82,974 results

  • Using predictive risk modelling to identify students at high risk of paper non-completion and programme non-retention at university

    Jia, Pengfei (2014-05-16)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Course non-completion is of substantial concern to university and public funding bodies as it could potentially affect attrition rates and eventual educational performance. This paper seeks to empirically estimate the factors that affect paper non-completion and programme non-retention. More importantly, identifying students who are at high risk of course non-completion would provide opportunities for possible early intervention services. This study develops a predictive risk model (PRM) to estimate the likelihood of course non-completion among first-year students at a large public university in New Zealand. The main aim of this research is to explore the potential use of administrative data for targeting prevention and early interventions to university students. Our results suggest that many factors, including part-time study, ethnicity, gender, educational background, and programme study areas, could play a prominent role in predicting a student’s risk of paper non-completion in the first year and non-retention in the second year at university. We assess the “target effectiveness” of our model from a number of perspectives. For example, the area under the ROC curves for paper non-completion and programme non-retention are 0.7553 and 0.7125, respectively. Students with the highest 10% of risk scores by our PRM would account for 29.25% of paper non-completions and 23.33% of programme non-retentions.

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  • The relationship between female directorship and organizational performance: evidence from China

    Kang, Yi (2014-03-31)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The influence of female board members on organizational performance has been an area of significant research, with some researchers finding a positive correlation between the two variables, some finding no correlation and others finding a negative correlation. This study used publically available information on companies in China from the period of 2002 to 2012, to examine the relationship between female board representation and company performance. The performance of the organization was measured using Return on Equity (ROE) and Tobin’s Q, which are reliable measures of company performance. Regression analysis was used to examine which factors had a significant influence on the performance of the organization. The study found that despite a significant relationship between female board representation and the proportion of independent directorship, neither female board representation nor the proportion of independent directorship had any significant influence on the performance of the organization. This outcome may be the result of Chinese cultural factors, suggesting that females play only a token role on boards, rather than having the ability to influence the behavior or performance of the board. This research suggests that it is important for studies looking at the influence of female board members to carefully consider differences across organizations and the influence of culture on how well females are accepted within organizations.

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  • Others bought it too: the relevance of knowing purchase levels

    Ali, H; Parsons, AG; Ballantine, P (2013-12-12)

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    Daily deal websites offer retail products for a limited time (a day), at discounted rates. A key distinction from online vouchers and online auctions, as well as more typical retail, is that they reveal to the shopper how many items have been purchased so far. Literature suggests that this information would inform those with a need for uniqueness or a need for conformity, and thus influence purchase decisions. We present an experiment with a revealed high purchase level, revealed low purchase level, or no information revealed, shown in a facsimile of a daily deal retail website. Shoppers are also measured using a nine-item scale on their need for uniqueness. Analysis of variance suggests that in the case of the daily deal website revealing the number of purchases does not influence purchase decisions, regardless of the need for uniqueness. We suggest that, unlike in other retail situations, the other distinction of daily deal websites - the urgency of decision making - over-rides the typical shopper's need for uniqueness/conformity. Future research is also suggested.

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  • Monitoring first year Maori students enrolled in selected Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences courses: A report prepared for the Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences

    Levy, Michelle Patricia; Williams, Margaret H. (2003-03-01)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    Monitoring first year Maori Students Enrolled in Selected Faculty of Arts andSocial Sciences Courses. The total number of Maori students targeted by this project was 182, representing 93% of the total number of Maori students enrolled in Semester B level one courses. The majority of students participating in this initiative were first year students, although a small number of students taking 100 level courses were second, third or graduate year students. 11 Student views on the monitoring and support initiative Students were provided with the opportunity to comment on the monitoring and support initiative. All students contacted (49) recommended that this intervention continue for future first year Maori students enrolled in FASS.

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  • Evolving function and competencies: assessing the changes in the literature on human resource (HR) competencies for the HR function across two decades (1990-2012)

    Ho, M; Lo, K; Teo, S (2013-12-16)

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    The purpose of this research was to examine the espoused competencies of the human resource (HR) function in the literature and to highlight the changing nature of the HR function. This empirical study examined 51 articles on HR competencies and the HR functions from 1990-2012. The research design of this study utilized computerized text-mining, content analysis software (Leximancer) to analyze the themes, competencies and changes discussed in the HRM literature from Business Source Premier Database during the periods 1990-1999 and 2000-2012. Our results demonstrated the changes of interest in the literature on HR competencies from the establishment of competency models for the HR function to a more strategic interest in how competency models for HR can be used strategically. Implications from this research are discussed including how the findings will help explicate the HR function.

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  • Citizen Witnessing by Stuart Allan (Reviewed by Verica Rupar)

    Rupar, V (2014-01-15)

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    No abstract.

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  • Lie theory and separation of variables. 3. The equation ftt−fss =γ2f

    Kalnins, Ernie G.; Miller, W., Jr. (1974-07)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Kalnins has related the 11 coordinate systems in which variables separate in the equation ftt−fss = γ 2f to 11 symmetric quadratic operators L in the enveloping algebra of the Lie algebra of the pseudo-Euclidean group in the plane E(1,1). There are, up to equivalence, only 12 such operators and one of them, LE, is not associated with a separation of variables. Corresponding to each faithful unitary irreducible representation of E(1,1) we compute the spectral resolution and matrix elements in an L basis for seven cases of interest and also give overlap functions between different bases: Of the remaining five operators three are related to Mathieu functions and two are related to exponential solutions corresponding to Cartesian type coordinates. We then use these results to derive addition and expansion theorems for special solutions of ftt−fss = 2f obtained via separation of variables, e.g., products of Bessel, Macdonald and Bessel, Airy and parabolic cylinder functions. The exceptional operator LE is also treated in detail.

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  • The Internet in New Zealand 2013

    Gibson, A; Miller, M; Smith, P; Bell, A; Crothers, C (2013-12-16)

    Report
    Auckland University of Technology

    Executive Summary The fourth survey of the World Internet Project New Zealand (WIPNZ) was conducted between late July and early September 2013. For the first time, the sample in 2013 used both telephone and internet surveys. This report presents an analysis of the usage of and attitudes to the internet of the resulting sample of 2006 New Zealanders. As internet use approaches saturation in New Zealand, our focus turns from ‘how many people use the internet?’ to ‘how do people use the internet?’ and ‘why do some not use the internet at all?’ To answer these questions, the sample has been divided into five categories: never-users (5% of sample), ex-users (3%), low level users (14%), first generation users (40%) and next generation users (38%). Usage For a large number of people the internet is used daily. Four out of five spend an hour or more online at home every day. Almost everyone under 40 is online, so that only 1% of our under-40 sample are non-users. Accessing the internet ‘on the go’ is prevalent. Seven out of ten users access the internet from a hand-held mobile device such as a smartphone or an iPad. Almost half of the internet users surveyed (48%) said that they had accessed the internet through a tablet, while an even higher proportion (68%) connected through their mobile phone in the past year. Activities Most internet users say they surf or browse the web (96%) or visit social networking sites (81%). 34% of internet users report that they use the cloud, 41% purchase apps and almost two thirds (65%) download free apps. Most users check their email daily (89%). Just over 60% of men aged 30–44 said they have looked at sites with sexual content. Māori and Pasifika internet users, especially those in lower income households, take the lead in subscriptions to music streaming services like Spotify. More than one in five Māori (21%) and Pasifika (23%) users in households with annual incomes of less than $50,000 have paid for a subscription to a music streaming service in the past year. The internet is used as a tool for consumer decision making, with 94% of users looking for information about products online – more than half of users do this at least weekly. For 85% of users, this kind of online research includes comparing prices. Almost half of our users (47%) have logged in to secure areas on Government or Council websites, and 51% have paid taxes, fines or licences online in the past year. Comparing the importance of media Comparing the importance of various forms of media as information sources, 81% of all our respondents rated the internet (including online media such as streamed radio) as important or very important. This was very much higher than the proportion who rated offline media as important: television (47%), radio (37%) and newspapers (37%). One of the most dramatic differences according to age group is the importance of the internet as a source of entertainment and leisure. While watching (offline) television is an important leisure activity for people across all ages, using the internet as a form of entertainment is a young-person phenomenon: 80% of respondents aged 16–29 rate it as important or very important. This 2013 survey has a different sample structure than previous years in order to include New Zealanders without a landline. The questionnaire has also undergone substantial updating to keep pace with changing digital technologies. For these reasons, the present report focuses solely on the findings for 2013, and longitudinal analyses will be presented in a subsequent report next year.

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  • From chaos towards sense: a learner-centric narrative virtual learning space

    Reiners, T; Wood, L; Dron, J (2013-12-17)

    Book item
    Auckland University of Technology

    Throughout educational settings there are a range of open-focused learning activities along with those that are much more closed and structured. The plethora of opportunities creates a confusing melee of opportunities for teachers as they attempt to create activities that will engage and motivate learners. In this chapter, we demonstrate a learner-centric narrative virtual learning space, where the unrestricted exploration is combined with mechanisms to monitor the student and provide indirect guidance through elements in the learning space. The instructional designer defines the scope of the story in which the teacher and learner create narratives (a sequence of actions and milestones to complete a given task), which can be compared, assessed, and awarded with badges and scores. The model is described using an example from Logistics; where incoming orders have to be fulfilled by finding the good and delivering it to a given location in a warehouse. Preliminary studies showed that the model is able to engage the learner, create an intrinsic motivation and therewith curiosity to drive the self-paced learning.

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  • When subtle is the most effective. An analysis of product placement effectiveness in multitasking environments

    Gunawardena, Thuthi (2013-12-19)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Product placement is seen by marketers as the proverbial “golden goose,” it can do no wrong and if left alone it will prosper. Unfortunately, this is not true today as the typical consumer has access to a vast array of entertainment options, all of which can be conveniently accessed from home. This viewing environment presents a unique dilemma for marketers because when at home consumers engage in other activities while watching television such as cooking, cleaning and responding to emails. The attempt to complete each activity efficiently activates a consumer’s task-directed behaviour, which will lead to selective attention. This research aims to research is to investigate the role of task-directed behaviour plays in affecting the effectiveness of product placements. Existing literature on multitasking and its effect on television product placement are still in its early development. This study seeks to bridge a gap in current knowledge by conducting an empirical study on the effect of cognitive load and task directed behaviour on the level of brand recall, recognition and behavioural intention within both prominent and subtle placements . The findings of this study indicate decreasing rates of recall, recognition and behavioural intentions for prominent brands more than for subtle brands, when visual tasks are present. It is expected that results would be significant different if unfamiliar brands were used. However, further research is needed to see if result can be replicated.

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  • Transition conditions at the interface between floating plates

    Chung, H; Fox, C

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    This paper presents studies of wave propagation across a crack in an ice sheet. We consider a crack between two ice sheets that are infinitely stretching to either side. The theoretical model of the ice sheet assumes that thickness, mass density and Young's modulus to be constant. This model is often used study the dynamics of ice sheets with fairly homogeneous appearance. Such ice sheets are formed around the coast of Antarctica during the winter. In this paper we focus on the relatively long and straight cracks in the ice sheets. These crack have variety of physical properties depending on how they are formed, such as partially frozen slosh or solidly re-frozen crack. The mechanism of wave propagation across such cracks are not well understood. Wave propagation into the ice field plays an important roll how the marginal ice zone is broken up every year. There have been only simple theoretical models for the transitions in ice sheets, such as open gap or abrupt thickness changes.

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  • Reading Comprehension Instruction of Effective Grades 5 and 6 Saint Lucian Teachers

    Sargusingh-Terrance, Lisa Merlene (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This study set out primarily to investigate the nature of reading comprehension instruction in Saint Lucia, and to examine the explanations of teachers with regard to the factors that they perceive contribute to Grade 6 students' failure in the main idea comprehension test in the national Common Entrance Examination in Saint Lucia. Four effective Grades 5 and 6 teachers (two per grade) from two Saint Lucian primary schools participated in a total of four individual semi-structured interviews and were observed in their regularly scheduled reading comprehension lessons. A total of 27 lessons were observed and audio tape-recorded to examine the nature of reading comprehension instruction in the classrooms. From this cohort of lessons, a sample of 16 lessons was randomly selected and transcribed to determine the presence of direct instruction in comprehension strategies, and the quality of instruction that took place. This quality was measured and described in terms of the elements of the Direct Instruction Model (Pearson Dole, 1987), the nature of questioning, and time allotted to instruction. This data was also used to make comparisons between Grades 5 and 6 classes. The results show that the four teachers perceived that there are four areas of blame for students' poor performance in reading comprehension: the teacher's inability to instruct, the students' poor decoding and comprehension abilities, the inadequacy of the main idea test, and the teaching materials available for teaching comprehension. However, the main factor perceived by teachers as contributing to the students' poor performance is teachers' inability to instruct. Nonetheless, the observation of the Grades 5 and 6 effective teachers' reading comprehension lessons showed that these teachers were indeed teaching a number of comprehension strategies. They relied predominantly on the question answering strategy in all their lessons which was mainly taught in combination with other strategies. However, it was the teaching of summarization through the main idea that was the dominant strategy more explicitly taught in 7 of the 16 lessons observed, appearing more frequently in the Grade 6 classes. An assessment of the quality of the reading comprehension instruction revealed that 11 of1 6 lessons, included all the four elements of direct instruction, and were rated as 'excellent' in quality. None of the lessons had fewer than two elements identified on the model. An assessment of the types of questions asked also showed that questioning was used both for the purpose of assessment and as an instructional strategy. The timing of the lessons support the quality of instruction, as 90% of the total time observed was allotted to instruction. The greater portion of that time went to guided practice (38%) and independent practice (33%) of reading comprehension strategies. This study shows that explicit comprehension instruction of strategies is evident in the reading comprehension classes of the 4 effective Saint Lucian Grades 5 and 6 teachers. It is therefore recommended that educational officials ensure that similar practices are maintained in other Saint Lucian classes, that the reading comprehension instruction practices of a wider cross section of Saint Lucian teachers be examined, and that future research looks into other probable causes of students' failure on the main idea comprehension test.

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  • From Picardy to Picton

    Oosterman, A (2014-01-22)

    Book item
    Auckland University of Technology

    When New Zealand bound itself militarily to Great Britain at the outbreak of war with Germany in August 1914, discussion arose over how the news of the conflict was to be conveyed to readers back home. This chapter considers how news of the war on the Western Front was conveyed to New Zealanders back home and the role played by the country's first official war correspondent, Malcolm Ross.

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  • (im)possible futures and (im)probable pasts

    McEntegart, Holli (2013-11-25)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This research project explores ideas around the storage and transmission of memory, myth and experience. The concept of an impossible community, one that exposes personal and historical narratives through physical presences is considered in relation to the possibilities that occur when the two collide. Without channelled intervention the project cannot exist. Through a physical negotiation a portal is opened into the present. The latent is brought into being. The question arises, how can a site of maximum energy mergence be both identified and occupied? Intrigued by this transformative potential of presence; the project is rooted in my ongoing negotiations, collaborations and performative interactions with local subcultures. It is my intention to imbue audiences with a new communal mythology – a multilayered ‘Chinese whisper’, tales of supernatural lust, anxiety and a desire for (im)possible futures and (im)probable pasts.

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  • Investigation into factors affecting perceptual stability of the world during smooth pursuit eye movements

    Boer, Alexandra (Sasha) (2011)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    During pursuit eye movement, a stationary background projected on the retina shifts in the direction opposite to that of the eye movement. This complicates the perception of objects because during an eye movement the retinal and head-centric motions differ. Nevertheless, our visual system is somehow able to compensate for the added eye motion so that the world is perceived as stable. The eye movement compensation is traditionally assumed to consist of a combination of a retinal motion signal and an extra-retinal estimate of eye velocity (Von Holst & Mittelstaedt, 1950; Sperry, 1950). This view has been expanded upon by a number of researchers in the last few decades with the introduction of vector addition-like models. However, it is not well known how closely the eye movement compensation mechanism follows the rules of vector algebra. Evidence for the presence of a signal coming from the moving eye has come from a variety of neurophysiological and perceptual research on the cortical Medial Superior Temporal (MST) area in primates. Previous studies have shown that the spatio-temporal structure of the background plays an important role in the perceptual accuracy of the velocity of a moving object in the visual field. Background characteristics have been shown to influence not only the retinal signal, but also the extra-retinal signal to some degree. The current thesis provides new information on factors that affect the degree of compensation for retinal motion during smooth pursuit eye movement. The findings are based on several experiments that were designed to use a range of pursuit target and stimulus dot velocities across different backgrounds and stimulus exposure times, in order to reveal details about how the retinal and extra-retinal signals are combined. Participants were asked to determine the direction of a moving stimulus by rotating an arrow on the screen. In a separate experiment, participants were also asked to assess the speed of a stimulus using a magnitude estimation task. A linear vector model was developed to separate the retinal and extra-retinal signal contribution to the overall compensation. This model was used to assess the degree of perceptual stability across different visual conditions. Generally, the data indicate that the perceived stimulus motion is well predicted by a vector subtraction mechanism postulated to be occurring in the human brain. However, in situations where there is weak visual stimulation, participants’ estimates of motion are less accurate and tend to follow the retinal image motion. In the current thesis I identify how the type of background, directions of eye movements, and stimulus velocities relative to the eye movements affected participants’ perceptual performance. Based on the data and the model fitting, it was concluded that the visual system appears to utilize the eye-movement related signal differentially depending on the retinal motion content.

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  • “Let’s have a dialogue”: The potential risks of dialogue for corporations

    Theunissen, PS (2011-11-29)

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    Dialogue is often touted as the preferred and most ethical form of public relations practice; its potential risks and disadvantages often glossed over in Public Relations theory. Equally, corporate identity is perceived as being constructed and managed by the organization, suggesting that it is relatively static in nature and that it can be controlled. Using Lee Edwards’ (2010) recent criticism that Public Relations scholars’ view of corporate identity is superficial and overly simplistic, this paper argues that dialogue contributes to the construction of ‘authentic’ identities (assuming that such identities exist) and explores the nature of dialogue and its relationship to corporate identity. It suggests that dialogue can become a double-edged sword: assisting in the formation of corporate identity while potentially exposing manufactured ones. Perceived, then, from an organization’s point of view, dialogue carries potential risk, and one must consequently ask whether it is indeed (and should be) the most desirable form of Public Relations practice.

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  • Detecting signals of climatic shifts and land use change from precipitation and river discharge variations: The Whanganui and Waikato catchments

    Qiao, Ying (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The Whanganui and Waikato river catchments have somewhat different degrees of exposure to the westerly wind systems. It is of interest to determine whether the two regions have similar times of occurrence of any concurrent shifts in river discharge and rainfall, with particular reference to mean value changes. Concurrent rainfall and runoff shifts are indicative of climatic variation but catchment land use changes (which will influence only discharge change) have also been occurring in both catchments, particularly with respect to forest planting or forest clearance. This thesis gives a summary of both climatic and land use change effects within the two catchments. If it happens that both catchments have similar climatic change-points then the data can be combined to provide a more robust framework for future water right specifications in both regions. Also, any similar responses to land use change may enable some degree of anticipation as to how future land use changes might lead to similar discharge responses. Change-points in river and rainfall time series flows were determined by an objective approach to detect breaks of slope in cumulative mass plots. Using repeated least squares fitting of piecewise linear segments, time points of maximum difference are determined as measured by the minimum least-squares in 2-segment fitting. Randomisation of time ordering of the original data was then employed to check that changes in the cumulative plots were statistically significant. Many significant but minor shifts were detected but a number of the shifts shown evidently in the rainfall and runoff cumulative mass plots. A set of change-points due to land management impacts were identified as discharge changes in the absence of concurrent rainfall changes. Rainfall-runoff linear relationship changes associate with changes in discharge time series. Change-points in rainfall and runoff times were detected at 44 flow gauges and 59 rainfall sites. There is some indication of a degree of natural geographic grouping with spatial correlation of times of discharge change. The times of the detected changes tend to cluster, with similar times for the same sign of change toward either greater or lower values of rainfall and discharge. The alternation of positive and negative signs is interesting as it was found 1981 and 1998 were times of negative shifts, while 1988 and 1994/1995 were times of positive shifts. Almost over the whole Waikato and Whanganui region, the changes in rainfall and runoff appears to relate to El Nino and La Nino events, which is of practical interest for water right considerations. The driver of the shifts in rainfall pattern was found to be the changes in high rainfall events, which can change the rainfall-runoff linear relationship in some areas. The land use component of some of the shifts was evaluated also and found only in 10 of the 44 flow gauges. The type of the land-use can be categorized into three groups: hydropower diversion, flood control system and afforestation. Within the study catchments, the impact of hydropower diversion is more significant than the other two types. With regards to the Whanganui catchments, the operation of the Tongariro power scheme from 1973 decreased low-flow by 89% in the Wahkapapa River and around 42% and 26% of the flow in the Whanganui River at Pariaka and Te Maire respectively. In the Whanganui catchments, the impact of farmland and native forest on river discharge was compared and farmland in the Ongarue catchment reduced flow much more than the native forest in the upper Whanganui catchment. The relationship of the high flow (Q90) in the two catchments is quite close to the ratio relationship of the catchment area, however, the relation of the low flows in the two catchments is fairly different and exceeds much more than the 0.75 ratio relationship of the catchment area.

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  • Gilgamesh, the hero of Mesopotamia

    Aziz, Lamia (2010-02-04T03:18:57Z)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This thesis creatively reconsiders the ancient Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh and offers a design of the ancient epic as a contemporary, illustrated text. The work is concerned with notions of heroism, and methods relating to construction of imagery. The manifestation of this investigation is the illustrated book Gilgamesh, the Hero of Mesopotamia, which comprises the principal site of research in the project. It consists of thirty-six drawings that explore cyclic composition as a form of narrative discourse.

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  • Transforming New Zealand employment relations: the role played by employer strategies, behaviours and attitudes

    Rasmussen, E; Foster, B; Coetzee, B (2014-01-29)

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    There has been a shift to individualised and workplace based employment relations in New Zealand. Researchers have canvassed many explanatory factors behind this shift but this paper focuses on the role played by employers. It draws on several surveys of employer attitudes and behaviours. These surveys have shown that the majority of employers have negative attitudes towards collective bargaining and they seek more employer determined flexibility. Employers are very supportive of post 2008 reductions in employment rights. Interestingly, many employers have yet to apply these legislative changes in their own workplace and it is unclear what future impact the legislative changes will have on the development of ‘positive employment relationships’.

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  • A simple experiment to determine the activation energy of the viscous flow of polymer solutions using a glass capillary viscometer

    Rohindra, D.R.; Lata, R.A.; Coll, Richard K. (2012)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    A simple viscometry experiment undertaken by an undergraduate polymer class as a research project is described. Viscosity is a measure of a fluid's resistance to flow and is affected by several factors, such as concentration and temperature. In this experiment, the viscosities of polyvinylpyrrolidone solutions (a polymeric material) of different concentrations were prepared in water and measured at various temperatures. The solution viscosity was found to increase gradually with increasing concentration up to similar to 5 mass%, with a dramatic increase after this. The calculated viscosity of water at different temperatures was comparable to reported values. The activation energy of viscous flow (E-a) of the different solutions was calculated and followed a similar trend as that for the viscosities of solutions of various concentrations. This experiment allowed students to better understand and explain the behaviour of macromolecules with respect to changing concentration and temperature. Furthermore, students correlated the viscosity and E-a results to understand how an increase in the concentration of a polymer solution resulted in increased entanglement of the polymer chains, consequently leading to an increase in viscosity and an increase in the activation energy of viscous flow. This experiment is safe, low cost, simple and requires only readily available apparatus.

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