82,954 results

  • Color space distortions in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Feitosa-Santana, Claudia; Oiwa, Nestor N.; Paramei, Galina V.; Bimler, David L.; Costa, Marcelo F.; Lago, Marcos; Nishi, Mauro; Ventura, Dora F. (2006)

    Journal article
    Massey University

    Color vision impairment was examined in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) without retinopathy. We assessed the type and degree of distortions of individual color spaces. DM2 patients (n = 32), and age-matched controls (n = 20)were tested using the Farnsworth D-15 and the Lanthony D-15d tests. In addition, subsets of caps from both tests were employed in a triadic procedure (Bimler & Kirkland, 2004). Matrices of inter-cap subjective dissimilarities were estimated from each subject’s “odd-one-out” choices, and processed using non-metric multidimensional scaling. Two-dimensional color spaces, individual and group (DM2 patients; controls), were reconstructed, with the axes interpreted as the R0G and B0Y perceptual opponent systems. Compared to controls, patient results were not significant for the D-15 and D-15d. In contrast, in the triadic procedure the residual distances were significantly different compared to controls: right eye, P 0.021, and left eye, P 0.022. Color space configurations for the DM2 patients were compressed along the B0Y and R0G dimensions. The present findings agree with earlier studies demonstrating diffuse losses in early stages of DM2. The proposed method of testing uses color spaces to represent discrimination and provides more differentiated quantitative diagnosis, which may be interpreted as the perceptual color system affected. In addition, it enables the detection of very mild color vision impairment that is not captured by the D-15d test. Along with fundoscopy, individual color spaces may serve for monitoring early functional changes and thereby to support a treatment strategy.

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  • The adaptation of cognitive behavioural therapy for adult Maori clients with depression: A pilot study

    Bennett, S; Flett, R; Babbage, D (2008)

    Conference paper
    Massey University

    A semistructured cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programme for depression was adapted for use with Maori adult clients with depression. Adaptations were developed in consultation with an advisory group consisting of Maori clinical psychologists and kaumatua with experience working in mental health services. The programme was piloted with 2 participants who were clients of a Maori mental health service. The programme builds on a more traditional CBT treatment programme by integrating concepts such as whakatauki, whanaungatanga, whanau involvement, and whakapapa into the therapeutic context. Despite limitations the results demonstrate considerable promise. Depressive symptoms increased substantially in both cases and both clients reflected positively on the adaptations incorporated into therapy.

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  • What have sport and music performance taught us about test anxiety

    Tarrant, RA; Leathem, JM; Flett, RA (2010)

    Journal article
    Massey University

    Professional athletes and performing artists require peak performance at critical times, as their careers and livelihoods depend on sustained success. Likewise examination candidates aim for high levels of performance in examinations that are important to their particular educational and vocational paths. In many areas of performance where there is something of high value at stake for the performer, anxiety can increase and, at times, compromise the quality of the performance outcome. The present article comments on the four components of performance anxiety: physiological, cognitive, affective, and behavioural, and three major influential factors. The four components describe the nature of performance anxiety, but can also interact to create a spiralling cycle of anxiety with the potential to impact on the performance. Three major influential factors are discussed (personality variables; experience, including preparation and performing; and situational variables). Lessons learned from investigative studies of performance anxiety in sport and music performance are discussed, and parallels drawn with test anxiety.

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  • Agile Kommunikationskompetenz: Herausforderungen und Loesungsansaetze fuer den Fremdsprachenunterricht an Hochschulen durch Interaktion in neuen Medien. [Agile communicative competence: Challenges and solutions for foreign language teaching in higher education via interaction in new media]

    Walker, UG; vom Brocke, C (2012)

    Journal article
    Massey University

    Fostering foreign language competencies for specific purposes in higher education contexts often relies on classroom-focused and text-based forms of language teaching. Yet this form of learning makes it difficult to develop the kind of real-life communicative and cognitive skills future graduates are likely to need. Global business life nowadays typically involves international cooperation and is often set in virtual space, where various members from different countries or contexts come together to collaborate. This calls for "agile communication skills" which enable learners to respond to the communicative needs in evolving collaborations. Web-based language learning has created new opportunities to promote these forms of communication in the foreign language classroom. However, research shows that the mere adoption of technology does not suffice on its own to motivate language learner to interact. Design principles need to be identified and carefully implemented to promote communicative activity among students, for example in eGroups, which promote joint project work online with distributed partners over a specific period of time. This paper reports on the conceptualization and implementation of an eGroup in a longitudinal study designed to foster collaboration among foreign language learners at Massey University in New Zealand and the University of Münster in Germany. We introduce the notion of "agile communication skills" which are evidenced in our case study data and reinforce the need to adopt new forms of communication. Finally, we evaluate the matured eGroup model and its potential for promoting agile communication skills in a university setting. (Verlag).

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  • ICT Intensity and New Zealand's Productivity Malaise: Is the Glass Half Empty or Half Full?

    Engelbrecht, Hans-Juergen; Xayavong, Vilaphonh; Engelbrecht, Hans-Jürgen (2006-03-01)

    Journal article
    Massey University

    This paper contributes to the conflicting international evidence on the impact of information and communication technology (ICT) on labour productivity (LP) growth. We examine the link between ICT intensity and New Zealand's LP growth in 29 industries over the period 1988-2003, and over relevant sub-periods. After deriving an ICT intensity index to classify industries into 'more ICT intensive' and 'less ICT intensive', we compare LP growth rates for these two industry categories. We also employ dummy variable regression models to more formally test the relationships between ICT intensity and LP growth. The results prove sensitive to the time period specified. When breaks in the data series are taken into account, there is support for the view that LP growth of more ICT intensive industries has improved over time relative to that of other industries, even though overall LP growth was weak. Lack of LP growth per se, therefore, is not necessarily evidence against the beneficial productivity impacts of ICT.

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  • The Induced Accumulation Of Gold In The Plants Brassica juncea, Berkheya coddii and Chicory

    Lamb, A. E.; Anderson, C. W. N.; Haverkamp, R. G. (2001-09-01)

    Journal article
    Massey University

    In this study the growth stubstrate of the plants Brassica juncea, Berkheya coddii and chicory were amended with thiocyanate and cyanide solutions to induce uptake and the gold concentrations in the different organs determined. Both species showed maximum uptake with cyanide amendment although thiocyanate also induced hyperaccumulation. Gold concentrations ranged from negligible in the leaves of B. coddii amended with thiocyanate, to 326 mg Au/kg dried biomass in the leaves of B. juncea amended with cyanide. The chemical additives KI, KBr, NaS2O3 were also used with the B. juncea and chicory. The results showed varying degrees of hyperaccumulation with all chemical treatments. Cyanide again gave the best results with 164 mg Au/kg dried biomass measured in the chicory plant. NaS2O3, KI and NaSCN gave maximum results of 51, 41 and 31 mg Au/kg dried biomass respectively. This technology has potential application in the economic recovery of metals.

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  • Errors, feedback, learning and performance

    Gardner, DH; Wood, R (2009)

    Journal article
    Massey University

    The value of feedback about errors when learning a novel computer-based task was explored in two studies. The first study examined the optimal level of information to be provided in feedback about errors. The second study examined whether framing errors positively as opportunities to learn (which encourages error tolerance) or negatively as hindrances to learning (which encourages error avoidance) facilitated learning and performance. Both studies used a computer-based simulation of a management decision-making task. In the first study there were three feedback conditions: outcome feedback alone, outcome feedback plus error signal feedback, and outcome feedback plus corrective feedback. Corrective feedback produced better performance than error signal and outcome feedback but learning did not differ across the three conditions. Corrective feedback also facilitated the use of systematic exploration which was positively associated with performance and learning. Learners' self-efficacy moderated the effects of error feedback: learners with high self-efficacy showed high levels of performance in all conditions but for those with low self-efficacy, detailed corrective feedback was essential for learning. The second study explored the effects of positive vs. negative error framing and corrective vs. signal error feedback in a 2 x 2 design. Positive error framing produced more unsystematic exploration and worse performance than negative error framing. Positive error framing helped those with low self-efficacy but for those with higher self-efficacy it was of more value to frame errors negatively. The implications of the interactions between error framing, error feedback and learner characteristics are discussed along with implications for the study of error management, a positive error framing technique.

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  • The impact of rural policing on the private lives of New Zealand police officers

    Buttle, J; Fowler, C; Williams, M (2010)

    Journal article
    Massey University

    This article is concerned with perceived differences between rural and urban policing in New Zealand. More specifically with how officers view the effect that rural and urban policing has on their private lives and those of their family members. Using grounded theory as a research method because of its reflexivity in regard to generating questions from emergent data, 16 participants were interviewed. Seven of these participants were stationed in an urban location while nine were recruited from rural stations. The results suggest that rural policing has a greater and often more stressful impact on the private lives of police officers and their families. This suggests a need for the New Zealand Police as an organisation to engage in policy-making that gives greater recognition to the rural aspects of policing, with a particular focus being the provision of support for the families of rural officers.

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  • Maintaining family life under shiftwork schedules: A case study of a New Zealand petrochemical plant

    Handy, JA (2010)

    Journal article
    Massey University

    This article discusses the impact of long-term shiftwork on the families of male shiftworkers at a New Zealand petrochemical company. The findings are based primarily on interviews with twenty-seven shiftworkers and seventeen female partners, supplemented by informal observations of the organisation. All respondents described shiftwork as having a profound influence on the economic, temporal, social and emotional patterns of family life. Men and women gave divergent accounts, reflecting their differing roles within the family. Whilst the company compensated workers well financially for the inconveniences of shiftwork, the rigidity of the shiftwork system meant that families shouldered the primary responsibility for resolving the tensions between work and family life. In consequence, women paid a high price for their partner's employment, often sacrificing their own careers in order to take primary responsibility for organising family life.

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  • Multidimensional scaling of D15 caps: Color-vision defects among tobacco smokers?

    Bimler, David L; Kirkland, John (2004)

    Journal article
    Massey University

    Tobacco smoke contains a range of toxins including carbon monoxide and cyanide. With specialized cells and high metabolic demands, the optic nerve and retina are vulnerable to toxic exposure. We examined the possible effects of smoking on color vision: specifically, whether smokers perceive a different pattern of suprathreshold color dissimilarities from nonsmokers. It is already known that smokers differ in threshold color discrimination, with elevated scores on the Roth 28-Hue Desaturated panel test. Groups of smokers and nonsmokers, matched for sex and age, followed a triadic procedure to compare dissimilarities among 32 pigmented stimuli (the caps of the saturated and desaturated versions of the D15 panel test). Multidimensional scaling was applied to quantify individual variations in the salience of the axes of color space. Despite the briefness, simplicity, and “low-tech” nature of the procedure, subtle but statistically significant differences did emerge: on average the smoking group were significantly less sensitive to red–green differences. This is consistent with some form of injury to the optic nerve.

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  • Characterization and comparative evaluation of novel planar electromagnetic sensors

    Mukhopadhyay, S. C.; Gooneratne, C. P.; Sen Gupta, G.; Yamada, S. (2005-10)

    Journal article
    Massey University

    The characterization of three types of novel planar electromagnetic sensors: 1) meander; 2) mesh; and 3) interdigital configuration, has been studied and their comparative performance has been evaluated based on their areas of applications. All of them are suitable for inspection and evaluation of system properties without destroying them. The experiments on fabricated sensors have been conducted and the results are presented here. The target application is to use a mixture of different types of sensors to detect plastic

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  • A comparative study of herbage intake, ingestive behaviour and diet selection, and effects of condensed tannins upon body and wool growth in lambs grazing Yorkshire fog (Holcus lanatus) and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) dominant swards

    Montossi, F.; Hodgson, John; Morris, Stuart T.; Risso, D. F.; Gordon, Ian L. (2001)

    Journal article
    Massey University

    An experiment was carried out from August to early November 1994 to examine differences in diet selection, herbage intake, grazing behaviour and animal performance between weaned lambs rotationally grazing swards of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum)/white clover (Trifolium repens) and Yorkshire fog (Holcus lanatus)/T. repens with or without Lotus corniculatus. There were four replicate groups of six lambs per treatment. The effects of condensed tannins (CT) on lamb production were assessed by twice-daily oral administration of 10g polyethylene glycol (PEG; molecular weight 4000) to half the lambs on each sward. The Lotus content of all swards was very low, and results are presented here for main sward comparisons meaned over lotus treatments. Overall mean estimates of pre-grazing herbage mass and sward surface height for the annual ryegrass and Yorkshire fog swards respectively, were 5820 v. 4360 +/- 190 kg DM/ha (P < 0.001) and 29 v. 21 +/- 0.6 cm (P < 0.001). The coefficient of organic matter digestibility (OMD) of the diet selected and herbage intake were higher on Yorkshire fog than on annual ryegrass (0.78 v. 0.74 +/- 0.080 g/kg; P < 0 05, and 1070 v. 860 +/- 57 g OM per lamb per day, P < 0 05 respectively), reflecting the higher content in the diet of grass green leaf (980 v. 930 g/kg +/- 14 g/kg, Pt 0 05) and the lower content of dead material (80 v. 110 +/- 15 g/kg, P < 0.08). Lambs grazing on Yorkshire fog swards had higher clean wool growth rate (1470 v. 1280 +/- 30 mg/cm per day, P < 0.01) and greater fibre diameter (31 v. 29 +/- 0.2 mu, P < 0.001), greater liveweight gain (152 v. 108 +/- 5.5 g/day, P < 0.001), final weight (42 v. 38 +/- 0.5 kg, P < 0.001), carcass weight gain (89 v. 69 +/- 2.5 g/day, P < 0.001), carcass weight (19 v. 17 +/- 0.3 kg, P < 0.001) and soft tissue thickness (GR value 11 v. 8 +/- 0.5 mm, P < 0.01), and lower faecal egg counts (FEC; square root transferred values 9.2 v. 11.0 +/- 0.4 eggs/g fresh faeces, P < 0.01) than lambs grazing annual ryegrass swards. Similar dietary concentrations of condensed tannins (CT) between Yorkshire fog and annual ryegrass swards (4.2 v. 3.7 DM +/- 0.2 g/kg, P < 0.08) increased clean wool growth (1440 v. 1310 +/- 32 mg/cm(2) per day, P < 0 05), fibre diameter (30.7 v. 29.5 +/- 0.21 , P < 0.01) and liveweight gain (141 v. 120 +/- 4.3 g per lamb per day, P < 0.01), although differences in carcass weight (17.9 v. 18.2 +/- 0.3 kg) and FEC transformed values (9.6 v. 11.0 +/- 06 eggs/g fresh faeces) were not significant. The effects of CT on animal performance were greater in Yorkshire fog swards. CT had no significant effects on diet selection, herbage intake and grazing behaviour patterns.

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  • Lava lakes and shallow level magmatic feeding systems of mafic volcanoes of an ocean island: Ambrym, Vanuatu (New Hebrides), South Pacific

    Nemeth, Karoly; Cronin, Shane J. (2006-01-01)

    Journal article
    Massey University

    Ambrym is an active volcanic island with 2 major vent complexes; Marum and Benbow. These vent complexes are continuously active over at least the past two thousands of years. These active vents either produce constant degassing during quite periods or sub-Plinian to Vulcanian explosive eruptions commonly influenced by magma-water interaction triggered phreatomagmatic explosive phases. The active vents of Ambrym perfectly expos inner walls of the crater/conduit transition zone, allowing to study in cross sectional view of the interbedded coherent magmatic bodies with pyroclastic successions. In the inner crater/conduit wall of the Marum volcano, that consists of at least 3 major vents, as well as a vent that is located on its flank (Niri Taten) exposes solidified complex lava lake cross-sections, lava spatter cone feeding lava pods, shallow intrusions as well as large sills that connected through a complex network of pathways to the surface and/or into the pyroclastic edifice of the volcano. This suggests that shallow level infiltration of melt into a mafic volcano plays an important role in the edifice growth.

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  • Improved Memoryless RNS Forward Converter Based on the Periodicity of Residues

    Premkumar, A. B.; Ang, E. L.; Lai, Edmund M-K. (2006-02-01)

    Journal article
    Massey University

    The residue number system (RNS) is suitable for DSP architectures because of its ability to perform fast carry-free arithmetic. However, this advantage is over-shadowed by the complexity involved in the conversion of numbers between binary and RNS representations. Although the reverse conversion (RNS to binary) is more complex, the forward transformation is not simple either. Most forward converters make use of look-up tables (memory). Recently, a memoryless forward converter architecture for arbitrary moduli sets was proposed by Premkumar in 2002. In this paper, we present an extension to that architecture which results in 44% less hardware for parallel conversion and achieves 43% improvement in speed for serial conversions. It makes use of the periodicity properties of residues obtained using modular exponentiation.

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  • Ageing in a material world

    Breheny, M; Stephens, C (2010)

    Journal article
    Massey University

    The experience of ageing is shaped by social location. For those who experience economic hardship, the effects of a lifetime of disadvantage tend to accumulate in later life. The recent attention to positive and successful ageing has particular implications for disadvantaged and disabled older people. This project focuses on the qualitative experience of ageing in the context of the material constraints in people's lives. Forty eight people aged 55 to 70 years were interviewed. Critical realist discourse analysis of extracts is used here to show how the rhetorical and discursive accounts of ageing are grounded in the material circumstances of participants' lives and also shaped by societal demands to age well and positively. Access to material resources constrains older people from ageing in ways that they value, and the discursive construction of citizenship and morality has implications for who they can be.

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  • Late Miocene paleo-geomorphology of the Bakony-Balaton Highland Volcanic Field (Hungary) using physical volcanology data

    Nemeth, Karoly; Martin, Ulrike (1999-01-01)

    Journal article
    Massey University

    A new view is presented of the Bakony-Balaton Highland Volcanic Field (BBHVF), Hungary, active in late Miocene and built up of ca. 100 mostly alkaline basaltic eruptive centers, scoria cones, tuff rings, maar volcanic complexes and shield volcanoes. A detailed map shows the physical volcanology of the monogenetic volcanic field. In areas where thick Pannonian Sandstone beds build up the pre-volcanic strata normal maar volcanic centers have formed with usually thick late magmatic infill in the maar basins. In areas, where relatively thin Pannonian Sandstone beds resting on thick Mesozoic or Paleozoic fracture-controlled, karsrwater-bearing aquifer, large unusual maar volcanic sequences appear (Tihany type maar volcanoes). In the northern pare of the field large former scoria cones and shield volcanoes give evidence for a smaller impact of the ground and surface water causing phreatomagmatic explosive activity. The Tihany type maar volcanic centers are usually filled by thick maar lake deposits, building up Gilbert type gravelly, scoria rich deltas in the northern side of the maar basins, suggesting a mostly north to south fluvial system in the pre-volcanic surface. Calculating paleosurface elevation for the eruptive centers, two paleo-geomorphology maps are drawn for a younger (4-2.8 Ma) and an older (7.54-4 Ma) scenario. The erosion rate of the volcanic field is estimated to vary between 96 m/Ma and 18 m/Ma. In the western site of BBHVF the erosion rate is higher (more than 60 m/Ma, Tapolca Basin), and an average 50 m/Ma in the center and eastern side.

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  • Peperites and soft sediment deformation textures of a shallow subaqueous Miocene rhyolitic cryptodome and dyke complex, Pálháza, Hungary

    Nemeth, Karoly; Pecskay, Zoltan; Martin, Ulrike; Gmeling, Katalin; Molnar, Ferenc; Cronin, Shane J. (2006-01-01)

    Journal article
    Massey University

    Miocene rhyolitic shallow intrusions, cryptodomes and domes emplaced into soft, wet sediment in shallow subaqueous environment form a large intrusive complex in the NE side of the Tokaj Mts. at Pálháza in NE-Hungary. The intrusive complex show interaction textures with the host sediment where blocky peperites formed in a dm-scale, however, irregular contacts closely resembling globular mega-peperites are prominent in the tens of metres scale. The more than 200 m thick succession of intrusive complex interpreted to be a generally steadily growing shallow dyke, cryptodome, and dome complex in a shallow subaqueous environment, similar to those reported from Ponza, Italy.

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  • Rumen function and digestion parameters associated with differences between sheep in methane emissions when fed chaffed lucerne hay

    Pinares-Patiño, C. S.; Ulyatt, M. J.; Lassey, K. R.; Barry, T. N.; Holmes, Colin W. (2003)

    Journal article
    Massey University

    An indoor experiment involving 10 rumen-cannulated Romney sheep was conducted in May and June 1998 at AgResearch Grasslands, Palmerston North, New Zealand, under restricted feeding conditions. in order to test the hypothesis that animal factors, in particular rumen fractional outflow rate (FOR) and rumen volume, have an influence on the between-sheep variation in methane (CH4) emission. Sheep were fed 2-hourly on chaffed lucerne hay. Following an acclimatization period of 21 days, the experiment lasted 16 days. Energy and nitrogen (N) balances were measured on days 1-6. Cr-EDTA marker was continuously infused into the rumen from day 9 to 16, and rumen contents emptied and sampled on days 13 and 16. Particulate and fluid FOR were estimated using feed lignin and Cr-EDTA, respectively. Daily CH, production was measured by the sulphur hexafluoride tracer technique on days 2, 5, 6, 12 and 15 of the experiment. CH4 production (g/day) was positively correlated with the pool size of organic matter (OM) in the rumen (OM pool, g) (r = 0.84, P = 0.002), OM intake (OMI, g/day) (r = 0.67, P = 0.04), and the rumen fill (g. wet digesta) (r = 0.76, P = 0.01). Multiple regression analysis showed that CH4 production was best predicted (R-2 = 0.88) as a function of OM pool and the molar % of butyrate; however, OM pool alone accounted for a large proportion (R-2 = 0.71) of the variation in CH4 production. CH4 yield (% gross energy intake, % GEI) was negatively correlated with the particulate FOR (%/h) ( r= -0.75, P = 0.01) and buffering capacity of rumen fluid (mmol HCl) (r = -0.72, P = 0.02) but positively correlated with the digestibility of cellulose (r = 0.66, P = 0.04). Multiple regression analysis showed that CH, yield was best predicted as a function of particulate FOR, OMI (g/kg liveweight(0.75)) and the molar % of butyrate (R-2 = 0.88). Particulate FOR alone explained a large proportion (R-2 = 0.57) of the variation in CH4 Yield. Particulate FOR was negatively correlated with rumen fill (r = -0.69, P = 0.03) and digestibility of cellulose (r = -0.65, P = 0.04). These results suggest that sheep with lower rumen particulate FOR (i.e. longer rumen retention times) had larger rumen fills and higher fibre digestibilities and CH4 yields. If rumen particulate FOR is to be used as a tool for CH4 mitigation, the repeatability of its relationship to CH4 emission must be assessed, preferably under grazing conditions.

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  • Design and Implementation of an RNS-based 2D DWT Processor

    Liu, Y.; Lai, Edmund M-K. (2004-02-01)

    Journal article
    Massey University

    No abstract available

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  • Cenozoic diatreme field in Chubut (Argentina) as evidence of phreatomagmatic volcanism accompanied with extensive Patagonian plateau basalt volcanism?

    Nemeth, Karoly; Martin, Ulrike; Haller, Miguel J.; Alric, Viviana I. (2007-01-01)

    Journal article
    Massey University

    In Patagonia, Argentina, at the northern border of the Patagonian Cenozoic mafic plateau lava fields, newly discovered diatremes stand about 100 m above the surrounding plain. These diatremes document phreato-magmatic episodes associated with the formation of the volcanic fields. The identified pyroclastic and intrusive rocks are exposed lower diatremes of former phreato-magmatic volcanoes and their feeding dyke systems. These remotely located erosional remnants cut through Paleozoic granitoids and Jurassic/Cretaceous alternating siliciclastic continental successions that are relatively easily eroded. Plateau lava fields are generally located a few hundreds of metres above the highest level of the present tops of the preserved diatremes suggesting a complex erosional history and potential interrelationships between the newly identified diatremes and the surrounding lava fields. Uprising magma from the underlying feeder dyke into the diatreme root zone intruded the clastic debris in the diatremes, inflated them and mingled with the debris to form subterranean peperite. The significance of identifying diatremes in Patagonia are twofold: 1) in the syn-eruptive paleo-environment, water was available in various "soft-sediments", commonly porous, media aquifer sources, and 2) the identified abundant diatremes that form diatreme fields are good source candidates for the extensive lava fields with phreatomagmatism facilitating magma rise with effective opening of fissures before major lava effusions.

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