89,482 results

  • Te reo o te ākonga me ngā whakapono o te kaiako : Student voice and teachers’ beliefs

    Ellison, Bruce (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The beliefs that teachers have about teaching and learning have an influence on the practices that teachers implement. This is particularly relevant, although not exclusively, to teaching practices that meet the needs of Māori students in our bicultural learning environments of New Zealand. There is a growing amount of research to support the use of student voice data, the benefits of which can be seen at a school level, at the classroom teacher level as well as for the individual students themselves. This research project focused on exploring the impact of students sharing their thoughts and opinions about their learning, (i.e.: student voice data) on influencing teachers’ beliefs about teaching and learning. In doing so it explores effective facilitation of this process in a bicultural learning environment. In particular it investigates the potential of a combination of specific tools, notably student focus groups and coaching conversations with teachers to influence teachers’ beliefs. This study took place in two low decile schools in Christchurch. It involved focus groups of Māori and non-Māori primary-aged students, alongside teacher reflective interviews being conducted on repeated visits. Its findings identified approaches for accessing authentic student voice in a bicultural learning environment. The thoughts and opinions shared by Māori students highlighted a focus on their own learning as well as celebrating their culture. Teachers reacted to student voice by making connections to their classroom programmes, and by accepting or dismissing more provocative statements. These reactions by teachers helped emphasize the most helpful methods for reflecting on this data. Their reflections, used alongside a specially designed ‘Teacher Belief Gathering Tool’, ascertained that teachers’ beliefs were both reaffirmed and changed through guided reflection and coaching conversations on student voice data. Teachers’ knowledge of effective teaching and learning, their motivation for changing their teaching practices, as well as witnessing success were all considerable factors in teachers changing their beliefs.

    View record details
  • Generation and structural characterisation of transient gaseous species.

    Atkinson, Sandra Jane (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Gas electron diffraction (GED) is a technique that has been developed to study the molecular structure of species in the gas phase. This thesis focuses on the reconstruction of the Canterbury GED apparatus (moved from Edinburgh, UK) and the requirements for modifying the apparatus to incorporate a mass spectrometer (MS) so diffraction and MS data can be obtained within a single experiment. The combined GED-MS system has been identified in previous work in the Masters group as a necessary development for studying the structure of short-lived species generated in situ. This is particularly true for the study of ketene, which as shown in this thesis, can be generated from several precursors as part of a multiple product pyrolysis system. While GED data for ketene generated from acetic anhydride has been refined, the species formed from the pyrolysis of Meldrum’s acid were determined to be too difficult to deconvolute without additional experimental data from MS. A computational study of possible ketene derivatives that could be studied with a GED-MS apparatus is also presented. Lastly, this thesis details a structural study of the gas-phase structures of tris(chloromethyl)amine and a family of substituted disilane systems which have been determined in the gas phase for the first time. A comprehensive GED, Raman spectroscopy and ab initio study have been undertaken for tris(chloromethyl)amine [N(CH2Cl)3] which is shown to have a different structure in the solid and gas phase. Further work in the form of a molecular dynamics investigation has been identified as necessary to describe the low amplitude motion of one of the CH2Cl groups in the gas phase to allow for the GED refinement to be completed. The work on the substituted disilane systems X3SiSiXMe2 (X = F, Cl, Br, I) and X3SiSiMe3 (X = H, F, Cl, Br) demonstrates the effect of increased halogen substitution on the electronic effects of the disilanes, and the effect that the methyl groups have as larger halogens increase the steric bulk of the system.  

    View record details
  • Stress : strain relationships for confined concrete : rectangular sections

    Scott, Bryan D. (1980)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    An experimental investigation into the behaviour of square, confined, reinforced concrete columns was undertaken. Thirty 450 mm square, 1200 mm high units were cast with varying amounts of longitudinal and lateral steel. These were subjected to concentric or eccentric axial loads to failure at slow or dynamic loading rates. Confinement requirements of reinforced concrete columns are discussed and the results and analyses of experimental work presented. Results include an assessment of the significance of loading rate, eccentricity, amount and distribution of longitudinal steel, and the amount of confining steel. A general stress-strain curve for rectangular concrete sections loaded at seismic rates is proposed and compared with existing curves based on previous static loading tests.

    View record details
  • A Study on the Usability of Hand-Held and Wearable Head-Mounted Displays in Clinical Ward Rounds.

    Yakubu, Muhammad Nda (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In this thesis research, we investigate the usability of hand-held display (Tablet PC) and wearable head-mounted display (Google Glass) interfaces and their effect on doctor-patient interaction during clinical ward round in the hospital. We looked at existing literature to identify existing research about our topic. Using a User Centered Interaction Design process we developed a prototype hybrid system that used both a hand-held and head-mounted display. An evaluation of this prototype with a hand-held system and a paper based interface was performed in a simulated patient room with 20 doctors and 5 patients. The participants were observed, surveyed, and interviewed about their experiences. Generally, the patients had a high satisfaction rate and felt the interfaces were not causing the doctors to lose focus on them. The doctors found the hand-held display by itself and existing paper-based interface to be the most usable and least distracting interfaces for accessing patient information during clinical ward rounds.

    View record details
  • Preparation of monolayer tethers via reduction of aryldiazonium salts.

    Lee, Lita (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis describes the preparation of surface-attached monolayer tethers from electroreduction of aryldiazonium ions using a protection-deprotection strategy. Monolayers of ethynylphenyl, carboxyphenyl, aminophenyl and aminomethylphenyl were prepared. Glassy carbon (GC) and pyrolysed photoresist film (PPF) surfaces were modified electrochemically and characterised by redox probe voltammetry. The monolayer tethers were coupled with electro-active ferrocenyl (Fc) and nitrophenyl (NP) groups for the indirect electrochemical estimation of the surface concentration. Film thickness measurement was carried out using an atomic force microscopy (AFM) depth profiling technique. The surface concentration and film thickness measurement results were consistent with the formation of monolayer films after removal of the protecting groups. Preparation of mixed monolayers was studied using three different modification strategies: i) grafting from a solution containing two different protected aryldiazonium ions, ii) sequential grafting of two different protected aryldiazonium ions, and iii) grafting of protected aryldiazonium ions followed by removal of the protecting group and reaction of an amine or carboxylic acid derivative directly with the GC surface. The composition of the mixed layer prepared using the first method is difficult to control, whereas the possibility of multilayer formation cannot be discounted using the second method. Multilayer formation is unlikely using the third method. The electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction at mixed monolayer films was investigated briefly. The origin of the two reduction peaks frequently observed for electroreduction of aryldiazonium ions at carbon surfaces was studied. Electroreduction was carried out at GC and HOPG surfaces. The reduction peak at the more positive potential is surface sensitive, while the peak at the more negative potential is not. However, both reduction peaks lead to deposition of films and it is tentatively proposed that the more positive peak corresponds to reduction at a ‘clean’ GC electrode, and the more negative peak corresponds to reduction at the already grafted layer.

    View record details
  • Analysis, development and management of glucose-insulin regulatory system for out of hospital cardiac arrest (ohca) patients, treated with hypothermia.

    Sah Pri, Azurahisham (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Hyperglycaemia is prevalent in critical care and increases the risks of further complications and mortality. Glycaemic control has shown benefits in reducing mortality. However, due in parts to excessive metabolic variability, many studies have found it difficult to reproduce these results. Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA) patients have low survival rates and often experience hyperglycaemia. However, these patients belongs to one group who has shown benefit from accurate glycaemic control (AGC), but can be highly insulin resistant and variable, particularly on the first two days of stay. Hypothermia is often used to treat post-cardiac arrest patients or out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and these same patients often simultaneously receive insulin. In general, it leads to a lowering of metabolic rate that induces changes in energy metabolism. However, its impact on metabolism and insulin resistance in critical illness is unknown, although one of the adverse events associated with hypothermic therapy is a decrease in insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. However, this decrease may not be notable in the cohort that is already highly resistant and variable. Hence, understanding metabolic evolution and variability would enable safer and more accurate glycaemic control using insulin in this cohort. OHCA patients were undergone preliminary analysis during cool and warm, which includes insulin sensitivity (SI), blood glucose (BG), and exogenous insulin and dextrose. Patients were analysed based on overall cohort, sub-cohorts, and 6 and 12 hour time block. Generally, the results show that OHCA patients had very low metabolic activity during cool period but significantly increased over time. In contrast, BG is higher during cool period and decreased over time. The analysis is equally important as the controller development since it provides scientific evidence and understanding of patients’ physiology and metabolic evolution especially during cool and warm. Model-based methods can deliver control that is patient-specific and adaptive to handle highly dynamic patients. A physiological ICING-2 model of the glucose-insulin regulatory system is presented in this thesis. This model has three compartments for glucose utilisation, effective interstitial insulin and its transport, and insulin kinetics in blood plasma, with emphasis on clinical applicability. The predictive control for the model is driven by the patient-specific and time-varying insulin sensitivity parameter. A novel integral-based parameter identification enables fast and accurate real-time model adaptation to individual patients and patient condition. Stochastic models and time-series methods for forecasting future insulin sensitivity are presented in this thesis. These methods can deliver probability intervals to support clinical control interventions. The risk of adverse glycaemic outcomes given observed variability from cohort-specific and patient-specific forecasting methods can be quantified to inform clinical staff. Hypoglycaemia can thus be further avoided with the probability interval guided intervention assessments. Simulation studies of STAR-OHCA control trials on ‘virtual patients’ derived from retrospective clinical data provided a framework to optimise control protocol design in-silico. Comparisons with retrospective control showed substantial improvements in glycaemia within the target 4 - 7 mmol/L range by optimising the infusions of insulin. The simulation environment allowed experimentation with controller parameters to arrive at a protocol that operates within the constraints found earlier during patient analysis. Overall, the research presented takes model-based OHCA glycaemic control from concept to proof-of-concept virtual trials. The thesis employs the full range of models, tools and methods to optimise the protocol design and problem solution.

    View record details
  • Creating New Zealand: Pākehā constructions of national identity in New Zealand literary anthologies

    Wild, Susan (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The desire to construct a sense of home and the need to belong are basic to human society, and to the processes of its cultural production. Since the beginning of New Zealand’s European colonial settlement, the determination to create and reflect a separate and distinctive collective identity for the country’s Pākehā population has been the primary focus of much local creative and critical literature. Most literary histories, like those of Patrick Evans (1990) and Terry Sturm (1991), have followed the narrative of progression – established initially in E.H. McCormick’s Letters and Art in New Zealand (1940) – away from colonial dependency through delineated stages from provincial and cultural nationalist phases to the achievement of a bicultural and multicultural consensus in a globalized, international context. This thesis questions the progressivist assumption which often informs that narrative, arguing instead that, while change and progress have been evident in the development of local notions of identity in the country’s writing over time, there is also a pattern of recurrent concerns about national identity that remained unresolved at the end of the last century. This complex and nuanced picture is disclosed in particular in the uncertain and shifting nature of New Zealand’s relationship with Australia, its response towards expatriates, a continuing concern with the nature of the ‘reality’ of ‘New Zealandness’, and the ambivalence of its sense of identity and place within a broader international context. New Zealand’s national anthologies of verse and short fiction produced over the twentieth century, and their reception in the critical literature that they generated, are taken in the thesis as forming a microcosmic representation of the major concerns that underlie the discourse of national identity formation in this country. I present an analysis of the canonical literary anthologies, in particular those of verse, and of a wide range of critical work focused on responses to the historical development of local literature. From this, I develop the argument that a dual, interlinked pattern, both of progress and of reversion to early concerns and uncertainties, is evident. The thesis is structured into six chapters: an introductory chapter outlines the national and international historical contexts within which the literary contestation of New Zealand identity has developed; the second outlines the contribution of influential literary anthologies to the construction of various concepts of New Zealandness; three chapters then address particular thematic concerns identified as recurring tropes within the primary and secondary literature focused on the discourse of national identity – the ‘problem’ of the expatriate writer, the search for ‘reality’ and ‘authenticity’ in the portrayal of local experience, and New Zealand’s literary response towards Australia; and the Conclusion, which summarizes the argument presented in the thesis and provides an assessment of its major findings. A Bibliography of the works cited in the text is appended at the end of the thesis.

    View record details
  • Visualising the Invisible: Displaying Building Resource-use Benchmarks in a 3D City Visualisation

    Hills, Alex Josephine (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis proposes a reinvention of the means of presenting statistical data about 3D urban environments. Conventional GIS use of 3D ’enhances’ hard to understand 2D maps with even harder-to-understand histograms of data. The goal is to demonstrate the means by which data on energy and water-use in buildings can be used to enhance familiar 3D interactive city environments and be made accessible to the widest possible audience. Ultimately, resource benchmarks and other related publicly available information about the built environment could be presented in this highly accessible form. All information would be database driven, so automatically updateable. From this basic platform, applications that allow people to compare their own private records with public norms are easily constructed: a world where a building owner can compare their energy records with benchmarks for similar buildings and take action to improve if necessary, or to advertise accomplishments. This study draws on data from the ‘BEES’ Building Energy End-use Study - a BRANZ research project documenting energy and water use in New Zealand commercial buildings. During the study a ‘Websearch’ survey was conducted, building a detailed picture of non-residential building stock in New Zealand with data collected on building typologies, characteristics and surroundings. A thorough research methodology was developed to ensure that high level data could be collected from 3,000 randomly selected buildings within the budget allocated for the project. The data was examined for quality, building characteristics and typology mix and a valuable layer of detail was added by inferring additional information from the basic Websearch dataset. Where sub-samples used in the BEES study were subject to refusal / survey participation rates, the level of potential bias in the mix of building typologies could be tested and allowances made. Energy and water use data collected for a random subset of the sample, could then be applied as benchmarks to the census of New Zealand commercial buildings. In order to trial the communication of the benchmark results to the widest possible audience, an automated 3D city visualisation ‘pilot’ was generated of the Wellington Central Business District and a number of graphic tools were brought together to make the information publicly accessible and as useful as possible. The overall aim was to test the feasibility of applying this technique at a national level. The research revealed three major recommendations: firstly, a national unique building identifier is required to ensure the accuracy of national building data and enable statistical results about the built environment to be accurately and reliably applied to real buildings; secondly, resource use data in 3D format is urgently required to improve the value of sustainable properties; lastly, creating a significant impact on building stock efficiency will depend upon the engagement of a wider audience. Developed further, this visualisation will enable construction professionals, building owners, developers and tenants to understand the built environment and implications of building design and typology on energy and water use.

    View record details
  • Traumatic Bonding and Intimate Partner Violence

    George, Vera (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Intimate partner violence is a pervasive and highly detrimental phenomenon. One common aspect of abusive relationships is a reluctance to leave one’s partner. With this in mind, the current study explored the role of Stockholm syndrome in abusive relationships. Study 1 and 2 surveyed 508 diverse adults. Study 1 submitted the Stockholm syndrome scale to psychometric testing and confirmed a 3-factor solution for the scale. The three components are Core, justifying an abuser through cognitive distortions; Damage, ongoing psychological effects of abuse; and Love, the belief that one’s survival depends on the love of an abuser. Study 2 tested the predictive qualities of the scale and found that its components are linked to relationship violence in a predictable fashion. These links may be moderated by insecure attachment. Study 3 analysed dyadic data from 86 couples and found positive associations between levels of Core and relationship violence, both within and across partners. Implications and future directions are discussed.

    View record details
  • Politicians Gone Wild: A Comparative Analysis of Political Scandals in New Zealand, The United States and France

    Argyle, Elizabeth (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The place of political scandals in the academic literature is contentious; scandals are commonly dismissed as distractions from the ‘real issues’ in a society. This thesis challenges that notion, instead arguing that political scandals are an important phenomenon in functioning democracies. Through a comparative lens, political transgressions since the year 2000 that have occurred in three liberal democracies, New Zealand, the United States and France, have been analysed. Transgressions by political actors in these jurisdictions of a sexual, financial and power nature have been applied to previously established frameworks. Observations about the political culture of these countries have been made as a result of this analysis. Four existing theories on the significance of political scandal – the functionalist theory of scandal, the no consequence theory, the trivialisation theory and social theory – were also tested. The social theory of scandal is concluded to be the most applicable to the case studies assessed. The social theory of scandal argues that political scandals can foster cultures of debate and criticism which is important to functioning democracies; however, political scandals of a large magnitude or high frequency can damage the public’s perception of political actors and institutions. This analysis therefore serves as evidence that political scandals are not frivolous occurrences but instead are important indicators of societal values and can have important and lasting consequences. This thesis also considers political scandals in broader historical and cultural contexts, drawing attention to the pervasiveness of scandal as a topic of academic and public interest.

    View record details
  • Tricksters, technology and spirit: practising place in Aotearoa-New Zealand

    Buxton, Maggie

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Place is a tricky concept. On the surface it seems a relatively simple notion, yet underneath there are layers of contested meanings. At the same time, places face ‘wicked’ problems – issues difficult to solve by traditional methods and approaches. For these reasons there is a call from across disciplines, for flexibility and creativity in place research. This thesis weaves together technology, art, spirituality and science to create a place practice inspired by tricksters. Tricksters appear in the narratives of most cultures as liminal, paradoxical and indeterminate figures. In this research they have new relevance at a time when the boundaries of life, including the lines between sacred and profane, are no longer clearly defined. They are an inspiration for a new form of place practice which creatively weaves together ubiquitous technologies, indigenous and speculative ontologies, and integral research methodologies. The proposition is that geo-locative mobile technologies can support the work of those who work with spiritual sites, and also support the spirit or spirits of those places, when used within a trickster-inspired place practice. What are the opportunities and issues that arise from this approach? Geo-locative mobile technologies augment physical spaces with digital content and can act as mediators between the self, the physical world, digital worlds and other worlds beyond. Technology is not usually associated with spirit. However, in this research technology paradoxically plays a role in supporting the spirit of place and contributes to a progressive understanding of that term. The place practice that informed this study was situated around three spiritually significant sites: a cemetery, a marae and a public park. Within each case study, a bricolage of inter-, intra-, and transpersonal data collection methods was enacted. Integral philosophies and trickster traits combined to create the unique methodology. This research joins traditionally separate discourses: spirit of place, tricksters, and geo-locative mobile technology. It addresses the need for more creative ways of working in and with place, and raises legal, moral, cultural, and political issues in the use of mobile technologies in indigenous and/or sensitive contexts. Findings demonstrate that mobile technologies can shift perceptions of self and place, make institutional knowledge more accessible, and build connections in the third space where cultures, histories, peoples and realities meet. In these ways the practice supports the spirit of place.

    View record details
  • Carl Zeus

    Youngkong, Nattapon

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This project Carl Zeus (working title) investigates the German Expressionist film movement as an inspiration and a platform from which to develop a contemporary film project. The research focuses on the unique cinematographic and production techniques employed by the filmmakers of this movement. It explores the potential communicability of these cinematic devices. The movement (begun in 1919) emerged from the unique historical circumstances of post-World War One Germany. The works were primarily concerned with the country’s universally destabilized psyche and trauma that prevailed in German society after the war. The project questions the value of these cinematic devices in communicating contemporary issues and the experience of living in the present time. I next explore how to deploy an expressionist mode of cinema into a short film project. To negotiate this question, I produce a short film that deploys the Expressionist mode of cinema through the script, cinematography and mise-en-scene as a method of inquiry.

    View record details
  • The nature of embedded purchasing activities in SMEs – results from a Dutch multiple case study


    Auckland University of Technology

    Aims: identify and explain purchasing-oriented patterns in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) via case study research. Scope: Using a conceptual framework and empirical research this article proposes a series of purchasing-oriented patterns in SMEs. These patterns align activities to achieve the SMEs proposed value proposition towards customers and activities to purchase resources needed for realizing the value proposition. Structure: This paper introduces the research topic. It discusses a conceptual framework and theory. It then continues with the methodology to collect and analyse case study data and describes empirical finding. It discusses these findings related to the framework and literature and ends with summarizing first conclusions. Conclusion: The SMEs in the dataset use four types of purchasing-oriented patterns related to their customer value propositions These SMEs can strive for low transaction costs can but invest in extrinsic product attributes to realize their value proposition. Both the transaction cost theory and the resource based view help to explain the purchasing-oriented patterns. Further research is needed to strengthen and validate findings.

    View record details
  • Some aspects of the relationship between agriculture and the national economy : with special reference to labour

    Ross, B. J.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The interdependence of industry and agriculture in a modern economy is everywhere freely acknowledged, but New Zealand probably provides one of the most dramatic illustrations of the complementary nature of this relationship. In addition to the dependence of agriculture on manufacturing which is normal in advanced countries, many of New Zealand’s manufacturing industries are indirectly dependent on agriculture for their raw materials. Most raw materials have to be imported, and as agricultural products make up ninety per cent of the goods exported in exchange, a high level of agricultural production is essential if manufacturing output is to be maintained or increased. In view of this, a study of some aspects of the relationship between agriculture and industry in New Zealand is likely to prove of the greatest interest. It is intended in this present study to examine particularly those aspects concerned with labour enquiring into the size of the agricultural labour force in relation to the total labour force, and examining the relative incomes of agricultural and non-agricultural sections of the community. The work of Fisher, Clark, Ojala and others has shown that in those countries now considered economically advanced economic progress has been associated with a relative decline in the proportion of the labour force employed in agriculture, and a relative decline also in the importance of agriculture in the economy, measured in terms of the proportion of national income produced by agriculture. This work, and the discussion which arose from it, will be studied in a review of the literature in Chapter. I, while a quantitative study of New Zealand population and labour statistics will be carried out in Chapter III. The income generated by New Zealand agriculture will be compared with the national income in Chapter IV, in an attempt to discover whether economic progress in New Zealand has been associated with any change in the relative contribution of agriculture to the community’s total economic welfare. It has been shown by Bellerby and his co-workers that agricultural incomes have, in most of the countries studied, shown a long term tendency to be at a level far below non-agricultural incomes, although New Zealand is mentioned as an exception in the respect. This work will be considered in the review of literature, and in Chapter V the New Zealand data in this field will be examined. In Chapter VI an attempt will be made to draw the data together to see how the New Zealand results compare with those obtained by Clark, Bellerby and the others, and how they fit in with the general conclusions reached by these workers. Some suggestions for further work in this field in New Zealand will also be offered.

    View record details
  • Characterisation of rhizobia associated with New Zealand native legumes (Fabaceae) and a study of nitrogen assimilation in Sophora microphylla

    Tan, Heng Wee

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Many legume species have the capacity to fix atmospheric N₂ via symbiotic bacteria (generally termed “rhizobia”) in root nodules and this can give them an advantage under low soil N conditions if other factors are favourable for growth. There are four genera of native legumes, on the main New Zealand (NZ) islands. These are the closely related Carmichaelia, Clianthus and Montigena in the Carmichaelinae clade, tribe Galegeae, and Sophora, within the tribe Sophoreae: all are capable of nodulation. Little work has been done on the genotypic characterisation and host-range specificity of the rhizobia associated with NZ native legumes. Moreover, the ability of native legumes to assimilate soil N in comparison with their N₂ fixation has not been assessed. The primary objectives of this research were to 1) more fully characterise the rhizobia associated with the four genera of NZ native legumes, including their ability to cross nodulate different species and 2) assess the ability of Sophora microphylla to assimilate soil N in comparison with its N₂ fixation. Gene sequencing results indicated that the bacterial strains isolated from NZ native legumes growing in natural ecosystems in the current and previous studies were of the genus Mesorhizobium. Generally, the Carmichaelinae and Sophora species were nodulated by two separate groups of Mesorhizobium strains. Ten strains isolated from the Carmichaelinae showed 16S rRNA and nifH similar to the M. huakuii type strain, but had variable recA and glnII genes, novel nodA and nodC genes and the seven strains tested could produce functional nodules over a range of Carmichaelinae species but did not nodulate Sophora species. Forty eight strains isolated from Sophora spp. showed 16S rRNA similar to the M. ciceri or M. amorphae type strains, variable recA, glnII and rpoB genes and novel and specific nifH, nodA and nodC genes which were different from those of the Carmichaelinae strains. Twenty one Sophora strains tested were able to produce functional nodules on a range of Sophora spp. but none nodulated C. australis. However, eighteen of the twenty one strains produced functional nodules on Cl. puniceus. These results indicate that, in general, the ability of different rhizobial strains to produce functional nodules on NZ native legumes is likely to be dependent on specific symbiosis genes. Clianthus puniceus appears to be more promiscuous in rhizobial host than the other NZ native legumes species tested. Generally, strains isolated from NZ native Sophora spp. from the same field site grouped together in relation to their “housekeeping” gene sequences and ERIC-PRC fingerprinting banding patterns. Most strains were able to grow at pH 3 – pH 11 but only one showed phosphorus solubilisation ability and none showed siderophore production. The strains showed differences in their ability to promote the growth of S. microphylla under glasshouse conditions. DNA-DNA hybridisation tests indicated that strains isolated from New Zealand native Sophora spp. are of several new Mesorhizobium species. The ability of S. microphylla to utilise soil NO₃⁻ and NH₄⁺ in comparison with its N₂ fixation was assessed under glasshouse conditions. N₂ fixing (nodulated) plants showed substantially greater growth and tissue N content than those relying solely on NH₄NO₃, NO₃⁻ or NH₄⁺ up to the equivalent of 200 kg N ha⁻¹ and N limitation is likely to have been the major cause of reduced growth of non-N₂ fixing (non-nodulated) plants. NO₃⁻ levels were negligible in plant tissues regardless of NO₃⁻ supply, indicating that virtually all NO₃⁻ taken up was assimilated. Thus, there appears to be a limitation on the amount of NO₃⁻ that S. microphylla can take up. However, it is possible that S. microphylla could not access NO₃⁻ in the potting mix and further work is required using different substrate and more regular NO₃⁻ applications to confirm this. Plants showed NH₄⁺ toxicity symptoms at 25 kg NH₄⁺-N ha⁻¹ and above. Nitrate reductase activity was not detected in roots or leaves of mature S. microphylla in the field: all plants were nodulated. Overall, the two major findings of this research are 1) NZ native legumes are nodulated by diverse and novel Mesorhizobium species and 2) S. microphylla seedlings have limited ability to utilise soil inorganic N. Important future work based on the results obtained in this research is discussed.

    View record details
  • The Further Analysis of Catania's Concept of the Operant

    Zhang, Yi (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Catania’s theory of the operant incorporated the continuous characteristic of behaviour, where the response distribution follows a normal distribution. That is, most responses fall within the reinforced range, a few responses persisted outside of the reinforced range. Three roosters and three hens were used as the subjects. A continuous reinforcement (CRF) schedule was implemented throughout both experiments of the study. In Experiment 1, the screen was divided into four quadrants. Only one quadrant was active in each condition and the active area shifted to a different quadrant across conditions. Each peck within the active quadrant was considered as a correct response, which results in reinforcement. Each peck outside the active quadrant was considered as an incorrect response, which results in extinction. In Experiment 2, the screen was divided into vertical strips. During Conditions 1 to 8, the consequences for the correct and incorrect responses are the same as Experiment 1. In Condition 9, the consequence for the incorrect responses changed from extinction to punishment (delay to reinforcement). That is, a 3 second red screen was followed with each occurrence of an incorrect response. It was found that the incorrect responses persisted during each condition of the two experiments for most birds. It was also found that most of the hens’ responses were correct responses by the end of each condition in Experiment 2. However, for all birds in Experiment 1 and the roosters in Experiment 2, most responses were not correct by the end of each condition. The findings of Experiment 2 also indicated that the changes in condition length, active area’s size, and consequence of the incorrect responses might have had some influence on the number of incorrect responses. Overall, the findings demonstrated behavioral continuity through exploring the distribution of response proportion when reinforcement was placed on the correct responses, and when extinction or punishment was placed on the incorrect responses. Thus, the study provided some empirical support towards Catania’s concept of the operant.

    View record details
  • Constructing and Reconstructing Criminality in Aotearoa/New Zealand: Dominant Media Discourses on Crime and Criminality and their Impact on Offenders’ Identities and Rehabilitation Efforts

    Riches, Murray (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This study investigates the dominant media discourses and ideologies surrounding crime and criminality in Aotearoa/New Zealand, how such discourses are constructed and legitimised by media reporting of crime, and the implications of these discourses for deemed offenders. The study firstly involves a critical discourse analysis (CDA) of ‘mainstream’ media reports relating to crime and criminality in Aotearoa/New Zealand over a 12-month period – paying particular attention to the reporting evident in two major newspaper outlets. This analysis reveals two key themes: the construction of criminal offenders as undeserving criminalised others – particularly through the use of truth-claims about criminality and the simplification of offenders’ identities – and the legitimisation of retributive, tough-on-crime, responses to offending. The analysis of media discourses is augmented by an ethnographic study of an offender rehabilitation programme. This investigation is used to explore how dominant discourses and ideologies on crime and criminality contribute to the construction of offenders’ self-identities, the impact of such identity construction on their patterns of offending and rehabilitation, as well as the ways in which these discourses are contested (or reinforced) by those deemed ‘offenders’. This follow-up ethnographic case study involves participant observation, focus groups and interviews with participants of the Good Lives Model offender rehabilitation programme at Anglican Action in Hamilton over a 12-month period. The participants of this programme are men transitioning back into the community after serving significant prison sentences. The ethnographic investigation reveals the ways the otherising discourses exposed in the CDA are present for, and effect, the men as they make the challenging journey out of prison, particularly in their experiences of discrimination and otherisation when seeking to engage with, and transition back into, the wider community. This exploration also reveals a nuanced negotiation of identity and power, whereby the men both draw on and challenge the dominant discourses at different times in the process of negotiating an identity position and accessing agency within a marginalising discursive framework. Thus, the discourse analysis and the ethnographic study together provide rich insights into the pervasive impacts of dominant public constructions of criminality on offenders’ sense of identity and on their attempts to reintegrate with society. The study concludes by arguing that the CDA and ethnographic investigation together emphasise the need to challenge the destructive nature of the dominant discourses and cultivate a more inclusive and reasoned discursive framework for exploring ideas around crime and criminality in Aotearoa/New Zealand. The thesis argues that one way to counter the ‘wilful blindness’ exemplified in media and public discourses, is through the use of story for it is through listening and seeking to know the other that we can begin to have our assumptions challenged. It is important to note that this thesis in no way endorses any criminal offending nor does it seek to minimise the pain and suffering of any victims of crime. Rather, it argues that such a dualistic understanding of crime, and the relationship between victims and offenders, only inhibits our ability to look at the issues surrounding crime and criminality with clarity.

    View record details
  • Perceived causes of initial development and relapses in anorexia nervosa: A comparison to theoretical models of aetiology

    Batenburg, Gabrielle (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Anorexia nervosa is a disorder which causes significant impairment, both acute and chronic, for those who experience it. Anorexia nervosa is associated with a long-term course and high rates of relapse. The purpose of this research was to investigate the perspectives of those with anorexia nervosa on aetiology and their views on causes of relapse. The aim was to gain a better understanding of how those with anorexia nervosa conceptualise it; compare it to theoretical models and considered how these perceptions may relate to treatment. Sixteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight participants, consisting of eight initial interviews, then eight follow-up interviews to reflect on preliminary findings. Findings related to three main domains: definitions of anorexia nervosa, causes of initial development, and causes of subsequent episodes (relapses). Individual and collective definitions of anorexia nervosa were markedly different from diagnostic definitions, mainly due to the increased detail but there was also contention around how diagnostic definitions focus on body image and resistance to recovery. Causes of anorexia nervosa in this study matched other in-depth research of accounts, but varied with respect to aetiological models. A key difference uncovered in this study was the emphasis placed by participants on different aspects of anorexia, which fell outside of weight and body image concerns, and notable that these aspects became a part of the reasoning for anorexia. Perspectives on the causes of relapse indicated three main categories: those which were present during initial development, those which were present during the initial development but only became significant after experiencing anorexia, and those which were unique to relapse. Due to the limited research in this area it was challenging to compare these findings to other studies; however, they do represent an important aspect of treatment and research, which could be enhanced. A model of aetiology of anorexia nervosa was developed integrating current findings with established theoretical models and research; key influences contributing to relapse were also modelled. Relevant recommendations for diagnosis, treatment, and relapse prevention are presented throughout the discussion.

    View record details
  • LinkedIn for Personnel Recruitment and Selection: A New Zealand perspective

    Heynes, Seth James (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This study explored how the professional networking site LinkedIn is being used and perceived by recruitment and selection practitioners within New Zealand organisations. In recent times LinkedIn has seen large increases in membership and it has become a resource used by recruitment and selection practitioners. LinkedIn is conceptualised as a professional networking site which can be perceived differently to social networking sites such as Facebook. Specifically this study sought to determine how common the usage of LinkedIn was, the features being used by recruitment and selection practitioners, how these features affect or influence perceptions and decision making of recruitment and selection practitioners, and if LinkedIn was being used alongside Social networking sites such as Facebook or Twitter. Participants were recruited from various New Zealand university alumni groups, professional membership groups and various organisations. Eligibility for the research required individuals to be conducting the role of either recruitment or selection within their current positions within New Zealand. The final sample consisted of 135 participants, and descriptive and thematic analysis was conducted on the survey responses. The results indicated that 66.4% of the sample were using LinkedIn for both personnel recruitment and selection. LinkedIn was used more for recruitment purposes with both recruitment and selection practitioners indicating that LinkedIn can be perceived as a resource for recruitment and selection. Results further indicated that many organisations did not maintain any formal policy regarding LinkedIn use within recruitment and selection procedures. Results indicated that the most frequently used features of LinkedIn were the Profile, and Jobs & Hiring features. The professional information sub feature, alongside previous experience and qualifications obtained, was perceived to be the most important and it influenced aspects of recruitment and selection decision making. Facebook was indicated to be the most used social networking site alongside LinkedIn, with 88% of participants having reported using Facebook for recruitment and selection. The results also showed that recruitment and selection practitioners perceive many disadvantages of LinkedIn such as lack of credibility, inaccuracy of information and that LinkedIn may not be appropriate for certain job roles. However, LinkedIn was perceived as a resource which maintained beneficial professional information. As stated by Barber (1998, as cited in Breaugh & Starke, 2000), this research has sought to address gaps in the literature regarding practitioners’ attitudes towards recruitment sources and to investigate influencing aspects on recruiter and selectors’ decision making. The research addresses both of these aspects by highlighting attitudes of practitioners towards LinkedIn and identifies some of the more influential features of LinkedIn on practitioners’ decision making. This is beneficial for practitioners as it indicates the positive and the negative aspects of LinkedIn which is a scarcely researched topic while also addressing the research gaps mentioned by Barber (1998). The current research has confirmed LinkedIn as a resource for recruitment and selection; however, LinkedIn lacks predictive validity and future research, such as predictive validation studies could be conducted to identify whether LinkedIn provides any incremental validity beyond the traditional predictors of job performance.

    View record details
  • Algebraic Properties of Chromatic Polynomials and Their Roots

    Gilmore, Hamish Julian (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    In this thesis we examine chromatic polynomials from the viewpoint of algebraic number theory. We relate algebraic properties of chromatic polynomials of graphs to structural properties of those graphs for some simple families of graphs. We then compute the Galois groups of chromatic polynomials of some sub-families of an infinite family of graphs (denoted {Gp,q }) and prove a conjecture posed in [15] concerning the Galois groups of one specific sub-family. Finally we investigate a conjecture due to Peter Cameron [8] that says that for any algebraic integer α there is some n ∈ ℕ such that α + n is the root of some chromatic polynomial. We prove the conjecture for quadratic and cubic integers and provide strong computational evidence that it is true for quartic and quintic integers.

    View record details