in what may not have been considered to conventionally be a part of the public realm. Infrastructure is one example which can be used to provide additional public space through the adaptive reuse of a site, instead of abandonment or demolition when infrastructure is no longer required due to technological advancement. This research investigates whether the adaptive reuse of infrastructure can help create successful public spaces, and whether reuse can contribute towards improving the connectivity of an area. This is done using two case studies: Paddington Reservoir Gardens and the Ultimo Pedestrian Network in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The project explores whether there is too much focus on reusing the space with minimal adaptation, and the extent to which the planning processes enable or inhibit development, and allow for or discourage stakeholder involvement. The findings indicate that the adaptive reuse of infrastructure can provide interesting public spaces, however, success is dependent on the surrounding context. The two case studies employed in the research are vastly different. Despite this, the results show that infrastructural public spaces need to be active, provide for a range of users, and incorporate themes such as stickability and fine grain design to contribute positive outcomes to an urban environment.Often with infrastructure there is a risk of focusing too much on the preservation of heritage sites or making do with what already exists, instead of taking a greenfield approach to development. This can lead to spaces which are not integrated with the surrounds and which are not frequented or used as well as they could be. Further research needs to be undertaken to better understand the extent to which these particular public spaces-adaptively reused infrastructure differ to other spaces in the public realm.

    View record details
  • The Experience of Depression in the Tokelauan Culture in Two North Island Communities

    Loan, Iain Stuart (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Background and Aims: The Tokelauan language lacks a word that corresponds to the western term ‘depression’. Furthermore, there is no research on the experience of depression in Tokelauans, and yet doctors continue to apply a western biomedical model of depression to Tokelauan patients and those from other Pacific cultures. This research aims to describe the experience of depression in Tokelauans and provide insight into its management. Better awareness of the symptoms and signs of depression as experienced by Pacific Islanders will enhance diagnosis and treatment of the illness by general practitioners. Method: Following extensive consultation with the Tokelauan community in Taupo, and using purposive stratified sampling, ten respondents contributed to this study. Semi-structured in depth interviews were performed and recorded verbatim. The transcripts of the interviews were thematically analysed using an immersion crystallisation technique, with further analysis to detect sub themes. Results: There is no specific word for depression in the Tokelauan language but an illness involving extraordinary sadness does exist. Ordinary sadness is regarded as just ‘part of life’ but extraordinary sadness can be classified as “unwellness” or “a burden". Tokelauans use several indicators to recognise someone with extraordinary sadness. The main indicator is isolation and withdrawal from family and community activities as well as absence from work and church. Tokelauan men are more likely to hold their feelings in and may indicate their unwellness with increased alcohol use or violent tendencies. For Tokelauans, privacy and pride are important cultural characteristics and these may be barriers to recognising sadness. The shame and loss of status associated with displaying sadness may also cause a person to hide his or her feelings. Often the smiling Tokelauan face becomes the mask that hides sadness. The main causes of extraordinary sadness are the changes caused by western influences on the Tokelauan culture and the stress of poverty and unemployment. The family, community and church are all important avenues for caring and for counselling the Tokelauan with extraordinary sadness. Discussion: This research documents some of the features of depression experienced by Tokelauans that are different from those that doctors may be trained to detect and manage using a western biomedical model. This research demonstrates the complexity of relationships between the patient, their illness and their culture that impacts on how the illness manifests. Similarly, this research indicates that therapy must have a holistic approach that includes the family, the community and that accounts for the patient’s spiritual beliefs. Te Vaka Atafaga is a metaphor for Tokelauan wellbeing involving a canoe. Its structure is representative of different components of health, and it provides a holistic model for the general practitioner involved in assessing and treating Tokelau Islanders with a possible depressive illness. The model does not exclude the use of western medical approaches, but it emphasises the need for social disharmony to be corrected to allow healing. Conclusion: The presentation and management of depression in Tokelauans may differ from that of other patients in a general practice setting. The Te Vaka Atafaga model provides the general practitioner with a tool to assess the different components that comprise health in the Tokelauan. A holistic approach involving the family, spirituality and correction of social factors along with palagi medicine is then necessary for treatment.

    View record details
  • Rib Fractures in Infants: Retrospective Survey of Fractures and Biomechanical Study.

    Blackburne, William Bligh (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Literature suggests that rib fractures are highly associated with abuse and the present understanding is that antero-posterior compression associated with the ‘shaken baby syndrome’ is their cause. However, this mechanism rests on a number of assumptions with little experimental data to support them. Recent work using a porcine model of fractures suggests that, in the case of lateral fractures this may be highly unlikely. This work shows a feasible alternate mechanism, that of blunt force trauma (BFT), for the cause of these lateral fractures. A piglet model is used and shows the ease with which ribs fracture as a result of BFT, compared to the difficulty of fracture seen previously in compressive injury. The initial development of a computational simulation of these ribs for use in injury scenarios is also outlined here. Secondly, skeletal surveys from New Zealand’s largest children’s care facility, Starship Hospital, were examined to give a picture of non-accidental injury (NAI) and how its patterns compare with accidental injury in New Zealand. It has been found that, as in foreign studies, there are a number of lesions highly associated with abuse and these include rib fractures, which are highly specific (97%) for NAI. Unusuallyhigh frequencies of lateral-type rib fractures (46.4%) were found and half the cases were found to be unilateral. This is not wholly in line with the currently accepted idea that rib fracture is due to antero-posterior compression, in which bilateral, posterior fractures are said to be most common. Overall, this work brings into question the traditional mechanism of rib fractures, provides a highly useful snapshot of abusive injury in NZ and also sets a strong foundation for future work.

    View record details
  • Graphical displays in eco-feedback: a cognitive approach

    Ford, Rebecca; Karlin, Beth (2013)

    Book item
    University of Otago

    Psychological research indicates that the provision of feedback is a key element in reinforcing and/or changing behavior, and whilst results from empirical studies on eco-feedback are positive, variation in findings suggests that its effectiveness may depend on both what information is provided and how it is presented. The design of graphical displays is an important component, but past display research has been primarily qualitative and exploratory. This paper introduces and tests a cognitive model of visual information processing applied to eco-feedback to evaluate differences in interpretation and preference between images. Participants were shown images that varied by number of data points as well as display features and were asked to interpret the images and report on image usability. Findings support the cognitive model, suggesting that eco-feedback displays appear to be more successful when they: (1) contain fewer data points; (2) employ data chunking; and/or (3) include pictures.

    View record details
  • A Qualitative Exploration of the Barriers and Enablers to New Zealand City Councils Developing and Implementing Food and Nutrition Policy

    Gower, Jacinda Ruth (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Background: Diet- related non communicable diseases and obesity are the biggest cause of ill health and mortality in New Zealand. Current government public health approaches do not appear to be effective in preventing non- communicable diseases and obesity as rates continue to increase. To combat the obesity epidemic research suggests government regulative policy which positively shapes food environments is needed. New Zealand’s current government’s ideologies’ reject public health nutrition regulative policy so are unlikely to be an effective agency to reduce obesity and non- communicable disease rates. Local Authorities have been proposed as an alternative government organisation that has the ability to positively influence local food environments through developing and implementing food and nutrition policy. However, no New Zealand Local Authorities have food and nutrition policy and currently, there is no research regarding Local Authority food and nutrition policy in a New Zealand context. Objective: This research project aims to explore factors which enable, hinder and influence New Zealand City Councils’ ability to develop and implement food and nutrition policy. Methods: This public health nutrition study is set in a policy context so qualitative research was used to explore the social and organisational factors influencing City Councils’ development of food and nutrition policy that supports health food environments. Semi- structured in depth telephone and face-to-face interviews were carried out with 21 participants with representation from each of the 12 City Councils and Auckland Council. These interviews consisted of nine core questions which were informed by a review of the literature. All interviews were recorded and selectively transcribed. A general inductive approach was used to thematically analyse the data to categorise it into six major themes underpinned by minor themes. A single case study design was used to portray emerging themes and to understand the context of New Zealand City Councils’ capacity to develop food and nutrition policy. Results: The results of this study identified an array of factors which influenced City Councils’ decision making to develop and implement food and nutrition policy to improve local food environments. Six overarching categories emerged as being prominent to explaining City Councils’ capacity to influence food environments. These categories are council resources, community influence, political factors, long term plans, national-level governments and research, case studies and nutrition guidelines. All of these influencing factors had the potential to act as a barrier or an enabler dependant on the local political environment. The main finding is City Councils’ have the capacity to develop food and nutrition policy when there is a widespread awareness and prioritisation of food environment issues in the agenda of three key groups; the community, elected members of council and council staff. Conclusion: New Zealand City Councils capacity to develop and implement food and nutrition policy is determined by a host of external, internal, national and local influence factors. A multi pronged approach of strong local political support, partnerships, credible champions and local or case study research are needed for food environment issues to be addressed by City Councils through the LTP and subsequent food and nutrition policy. To achieve this New Zealand’s public health community need to be active advocates at a City Council level and be involved with activating communities and raising awareness around food and nutrition issues.

    View record details
  • The role of cytoskeletal elements in the trafficking of KCa3.1 to the basolateral membrane of polarised epithelial cells

    Farquhar, Rachel (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    The intermediate conductance, Ca2+-activated K+ channel (KCa3.1) is targeted to the basolateral membrane in polarized epithelia where it plays an essential role in promoting trans-epithelial ion transport. KCa3.1 is found in many tissues in the body and plays an important role in many physiological and pathological processes (e.g., regulation of salt and fluid transport in the gastrointestinal tract, atherosclerosis, sickle cell disease and asthma). Functional KCa3.1 must be targeted to the basolateral membrane, a process that is dependent upon proper cytoskeletal function. The cytoskeleton is comprised of actin and microtubule filaments. Actin filaments are comprised of polymerised G-actin monomers bound to form filamentous F-actin strands. Microtubules are long filamentous structures comprised of tubulin subunits, made from α-tubulin and β-tubulin monomers. This study examines the role of microfilaments and microtubules in the trafficking of KCa3.1 to the basolateral membrane of polarised epithelial cells. To address this, Fischer Rat Thyroid cells grown on filter inserts to form a confluent epithelium were stably transfected with the Biotin Ligase Acceptor Peptide (BLAP)-KCa3.1 construct. This construct allowed for the selective labeling of basolaterally expressed KCa3.1 using streptavidin. Selective labeling of membrane bound KCa3.1 allowed for the measurement of changes in KCa3.1 expression, in response to drugs that disrupt cytoskeletal elements, to reflect changes in KCa3.1 located on the basolateral membrane. This measure allowed for a direct correlation to be drawn between targeted disruption of specific cytoskeletal elements, e.g. microtubules and microfilaments, and expression of basolaterally-located KCa3.1. PCR was used to determine the mRNA expression levels of KCa3.1 in stably transfected cell lines and SDS-PAGE techniques were employed to investigate protein expression levels of KCa3.1. Western blotting was used to explore the effects of Cytochalasin D (Cyto D), Latrunculin A (Lat A), and Myosin Light Chain Inhibitor-7 (ML-7) which inhibit the function of actin (Cyto D, Lat A) and myosin light chain kinase (ML-7) respectively. Toxicity tests were performed to determine cell survival under a range concentrations of 0-20 μM (0, 3, 5 hr) for all three drugs with cell survival reduced with 20 μM at t = 5 hr for Cyto D and Lat A. Cyto D was administered over intervals of 0, 3 and 5 hr at 10 μM resulting in a decreased relative expression of KCa3.1 (compared to control) of 0.6±0.14 at t = 3 and further decrease in the expression of the channel at t = 5 hr with a relative expression of 0.12±0.035 (n = 5, p < 0.05). Lat A was also administered over intervals of 0, 3 and 5 hr at 10 μM causing a relative reduction in the expression of KCa3.1 at the basolateral membrane compared to the control. At t = 3 hr the expression of KCa3.1 was reduced to 0.7±0.065 and decreased to 0.3±0.049 at t = 5 hr (n = 4, p < 0.001). Finally, cells treated with microtubule inhibitor ML-7 showed a relative reduction in KCa3.1 expression of 0.55±0.12 at t = 3 hr, the expression was further decreased to 0.33±0.11 at t = 5 hr compared to the control. These data confirm that microtubules and microfilaments of the cytoskeleton are crucial in trafficking KCa3.1 to the basolateral membrane of polarised epithelial cells.

    View record details
  • Sport development and physical activity promotion: An integrated model to enhance collaboration and understanding

    Rowe, Katie; Shilbury, David; Ferkins, Dr Lesley; Hinckson, Erica (2013)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    As inactivity and obesity levels continue to rise, calls are being made for sport development action to be further directed towards capitalising on the value of community participation for health and social benefits. This paper seeks to highlight a current disconnect between physical activity and sport management research, and identify opportunities for collaboration. To date, the sport management literature has predominantly focused on sport as a form of entertainment with spectatorship outcomes, where professional codes are a commonly used setting of research inquiry. There has been less focus on organisational issues related to participation in sport and recreation. This is identified as a gap, given the current push towards increasing focus on sport and recreation promotion for community wellbeing. The present paper sought to examine physical activity and sport management research, to identify commonalities and potential for integration and co-operation. The outcome of this review is a conceptual framework, integrating socio-ecological models, taken from physical activity research, and sport development concepts derived from sport management theory. The proposed conceptual framework seeks to provide sport management researchers with direction in their efforts to promote participation in sport, recreation and physically active leisure domains, particularly for community wellbeing purposes. Furthermore, such direction may also enhance the capacity of researchers to capitalise on opportunities for collaboration and integration across domains of inquiry.

    View record details
  • Sport governance encounters: Insights from lived experiences

    Shilbury, David; Ferkins, Dr Lesley; Smythe, Liz (2013)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    This study explored sport governance practice from the lived experience of one informant spanning a 30-year period in the governance of two sport organisations (basketball and cricket). Hermeneutic phenomenology, the methodological framework used for this study, seeks to grasp the everyday world, and draw insight and meaning from it. The method involves a series of in-depth interviews with one research participant, supplemented by document analysis. Interviews were analysed using an interpretative process which blended the world views of both the participant and researchers. The participant lived through an era of increasing professionalisation within sport. His narrative, which tapped into his governance expertise at state, national and international levels, provides insights into the transition from an amateur to a commercial culture, referred to in this paper as ‘two worlds colliding’. From this narrative, three related themes were identified and labelled, ‘volunteer and cultural encounters’; ‘structural encounters’; and ‘adversarial encounters’. In drawing on hermeneutic philosophy, and highlighting that which has been hidden from view, direction for future research and practice within the sport governance domain is offered. These directions invite scholars to think about future sport governance research as it relates to federated structures and how collaborative governance theory can sharpen the focus in this domain.

    View record details
  • Systems dynamics modelling of pathways to a hydrogen economy in New Zealand : final report

    Leaver, Jonathan; Gillingham, Kenneth; Baglino, A. (2012-01-01)

    Unclassified
    Unitec

    This report represents a compilation of work prepared under Objective 6: Carbon to Hydrogen Energy – Proof of Concept of FRST contract C08X0204.

    View record details
  • Climate change and Generation Zero : analysing the 50/50 campaign : a communication for social change approach

    Noronha, Sandra (2013)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    Climate change does not respect national boundaries or distinguish between big and small polluters. It is one of the truly global problems humanity faces today. In spite of this, there is reluctance to believe in the existence of climate change even though the scientific consensus is that human influence bears much of the responsibility

    View record details
  • Akoaga : efficacy, agency, achievement and success in the tertiary sector : focus on students and parents from Pasifika communities

    Marat, Deepa; Papoutsaki, Evangelia; Latu, Savae; Aumua, Linda; Talakai, Malia; Sun, Kang (2011-01-01)

    Unclassified
    Unitec

    The term akoaga has a pan-Polynesian origin and meaning. In the Samoan language, the term can be broken into two root words, ako and aga. Ako or ato means basket and aga means measurements associated with weaving.

    View record details