82,974 results

  • Holism in sports coaching: beyond humanistic psychology: a commentary

    Kidman, L (2013-11-15)

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    No abstract.

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  • Moodle as a virtual learning environment

    Petrova, K. (2010-04-12T20:55:35Z)

    Conference paper
    Auckland University of Technology

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  • Integrating culture into Vietnamese University EFL Teaching: a critical ethnographic study

    Nguyen, Thanh Long (2013-11-25)

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Globalisation and its resulting economic, technological, social and educational transformations have led to an increased need for the development of intercultural competence in education (Scarino, 2009). This ability to communicate across cultural boundaries and mediate between cultures should be an important goal of language education (Byram, 1997, 2009). To address intercultural competence, culture must be explicitly taught as a central element and integrated with the teaching of language (Crozet & Liddicoat, 1999, 2000; Liddicoat, 2002; Newton & Shearn, 2010b). However, language teaching in many places around the world has not yet fully realised this integration. This study examines how Vietnamese university EFL (English as a foreign language) teachers integrate culture into their language teaching. It aims to socially construct knowledge about Vietnamese university EFL teachers’ integration of culture into their language teaching. It also aims to propose suggestions for positive changes to be made regarding this integration for the development of learners’ intercultural competence. The study has a critical ethnographic design, all levels of which are theoretically underpinned by social constructionism. Participating in this study were 15 EFL teachers from a university in North Vietnam. I collected data from the following main sources: semi-structured interviews with participants (totally 25), classroom observations (totally 30), field notes, and documentation in the form of the teaching materials used in the observed classes. I applied thematic analysis (Boyatzis, 1998; Gibson & Brown, 2009) to the data set. The findings indicated that the participants, though having a deep and comprehensive view of culture, had fairly limited goals in addressing culture in their language teaching practices. Their culture teaching activities prioritised the provision of cultural knowledge rather than the development of other components of intercultural competence (e.g., intercultural skills and awareness). Such activities were largely dependent on the cultural content presented in their prescribed teaching materials. The study also found that Vietnamese EFL teachers did not receive necessary support from their teacher professional development programmes regarding teachers’ intercultural competence, nor pedagogical knowledge related to the teaching and assessing of intercultural competence. Through these findings, the study has also provided implications for teachers and language education policy makers to improve EFL teaching that aims for the development of learners’ intercultural competence.

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  • Trends and challenges for sustainable marine resource management for rural Solomon Islanders

    Bennett, Gregory Pakovari (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    Much has been claimed about the positive benefits of the customary marine tenure (CMT) system in the South Pacific and its implications for resource management. In Solomon Islands the premise of effective community-based resource management (CBRM) as a contemporary management tool, rests to a great degree on CMT, but does CMT still provide a sufficiently strong foundation to support this premise? This research examines the social and environmental characteristics of two rural Solomon Islands coastal communities that have a long history in customary marine tenure; one with a strong chiefly system and the other one with a weaker chiefly system. The research gains insight into and an understanding of the experiences and lives of the villagers, given current debates on the need to address and move forward with the concept of CBRM with regards to the sustainability issues that they are currently confronting. Using primarily qualitative methodologies the study focused on how marine resources are perceived and valued by different members of the community. The findings suggest that in communities where a common agreement on CMT no longer exists there is a significant challenge to stakeholders in attaining the goal of sustainably managed coastal marine resources through community based approaches. This challenge needs to be accounted for on a case by case basis as part of CBRM facilitation processes. While this research may true for much of Solomon Islands, the case studies have revealed that although the villages are made up of families who are closely related they are not unified as a whole. Study findings suggest that the people retain a lingering vision of a small, integrated community but have failed to grasp how their differences as a community have affected their resource management outcomes. The present day communities are affected by many outside factors that did not exist when traditional management systems were evolving. These factors bring management challenges for which traditional arrangements were not designed to cope and thus many have severely destabilising effects on the performance of traditional systems.

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  • Reflection and dialogue on postgraduate professional development for experienced language teachers

    Conway, C; Denny, HG (2013-09-25)

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Recent discussion has focused on the benefits and constraints of using and teaching reflection for professional self-development (Farrell, 2007; Volk, 2010). Alongside this is an interest in the value of dialogue in teacher development (for example Edge, 2007). This paper describes the experience of advanced language teachers participating in a reflective practice project undertaken as a paper in a professional master’s qualification in a New Zealand tertiary institution. Using data from teacher participant reflective essays and an end of course evaluation, the paper describes teachers’ growth in reflectivity and notes the role of dialogue in promoting professional development. The paper also explores the extent to which Stanley’s framework (1998) was useful in measuring levels of reflectivity. The researchers found that teachers believed the course promoted their professional development in several ways, and that the activities participants found most helpful were ones that contained an element of dialogic interaction. Participants’ level of reflectivity at the end of the course was high on Stanley’s (1998) framework, but it was necessary to modify parts of the framework for use in this context.

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  • Being Muslim and doing Islam: narratives that shape the physical activity of Muslim women in New Zealand

    Ali, Nargis (2013-11-21)

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Muslim women in New Zealand form an ethnic and religious minority. Research related to the physical activity levels of these women and their health status is sparse, particularly in the New Zealand context. International literature shows Muslim women are at risk of various diseases related to inactivity. Islam is perceived by many Muslims as a way of life that influences almost all aspects of their lives. Particular understandings of Islam and women’s roles within Islam influence the norms and expectations about health beliefs and physical activity. This study explores the role religion plays in shaping the physical activity of Muslim women in New Zealand. Using a postpositive narrative approach, this study explores some New Zealand Muslim women’s narratives regarding engagement in physical activity and how their identification as Muslim women influences their engagement. In this study fifteen Muslim women told their stories about the meaning they attributed to Islam and to physical activity. The women belonged to diverse backgrounds, marital status (married, divorced or unmarried), employment, educational qualifications, ethnicities and cultures. The age of the women ranged between twenty and sixty-two years. The meanings the women brought to the consideration of religion and physical activity reflected the complexity of this issue and highlighted the interwoven nature of religious identity, health beliefs and physical activity. These women’s narratives showed that there were two distinct ways in which Islam was conceptualised by the women, which I identified as “being Muslim” and “doing Islam”; both groups of women showed different ways of relating to Islam and to physical activity. The meanings the Muslim women in the study gave to physical activity also depended on the level of their assimilation into New Zealand society, and the way in which they situated themselves and their culture in relation to mainstream culture. The “being Muslim” women’s narratives showed that physical activity was acceptable as long as it conformed to their beliefs about Islamic practices. However, “true” Islamic practices and beliefs were often conflated with cultural ones, forming a complex and sometimes contradictory belief system. The women “doing Islam” displayed a more flexible approach to Islamic practices than the “being Muslim” women and identified with a secular interpretation of the religion. These women found it easier to assimilate into the sporty culture of New Zealand and had developed social networks through their sporting activities. The findings of this study have contributed towards the development of a culturally appropriate model to enable the uptake of physical activity among Muslim women in New Zealand. The intended audiences of the research findings are Muslim women in New Zealand, policy-makers and healthcare practitioners who work with Muslim women. The thesis concludes with recognising that not all voices of Muslim women in New Zealand were included in the study, and that the model proposed to increase physical activity needs robust discussion with key stakeholders before its applicability to the Muslim community and to health practitioners can be put into practice.

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  • The impact of a mega event on knowledge transfer dynamics among organisations of a regional destination

    Werner, K; Dickson, G; Hyde, K (2013-11-26)

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    The study seeks to explore the impact of a mega event on knowledge transfer processes among organisations in a regional destination-marketing environment. The research uses the 2011 Rugby World Cup (RWC 2011) to analyse knowledge transfer dynamics between Tourism Auckland and their network partners. An exploratory, comparative, qualitative, case study approach was taken given the lack of previous research. A comprehensive sample selection process led to the finding that TA was part of two networks: the intra-regional network (AKL network) comprises organisations involved in the preparations for the event within the Auckland region (e.g. Auckland Council, Auckland Transport); the inter-regional network (RTO network) includes 11 regional tourism organisations (RTOs) that TA had relationships with to organise the event for the country as a whole. 69 semi-structured interviews with CEOs and senior managers from both networks were conducted both pre-event and post-event. A formal survey and documentation also underpinned the findings. For the AKL network, the findings indicate that a large variety of organisations acquired new knowledge and skills that will not only facilitate the attraction and organisation of future events but also enhances their business as usual, operational processes. The most common used channels of knowledge transfer operated at the firm level and included imitation/demonstration/observation, inter-firm collaboration and document exchange. The findings also demonstrate that the level of KT was much higher within the intra-regional compared to the inter-regional network environment. A model is developed that demonstrates the different channels used for KT in the mega events context resulting in a reservoir of tacit and explicit knowledge of staff and managers that can potentially be transformed and adapted as future innovations. The study demonstrates the value of knowledge-sharing in networks to create innovations and an enhanced strategic approach; given the increasing global competition and the rapidly changing business environments within the events industry this presents a major prerequisite for successful destinations in the future

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  • Tito Waiata-Tito Pūoro: extending the Kīngitanga music tradition.

    Rollo, Te Manaaroha Pirihira (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    Since 1858, music has always been an integral part of the Kīngitanga movement in New Zealand. As this music tradition evolves with the introduction of new musical idioms, genres and digital technology, so too do the practices of composing new works. The objective of this research was to construct a model for combining waiata, taonga pūoro and New Zealand electroacoustic music, in order to create new works that enhance the Kīngitanga music tradition. Developing a model for composing and integrating these idioms within a Māori context presented problems, as traditional Māori music conflict with contemporary Western forms. To generate a framework and practical model for composing hybrid music, an examination of selected New Zealand works was first carried out through: a) the collection of 50 traditional and contemporary waiata relating to the Kīngitanga b) the collection of 10 New Zealand taonga pūoro works and c) a collection of 10 New Zealand electroacoustic music. An analysis of the music and compositional processes of each idiom implementing the ‘de-construct in order to re-construct’ approach to understand how they work musically and compositionally was accomplished. To demonstrate the outcome of my models, six original compositions were presented exploring different aspects of musical composition. These models focused on sound architecture and explored a) communicative relationships between composer, performer, and audience b) Holistic Co-hear-ence, implementing the horizontal and vertical layering model, and c) technical approaches using digital technology. To comply with Māori principles of composition and performance, each model and new work demonstrated Kaupapa Māori , Wairua and Te Mana - Te Ihi - Te Wehi - Te Tapu . The findings and original contributions of this research provide a model that combines two musical traditions and three music idioms, and in turn, may guide contemporary composers in creating new works that extend the Kīngitanga music tradition.

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  • Transnational education and education sovereignty the Indonesia-US education relationship case study

    Abbott, Anita Trisnawati (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis examines the extent to which the educational sovereignty of a less developed state can be sustained when it considerably expands its involvement with transnational education. The thesis focuses on the case of Indonesia, which, since independence, has increasingly drawn on the education programmes of foreign providers, especially the US, as it has pursued its development agenda. In this context, the growth in the prevalence and importance of transnational education has led to questions about its impact on Indonesia. These questions are centred on whether transnational education is a vehicle through which Western education influences affect both the cultures and educational systems of non-Western states through the one-way transfer of knowledge. The case of the Indonesia-US education relationship provides a unique situation for the study of transnational educational exchanges and questions of educational sovereignty. In this case study, based on in-depth interviews with key actors in the negotiation of Indonesia-US education agreements and a comprehensive review of the official documents and other relevant literature, the extent to which Indonesia’s educational sovereignty has been sustained through a period which has seen the strengthening the Indonesia-US education relationship, is examined. The research finds that Indonesian enthusiasm for access to US education resources and opportunities is tempered by sensitivity to the risk of losing control over educational programmes. Negotiations over educational agreements are characterised by the assertion of equal status by Indonesian officials and confidence in their ability to retain control. This thesis concludes that sustaining educational sovereignty depends on the ability of the state to negotiate and renegotiate the terms of the relationship with provider states.

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  • Perceived and measured health benefits of aqua-based exercise for older adults with osteoarthritis

    Fisken, Alison Lesley (2013-11-29)

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Ageing is associated with a number of physiological and psychological changes. These include declines in muscle mass, strength, functional ability, and balance, which are associated with increased risk of falling and reduced quality of life. In addition, many older adults have osteoarthritis and the associated symptoms of joint pain and stiffness may exacerbate the age-related changes in physical function. Regular exercise can help offset the age-related declines in muscle strength, functional ability and balance, however many older adults do not regularly exercise. In particular older adults with osteoarthritis tend to have lower levels of physical activity than older adults without osteoarthritis. Aqua-based exercise is recommended for older adults with osteoarthritis due to the properties of water, however relatively few studies have investigated this type of exercise among this population. The first aim of this thesis was to investigate perceived benefits and barriers to participation in aqua-based exercise among older adults with and without osteoarthritis, who regularly engage in this form of exercise. The key perceived benefit for those with osteoarthritis was pain reduction, whilst those without osteoarthritis identified general health and fitness as the primary benefit. Both groups identified social interaction as an important benefit. Cold changing facilities, particularly during winter, was a key potential barrier for both groups. The second study examined perceived barriers and benefits of aqua-based exercise among older adults with osteoarthritis who had tried, but no longer participated in aqua-based exercise. Key barriers were a lack of suitable classes and insufficient instructor knowledge, as well as cold changing facilities and pool temperature. Benefits included the cushioning effect of the water and the ability to move around more freely. The third study was undertaken to gain greater insight into the effect of different types of aqua-based exercise on pain and heart rate response of older adults with osteoarthritis. In addition, participants’ opinions and attitudes towards each exercise mode were explored. Participants tried different types of aqua-based exercise including: hydrotherapy, which is a therapist-supervised programme which takes place in warm water; aqua-jogging, which simulates running in deep water whilst wearing a flotation device; resisted-aqua jogging, which is similar to aqua jogging but utilises resistance equipment to increase drag; aqua-fitness, which involves strength and cardiovascular exercises to music in the shallow end of the pool and resisted aqua-fitness, which is similar to aqua-fitness but resistance equipment is used to increase drag. Pain scores immediately post-exercise decreased for all modes of aqua-exercises. Heart-rate response and rating of perceived exertion was also similar for all aqua-exercise modes. Overall, participants enjoyed the hydrotherapy session most, however the aqua-fitness session (un-resisted) was also enjoyed and identified as an acceptable alternative to hydrotherapy. The final study explored the potential health benefits of a 12-week aqua-fitness intervention for older adults with osteoarthritis. An active control group, who undertook a seated aqua-based exercise session once a week, was used help minimise any effects of social interaction on the outcome measures. Positive physiological outcomes were associated with the aqua-fitness group who improved scores in several functional measures, as well as significantly reducing their fear of falling compared to the control group. The findings of this thesis are relevant for future design of aqua-based exercise interventions aimed at older adults with osteoarthritis. The research undertaken may help to identify and therefore address barriers to this mode of exercise for this population. Furthermore, the findings of this thesis offers some insight into the acute responses to different modes of aqua-based exercise, as well as long longer-term chronic adaptations to an aqua-based exercise programme similar to those which are readily available in the community.

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  • Changes in benthic ecosystem properties and functions across sedimentary gradients in estuaries

    Pratt, Daniel Robert (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    In estuaries, sediment properties dominate the inhabiting flora and fauna and their role in energy flows and nutrient cycling. Whilst sediment transport is a natural, key process, human intervention in estuaries and their catchments has altered the regime of terrigenous sediment loading and pose both short and long-term consequences to ecosystem functioning. Temporary increases in turbidity reduce light availability for primary production by microphytobenthos (MPB) that fuel benthic communities. Long-term alteration of grain size properties changes the distribution of key macrofaunal species and how they interact with their environment, carrying potentially serious implications for the ecological functioning of these systems. Our knowledge of how benthic ecosystems respond to changes in sedimentary regimes is crucial to our ability to project and manage the impacts of environmental change. In this thesis, I investigated the multifaceted effects of increased sediment loading on the benthic biota and their functioning using natural and experimental sedimentary gradients. An in situ experiment was conducted on an intertidal sandflat to examine the effects of short-term increases in suspended sediment concentration (SSC) on benthic autotrophic (primary production) and heterotrophic processes. In sunlit conditions, increases in SSC led to dramatic declines in net primary production and concomitant increases in NH₄⁺ efflux from the sediment to the water column. Although sediment chlorophyll-⍺ concentration increased with higher levels of SSC, a result that was likely a photoadaptive response to reduced light intensity, SSC reduced O₂ production per unit of chlorophyll -⍺ . SSC had no significant effect on sediment properties or heterotrophic processes such as sediment oxygen consumption or nutrient efflux, suggesting that temporary increases in suspended sediments (within the range of SSC tested) primarily affected photosynthetic processes. Sediment properties, macrofaunal diversity and biogeochemical fluxes were measured across natural gradients of silt and clay (hereafter mud) to determine the effects of habitat change associated with chronic sediment loading on the structure and functioning of benthic communities. There were significant declines in measures of macrofaunal diversity and the maximum densities of key bioturbating bivalves (Austrovenus stutchburyi and Macomona liliana) with increased mud content. Concurrently, the maximum rates of sediment oxygen consumption (SOC), NH₄⁺ efflux (a proxy of nutrient regeneration)and biomass standardised gross primary production (GPPChl-⍺) also decreased with increasing mud content. A. stutchburyi contributed disproportionately to variation in SOC and NH₄⁺ efflux, suggesting that losses of strongly interacting key species concomitant with increased sediment mud content could have a significant impact on ecosystem function. The results from this study demonstrate the significant loss of ecosystem function in intertidal sandflats that is likely from increased sediment mud content associated with long-term increases in sedimentation stress. The spatial distributions of MPB biomass, macrofaunal grazer abundances and deposit feeding activity were measured across a gradient of sediment mud content to determine relationships between grazers and MPB biomass across transitional sedimentary environments. The density of feeding traces produced by M. Liliana was measured as a proxy of deposit feeding activity by this species. MPB biomass was generally lower in areas with higher deposit feeding activity but this relationship was scale dependent, emerging over larger areas (tens of centimetres) but absent at local (centimetre) scales relative to the animal’s feeding ambit. Despite higher MPB biomass in muddy sediments, feeding trace density was markedly lower, suggesting lower feeding activity and trophic exchange in muddy compared with sandy sediments. The suspension feeding bivalve A. stutchburyi was positively associated with MPB biomass and the interaction between A. stutchburyi density and mud was the strongest predictor of MPB biomass. Thus, non-trophic interactions that potentially facilitate production may override the deleterious effects of grazing on MPB biomass by large macrofaunal species. This thesis demonstrates the high capacity of sandflat systems for primary, secondary production and nutrient regeneration and the degradation of these ecological properties and functions in muddier and more turbid systems. The decline in this functional capacity reflects the alterations of multiple ecological components and their interactions corresponding to habitat change. Defining changes in these interaction networks can improve our ability to track changes in ecosystem functioning and elucidate underlying pathways and potential mechanisms. In particular, this thesis highlights the value of observing changes in these ecological properties and functions across natural and experimental gradients at the appropriate scales in time and space over which stressors operate.

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  • Certification ethics: towards better bananas?

    Tregidga, HM; Kearins, K; Collins, E (2013-11-28)

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    No abstract.

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  • A window to a magical world of adventure, secrets and spectacle: Peter Pan [Review]

    Crawford, Terri Ripeka (2009)

    Scholarly text
    University of Waikato

    Choreography: Russell Kerr Music: Philip Norman Design: Kristian Fredrikson Lighting: Jon Buswell ROYAL NEW ZEALAND BALLET at Founders Theatre, Hamilton From 9 Dec 2009 to 10 Dec 2009 Reviewed by Terri Ripeka Crawford, 11 Dec 2009

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  • Building a future-oriented science education system in New Zealand - how are we doing?

    Gilbert, J; Bull, A (2013-12-05)


    Auckland University of Technology

    This paper makes the case for deep and radical change to New Zealand's approach to science education. It discusses the implications of recent science education research and policy work, and argues New Zealand still has a long way to go to developing a future-oriented science education system. It explores what needs to change and contains suggestions for some first steps.

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  • Gamification in logistics and supply chain education: extending active learning

    Wood, LC; Reiners, T (2013-12-11)

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    Engagement with users involved in an activity has become increasingly important, particularly in Higher Education. We review the concept of gamification and outline several existing applications. These incorporate game elements into existing systems and tasks in a way that increases user engagement in the process. Current approaches in logistics and supply chain education are discussed in relation to active learning. We develop a framework that combines several gamification elements that can be relatively easily incorporated into existing approaches and learning management systems (LMSs) in ways that will increase engagement and extend active learning. This framework and the relationship between the elements provide fertile ground for further research.

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  • Cascade effects of load shedding in coupled networks

    Tauch, S; Liu, W; Pears, R (2013-12-05)

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    Intricate webs of interlinked critical infrastructures such as electrical grid, telecommunication, and transportation are essential for the minimal functioning of contemporary societies and economies. Advances in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) underpin the increasing interconnectivity of these systems which created new vulnerabilities that can be seriously affected by hardware failure, link cut, human error, natural disaster, physical-attacks and cyber-attacks. Failure of a fraction on nodes may lead to failure of dependent nodes in the other networks. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to investigate the cascades phenomena caused by load shedding between two interconnected networks using Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile modeling. We have found that, large avalanche occurred when node degree and/interconnectivity link become dense. In addition, the coupled random-regular networks have been found to be more robust than the coupled Erdos-Renyi networks. However, coupled random-regular networks are vulnerable to random attack and coupled Erdos-Renyi networks are vulnerable to target attack due to the degree distribution.

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  • Opportunities and Challenges of Cultural Heritage Tourism: Socio-economic politics of sustainable tourism in South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia

    Junaid, Ilham (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    The Indonesian constitution has mandated the government to improve the welfare of communities and to maintain cultural identity. Realising the importance of the mandate, different levels of government have adopted sustainability and/or sustainable development in formulating tourism policies and planning. I bring together the theories of postcolonialism and sustainability to examine the conduct of cultural heritage tourism primarily to investigate whether policies of the government have achieved sustainable principles. This research was carried out in Indonesia, a country that has been utilising cultural heritage as tourism attraction. Fieldwork was done in five areas (Makassar, Gowa, Bone, North Toraja and Toraja land) in South Sulawesi that represent the cultural heritage of Bugis, Makassar and Toraja from August 2011 to January 2012. A total of 238 respondents were involved in this study with various methods including 75 interviews (individual and focus group) with government officials, tourism practitioners, local and indigenous communities, people from educational institutions and tourists as well as a questionnaire survey in which 163 respondents participated. A qualitative approach has predominantly guided this research but I also utilised quantitative method (mixed methods) to explore a social and cultural phenomenon from a critical perspective. I concerned with the importance of improving the economic prosperity of local and indigenous people as well as encouraging them to preserve cultural identity through cultural heritage tourism. To some extent, cultural heritage tourism provides advantages for those who work in hotels, restaurants as well as for people who work as guides and souvenir sellers. Thus, cultural heritage tourism can be an alternative to preserve cultural heritage and to improve the economic well-being of communities. But in many cases, inequitable benefits of tourism and the poor condition of cultural heritage as well as the low quality of its management indicate that sustainable principles have not been achieved. The reality in the field shows that challenges constrain the implementation of sustainability which are reflected in socio-economic conditions of the communities and political issues. This thesis addresses issues related to these challenges including cultural degradation, tensions between levels of government and the economic problem of communities. This thesis offers an understanding of the importance of cultural heritage as an opportunity for sustainable tourism development. Empowering communities, strengthening regulation and its implementation, prioritising local and indigenous communities in any cultural and tourism programs, strengthening synergy and coordination among levels of government, educating and training local people and implementing political will and trustworthiness by the government are essential to achieve the goals of sustainable development. Communities should not only rely on the government as the main actor in preservation of cultural heritage and in tourism development. Rather, collaboration between stakeholders should be strengthened. Analytical exploration of economic welfare, cultural heritage preservation and issues embedded in them provides a more critical understanding about cultural tourism in particular and tourism studies in general.

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  • Seasonal Comparison of Lipid Composition and Metabolism in Parasitised and Non-Parasitised Clover Root Weevil (Sitona lepidus)

    Brown, Jolene Mary (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    Since its arrival in New Zealand the clover root weevil (Sitona lepidus (syn. flavescens) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (CRW) has caused serious damage to New Zealand’s agricultural sector. The introduction of the biocontrol agent, Microctonus aethiopoides has caused a significant reduction in the population of CRWs. During their research on the CRW, AgResearch scientists discovered that the abdominal fat body and lipids present in the haemolymph in adult CRW varied with season, sex, insect age and parasitism. Parasitism has been reported to change the lipid composition of other species of insects. The purpose of the present study was to compare the chemical composition of the lipids present in parasitised and non-parasitised CRW adults, and determine how these lipids change with physiological state and parasitoid development. The investigation into how M. aethiopoides initiates these changes was extended to examine the roles of juvenile hormones and teratocytes in lipid regulation. A one-step method of extraction and derivatisation was created to determine the fatty acid profile of CRWs. This method gave higher recovery percentages and higher reproducibility than the traditional two-step methods that were trialled, and enabled individual CRWs to be analysed. The fatty acid profile of the CRW was similar to that of other insects reported containing mainly the 16 carbon saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and the 18 carbon saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The one-step method was also used to track differences in the fatty acid profiles of individual CRWs with differing sex, age, parasitism and physiological state. The fatty acid profiles of male and female CRWs were similar, with only significant differences between the concentrations of the 16:1 and 18:0 fatty acids. Due to variation between individual samples in the entire sample set, no obvious correlations were found between physiological state and fatty acid composition, or distinctions between state of parasitism and fatty acid profile. Basic statistical methods were utilised initially, however, the complexity of the data set required multivariate analysis. PCA, LDA and QDA were utilised but again no correlations or distinctions were found when the whole sample set was analysed. Results from the Gisborne subset, collected from the same location and at the same time, had reduced variation between individuals, and this allowed some distinctions to be made between parasitised and non-parasitised samples. Teratocytes are cells that have dissociated from the serosal membrane that occur in the haemolymph of CRWs that have been parasitised by M. aethiopoides. The fatty acid composition of these cells was investigated using the one-step method and a MALDI-TOF spectrometry method, which detects triacylcglycerols. The fatty acid profile of teratocytes was not significantly different to that of the CRW. Juvenile hormones (JHs) control postembryonic development and adult reproduction. They are present in all insects and JH III is the most common of the six possible JHs. The LC-MS method of Miyazaki et al was modified and this allowed for the determination of JH III within samples of 50 CRW adults. The comparison between parasitised and non-parasitised samples found that parasitised samples had significantly higher levels of JH III than did their non-parasitised counterparts.

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  • Efficient Internet Topology Discovery Techniques

    King, Alistair John (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Current macroscopic Internet topology discovery projects use large numbers of vantage points to conduct traceroute surveys of Internet paths. These projects send billions of unsolicited packets to millions of routers within the Internet. Due to the structure of the Internet, many of these packets are sent without gaining any new topology information. In this thesis, we implement and extensively test a largescale doubletree system designed to increase the efficiency of topology mapping projects and reduce the load that they place on the Internet. Also, for all of the effort that current projects put into gathering data, the methods used do not discover, with confidence, the entire set of paths. We propose, implement and critique a novel algorithm, economical MDA traceroute, which is designed to discover a comprehensive topology in a manner which is more efficient than the current state of the art. We show that, compared to current methods, well over 90% link coverage can be obtained while reducing the number of probes used by over 60%. We also evaluate alternate methods for making large scale topology discovery projects more efficient and comprehensive; such as using BGP routing data to guide probing.

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  • An Examination of the Effects of Videophones on Driving and Conversation Performance

    Mackenzie, Kathryn Julie (2011)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Research has conclusively shown that cell phones have a detrimental effect on driving performance. In an attempt to understand why, a handful of researchers have investigated the differences between cell phone and passenger conversations, with several of these studies revealing that the distraction caused by concurrent cell phone conversations noticeably outweighs that imposed by passenger conversations. One study suggested that the availability of visual cues during a passenger conversation may be an important factor contributing to this reduced level of distraction. The focus of this research project was to test whether providing drivers and remote conversers with access to visual cues via a videophone would result in improved driving performance when compared to a concurrent cell phone conversation. An initial experiment, in which 24 drivers encountered five hazards on a simulated road while conversing with a passenger, cell phone caller, videophone caller, or driving without conversation, resulted in driving behaviour that did not appear to be an accurate representation of real-world driving behaviour, which resulted in the early termination of this experiment. A second revised experiment, in which novice and practiced drivers drove a shortened version of the simulated road once under each of the aforementioned conversation conditions, produced more normal behaviour but failed to reveal any significant differences in driving or conversation performance as a result of concurrent videophone conversation compared to cell phone conversation. However, the results did reveal a number of other findings that may aid in understanding the distracting effects of cell phones, one of which was that remote conversations may result in an overestimation or underestimation of the correct driving response depending on the nature of the driving situation.

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