89,483 results

  • A comparison of pre-human and present isotopic niches of brown teal (Ana chlorotis): implications for conservation

    Holdaway, R.N.; Williams, M.; Hawke, D.J. (2013)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Bone samples from 2 surviving populations of New Zealand’s endemic and endangered brown teal (Anas chlorotis) had a much smaller distribution of stable isotopic values (δ13C, δ15N) than those from Holocene-age fossil bones of the same species. Comparison with δ13C and δ15N values from 2 other taxa of known ecologies indicated that some brown teal were forest floor omnivores. The results indicate that the riparian and estuarine wetlands occupied by present natural populations represent only an extreme, truncated part of the species’ potential habitat. To aid present conservation efforts we suggest that brown teal be released into forested areas and islands managed as mammal-free enclaves to test whether modern birds can survive in habitats once occupied by now-extirpated populations. Palaeoecological studies, including stable isotope analyses, can be used to identify conservation options not obvious from research on declining remnant populations in anthropogenic environments.

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  • A new epizoic laelapid mite from the New Zealand sand scarab Pericoptus truncatus larvae and its isotopic ecology

    Clark, J. M. (2012)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    A new genus Mumulaelaps (Mesostigmata: Laelapidae: Hypoaspidini) is proposed to hold large, pale, agile, gregarious mites associated with the larvae of the endemic xylophagous sand scarab Pericoptus. Mumulaelaps ammochostos sp. n. is described and illustrated as its type species from P. truncatus (Fabricius) from Southshore, Christchurch, New Zealand. The new genus bears a novel mix of characters shared with Hypoaspis G. Canestrini, 1884 and Coleolaelaps Berlese, 1914 but differs from both by having, in both sexes, stout terminal spines al1 and pl1 on legs II IV and bearing long or macrosetae of the dorsal series on femora and genua of legs IIIV. Both sexes have leg IV longest and leg II shortest with III never longer than I. The posterior edge of the sternal shield is deeply concave; the post anal seta is longer than the paranals; the hypostomal seta h3 clearly longer than h1 or h2. Stable isotopic (13C/12C; 15N/14N) analysis showed that the new species is not parasitic, but its trophic association with P. truncatus is unclear. It may feed on the hypopodes of Sancassania (Caloglyphus) or nematodes associated with P. truncatus.

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  • Determining optimal pacing strategy for the track cycling individual pursuit event with a fixed energy mathematical model

    Underwood, L; Jermy, M. C. (2014)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Competitive track cycling races are won by milliseconds, and the regulation of an athlete’s power output is an important factor in performance. The aim of this study was to use a mathematical model to predict finishing times for different pacing strategies for the Individual Pursuit (IP), in order to identify the optimal strategy in terms of fastest finishing time. Power profiles were generated for a number of common pacing strategies used in cycling, which were based on actual SRM power data for an elite, male, IP cyclist for whom the average power, maximum power, total work done and actual finishing time were known. The total work output was the same for all strategies and the finishing time was predicted using a mathematical model developed previously. The results showed that, of the strategies tested, an initial “all-out” high power acceleration phase followed by a lower constant power output produced the fastest finishing time for a 4000m IP event, and that the time spent in the initial high power acceleration phase had a significant effect on performance.

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  • The development of technology enhanced learning: findings from a 2008 survey of UK higher education institutions

    Jenkins, M.; Browne, T.; Hewitt, R. (2011)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    This article summarises the key findings from a UK survey of higher education institutions, focusing on the development of technology enhanced learning (TEL). TEL is defined as any online facility or system that directly supports learning and teaching. The 2008 survey builds upon previous UCISA surveys conducted in 2001, 2003 and 2005 and for which at each stage after 2001, a longitudinal analysis was undertaken [see Browne, T., Jenkins, M., & Walker, R. (2006). A longitudinal perspective regarding the use of VLEs by higher education institutions in the United Kingdom. Interactive Learning Environments, 14(2), 177–192]. The findings, confirmed by other studies published since 2005, reveal that ensuring the quality of learning and teaching activities is consolidated as the primary driver for using TEL with a committed local champion representing the highest ranked factor in supporting TEL development within an institution. External strategies have been influential, contributing to the rise to prominence of institutional e-learning strategies. The delivery of course content continues to be the most common way in which TEL is used to support teaching and learning. The tools that have increased in prominence are those for podcasting, eportfolios, e-assessment, blogs and wikis. Regarding new activities, streaming media, mobile computing, podcasting and Web 2.0 are discernibly the greatest. Upgrading staff skills were overwhelmingly noted as the greatest challenge that these new activities would create, with staff development and supportive strategies being seen as the primary remedies. However, the perception of lack of time was identified as the main barrier that needed to be surmounted. Though much of the data remain subtle, clear identifiable differences continue to be discernible between Pre-92 and Post-92 universities.

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  • "Making democracy a living, breathing thing: YouTube videos and democratic practice in the 2008 ONE News YouTube election debate

    Beatty, B. E. (2011)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    The 2008 ONE News YouTube Election Debate in New Zealand was promoted by TVNZ and YouTube executives as innovative public service broadcasting that enabled unprecedented access to the country’s two leading politicians. But according to TVNZ’s Digital Media division the primary purpose of the broadcaster’s partnership with the popular social media company for the debate was to extend its brand and reach. This article examines the live televised debate, arguing that the commercial imperatives were of more interest to TVNZ as it seeks to reorient itself as a digital media company alongside its public service broadcasting mandate.

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  • High intensity interval training in a real world setting: A randomized controlled feasibility study in overweight inactive adults, measuring change in maximal oxygen intake

    Lunt, H.; Draper, N.; Marshall, H.C.; Logan, F.J.; Hamlin, M.J.; Shearman, J.P.; Cotter, J.D.; Kimber, N.E.; Blackwell, G.; Frampton, C.M.A. (2014)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Background: In research clinic settings, overweight adults undertaking HIIT (high intensity interval training) improve their fitness as effectively as those undertaking conventional walking programs but can do so within a shorter time spent exercising. We undertook a randomized controlled feasibility (pilot) study aimed at extending HIIT into a real world setting by recruiting overweight/obese, inactive adults into a group based activity program, held in a community park. Methods: Participants were allocated into one of three groups. The two interventions, aerobic interval training and maximal volitional interval training, were compared with an active control group undertaking walking based exercise. Supervised group sessions (36 per intervention) were held outdoors. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using VO2max (maximal oxygen uptake, results expressed in ml/min/kg), before and after the 12 week interventions. Results: On ITT (intention to treat) analyses, baseline (N = 49) and exit (N = 39) _VVO2 was 25.364.5 and 25.363.9, respectively. Participant allocation and baseline/exit VO2max by group was as follows: Aerobic interval training N = 16, 24.264.8/25.664.8; maximal volitional interval training N = 16, 25.062.8/25.263.4; walking N = 17, 26.565.3/25.263.6. The post intervention change in VO2max was +1.01 in the aerobic interval training, 20.06 in the maximal volitional interval training and 21.03 in the walking subgroups. The aerobic interval training subgroup increased VO2max compared to walking (p = 0.03). The actual (observed, rather than prescribed) time spent exercising (minutes per week, ITT analysis) was 74 for aerobic interval training, 45 for maximal volitional interval training and 116 for walking (p = 0.001). On descriptive analysis, the walking subgroup had the fewest adverse events. Conclusions: In contrast to earlier studies, the improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness in a cohort of overweight/obese participants undertaking aerobic interval training in a real world setting was modest. The most likely reason for this finding relates to reduced adherence to the exercise program, when moving beyond the research clinic setting.

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  • Strength and conditioning practices in rowing

    Gee, T.; Olsen, P.; Berger, N.; Golby, J.; Thompson, K.G. (2011)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    There is limited published research on the practices of strength and conditioning (S &C) coaches in Great Britain. Information about training program design would be useful in developing models of good practice and ecologically valid intervention studies. The aim of this research was to quantify the training practices of coaches responsible for the S&C of rowing athletes. A questionnaire was developed that consisted of 6 sections: (a) personal details, (b) physical testing, (c) strength and power development, (d) flexibility development, (e) unique aspects of the program, and (f) any further relevant comments regarding the athletes prescribed training program. Twenty-two rowing and 10 S&C coaches with an average of 10.5 ± 7.2 years' experience agreed to complete the questionnaire. Approximately, 34% coached rowers of Olympic standard, 34% coached national standard, 3% coached regional standard, 19% coached club standard, and 10% coached university standard rowers. All coaches agreed that strength training enhanced rowing performance and the majority (74%) indicated that athletes' strength trained 2-3 times a week. Almost all coaches (94%) reported their rowers performed strength training, with 81% using Olympic lifting, and 91% employing a periodized training model. The clean (63%) and squat (27%) were rated the most important prescribed exercises. Approximately 50% of coaches used plyometrics such as depth jumps, box drills, and standing jumps. Ninety-four percent indicated they conducted physical testing on their rowers, typically assessing cardiovascular endurance (80%), muscular power (70%), muscular strength (70%), and anaerobic capacity (57%). This research represents the only published survey to date on the S&C practices in rowing within Great Britain.

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  • The role of therapeutic alliance in treatment for people with mild to moderate alcohol dependence

    Richardson, D.F.; Adamson, S.J.; Deering, D.E.A. (2012)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    In an exploratory study of Therapeutic Alliance (TA) in brief outpatient treatment for alcohol dependence the relationship was investigated between TA and treatment outcome (measured at 6 weeks and 6 months) for 69 alcohol dependent clients participating in a randomised control trial between Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Non Directive Reflective Listening. TA was significantly higher for clients who attended all four sessions. The correlation between TA and change in per cent days abstinent (PDA) between baseline and 6 weeks approached significance. TA was significantly correlated with the Alcohol Problem Questionnaire (APQ) at 6 months and with change in APQ scores between baseline and 6 months. These relationships remained significant when treatment assignment was controlled for. Whilst there was a trend towards a relationship between TA and change in PDA between baseline and 6 months, this trend no longer remained when both treatment assignment and early change in drinking levels were controlled for. Therapeutic alliance may be a useful additional maker to predict outcome, but early treatment response appears to be a better predictor.

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  • A new species of Carpoglyphus (Astigmatina: Carpoglyphidae) from the bark of black beech (Nothofagus) honeydew in New Zealand.

    Clark, J. (2010)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Carpoglyphus wardleorum n. sp. (Astigmatina: Carpoglyphidae) is described from males and females collected from sooty mould fungi on the bark of black beech, Nothofagus solandri, at Ashley Gorge, Canterbury, New Zealand.

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  • Using videos and multimodal discourse analysis to study how students learn a trade

    Chan, S. (2013)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    The use of video to assist with ethnographical-based research is not a new phenomenon. Recent advances in technology have reduced the costs and technical expertise required to use videos for gathering research data. Audio-visual records of learning activities as they take place, allow for many non-vocal and inter-personal communication interchanges to be collected. However, the use of video does add greater complexity to the research process. In this article, the use of video to collect data of trade skill learners and the accompanying multimodal discourse analysis method used to derive meaning from these data are discussed. The adoption of video along with multimodal discourse analysis may facilitate future research into learning in a vocational context.

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  • Giving speaking practice in self-access mode a chance

    Dofs, K.I. (2013)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Finding resources and activities which will interest students and promote speaking in a self-access resource can be challenging. This article describes how the School of English at Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology (CPIT), Christchurch, New Zealand, works to enable speaking practice in their Language Self Access Centre (LSAC). The activities which students are encouraged to do were produced consequent to research and an examination of good practice worldwide within the field of autonomy in language learning. The article will explore some basic design principles and conditions which were followed with the aim of creating maximal “comprehensible outputs” for speaking (Anderson, Maclean & Lynch, 2004), and, at the same time, creating conditions for these speaking tasks which would optimise development of autonomous language use (Thornbury, 2005). This is followed by an analysis of how the resources provided in a designated speaking area in the LSAC fulfil these principles and conditions, and how they may foster autonomous learning.

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  • Women’s birthplace decision-making, the role of confidence: Part of the Evaluating Maternity Units Study, New Zealand

    Grigg, C.; Tracy, S.; Schmied, V.; Daellenbach, R.; Kensington, M. (2015)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Objective: to explore women's birthplace decision-making and identify the factors which enable women to plan to give birth in a freestanding midwifery-led primary level maternity unit rather than in an obstetric-led tertiary level maternity hospital in New Zealand. Design: a mixed methods prospective cohort design. Methods: data from eight focus groups (37 women) and a six week postpartum survey (571 women, 82%) were analysed using thematic analysis and descriptive statistics. The qualitative data from the focus groups and survey were the primary data sources and were integrated at the analysis stage; and the secondary qualitative and quantitative data were integrated at the interpretation stage. Setting: Christchurch, New Zealand, with one tertiary maternity hospital and four primary level maternity units (2010–2012). Participants: well (at ‘low risk’ of developing complications), pregnant women booked to give birth in one of the primary units or the tertiary hospital. All women received midwifery continuity of care, regardless of their intended or actual birthplace. Findings: five core themes were identified: the birth process, women's self-belief in their ability to give birth, midwives, the health system and birth place. ‘Confidence’ was identified as the overarching concept influencing the themes. Women who chose to give birth in a primary maternity unit appeared to differ markedly in their beliefs regarding their optimal birthplace compared to women who chose to give birth in a tertiary maternity hospital. The women who planned a primary maternity unit birth expressed confidence in the birth process, their ability to give birth, their midwife, the maternity system and/or the primary unit itself. The women planning to give birth in a tertiary hospital did not express confidence in the birth process, their ability to give birth, the system for transfers and/or the primary unit as a birthplace, although they did express confidence in their midwife. Key conclusions and implications for practice: birthplace is a profoundly important aspect of women's experience of childbirth. Birthplace decision-making is complex, in common with many other aspects of childbirth. A multiplicity of factors needs converge in order for all those involved to gain the confidence required to plan what, in this context, might be considered a ‘countercultural’ decision to give birth at a midwife-led primary maternity unit. Keywords: Decision-making; Place of birth; Primary maternity unit; Tertiary hospital; New Zealand; Confidence

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  • Development of an Android accessory interface to CPIT AVR training kits

    Li, Y. (2014)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology (CPIT) have a long history of teaching embedded systems and microcontrollers in their engineering programmes. The AVR microcontroller training kit was developed as a platform for teaching and for student projects. This paper presents the development of an Android accessory interface to the training kit. The hardware design was based on the Max3421e USB controller. The software of the accessory was designed using the object-oriented concept and the top-down approach. The general behaviour of the accessory were defined in the base class and the USB protocol support defined in its subclass. These are hardware independent and can easily be extended to a subclass with specific hardware support, such as the Max3421e or any microcontroller’s built-in USB controllers. The Android accessory interface together with the AVR microcontroller training kit will be the platform for students to develop embedded systems which can fully use the powerful features of Android devices.

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  • Stability of plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH): Influence of hemolysis, rapid chilling time, and the addition of maleimide

    Livesey, J. H.; Dolamore, B. (2010)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of hemolysis, rapid chilling, time, and the addition of a maleimide on the stability of human plasma ACTH measurements. Design and methods: Partially hemolyzed EDTA blood (n = 10), initially at 37 °C, was centrifuged at 4 °C either immediately or after rapid chilling in ice/water. Plasma ACTH was then measured either immediately, or after 1 h at 22 °C with or without the addition of 2 mM N-phenyl maleimide (NPM). Results: For 0.2% hemolysis compared to no hemolysis, the mean (±SEM) loss with immediate centrifugation and immediate ACTH measurement was 11 ± 1%. This loss was significantly (p < 0.002) reduced to 6 ± 1% by an initial rapid chilling of the samples. For analysis after 1 h at 22 °C, the addition of NPM decreased the loss of ACTH from 15 ± 2% to 2 ± 2% (p < 0.002). Conclusion: Rapid chilling, prompt analysis, and addition of NPM can each reduce the interference of hemolysis in the measurement of plasma ACTH concentrations.

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  • Process and strategy influences on product development performance in New Zealand

    de Waal, A.; Knott, P. (2010)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    This study is the first to evaluate the outcomes of alternative new product development (NPD) strategies among New Zealand firms. For each of six distinct NPD strategies, we assess performance by selecting the most applicable of 12 measures. We find that new product strategies produce better results than product improvement strategies, although managers rated profit margins unsatisfactory for all six NPD strategies. Our sample firms seldom reported using formalised NPD process or strategy, but when they did, this correlated positively with improved performance in all 12 measures. Firms generally recognised their NPD process performance as poorer than their product performance.

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  • Identification of an optimal sampling position for stable isotopic analysis of bone collagen of extinct moa (Aves: Emeidae)

    Holdaway, R.; Hawke, D.J.; Bunce, M.; Allentoft, M. E. (2011)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Stable isotopic (δ13C; δ15N) analysis of bone collagen and other refractory biological materials is a mainstay of palaeoecological research, but comparability between individuals depends on homogeneity within the sample specimens. Long bones of extinct New Zealand moa display lines of arrested growth that reflect prolonged development over several years, leading to potential systematic inhomogeneity in stable isotopic enrichment within the bone. We tested whether the isotopic content within a Euryapteryx curtus tibiotarsus is homogeneous by measuring δ15N and δ13C values in 6 adjacent 1cm-diameter cortical bone cores arranged along the bone axis from each of the proximal and distal ends. We then measured isotopic ratios in 5 radial slices of a core from the mid-shaft of a Pachyornis elephantopus tibiotarsus to see if there was any depth (ontogenetic) effect at a single sampling point. The δ13C value increased with distance from the proximal bone end, but neither δ13C nor δ15N values in samples from the distal end of the bone were correlated with position. Within mid-shaft cortical bone, the δ13C value decreased with depth but δ15N values were constant. Sampling the entire depth of cortical bone from the caudal surface at the distal end of the tibiotarsus, if feasible, therefore provides a spatially homogenous material, free of maturation effects on stable isotopic composition. If for any reason that position cannot be sampled, the outer (radial) layer at the mid-shaft can be substituted.

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  • What exposure do student nurses have to primary health care and community nursing during the New Zealand undergraduate Bachelor of Nursing programme?

    Betony, K.; Yarwood, J. (2013)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    A research project to examine the theoretical and practical exposure student nurses have to Primary Health Care (PHC) and community nursing in their undergraduate programme was undertaken in New Zealand (NZ). Providing quality clinical placements for health care students is acknowledged as a major challenge for tertiary institutions. In order to reflect the current shift in health care delivery from hospital to community settings, one such challenge is to ensure students receive appropriate theoretical programme content and clinical experience in PHC and community settings. The project consisted of a review of relevant international literature, and a questionnaire sent to all NZ tertiary institutions providing a Bachelor of Nursing (BN). Findings included a variable understanding of the concept of PHC, a lack of appropriate PHC placements across the country, competition for student placements in PHC, and professional organisation requirements for student supervision impacting on placement availability. Innovations identified to increase PHC placements comprised the establishment of Dedicated Education Units (DEUs), curriculum revision, and final year PHC placements offered only to students targeting PHC settings on registration. Study recommendations involve establishing a regional rather than a local approach to managing clinical placements, increasing professional governance support and reviewing clinical placement funding.

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  • Reporting climbing grades and grouping categories for rock climbing

    Draper, N.; Canalejo, J.; Shearman, J. (2011)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Rock climbing is an increasingly popular adventure sport with a growing research base. To date the growth of research and reporting styles has been somewhat haphazard and as a consequence comparison between studies can be problematic. The aim of this paper was to make suggestions about a number of changes that could be made to improve the consistency in reporting between studies. Included with this paper are two new tables, one each for male and female climbers. These provide comparative grading scales for use in reporting for future studies. These tables also provide a suggested framework for grouping climbers according to their ability. Using the tables researchers could group the climbers in their study by a category name (lower grade, intermediate, advanced, elite or higher elite climber) or by a number (level 1–5). In addition, the authors make recommendations about climber characteristics that could usefully be reported in future to assist comparison between studies. It would be helpful to readers if the self-reported, highest lead climbs (on-sight and redpoint) could be reported for a climbing group, along with the types of climbing regularly undertaken.

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  • Nurses' role in caring for people with a comorbidity of mental illness and intellectual disability: A literature review

    Taua, C.; Hepworth, J.; Neville, C. (2011)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    This article examines literature on the role of the nurse caring for people with a dual disability (DD) of intellectual disability and mental illness. A search of the literature between 2000 and 2010 resulted in a total of 21 articles that met the inclusion criteria. Seven key categories of the role of the nurse were identified: (i) advocacy/health promotion (including working with family); (ii) assessment/case management; (iii) behavioural interventions; (iv) communication; (v) leadership and the nurse's role within the multidisciplinary team; (vi) functions regarding medication administration; and (vii) safety/risk management. There is a paucity of research about the role of nurses working with people with DD, although a number of opinion-based articles exist. This article identifies a need for the role of the nurse working in DD to be more clearly articulated and for the development of evidence to guide best practice.

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  • Sport-specific power assessment for rock climbing

    Draper, N.; Dickson, T.; Blackwell, G.; Priestley, S.; Fryer, S.; Marshall, H.; Shearman, J.; Hamlin, M.; Winter, D.; Ellis, G. (2011)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    AIM: The popularity of rock climbing has resulted in a growing research base for the sport. However, at present there is a lack of sport-specific measures of performance in the field. The aim of this study was to examine the use of the powerslap test as a sport specific power measure. METHODS: The participants in this study were categorised into four different ability groups (novice, intermediate, advanced and elite) based on self reported lead grade. Two separate experiments were conducted to determine validity and reliability. The powerslap test was conducted on a revolution board with two variations – wide and narrow grip, for both sides of the body. The test started with the climber hanging at full extension from two holds from which a pull up movement was made releasing one hand to slap a scaled score board above. RESULTS:There was a significant relationship between powerslap scores and climbing ability (Left Wide: r=0.7, P<0.0005). Limits of agreement and intra-class correlation indicated that the powerslap test is a reliable performance measure. CONCLUSION:According to the present findings the narrow grip variation of the powerslap test is a useful sport-specific power test that is related to climbing performance.

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