88,788 results

  • Rockfall at Fox Glacier, New Zealand: a Hazard Analysis using Structure from Motion and Spatial Modelling

    Roy, E.S.; Purdie, H.; Gomez, C.; Wassmer, P.; Schuster, M. (2015)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    As glaciers retreat, downwasting of the ice increases the instability of surrounding rock slopes. In addition, ice thinning can lead to surface morphology changes that can result in a progressively concave transverse profile. This short-term paraglacial process may lengthen the run-out distance of potential rockfalls. The Fox glacier is a temperate maritime glacier undergoing high annual precipitations and warm temperatures, thus it is one of the most climate sensitive of the South-Alps. Current rapid retreat appears to be associated with an escalation of rockfall activity, particularly in the terminus region where walking-tracks are located. Glacier-related tourism is a key point in the valley development, consequently the lack of safe-access displays a dual issue in terms of economy and of risk management. The area was therefore relevant to develop a rockfalls assessment using a physics-3D model (RockFall Analyst, Lan et al 2007) with a high resolution digital elevation model (DEM) acquired by Structure from Motion (SfM). The analysis improves the last 2D-hazard profiles by spatial modelling of the rockfall trajectories and taking into account the characteristics of rock behaviour on ice. The simulations show blocks travelling further onto the glacier than the last profiles. We identify potential rockfall run-out on hazard maps thus providing a first assessment tool for local guide for working in this dynamic environment. Ongoing research on precipitation data are carring out. Futur researches with geophysical investigations on the talus slope at seasonal scale could considerably refine the understanding of the linkage between paraglacial processes and rockfall occurence. Numerous alpine glaciers are retreating and become prone to natural hazards, thus resulting in the increase around the word of management between risk and glacier tourism.

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  • No scientific consensus on GMO safety

    Hilbeck, A.; Binimelis, R.; Defarge, N.; Steinbrecher, R.; Székács, A.; Wickson, F.; Antoniou, M.; Bereano, P.L.; Clark, E.A.; Hansen, M.; Novotny, E.; Jack Heinemann, J.; Meyer, H, Shiva, V.; Wynne, B. (2015)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    A broad community of independent scientific researchers and scholars challenges recent claims of a consensus over the safety of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). In the following joint statement, the claimed consensus is shown to be an artificial construct that has been falsely perpetuated through diverse fora. Irrespective of contradictory evidence in the refereed literature, as documented below, the claim that there is now a consensus on the safety of GMOs continues to be widely and often uncritically aired. For decades, the safety of GMOs has been a hotly controversial topic that has been much debated around the world. Published results are contradictory, in part due to the range of different research methods employed, an inadequacy of available procedures, and differences in the analysis and interpretation of data. Such a lack of consensus on safety is also evidenced by the agreement of policymakers from over 160 countries - in the UN’s Cartagena Biosafety Protocol and the Guidelines of the Codex Alimentarius - to authorize careful case-by-case assessment of each GMO by national authorities to determine whether the particular construct satisfies the national criteria for ‘safe’. Rigorous assessment of GMO safety has been hampered by the lack of funding independent of proprietary interests. Research for the public good has been further constrained by property rights issues, and by denial of access to research material for researchers unwilling to sign contractual agreements with the developers, which confer unacceptable control over publication to the proprietary interests. The joint statement developed and signed by over 300 independent researchers, and reproduced and published below, does not assert that GMOs are unsafe or safe. Rather, the statement concludes that the scarcity and contradictory nature of the scientific evidence published to date prevents conclusive claims of safety, or of lack of safety, of GMOs. Claims of consensus on the safety of GMOs are not supported by an objective analysis of the refereed literature.

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  • Feasibility of Implementing International Pedestrian Crosswalk Laws in New Zealand

    Koorey, G.; McCrostie, C. (2015)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    New Zealand is relatively unusual in having road rules that do not generally give priority to pedestrians when crossing unsignalised intersections. A project investigated the effects of changing current NZ pedestrian crossing legislation to match many other parts of the world. The objectives were: Identifying the effects different rules have on pedestrian behaviour and safety ; Determining road users' understanding and preferences of various rule change options ; Determining the effects of the proposed changes on both pedestrian and motorist delays ; Considering the practical aspects of introducing a rule change in NZ. Analysis of NZ’s pedestrian crash data found that, if NZ road rules did change, then crash patterns at unsignalised intersections may change to mirror those at signalised ones. A survey of road users’ understanding/perception of current and potential road rules found that, on average, 78% of people are already willing to give way to pedestrians, although the importance of an education campaign with any future changes was also noted. VISSIM simulation modelling of predicted delays to pedestrians and motorists found generally no notable effect on total personal delay caused by possible rule changes. Overall, implementing a rule change in NZ appears to be possible, and the implications of this are discussed further.

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  • Moving towards a holistic paradigm: Teaching sexuality education in a New Zealand University

    Cushman, P.; Brown Hajdukova, E.; Clelland, T. (2015)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    Aim: Using a qualitative approach, the aim was to investigate the existence of a change in the basic assumptions, or paradigms, in tertiary health education students following a sexuality education course. Study Design: Qualitative research using Nvivo analysis was utilised. Place and Duration of the Study: The research took place at the University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand between July and October, 2014. Methodology: The sample included 21 students enrolled in a sexuality education course. The majority of students were health education majors in the Bachelor of Health Sciences degree. All students completed pre- and post-course questionnaires and a random sample of the students were also selected to participate in focus group discussions. Students were questioned regarding their understanding of sexuality, their perceptions of sexuality issues facing New Zealanders, and changes in their ideas about sexuality education resulting from the course. Results: Data analysis of the pre-course questionnaires and focus groups found students understandings and beliefs regarding sexuality education were mainly situated within a biomedical paradigm emphasizing the physical aspects of an individual’s sexuality. Post-course data suggested a shift towards a more holistic understanding of sexuality, the development and appreciation of a broader understanding of sexuality issues facing New Zealanders, and a marked paradigm shift in ideas around the concept of sexuality. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that sexuality education programmes framed within a holistic paradigm and underpinned by sound pedagogical practices have the potential to facilitate an expansion of ideas and attitudes about the construction of sexuality education

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  • Benefits of site-specific seismic hazard analyses for seismic design in New Zealand

    Bradley, B.A. (2015)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    This paper summarizes the role site-specific seismic hazard analyses can play in seismic design and assessment in New Zealand. The additional insights and potential improvements in the seismic design and assessment process through a better understanding of the ground motion hazard are examined through a comparative examination with prescriptive design guidelines. Benefits include the utilization of state-of-the-art knowledge, improved representation of site response, reduced conservatism, and the determination of dominant seismic source properties, among others. The paper concludes with a discussion of these relative benefits so that the efficacy of site-specific hazard analysis for a particular project can be better judged by the engineer.

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  • A geology-based 3D seismic velocity model of Canterbury, New Zealand

    Lee, R.L.; Bradley, B.A.; Ghisetti, F.C.; Pettinga, J.R.; Hughes, M.W.; Thomson, E.M. (2015)


    University of Canterbury Library

    This paper presents a seismic velocity model of Canterbury, New Zealand based on 3D geologic surfaces and velocities from a range of data sources. The model provides the 3D crustal structure in the region at multiple length scales for seismic wave propagation simulations, such as broadband ground motion and shallow site response analyses related to understanding the ground motions and site responses during the 2010- 2011 Canterbury earthquakes. Pre-Quaternary geologic horizons are calculated based on the reinterpretation of a comprehensive network of seismic reflection surveys from seven different campaigns over the past 50 years, as well as point constraints across an array of petroleum industry drill holes. Particular attention is given to a detailed representation of Quaternary stratigraphy, representing shallow (z<50m), high-spatial resolution seismic velocities (including Vs30 ) were obtained from over 13,000 cone penetration tests combined with a recently developed CPT-Vs correlation.

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  • Spatially Balanced Sampling: application to environmental surveys

    Brown, J.A.; Robertson, B.L.; McDonald, T. (2015)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Persistence of the Uncanny Valley: the Influence of Repeated Interactions and a Robot’s Attitude on its Perception

    Zlotowski, J.; Sumioka, H.; Nishio, S.; Glas, D.; Bartneck, C.; Ishiguro, H. (2015)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    The uncanny valley theory proposed by Mori has been heavily investigated in the recent years by researchers from various fields. However, the videos and images used in these studies did not permit any human interaction with the uncanny objects. Therefore, in the field of human-robot interaction it is still unclear what, if any, impact an uncanny-looking robot will have in the context of an interaction. In this paper we describe an exploratory empirical study using a live interaction paradigm that involved repeated interactions with robots that differed in embodiment and their attitude towards a human. We found that both investigated components of the uncanniness (likeability and eeriness) can be affected by an interaction with a robot. Likeability of a robot was mainly affected by its attitude and this effect was especially prominent for a machine-like robot. On the other hand, merely repeating interactions was sufficient to reduce eeriness irrespective of a robot’s embodiment. As a result we urge other researchers to investigate Mori’s theory in studies that involve actual human-robot interaction in order to fully understand the changing nature of this phenomenon.

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  • Reanalyses of anomalous gravitational microlensing events in the OGLE-III early warning system database with combined data

    Jeong, J.; Park, H.; Han, C.; Gould, A.; Udalski, A.; Szymanski, M.K.; Pietrzynski, G.; Soszynski, I.; Poleski, R.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, L.; Abe, F.; Bennett, D.P.; Bond, I.A.; Botzler, C.S.; Freeman, M.; Fukui, A.; Fukunaga, D.; Itow, Y.; Koshimoto, N.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Muraki, Y.; Namba, S.; Ohnishi, K.; Rattenbury, N.J.; Saito, To.; Sullivan, D.J.; Sweatman, W.L.; Sumi, T.; Suzuki, D.; Tristram, P.J.; Tsurumi, N.; Wada, K.; Yamai, N.; Yock, P.C.M.; Yonehara, A.; Albrow, M.D.; Batista, V.; Beaulieu, J-P.; Caldwell, J.A.R.; Cassan, A.; Cole, A.; Coutures, C.; Dieters, S.; Dominik, M.; Dominis Prester, D.; Donatowicz, J.; Fouqué, P.; Greenhill, J.; Hoffman, M.; Huber, M.; Jørgensen, U.G.; Kane, S.R.; Kubas, D.; Martin, R.; Marquette, J.B.; Menzies, J.; Pitrou, C.; Pollard, K.; Sahu, K.C.; Vinter, C.; Wambsganss, J.; Williams, A.; Allen, W.; Bolt, G.; Choi, J.Y.; Christie, G.W.; DePoy, D.L.; Drummond, J.; Gaudi, B.S.; Hwang, K-H.; Jung, Y.K.; Lee, C-U.; Mallia, F.; Maoz, D.; Maury, A.; McCormick, J.; Monard, L.A.G.; Moorhouse, D.; Natusch, T.; Ofek, E.O.; Park, B-G.; Pogge, R.W.; Santallo, R.; Shin, I.G.; Thornley, G.; Yee, J.C.; Bramich, D.M.; Burgdorf, M.; Horne, K.; Hundertmark, M.; Kains, N.; Snodgrass, C.; Steele, I.; Street, R.; Tsapras, Y. (2015)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    We reanalyze microlensing events in the published list of anomalous events that were observed from the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) lensing survey conducted during the 2004–2008 period. In order to check the existence of possible degenerate solutions and extract extra information, we conduct analyses based on combined data from other survey and follow-up observation and consider higher-order effects. Among the analyzed events, we present analyses of eight events for which either new solutions are identified or additional information is obtained. We find that the previous binary-source interpretations of five events are better interpreted by binary-lens models. These events include OGLE-2006-BLG-238, OGLE-2007-BLG-159, OGLE-2007-BLG- 491, OGLE-2008-BLG-143, and OGLE-2008-BLG-210. With additional data covering caustic crossings, we detect finite-source effects for six events including OGLE-2006-BLG-215, OGLE-2006-BLG-238, OGLE-2006- BLG-450, OGLE-2008-BLG-143, OGLE-2008-BLG-210, and OGLE-2008-BLG-513. Among them, we are able to measure the Einstein radii of three events for which multi-band data are available. These events are OGLE-2006- BLG-238, OGLE-2008-BLG-210, and OGLE-2008-BLG-513. For OGLE-2008-BLG-143, we detect higher-order effects induced by the changes of the observer’s position caused by the orbital motion of the Earth around the Sun. In addition, we present degenerate solutions resulting from the known close/wide or ecliptic degeneracy. Finally, we note that the masses of the binary companions of the lenses of OGLE-2006-BLG-450 and OGLE-2008-BLG- 210 are in the brown-dwarf regime.

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  • Auditory hallucinations in dissociaitve identity disorder with and without adult sexual abuse and schizophrenia

    Dorahy, M.J.; Palmer, R.; Middleton, W.; Seager, L. (2015)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Diffraction evidence for the structure of cellulose microfibrils in bamboo, a model for grass and cereal celluloses

    Thomas, L.H.; Forsyth, T.; Martel, A.; Grillo, I.; Altaner, C.M.; Jarvis, M.C. (2015)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    Background: Cellulose from grasses and cereals makes up much of the potential raw material for biofuel production. It is not clear if cellulose microfibrils from grasses and cereals differ in structure from those of other plants. The structures of the highly oriented cellulose microfibrils in the cell walls of the internodes of the bamboo Pseudosasa amabilis are reported. Strong orientation facilitated the use of a range of scattering techniques. Results: Small-angle neutron scattering provided evidence of extensive aggregation by hydrogen bonding through the hydrophilic edges of the sheets of chains. The microfibrils had a mean centre-to-centre distance of 3.0 nm in the dry state, expanding on hydration. The expansion on hydration suggests that this distance between centres was through the hydrophilic faces of adjacent microfibrils. However in the other direction, perpendicular to the sheets of chains, the mean, disorder-corrected Scherrer dimension from wide-angle X-ray scattering was 3.8 nm. It is possible that this dimension is increased by twinning (crystallographic coalescence) of thinner microfibrils over part of their length, through the hydrophobic faces. The wide-angle scattering data also showed that the microfibrils had a relatively large intersheet d-spacing and small monoclinic angle, features normally considered characteristic of primary-wall cellulose. Conclusions: Bamboo microfibrils have features found in both primary-wall and secondary-wall cellulose, but are crystallographically coalescent to a greater extent than is common in celluloses from other plants. The extensive aggregation and local coalescence of the microfibrils are likely to have parallels in other grass and cereal species and to influence the accessibility of cellulose to degradative enzymes during conversion to liquid biofuels

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  • Control of Structural Response with a New Semi-Active Viscous Damping Device

    Khanmohammadi Hazaveh, N.; Pampanin, S.; Chase, J.G.; Rodgers, G.W. (2015)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    Semi-active control devices can perform significantly better than passive devices, but also have the potential to achieve the performance approaching that of a fully active system. Semi-active devices offer significant promise for their ability to add supplemental damping and reduce seismic structural response in an easily controllable manner, and can be used in some modes to modify or reshape hysteretic structural response. However, many current semi-active devices are highly complex, limiting robustness, while those that can generate larger forces suffer from increased response lag time to do so. Thus, an ideal semi-active device would offer high forces, low complexity, and fast response. The semiactive viscous dampers could offer all these properties and could reduce not only the displacement response of a structure, but also the base shear. There are three semi-active viscous dampers, a 1-4, 1-3 and 2-4 device. In this study, a spectral analysis over periods of T= 0.2-5.0 sec under 20 design level earthquakes from the medium suite of the SAC project is used to compare three device control laws individually or in combination to sculpt structural hysteretic behaviour. Performance is assessed by evaluating reduction factors (RFs) compared to an uncontrolled structure for maximum displacement (Sd) and total base-shear (Fb), indicative of structural and foundation damage, respectively. Results show that combining the control laws to reshape the hysteresis loop can reduce the median value of both Sd and Fb by approximately 30% for periods less than 3.0 sec and 20% for periods more than 3.0. Thus, the results show that the proposed device and control laws have significant effect to reduction both structural response and base-shear. Overall, these results indicate the robustness of potentially very simple and robust semi-active viscous dampers to mitigate the risk of seismic damage to both the structure and foundation in a way that is economically suitable for either new designs or retrofit.

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  • Accommodation Preferences of the Girlfriend Getaway Market: Self-Image, Satisfaction and Loyalty

    Khoo-Lattimore, C.; Prayag, G. (2015)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    The study aims at identifying the dimensions of accommodation and service of importance to the girlfriend getaway (GGA) market and their relationship with self-image, satisfaction and loyalty. Analysis of data from 540 women travellers who participated in a GGA in Malaysia revealed eight dimensions of accommodation preferences such as Room Amenities, Safety, and Room Design and Decoration, among others. Not all accommodation dimensions predicted self-image, satisfaction and loyalty. In fact, self-image and satisfaction were stronger predictors of loyalty than accommodation dimensions. Theoretical and managerial implications are offered.

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  • Hyperglycaemic preterm babies have sex differences in insulin secretion

    Dickson, J.L.; Chase, J.G.; Pretty, C.G.; Gunn, C.A.; Alsweiler, J.A. (2015)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    Background: Hyperglycaemia is a common complication of prematurity and is associated with neonatal mortality and morbidity, yet the aetiology is incompletely understood. C-peptide has been used in adults to estimate endogenous insulin secretion due to its simple clearance kinetics. Objective: To determine insulin secretion calculated from plasma C-peptide concentrations in hyperglycaemic preterm babies. Methods: A retrospective analysis of a cohort of 41 very preterm babies (median gestational age, weeks: 27.2 (26.2-28.7)) enrolled in a randomised controlled trial of tight glycaemic control when they developed hyperglycaemia (2 consecutive blood glucose concentrations (BGC) > 8.5 mmol.L-1). Insulin secretion was determined using a steady state analysis of a 2 compartment C-peptide kinetic model. Results: BGC, plasma insulin concentration, plasma C-peptide concentrations and insulin secretion were higher at randomisation than 1-2 weeks following randomisation (p≤0.02). Insulin secretion was higher in girls (11.7 (5.3-18.7) vs. 4.7 (2.1-8.3) mU.L-1.kg-1.min-1, p0.25). Insulin secretion was lower in samples taken during exogenous insulin delivery (3.7 (1.8 - 6.9) vs. 9.8 (4.7 - 17.8) mU.L-1.kg-1.min-1, p=0.02). Conclusions: Insulin secretion was higher when babies had higher BGC, indicating endogenous insulin secretion is sensitive to BGC. Girls had higher insulin secretion, at similar blood glucose and plasma insulin concentrations, than boys.

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  • Analysis of Hybrid Damping Device with Self-Centring

    Kordani, R.; Rodgers, G.W.; Chase, J.G. (2015)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    Lead extrusion dampers have been used to dissipate seismic energy in structures and can contribute to damage avoidance design (DAD) rocking connections. In rocking connections that utilises unbound post-tensioned tendons, re-centering of the overall structure is typical. However, the lead extrusion dampers are prone to residual story drifts. In this study a modified version of High Force-To Volume (HF2V) extrusion damper is introduced to overcome the lack of inherent re-centring, while maintaining the energy absorption capability. Response spectral analysis for multiple, probabilistically scaled earthquake suites are used to delineate the displacement reduction factors due to the added damping. Overall, the results indicate an important trade-off between force contributions from the HF2V and ring spring components. Moreover, increasing the ring spring participation force level leads to less residual displacement in exchange for less reduction in peak displacement.

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  • Inner process of Photon emission and absorption

    Pons, D.J. (2015)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    Problem- There are deep unanswered questions about photon emission, specifically how the field structures of the photon emerge from the electron. While this problem cannot be answered from within quantum mechanics, due to its premise that particles are zero dimensional points, other theories of physics have better prospects. Purpose- A conceptual theory is developed for the processes of photon emission and absorption, in a non-local hidden-variable (NLHV) design called the Cordus theory. Approach- Logical inference is used to predict the structures of the discrete fields of the photon and electron under this framework. From this is extracted an explanation of how electron bonding constraints require the electron to emit its excess energy, and how the photon is created and emerges from the electron. Findings- Emission is found to be an escapement mechanism whereby matter particles that are over-prescribed in position can get rid of that energy, and the details of this are explained. The results show excellent qualitative agreement with classical electromagnetic wave theory and quantum mechanics, many conceptual features of which can be recovered. Originality- A novel conceptual theory is developed for the processes of photon emission and absorption. Particularly important here is the proposed causality whereby bonding constraints affect geometric span of the particule, which affects frequency. Hence this constrains the energy that the electron can contain, and explains why the emitted photon has a specific quantum of energy. A second contribution is the proposed differentiation between the discrete fields of the photon and electron. This yields an explanation for the exponential nature of the evanescent field, and recovery of the inverse radius squared relationship for the electro-magneto-gravitational fields. The theory also offers a physical interpretation of the fine structure constant a as a measure of the transmission efficacy of the fabric, i.e. a determines the relationship between the electric constant of the vacuum fabric, and the speed of propagation c through the fabric. There is further novelty in achieving this from the non-local hidden-variable sector of physics. Implications- Quantum mechanics originated with the observation that the movement of electrons between orbitals resulted in emission of photons with discrete quanta of energy. However it does not explain how the transitions occur. The original contribution here is showing that a solution does exist in NLHV physics. Assuming this is valid then the implications are that particles have internal structure and that quantum mechanics is merely a quantitative statistical summary of a deeper physics.

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  • Effect of On-Street Parking on Traffic Speeds

    Praburam, G.; Koorey, G. (2015)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    The purpose of this study was to collect and analyse data to determine the extent that traffic flow (notably speed) is affected by on-street parking. Similar studies were done previously on major arterial roads; this research was concentrated mainly on local streets. Ten roads in Christchurch of various widths were chosen, between 8m and 13m. Sites that had only on-street parking as the main hindrance to traffic flow were chosen, for the purpose of obtaining clear relationships. Observed speeds were recorded at various parking demand levels and then analysed. The results showed that the vehicular speeds fell noticeably with an increase in parking levels. On average, there was approximately a 10km/h reduction in mean speeds between empty and full on-street parking levels. An even bigger effect was noted in 85th percentile speeds. The magnitude of fall in speed varied only slightly based on the road widths. Further research, by increasing the number of sites and performing speed surveys for more parking levels at the same sites, may yield more accurate results. This may be useful for policy makers to consider the role of on-street parking as part of their local area speed management strategies.

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  • Nuclear polymer explains the stability, instability, and non-existence of nuclides

    Pons, D.J.; Pons, A.D.; Pons, A.J. (2015)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    Problem – The explanation of nuclear properties from the strong force upwards has been elusive. It is not clear how binding energy arises, or why the neutrons are necessary in the nucleus at all. Nor has it been possible to explain, from first principles of the strong force, why any one nuclide is stable, unstable, or non-existent. Approach – Design methods were used to develop a conceptual mechanics for the bonding arrangements between nucleons. This was based on the covert structures for the proton and neutron as defined by the Cordus theory, a type of non-local hidden-variable design with discrete fields. Findings - Nuclear bonding arises from the synchronous interaction between the discrete fields of the proton and neutron. This results in not one but multiple types of bond, cis- and transphasic, and assembly of chains and bridges of nucleons into a nuclear polymer. The synchronous interaction constrains the relative orientation of nucleons, hence the nuclear polymer takes only certain spatial layouts. The stability of nuclides is entirely predicted by morphology of the nuclear polymer and the cis/transphasic nature of the bonds. The theory successfully explains the qualitative stability characteristics of all hydrogen and helium nuclides. Originality – Novel contributions include: the concept of a nuclear polymer and its mechanics; an explanation of the stability, instability, or non-existence of nuclides starting from the strong/synchronous force; explanation of the role of the neutron in the nucleus. The theory opens a new field of mechanics by which nucleon interactions may be understood.

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  • Footprinting New Zealand urban forms and lifestyles

    Lawton, Ella Susanne (2013)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    More than 90% of New Zealand’s ecological footprint results from the lifestyle choices of individuals, although the size and impact of their lifestyle footprint depends on the type of urban form in which they live. The aim of this research is to highlight the degree to which New Zealanders are living beyond their fair earth share and how this appears through lifestyles. As the population continues to increase and resources become scarce, it is vital that both governments and communities have effective resource accounting tools to inform further urban development, given its influence on resource use. The thesis highlights how urban form could reduce barriers to people’s future wellbeing and it identifies the types of lifestyles that support a shift towards lower footprint living. To understand how the ecological footprint of New Zealand’s communities is generated by a combination of the community members’ lifestyle choices and interaction with their urban form, the research comprised five steps. 1. Designing a footprint method and calculating local footprint yields for the New Zealand context. 2. Calculating the New Zealand footprint in nine categories: food and beverages, travel, consumer goods, holidays, household energy, housing, infrastructure, government and services. 3. Creating a calculator and survey, and collecting household footprint data from five New Zealand communities. 4. Processing data and analysing community results highlighting differences and similarities between them. 5. Using the community output creating fair earth share scenarios which highlight those footprint categories within each urban form that provide the best opportunity for reducing a community’s footprint. Throughout this project the ecological footprint has been an effective indicator which has provided the means to communicate complex environmental data in a simplified form to diverse groups. The project used the ecological footprint to measure and communicate the trends that are putting pressure on the planet’s finite availability of land; a growing demand and the decreasing supply. It was found to be an effective communication tool for both communities and local government organisations that formed a way of discussing how to reduce their footprint in the future. Although many New Zealand lifestyles exist in a variety of types of urban form, some lifestyle types are more typical in certain urban forms. Food was found to be the predominant driver of a household’s footprint. Use of commercial land for growing, on-farm inputs and food processing made up the largest portion of the food footprint. Holidays and pets were also large contributors to an individual’s footprint. Due to the high amount of renewable energy that goes into producing New Zealand’s electricity, household energy was proportionally much less than found in similar international footprint case studies. The final scenarios show that fair earth share living in New Zealand is possible; some individuals are already doing it. However bringing about large-scale change will require collective community strategic planning, planning tools to develop resource efficient urban design, and immediate action.

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  • Consumers’ perception of item-level RFID use in FMCG: a balanced perspective of benefits and risks

    Kukard, Wesley Andrew

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The main purpose of this thesis is to explore how perceived consumer benefits affect the perceived privacy risks associated with the implementation of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags at an item-level within the Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) industry. This research expanded upon Smith et al. (2013) that explored the idea of consumer benefits for RFID at an item-level, which only considered benefits within a store environment. This thesis proposes two new categories to measure benefits and risks, in-store and after sale. By splitting these benefit and risk categories, the respondents’ willingness to accept RFID in both a public (grocery store) and private (home) environment could be measure individually. To test the theory a quantitative survey was conducted using primary household purchasers within the USA. A total of 261 responses were received and were subjected to a PLS-SEM data analysis through SmartPLS software. The results suggest that while consumers’ seem to be aware that there could be a certain degree of risk while using RFID both in-store and after sale, they would still be willing to use the technology if there were sufficient benefits. This research has both practical and theoretical contributions, as a study into how the benefits of RFID could affect consumer acceptance of RFID, It creates a framework for future researchers to explore the topic in more in-depth studies. However, the study was limited to grocery purchasers within the United States of America (USA) between the ages of 18 and 65. While the study focused on perceived benefits and risks for the grocery purchaser, it does not take into account the rest of the household’s perception of potential benefits and risks for this technology. In practical terms, this research gives practitioners reason to consider consumer benefits as a strategy for item-level RFID implementation within the FMCG industry and importantly starts to build a case for a bottom-up approach to the implantation of RFID as apposed to the enormous cost of an entire supply chain fit out. This research changes the conversation within RFID literature, moving away from a focus on consumer privacy issues to a balanced privacy / benefits approach for consumers and how that might affect their technology acceptance.

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