85,980 results

  • An intertemporally-consistent and arbitrage-free version of the Nelson and Siegel class of yield curve models

    Krippner, Leo (2005-02)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    This article derives a generic, intertemporally-consistent, and arbitrage-free version of the popular class of yield curve models originally introduced by Nelson and Siegel (1987). The derived model has a theoretical foundation (conferred via the Heath, Jarrow and Morton (1992) framework) that allows it to be used in applications that involve an implicit or explicit time-series context. As an example of the potentialapplication of the model, the intertemporal consistency is exploited to derive a theoretical time-series process that may be used to forecast the yield curve. The empirical application of the forecasting framework to United States data results in out-of-sample forecasts that outperform the random walk over a sample period of almost 50 years, for forecast horizons ranging from six months to three years.

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  • Accounting information systems as knowledge-objects: Some effects of objectualization

    Lowe, Alan (2000-08)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    This paper will outline a research methodology informed by theorists who have contributed to actor network theory (ANT). Research informed from such a perspective recognises the constitutive role of accounting systems in the achievement of broader social goals. Latour, Knorr-Cetina and others argue that the bringing in of non-human actants, through the growth of technology and science, has added immeasurably to the complexity of modern society. The paper “sees” accounting and accounting systems as being constituted by technological “black boxes” and seeks to discuss two questions. One concerns the processes which surround the establishment of “facts”, ie. how “black-boxes” are created and accepted (even if temporarily) within society. The second concerns the role of existing “black boxes” within society and organisation. Accounting systems not only promote a particular view of the activities of an organisation or a subunit, but in their implementation and operation ‘mobilise’ other organisational members in a particular direction. The implications of such an interpretation are explored in the paper. Firstly through a discussion of some of the theoretic constructs that have been proposed to frame ANT research. Secondly an attempt is made to relate some of these ideas to aspects of the empirics in a qualitative case study. The case site is in the health sector and involves the implementations of a casemix accounting system. Evidence from the case research is used to exemplify aspects of the theoretical constructs.

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  • Predicting software build failure using source code metrics

    Connor, AM; Finlay, J (2014-04-11)

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    In this paper, we describe the extraction of source code metrics from the Jazz repository and the application of data mining techniques to identify the most useful of those metrics for predicting the success or failure of an attempt to construct a working instance of the software product. We present results from a study using the J48 classification method used in conjunction with a number of attribute selection strategies applied to a set of source code metrics calculated from the code base at the beginning of a build cycle. The results indicate that only a relatively small number of the available software metrics that we considered have any significance for predicting the outcome of a build. These significant metrics are discussed and implication of the results discussed, particularly the relative difficulty of being able to predict failed build attempts. The results also indicate that there is some scope for predicting the outcomes of an attempt to construct a working instance of the software product by analysing the characteristics of the source code to be changed. This provides the opportunity for software project managers to estimate the risk exposure of the planned changes in the build prior to commencing the coding activities.

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  • Representations in accounting: The metaphor effect

    Hooper, Keith; Low, Mary (2000-06)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    The paper acknowledges the dominance of the numerate scientific “what is” approach to financial reporting and comments on the growing role of complementary narratives and photographs in annual reports. Narratives by their very metaphoric nature show up accounting to be more of an art than a science. The hallmark of any art is its “otherness”, that is, art does not claim to mirror and replicate reality but represents it, while remaining something “other” than factual. We demonstrate by reference to some recent company failures that the “what is” numerate methods of financial reporting are also representations: a series of notational metaphors masked by such devices as independent audit reports. Thus, while we applaud the inclusion of complementary narratives to financial reporting, we draw attention to the corresponding lack and limitations in the audit process over these portions of the report. As annual reports grow in narrative and photographic content, we consider metaphoric meaning of these lavishly illustrated additions to numerate reporting. We refer to specific company reports to explain the metaphoric effect. The paper begins by reviewing the “what is” role of the scientific method in accounting and proceeds to look critically at the use of numbers in accounting as notational metaphors. We then focus on the role of narrative comment and compare the representational nature of both approaches. Finally, by way of six case study examples, we discuss the metaphoric use of photographs in company reports.

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  • Provocative mathematics questions: drawing attention to a lack of attention

    Klymchuk, S

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    The paper investigates the role of attention in the reflective thinking of school mathematics teachers. It analyses teachers’ ability to pay attention to detail and use their mathematical knowledge. The vast majority of teachers can be expected to have an excellent knowledge of mathematical techniques. The question examined here is whether this kind of knowledge might structure their attention in such a way that the emphasis on procedures deflects their attention from the essential details. Four groups of participant teachers from New Zealand, Hong Kong, Germany and Ukraine were given a mini-test containing seven simple mathematics questions. Most questions in the test were provocative in the sense that they looked like routine questions but in fact had some catch. The results of the test were startling – the vast majority of the participants gave incorrect answers to most questions in the test. After the test the participants were given a short questionnaire to reflect on their performance on the test. Their responses were analysed using the theories of selective, divided and focused attention and Mason’s concept of the discipline of noticing. Implementations of the results of the study in assessment and professional development are discussed.

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  • Malcolm Ross: from the peaks to the trenches

    Oosterman, Allison (2010-07-16)

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    In April 1915 a journalist named Malcolm Ross was appointed New Zealand’s official war correspondent to cover the actions of the country’s troops wherever they might be fighting during World War I. Few today appear to have heard of this man so the task of this research was to discover who he was, why he was chosen and how effective he was as a correspondent. The fact he had not been remembered hinted at two possibilities; the first was that as little attention has been given to New Zealand’s media history so he had become one of the forgotten and just awaited some eager historian to rediscover him or, secondly, he had been forgotten because he had not left a lasting legacy or tradition worthy of remembrance. It was a conundrum waiting to be solved and that was the purpose of the research. What was uncovered was a man, born of Scottish working class parents who by 52, when he was selected as official war correspondent, had reached what appeared to be the pinnacle of his career. He was successful, both financially and socially. He had been an exceptional mountaineer and sportsman. His journalism and photographic skills had made him one of the leading journalists of his day. Few were surprised when he was appointed as the country’s first official war correspondent. It is the contention of this thesis that from the time of his appointment, Ross’s reputation and status eroded to the extent that his final years after the war appeared to have been spent in relative obscurity. The reason for this will be explored and largely hinges on the almost overwhelming criticism Ross received for his efforts as war correspondent. A major part of the research was devoted to determining whether this criticism was fair and whether Ross warranted elevation into the ranks of the undeserved forgotten of our country’s media heroes.

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  • Predicting apple bruising relationships using machine learning

    Holmes, Geoffrey; Cunningham, Sally Jo; Dela Rue, B. T.; Bollen, A. F. (1998-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Many models have been used to describe the influence of internal or external factors on apple bruising. Few of these have addressed the application of derived relationships to the evaluation of commercial operations. From an industry perspective, a model must enable fruit to be rejected on the basis of a commercially significant bruise and must also accurately quantify the effects of various combinations of input features (such as cultivar, maturity, size, and so on) on bruise prediction. Input features must in turn have characteristics which are measurable commercially; for example, the measure of force should be impact energy rather than energy absorbed. Further, as the commercial criteria for acceptable damage levels change, the model should be versatile enough to regenerate new bruise thresholds from existing data. Machine learning is a burgeoning technology with a vast range of potential applications particularly in agriculture where large amounts of data can be readily collected [1]. The main advantage of using a machine learning method in an application is that the models built for prediction can be viewed and understood by the owner of the data who is in a position to determine the usefulness of the model, an essential component in a commercial environment.

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  • A literature review on the effects of living wage policies

    Maloney, TJ (2014-02-19)

    Report
    Auckland University of Technology

    No abstract.

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  • Financial advice and asset allocation

    Zhang, A (2014-02-14)

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    We explore differences in portfolio composition between investors who receive financial advice and those who do not. Using proprietary data from a national investment savings scheme that contains information of 405,107 individual retirement accounts, we find that financial advice is transformative. People who receive advice hold their assets differently compared to people who do not. We report five key findings. (1) Older, wealthier and female investors are more likely to receive financial advice. (2) Advised investors hold more equity assets. (3) Demographic characteristics affect asset allocation. (4) Advisers tend to recommend asset allocations in line with life-cycle based theories. (5) Investors who received advice tend to earn higher returns in years when equity markets perform well.

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  • Accounting and tax compliance behaviours of ethnic and indigenous entrepreneurs: a New Zealand perspective

    Yong, S (2014-05-17)

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    The influx of immigrants in most developed nations within the English speaking world has resulted in culturally and linguistically diverse populations in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. Despite this, government policies within these developed nations have remained largely Anglo with little regard for the growing cultural diversity and the difficulty ethnic groups have in effectively assimilating into the broader host culture. This paper examines the existing tax policies and tax administration in New Zealand and their effect on ethnic and indigenous entrepreneurs’ accounting and tax behaviours. With sparse accounting and tax research on race and culture, there is much to be gained from an in-depth qualitative study on the tax practices and perceptions of ethnic and indigenous entrepreneurs in New Zealand. The study found that differences in tax practices and perceptions by ethnic and indigenous entrepreneurs are related to differences in their cultural values. The findings warrant further attention from accountants, academics, the business community, policy makers in terms of accounting and tax education, tax administration, tax assistance and tax regulation.

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  • Utilising matauranga Maori to improve the social functioning of tangata whaiora in Maori mental health services

    Wirihana, Rebecca (2008)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Maori mental health services under the Auckland District Health Board (ADHB) have been utilising Matauranga Maori as a key community based intervention since the closing of the kaupapa Maori inpatient service (Manawaanui) in 2003. Kapa haka has been a central component in the provision of the marae based recovery programmes. The following paper is a review of the development and progress.

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  • Robot mapping without a precise map

    Azizul Hasan, Zati Hakim (2014-05-20)

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    In this thesis, I took two key ideas of cognitive mapping developed in Yeap’s (1988) theory of cognitive mapping and developed a robot mapping system that maps without having a precise map. Yeap argues that in a cognitive mapping process, it is important to compute a local space representation that affords boundedness and a global map that tells one roughly where things are located with respect to the self. While these two representations appear to be similar to the global map and a topological network of local spaces that robotics researchers compute for their robots, there are two major differences. First, Yeap’s global map is a transient, inexact map and second, the local space computed is often inexact and incomplete. Computing such representations meant that one does not need to correct errors due to sensors and generate an exact map. I have successfully developed one such algorithm and tested it successfully on a mobile robot equipped with laser and odometer sensors in a large office environment. The journey through the environment before loop closing is about 30m x 30m. The robot went round the environment twice and in a clockwise and anti-clockwise direction. It also finds its way from one part of the environment to another. There are three key steps in my approach. The first step is to constantly detect “landmarks” in two consecutive views (the current view and the previous view). Having two consecutive views meant that any errors due to the sensors are not accumulative. Furthermore, one gets two copies of the landmark – one currently in view and the other in memory. Consequently, their position in space need not be absolute. The second step is to use the landmarks identified to provide a frame of reference to localize unknown surfaces that appear in the current view. The third is to enter those unknown surfaces into its global map using its own landmarks. The development of such an algorithm has led to better insights into cognitive and robot mapping. From a cognitive standpoint, what is important is that we now have an algorithm that computes an inexact map by attending to recognizable surfaces (referred to as landmark surfaces) in successive views rather than dependent on continuous tracking of one’s position and orientation in the environment. Furthermore, it does not require continuous updating of the map as long as there are some overlapping surfaces between views. Both are characteristics of the human cognitive mapping process. From a robot mapping standpoint, my new algorithm shows that it is possible to compute and utilize an inexact map for navigation. This could be a new paradigm for robot mapping.

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  • The Wairua of Self: A Path of Love, Simplicity, and Connectedness

    Frishman, Lezlie (2011)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Love is an action of freedom until something else steps in – often fear – that insists we create a box of survival. Whether self-imposed, forced, or chosen, it is interesting to notice how we limit ourselves with love. This thesis examines love; love in its purest intent and creation as the simplest way to live. An analysis of personal experiences, illuminated by psychological, mythological, philosophical, and spiritual literature, suggests that living from a place of love can be accomplished through a dedicated journeying back to the Self. The Māori myth of Tāne-Mahuta and Hine-Tītama shows the significance of releasing shame, as well as how a tragic situation might offer a catalytic possibility that shifts a core belief about one’s self. The complications of love that are self-created through loss and grief can easily mask the barely underlying truth of love in its nakedness. Reconnecting with this underlying truth, aroha in its purest sense, is essential for healing and allows for increased connection with the Divine. Doing so is often a difficult task, as hypocrisies fueled by fear and perpetuated by blame are bountiful. When love is used as an instrument and convenience in order to defend a closely held idea, person, or way of life, one often moves further from their true Self, thus surrendering their deepest power and knowing of love. The silent assault of expectations, power, will, and control can turn love into a complication. The complications of being utterly human only serve to further obscure love. Within families, how one initially learns love is often complicated by interrupted attachment, causing rebellion and the need to look for love elsewhere. The components of Tikkun Olam, aroha, mikveh, and wairua of spirit, are intertwined and interconnected, such that the delineation between cultures and spiritual beliefs cannot be divided as oppositional forces. The denominator lives in the magnitude of love for all that has been created; beginning with the Self. In setting the foundation of self-love and allowing it to settle into the fractures and rifts of porousness, love may then be extended without attachment. When freely proffered without agenda, love will seep into every curve of the universe; thus, changing the world. Through the practice of mindfulness and loving-kindness, perception can change. It is this change in perception which can return love to its origin of simplicity. This thesis is a story of love.

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  • Homoerotic countertransference in psychoanalytic literature: a thematic analysis

    Tuson, Jane (2013-09-20)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This dissertation poses the question ‘how is homoerotic countertransference written about in psychoanalytic literature?’ Utilising a thematic analysis methodology, an analysis of the literature was undertaken with the aim of identifying the embedded themes within the literature. Four themes were revealed: desire; fear; taboo and acceptance. Desire was the central theme from which all the others emanated. It underpinned the writing in various guises. Fear predominantly related to the clinician’s intrapsychic response to homoerotic desire. Taboo encompassed all references to external judgment from a perceived authority or the potential opprobrium from the profession. It also related to socio-cultural attitudes to same sex attraction that are both implicit and explicit in the literature. A fourth theme of acceptance was identified. This emanated from writing that acknowledged the potency and enrichment borne out of embracing and accepting homoerotic countertransference. The implications for clinical practice of these four themes are discussed including the value of acknowledging and utilising homoerotic countertransference when it emerges in the work.

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  • "Lifestyle choice": the racially discriminatory treatment of remote indigenous communities

    Cassidy, J

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    No abstract.

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  • Women’s experience of pregnancy and early motherhood following repeated IVF treatment: a phenomenological study

    Dann, Leona

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This study explored the phenomena of being pregnant and becoming a mother for the first time following repeated in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatments (≥3). Readings of Martin Heidegger and Hans-Georg Gadamer provided the hermeneutic phenomenology method, a foundation in order to understand the extraordinary experience of pregnancy and matre-scence for these New Zealand women. The seven study participants were all women who had experienced repeated assisted reproductive technologies including IVF. Of the seven women six had experienced pregnancy loss directly related to previous IVF treatments. The pregnancy losses, such as nine miscarriages for one woman and another a stillbirth at 37 weeks gestation, culminated in a sense of chronic grief and sorrow. During the first interview, between 28-30 weeks gestation, all of the participants spent significant time detailing their infertility experience. This demonstrated that the past had to be understood before the pregnancy experience could be explored. The participants’ interviews, of which there were two for each woman, were digitally recorded and narratives of their experience were crafted from the recordings and validated by the women to have captured the unique experience. It is these stories that have uncovered the everyday reality of how it is to finally be pregnant and become a mother after enduring years of emotional and physical pain, compounded by financial burdening of treatment costs. The need to procreate, to belong in the mother-world and the fear of failing are dominant themes that drive the need for repeated treatment, even when required to self-fund. These women have demonstrated tenacity, losing previous pregnancies yet finding the courage to try again, to face another loss but to still try again and eventually to journey through pregnancy and the transition to motherhood. The findings suggest that these women traverse their pregnancy experiencing a variety of moods. The mood of dread is the overwhelming mood as they endeavour to balance the effect of fear and the flame of hope. The women have become efficient at applying coping mechanisms such as the use of silence, or pretending to be what they perceive to be ‘normal’ pregnant or mothering women. As they transition to motherhood the shroud of fear for some wraps around the mother and newborn, yet for others over time they are able to shed the shroud and embrace motherhood. The time to transition to motherhood is experienced differently for all women, with two of the women unable to find the equilibrium of ‘ease’ of motherhood at 10 weeks postnatal. This study uncovered that for these women who experienced years of infertility, treatments and failures, their pregnancy and matrescence experience is one of not-being-at-home-in-the-world.

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  • Direct Metal Laser Sintering of Titanium implant with Tailored structure and Mechanical Properties

    Abd Aziz, Izhar (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    Direct Metal Laser Sintering has attracted much attention over the last decade for producing complex parts additively based on digital models. The capability and reliability of this process has stimulated new design concepts and has widened the manufacturing perspective of product customisation. This research work is designed to gain a deep understanding of laser sintering processing parameters, the corresponding microstructures and the mechanical properties. The main purpose is to have a body of fundamental knowledge about the laser and titanium powder material interactions, thus establishing the factors that influence the process-structure-properties relationships of the Direct Metal Laser Sintering process. Finally, a route for manufacturing customised craniofacial implants was described. This is to evaluate the DMLS processing capabilities in medical areas, particularly those parts having porous and lattice design structures. The interaction between a laser beam and the powder bed creates a distinctive structure; a ball shaped (blob) consists of solid and porous regions. All the blobs have the same shape and morphology which may well suggest that there is a tendency for the powder particles to form a spherical droplet prior to a movingless laser beam. Surrounding the melted core is a sintered region of partially melted powder particles where the powder particles were fused together to form inter-particle necks. There is a linear relation between size, weight and density of a blob and the laser power. The surface temperature obtained exceeds the melting and vaporization temperature of the titanium and this creates a hole on the top part of a blob as a result of a massive temperature rise. Laser power of 140W gives a consistent structure and hardness in a blob. Metallographic analyses of a blob’s cross-section show an α+β structure with prior-beta grains. The morphology of the lamellar structure consisted of acicular needles with a basket-weave pattern. The pores were characterised as having flat and spherical features with the size ranging from 2µm to 6µm. The micro-porosity observed may be associated with shrinkage which occurs during solidification or with the presence of entrapped gases from the atmosphere or argon gas from the shrouding environment Laser power and scan speed are the two most crucial factor controlling the laser-powder interactions. Result shows that laser power is capable of widening the processing parameters particularly the scan speed. Increased laser power causes more powder to melt thus creating a bigger melt pool. Contrary to this, increasing the scan speed reduces the interaction time thus a smaller amount of powder melts. The right combination of these two parameters results in inducing an appropriate exposure time where continuously scanned tracks can be formed. Most of the parts were successfully built using a specific volume energy density of 50Jmm⁻³, which was considered to be the optimum processing parameter for this research work. The ideal laser-material interaction time was calculated at 0.0008secs. The microstructural analysis revealed a fully lamellar structure with acicular morphology. XRD analysis confirmed the presence of α’ martensite, which explains the thermal history of a high isothermal condition and rapid cooling. The cross section of a solid part exhibited an acicular, needle-like structure with a herring bone pattern, parallel to building direction, due to directional solidification. The microstructure had a high tensile strength but with low ductility. It is also worth mentioning that a slight change in scan speed, with the intention of providing more energy density to the powder, may cause instability in the melt pool and cause deterioration in the mechanical properties. It is therefore confirmed that there is an upper limit and allowable processing window where a good balance of tensile strength and hardness in a DMLS part is achievable. A framework prior to an implant’s fabrication was established and the associated design and manufacturing software are reported. The processing route required software like MIMICS and MAGICS to manipulate the medical images and design data and equitable skills must be acquired to handle the machine in order to successfully fabricate the desired parts. Employing MAGICS new lattice function proved to be more efficient, saving time compared to a manual procedure, especially when dealing with large medical data manipulation. In conclusion, the proposed method from this study is capable of producing a customised part with the highest degree of design complexity compared with other conventional manufacturing methods. This has proved to be very suitable for manufacturing titanium medical implants, particularly craniofacial implants which require a customised and lightweight structure and at the same time still provide good mechanical properties

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  • Application of Nonlinear Transistor Characteristics

    Balsom, Toby (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    This research presents three works all related by the subject of third-order distortion reduction in nonlinear circuits. Each one is a novel extension to previous work in that branch of electronics literature. All three follow the procedure of presenting a novel algebraic proof and following up with simulations and/or measurements to confirm the theoretical result. The works are generally themed around nonlinear low-frequency bipolar transistor circuits. Firstly, an investigation is conducted into a well documented effect in bipolar-junction transistors (BJTs) called inherent third-order distortion nulling. This effect is shown to be a fundamental result of the transistor’s transfer junction acting upon an input signal. The proof of a single BJT emitter-follower amplifier’s inherent null is examined which is well documented in the literature. This forms the basis for a novel extension in Darlington transistors where theory suggests the third-order null occurs at double the collector current of a single BJT. Discrete measurements of a CA3083 transistor array are undertaken and compared with theory and simulation data. These measurements confirm theory with reasonable accuracy. A temperature and process variation independent bias circuit is developed to solve one issue with using third-order distortion nulling. This work is interesting in that it branches into series resistance compensation for translinear circuits and stands as a useful circuit in its own right. Using stacks of matched forward-biased semiconductor junctions which conform to translinear conditions, a bias current can be generated which theoretically removes temperature and series resistance dependence on the particular BJT used. This proves useful for the previous work in distortion nulling, but also allows direct and accurate measurement of series resistance. Again, simulation and measurement data is obtained from discrete measurements of the proposed circuit, and the results conform with theory to a reasonable degree. Lastly, this work presents the analysis of a cascoded-compensation (Cascomp) amplifier. It presents the first fully nonlinear derivation of the Cascomp’s transfer function and its associated harmonic and intermodulation distortion components. The derivation reveals an interesting characteristic in which the third-order intermodulation distortion has multiple local minima. This characteristic has not yet been presented in the literature, and allows better optimisation of Cascomp amplifiers in any application. Again, this characteristic and its potential benefits are confirmed with simulation and discrete measurements. Observations of the presented works are discussed and built upon in the last chapter. This leads to suggestions on future research topics branching on from these works.

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  • The teaching of English in secondary schools in Japan: From curriculum to the classroom

    Umeda, Keiko (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    It has often been observed that there is a significant gap between the aspirations for the teaching of English as expressed in Japanese Ministry of Education curriculum guidelines and the reality of classroom practice. Using a combination of questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, classroom observations and curriculum and textbook analysis, this thesis seeks to explore that gap. While many of the reasons identified in the past (community expectations, the negative impact of entrance examinations, and limited time for lesson preparation) did emerge as being of significance, a wide range of other issues also emerged which, taken together, suggest that the problems faced by teachers of English in Japanese schools are more complex and multi-faceted than the literature appears to suggest. Analysis of the Japanese curriculum for English indicates that while it is clearly influenced by developments in the areas of communicative competence and communicative language teaching and by research in the area of discourse analysis, it includes many features that are reminiscent of a considerably more traditional approach. It appears to proscribe in some places what it recommends in others, provides little guidance on critical aspects of curriculum implementation, and was judged by some of the teachers involved in the study to take little account of the context in which Japanese teachers work. So far as language teacher training is concerned, there appear sometimes to be very significant gaps in what is provided, with the courses offered often being taught by academics who may, in some cases, have themselves had little training in language teaching and may also lack understanding and experience of teaching in schools. Widely used textbooks, all approved by the Ministry of Education and written by teams dominated by university-based academics, appear to be largely absent of any genuine communicative orientation. Add to this the fact that changes in expectations relating to teacher behaviour have not been accompanied by any concerted effort to change community attitudes or outdated testing and assessment procedures, and it should come as no surprise to find that the language lessons observed were teacher-dominated, with the teachers talking, mostly in Japanese, for most of the time, and with considerable reliance on translation, repetition and rote learning. Although it seems to be widely believed that grammar translation is the dominant approach, these lessons exhibited a curious mixture of aspects of grammar translation and aspects of audio-lingualism (with its behaviourist and structural underpinnings). It has often been noted that teachers in Japanese secondary schools are generally heavily burdened with non-teaching responsibilities. However, the constant teacher-focus and the ongoing struggle to communicate with students that characterized these lessons would appear to do little to ease the burden on teachers. In spite of all of the problems they face, many of the teachers involved in this study appreciate the value of making language lessons interesting and indicated that they are ready and eager for change. If change is to happen, the Ministry of Education will need to acknowledge that teachers cannot be expected to take full responsibility for it. A strategic approach to what is clearly a systemic problem is required.

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  • Ko au te whenua, te whenua ko au – I am the land, the land is me: An autoethnographic investigation of a secondary school teacher’s experience seeking to enrich learning in outdoor education for Māori students.

    Townsend, Jane Emma (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis is my story as an outdoor educator, as a researcher, and a co-participant reflecting on my own actions and experiences as well as those of my students. In this autoethnography I share my revelations and tensions in my role as an outdoor education teacher seeking to enrich the experiences of Māori students. Māori culture and history have largely been ignored in the outdoor education classrooms and environments of Aotearoa New Zealand. After teaching the subject for ten years I didn’t perceive that I was perpetuating the same invisibility in my own outdoor education course. Over this time a number of questions that had fermented at the back of my mind came to the fore; ‘why are so few Māori students opting to take outdoor education as a senior secondary school subject?’ and ‘how can I make the subject of outdoor education more desirable and appealing to Māori?’ A place-responsive approach incorporates and values traditional ways of learning through the notion of place and the stories attached to them. The cultural context of learning about and through place has the potential to provide learning opportunities that are relevant and meaningful to all learners but particularly Māori. Place-responsive pedagogies allow outdoor educators to create an environment where language, knowledge, culture and values are normal, valid and legitimate – contexts where Māori students can be themselves. Through this research I have found that the implementation of a place responsive approach has had significant implications for Year twelve outdoor education at Mount Maunganui College. The improvement in Māori student achievement and numbers selecting the subject have been affirming. Ko au te whenua, te whenua ko au – I am the land, the land is me

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