89,482 results

  • New Zealand’s legal profession – at a cross-roads?

    Leslie, Nicola K (2005)

    Honours Dissertation thesis
    University of Otago

    What do you call 100 lawyers at the bottom of the ocean? 'A good start!' New Zealand's legal profession is an easy scapegoat for public criticism. Yet barristers and solicitors are a tightly regulated profession. This paper aims to understand and analyse the current climate within the legal services market in New Zealand. Why is our legal profession under such attack? It seems ironic that a profession which aspires to high ideals could be the subject of such criticism. Yet we rarely consider why such high standards are demanded of a profession. Chapter One will discuss the concept of a profession, and show whether the legal profession in New Zealand can retain such a position. If there is to be any answer to disparaging remarks about lawyers, we must identify and resolve the criticisms of lawyers in New Zealand. Chapter Two will discuss the criticisms directed at barristers and solicitors, to understand why public confidence in our legal profession may be threatened. Ironically the legal profession is subject to a number of different controls. Parliament, the Courts, the profession's own representative bodies at both a national and local level and individual clients all impact on lawyers' practise. Chapter Three will discuss how each institution has responded to the criticisms made of lawyers. Chapter Four will assess any resulting concerns of the profession which remain problematic. This paper will review the legal profession in New Zealand. For all those who practise as barristers and solicitors this is your collective reputation at risk. It is a review with which all lawyers should be particularly concerned. [Introduction]

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  • Identifying the existence of the glass ceiling and examining the impact on the participation of female executives in the Vietnamese banking sector

    Tran, Thi Thu Thao (2014)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    Glass ceiling refers to both visible and invisible barriers that stop women from advancing to the top positions. As the glass ceiling exists in most contexts, should it be assumed that the low participation of female executives in the boardrooms in the Vietnamese banking sector is the effect of glass ceiling? Are female executives fully aware of the multiple layers of the glass ceiling in their organizations? Do they choose to confront it, or are they happy with the current situations? Therefore, an empirical research in the context of Vietnam is needed to provide more empirical findings to the literature. In addition, research should be conducted from various perspectives to have a more comprehensive understanding of the degree of the glass ceiling and its effect on leadership effectiveness and organizational performance. The literature review in the research puts the focus on the glass ceiling and its multiple layers, the differences in the leadership styles between male and female managers/leaders and the relationship between gender and leadership effectiveness/organizational performance. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were employed to conduct the research. The self administered questionnaires were responded by sixty eight participants, who came from three of the largest banks in Vietnam. The interviews were carried out subsequently with the participation of ten interviewees in supervisory and middle managerial positions. The results of the data analysis revealed that the glass ceiling effect did exist in the Vietnamese banking sector. The obstacles originated from various sources including social stereotypes, corporate practices, family-work conflict and women themselves. The findings also supported the differences in the leadership styles between male and female managers/leaders and showed greater preference for male executives in the Vietnamese banking sector. However, following the study’s results, there were benefits of removing the glass ceiling to organizational success. Finally, it was recommended that both banks and women themselves should take action in enhancing women’s career development. More research is needed concerning the relationship between glass ceiling and organizational culture or differences between higher and lower level of leaders/managers in leadership/management styles and their effectiveness. These variables are important to provide a more thorough understanding about the glass ceiling issue and its effects.

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  • A comparative approach to determining the growth of productivity of the New Zealand construction industry

    Abbott, Malcolm; Carson, Chris (2013)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    In recent years there has been increasing interest in the productivity and efficiency of the construction industry in New Zealand. In part this interest has manifested itself in the increased use of numerous statistical techniques to determine the productivity and efficiency of the industry. These efforts have, however, some degree of controversy. The purpose of this paper is, therefore, threefold. First it summarises the key structural findings that have been determined from past research into the construction industry in New Zealand. Secondly it makes some comparisons between the construction industry’s productivity in New Zealand with that of the six states of Australia. Finally it also considers potential areas for potential future research.

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  • The efficacy of a ‘novel mobilisation technique’ on thoracic, lumbar, hip and knee range of motion

    Woolley, Sarah (2014)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    INTRODUCTION TO THESIS Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common complaints addressed by manual therapists (Slater, Davies, Parsons, Quitner, & Schug, 2012), and there is an extensive literature regarding aetiology, classification, methods of diagnosis and effective treatments for LBP. Low back pain has a substantial financial cost to the healthcare system and employers due to decreased productivity and lost days from work (Wynne-Jones et al., 2014). A wide range of different forms of manual and manipulative therapy have been investigated for the treatment of LBP (Hidalgo, Detrembleur, Hall, Mahaudens, & Nielens, 2014; Tsertsvadze et al., 2014) One form of therapy popular amongst manual therapy practitioners is the ‘Mulligan concept’ (Hing, Bigelow, & Bremner, 2008).BACKGROUND: Low back pain is a common problem affecting most people at some stage in their lives. Manual therapy is commonly used as a form of treatment in the presence of lower back pain. ABSTRACT AIM:The aim of the study was to investigate the concepts of regional interdependence with Mulligan’s mobilisation with movement and the effect of a novel mobilisation technique (Mulligan’s traction SLR combined with a post-isometric relaxation). STUDY DESIGN The present study was a controlled pre-post experimental research design. METHOD: Twelve, healthy and physically active male participants (mean age 28.1 ± 3.5 years), with perceived ‘tight hamstrings’ were recruited for the study. Participants were randomised to receive the novel mobilisation technique to the left (n=6) or right (n=6) leg, using the contralateral limb as the control. Outcome measures included; SLR, KE, modified Schober’s (Tsp, Lsp) and sit and reach tests, which were taken before, immediately and 1 hour post intervention. RESULTS The main statistically significant and clinically meaningful result included immediate changes in the modified Schober’s Tsp (mean difference = -0.40 ± SD 0.48, 95% CI -0.70 to -0.10, t = -2.9, p = 0.014, d = 0.435) and changes in the sit and reach test immediately post (mean difference = -2.20cm ± 1.56, 95% CI -3.30 to -1.20cm, t = -4.869, p<0.001, d= 0.325, “small”) and at 1-hour post (mean difference = -2.62 ± 2.89, 95% CI -4.5 to -0.78cm, t = -3.1, p = 0.009, d = 0.39 “small”) . There were no significant changes in the SLR, KE active or passive and modified Schober’s Lsp tests, immediately or 1-hour post intervention. CONCLUSION The novel mobilisation technique applied to the hip demonstrated statistically significant changes in the modified Schober’s Tsp and sit and reach tests. The main limitations to the present study included a potential ‘ceiling’ effect with the baseline SLR values, short technique duration (‘time under tension’) and no warm up.

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  • What lies within? : an exploration of Asset Based Community Development (ABCD)

    Winther, Tracy (2015)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    Asset Based Community Development (ABCD) has in recent times been gaining visibility in community development practice. Practice is asset based, internally focused and relationship driven. Dimensions of community development are explored including the specific values, principles and processes that characterise ABCD as an approach, a strategy and a methodology. Critical success factors and principles of effective community development practice. These findings are consolidated in a framework of praxis indicators which is used to specifically examine ABCD practice application in current community development practice. Three community projects are explored using an integrated methodology which explores practice through questioning of key informants and examination of relevant project artefacts. Through this approach it was possible to demonstrate how ABCD is mobilised in practical application demonstrating the positive impact on community led participation and enhanced local social capital within localised community. Particular strengths of ABCD practice can be seen in the identification and mobilisation of local community resources through bonding, bridging and linking across sector networks which through its processes enhances social capital within defined local neighbourhoods. The impacts of practice are explored through the application of a community capitals framework which additionally highlights mobilisation of natural, built, human, cultural, financial and political capital. Specific enablers identified include the necessity for a catalyst to both ignite and sustain community led ABCD initiatives and consideration of scale in its effectiveness. Potentially ABCD practice could be further enhanced through intentional application of a community capitals framework and social network analysis and further research into its intentional application in these ways would be beneficial. ABCD is shown to be a particularly powerful approach, strategy and methodology in its application to activating the local physical environment such as local food security initiatives and also as a mechanism to enable the localised sharing of knowledge and resources within a defined geographic neighbourhoods. Innovative financial models were developed including community resource banks, time banks and diverse alternative economy potential. Project location: Lyttelton, Banks Peninsula, Christchurch. Project Lyttelton - the soul of a sustainable community.

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  • Cross-grouping in mathematics

    Golds, Rosemary

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Improving mathematics teaching in primary schools is an ongoing research focus as achievement comparisons in international studies draws attention to shifting achievement levels and acknowledges that “improving educational outcomes is a vital economic necessity” (Wiliam, 2011, p. 26).‘Cross-grouping’ in primary school mathematics (whereby students are shifted across classes to provide ability grouping within a subject), has become a popular option in some New Zealand primary schools (Years 1-8) over the last few years. This is perhaps an unforeseen consequence of the Numeracy Professional Development Project (NDP) that was offered in more than 95% of New Zealand primary and intermediate schools between 2000 and 2009 (Holton, 2009). My present study has critically examined teacher perception of how (and if) cross-grouping in mathematics impacts upon teacher practice. Research from international studies supports the viewpoint that when ‘streaming’ (in the New Zealand primary school setting, known as ‘cross-grouping’) is adopted, teacher expectations of students are impacted upon and overall student achievement is not improved (Boaler, Wiliam, & Brown, 2000; MacIntyre & Ireson, 2002; Slavin, 1995). At present, there is very little research based in New Zealand schools on cross-grouping. This research may have implications for teaching as inquiry which is considered to be a characteristic of “effective pedagogy (which) requires that teachers inquire into the impact of their teaching on their students” (Ministry of Education, 2007, p. 35). A 2011 report from the Educational Review Office (ERO) (Education Review Office, 2011) suggested that many schools and teachers were still working towards gaining a clear understanding of the intent of teaching as inquiry. A qualitative approach applying an interpretivist paradigm underpinned this study, with a narrative inquiry process utilised which allowed the participants’ viewpoints to be heard. Interviews were conducted with eight teachers working in cross-grouped mathematics classes with students aged between eight and thirteen. Findings from the study revealed that all the teachers were in favour of cross-grouping, despite some teachers having some minor reservations. Some of the perceived benefits of cross-grouping were: it was more effective in meeting the needs of students and teachers, it allowed schools to ensure mathematics was actually taught each day, and it permitted teachers to become more confident in teaching a particular level of mathematics. It was also found that cross-grouping was likely to contribute to a more fixed notion of ability and was likely to have impacts upon teacher and student expectations. In most of the schools, there was little critical analysis undertaken into the reasons for or the validity of cross-grouping which suggests that this would be a useful future focus for school leaders and teachers. Results of the study suggest that questioning some long-held established practices (which are not necessarily evidence based) could be a useful starting point in developing a teaching as inquiry focus within a school. It is expected that this research will reveal ideas regarding the effects of streaming students in mathematics in primary schools and the impacts on flexible and responsive teacher practice. These findings may lead to a larger research project which considers aspects such as student attitude and self-belief or a comparison study which considers developing communities of mathematical inquiry (Ministry of Education, 2012) within some classes.

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  • Impacts of Early Childhood Education Social Obligations on Families and Whanau

    Randall, Judith (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis explores the impacts of ECE social obligations on affected families and whānau. In 2013 ECE social obligations were introduced through the Social Security (Benefit Categories and Work Focus) Amendment Bill. These obligations require beneficiaries to ensure their children are “enrolled in and attending an approved early childhood education programme from the age of three, until they start school” (Work and Income New Zealand, 2013c). A qualitative approach was utilised to hear the voices of those affected. Data was gathered through interviews with eight beneficiary families and two ECE centre managers who had knowledge of the impacts of obligations. Perceived impacts were analysed using thematic analysis. An examination of the discourses underpinning these obligations as represented in policy documents was undertaken utilising Bacchi’s (2000; 1999) “what’s the problem?” framework. The introduction of the ECE social obligation policy was found to have placed responsibility on beneficiaries but to have failed to adequately address barriers to ECE participation that families face. The study identified many barriers which impede a family’s ability to participate in ECE. These include transportation, cost, and provision of high quality, suitable ECE for their children available in their local community. Mandatory ECE does not provide the infrastructure needed to enable families to access ECE programmes as it does not address the accessibility, structural, and personal barriers that families face. The thesis argues that the context of incorporating ECE policy in Ministry of Social Development (MSD) legislation and the use of sanctions to ensure compliance is likely to lead to negative outcomes for children’s well-being. Policy-as-discourse analysis identified that social obligations were conceived in the context of reducing long-term benefit dependency. The three interrelated dominant discourses underpinning this policy, economic rationalisation, the positioning of beneficiaries as job seekers, and the positioning of children as vulnerable, has left the child as citizen invisible. I advocate that redefining the problem through a child as citizen lens could provide a framework for government to support families through barriers and address provision of high quality ECE. Three key suggestions are made. Firstly, utilisation of a child’s rights framework could ensure children’s rights are at the forefront of ECE policy. This would enable the primary emphasis to be on the welfare and best interests of all children. Within this framework this study identified the need for ECE matters to be in the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education, rather than MSD, in order to ensure consistency and accessibility to quality ECE for all children. Secondly, ECE engagement needs to be promoted through a positive model rather than sanctions. Government financial investment in integrated ECE services within local communities could aid families to overcome participation barriers and provide an ideal model for enabling families to access social services. Thirdly, government policy and funding needs to support provision of high quality ECE services that are responsive to their local communities. Such services are essential to encouraging ECE participation.

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  • The development of Otago's main road network

    Baker, Neill Reginald (1969)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    x, 112 leaves :ill. (some col.), maps ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Geography.

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  • Effect of alcohol exposure in early gestation on brain development

    Li, Yuhong (2005)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), caused by maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy, has been extensively studied in the human. Animal studies show that alcohol exposure during very early development may result in severe brain damage, often incompatible with a postnatal life. However, for surviving offspring it is unknown whether they suffer long term brain damage. The final assembly of the mature brain results from a controlled balance between proliferation of glial and neuronal precursors and programmed cell death. The overall aim of the current study was to use a physiologically relevant mouse model to assess the acute and long-term effects of binge alcohol exposure on the early embryo, to simulate human pregnancy at the third week of gestation when pregnancy may be undetected. A number of paradigms were used to assess the acute dose-response effect, the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) profile and the extent of cell death following alcohol exposure on gestational day (G) 7.5. The exposure paradigms were single binge IG6.5, IG4.5, IP4.5, or an extended binge IG4.5+, IG3.0+. Two control groups were Con6.5 and Con4.5+. Acute cell death was determined using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), activated caspase-3 staining, and transmission electron microscopy. Cell proliferation was investigated using S-phase immuno-labeling, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) birthdating and immuno-detection (BrdU/anti-BrdU). The long-term effects were investigated at G18.5 and postnatal day (PN) 60. Unbiased stereological methods were used to assess the effect of ethanol exposure at G7.5 on neocortical volume, cell number and density of neurons, glial cells, and capillary cells at PN60. The first principal finding of the present study was that binge ethanol exposure during gastrulation resulted in acute apoptotic cell death in the ectoderm of the mouse embryo. Cell death was dependent on both peak BAC and the duration of elevated BAC. Significant increased cell death (TUNEL labeling) was observed in groups IG6.5 (9.43 ± 2.08%) and IG4.5+ (8.97 ± 2.12%) compared with control groups Con6.5 (2.14 ± 0.09%) and Con4.5+ (2.81 ± 0.36%). There was no significant increased cell death in ethanol exposed groups IG4.5 (3.43 ± 0.45%), IP4.5 (3.68 ± 0.67%), or IG3.0+ (1.72 ± 0.24%). TEM analysis revealed that cell death exhibited characteristics of the apoptotic pathway. The second principal finding of the present study was that binge ethanol exposure during gastrulation resulted in acute arrested proliferation in the ectoderm of the mouse embryo. The S-phase proliferation was significantly decreased within the whole ectoderm in the ethanol exposed group IG6.5 (45.58 ± 2.34%) compared with control group Con6.5 (62.08 ± 3.11%). The third principal finding of the present study was that binge ethanol exposure during gastrulation induced the long term effect of laminate disorganization in the neocortex. The incidence of abnormal lamination was 87.5% in IG6.5 compared with 16.7% in IG3.0+ and 14.3% in Con6.5. Although ethanol exposure increased embryonic reabsorption, decreased litter size, and increased abnormal offspring, neocortical volume, and the total number of neurons, glial cells, and capillary cells was not affected. The total number (10⁶) of neurons, glial cells, and endothelial cells respectively was 12.221 ± 0.436, 4.865 ± 0.167, and 2.874 ± 0.234 in IG6.5; 11.987 ± 0.416, 4.942 ± 0.133, and 2.922 ± 0.130 in IG3.0+; and 11.806 ± 0.368, 5.166 ± 0.267, and 3.284 ± 0.217 in controls, at PN60. These results provide important information pertinent to fetal outcome for those women who drink heavily in early pregnancy. The results also demonstrate the importance of the pattern of ethanol exposure and blood alcohol concentration in determining the magnitude of ethanol's teratogenic impact. Ethanol exposure on G7.5 that resulted in a high transient BAC, induced disorganized neocortical lamination, indicative of a permanent structural change. This disruption may result in altered neocortical function and requires further investigation.

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  • Synthesis and characterisation of poly(acrylic acid) microspheres containing β-cyclodextrin

    Bibby, David C. (1999)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xviii, 160 leaves :ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. "February 1999"

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  • BECOME SOME BODY: A history of Aerobics, Instruction, and Body Culture at Les Mills World of Fitness from 1980-1992.

    Andrews, Catherine (1995)

    Honours Dissertation thesis
    University of Otago

    xii, 92 leaves : ill. ; 30 cm.

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  • Telling our professional stories

    Alterio, Maxine (1998)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    [6], 138 leaves :ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references.

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  • Analysis of fungal inteins

    Bokor, Annika Anna Maria (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xxvi, 298 leaves :col. ill ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Biochemistry. "November 1, 2010"

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  • Larval drift and development of amphidromous fishes, particularly the bluegill bully (Gobiomorphus hubbsi)

    Jarvis, Matthew Graham (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Amphidromy is a distinct life history strategy found in many aquatic organisms, involving a return migration (‘drift’) to a pelagic feeding habitat (usually the sea), undertaken by newly hatched larvae. The freshwater fish faunas of many Indo-Pacific islands are dominated by amphidromous species, yet they remain understudied, especially their larval stages. Amphidromous larvae hatch out exceptionally small and undeveloped, and so face a range of specific challenges during migration such as irreversible starvation and failed development if migration is delayed, as well as management difficulties due to their small size. Basic ecological knowledge such as timing and extent of migration remains unknown, but is crucial to the management of amphidromous species. It was therefore the aim of this thesis to further our knowledge on the larval ecology and migration of a number of New Zealand’s amphidromous fish species. This thesis examines patterns of larval drift and development, focussing on the bluegill bully (Gobiomorphus hubbsi), an endemic eleotrid. A distinct diel and spatial drift pattern was documented, with the vast majority of fish larvae migrating to sea within a few hours of sunset. It is suggested that targeting conservation measures within this window of drift represents a potentially beneficial management strategy for amphidromous species. Development and starvation of larvae was also examined, both through field studies and lab experiments. No distinct pattern of starvation was observed in larvae during their seaward migration, however larvae retained in freshwater failed to develop to as complete a state as those transferred to seawater, implying delayed migration may adversely affect amphidromous fishes developmentally, ultimately reducing their success upon reaching the sea. These results indicate both threats to amphidromous fishes during their larval migration, and a potential approach which may prove beneficial in conserving these fascinating and vulnerable species.

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  • Self-Regulation During A Reading-To-Write Task: A Sociocultural Theory-Based Investigation

    Wall, Bunjong (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Most composition studies focus on students’ writing processes and written products without integrating reading into their research activities. More recently, researchers have acknowledged the reciprocal reading-writing relationship and begun to examine reading-to-write or discourse synthesis processes. Research shows that discourse synthesis is cognitively demanding and that most second language writers lack linguistic, mental, and sociocultural resources to perform this task effectively. Existing studies have not emphasised the role of self-directed speech as a self-regulatory strategy while students read multiple texts in order to write. This thesis addresses this gap in the literature. Informed by sociocultural theoretical notions that cognition is socially mediated and that speech is instrumental in learning and development, this qualitative multiple-case-studies thesis examined how five Thai EFL tertiary students applied their knowledge and skills, following explicit concept-based instruction on discourse synthesis, textual coherence, and argumentation. The researcher designed and delivered a four-week intervention in which the learning concepts, materials, and verbalisation were instrumental in promoting conceptual understanding and reading-to-write performance. Explicitly taught verbalisation or self-directed speech, together with learning materials specifically designed as schemes for task orientation, was a key for self-regulation as participants read multiple texts in order to compose an argument essay. The study adopted an activity theoretical framework and microgenetic analysis. The analysis aimed to describe the participants as social beings and to outline their self-regulation as it unfolded during a mediated reading-to-write activity. Data from a pre-task questionnaire on strategy use and from a post-task written self-reflection form together with video-recorded data during the end-of-intervention discourse synthesis task and interview data were triangulated to examine how reading-to-write activities were mediated and regulated. Findings were organised around four main themes: participants as readers and writers of English, essay argument structure, microgenetic findings of unfolding self-regulatory behaviour during the discourse synthesis activity, and developmental gains as perceived by the participants during concept-based instruction. The findings in this study show that participants’ reading and writing difficulties and argumentation were, in part, shaped by the social, historical and cultural factors in the Thai EFL context, and that participants’ strategic application of verbalisation and learning materials mediated their developmental changes and self-regulation. During the discourse synthesis task, participants used self-directed speech as a strategy and demonstrated varying degrees of self-regulation over various task aspects. Successful task completion indicated purposeful mediated learning with strong orientation towards the task, based on conceptual understanding, specific goals, and voluntary inclusion of learning materials as psychological tools. All participants reportedly viewed verbalisation as a useful strategy and most participants were able to describe their increased theoretical understanding of the concepts explicitly taught. However, their conceptual understanding did not always translate into their actual performance. These findings raise pedagogical implications and highlight the need for human mediators to make explicit the learning concepts, materials and strategies, so that theoretical understanding and learning tools can lead to meaningful task performance. Based on the above findings, this thesis proposes a self-regulation model and calls for future research to investigate how explicit verbalisation training can be systematised.  

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  • Hostility in the House of God: An "Interested" Investigation of the Opponents in 1 and 2 Timothy

    Thornton, Dillon T. (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    To my knowledge, Pietersen’s study (2004) is the only monograph published in the last twenty years that has focused on the opponents in the Pastoral Epistles, but his work is not exegetical. In this thesis, I concentrate on 1 and 2 Timothy, the two letters purportedly dispatched to Ephesus. I assemble the relevant pericopae of the letters and offer an exegetical analysis of them, with the intention of providing, first, a composite sketch of the ideology of the opposing group and, second, an in-depth account of the way the faithful Pauline community was to engage these opponents. The first chapter of the thesis is devoted to preliminary issues and methodology. I argue that 1 and 2 Timothy constitute two types of letter, both dispatched in the late first century to the Christian community in Ephesus, each addressing a stage of the conflict in which the community was engaged. I further argue that the polemical portions of the letters reveal specific information about this conflict. I then formulate a stringent method for the study of Paul’s opponents. I summarize and critique historical-critical methodologies and bring the most recent work on theological interpretation of Scripture into dialogue with these methodologies. The result is a new approach to the study of opponents, one that remains rigorously tethered to the primary text and that is characterized by ecclesial concern. In chapters two to six, I apply this method to 1 and 2 Timothy. In chapter two, I offer an exegetical analysis of the explicit units of 1 Timothy, those units where we have clear and certain reference to the opponents (1:3-7, 18-20; 4:1-5; 6:2b-5, 20-21a). Chapters three and four focus on the implicit units in 1 Timothy, those units where we have highly probable reference to the opponents (1:8-11; 2:9-15; 4:6-10; 5:9-16; 6:6-10). In chapter five, I turn to 2 Timothy, analyzing the three explicit units (2:14-26; 3:1-9; 4:1-5) and the one implicit unit of the letter (2:8-13). In chapter six, I bring together the full gamut of data uncovered in the exegetical chapters, offering overall conclusions about the opponents in 1 and 2 Timothy. As a follow-up to this, I enumerate what I perceive to be the most important implications of the findings for the house of God today. My findings may be summarized as follows. I conclude that the opponents came from within the Christian community in Ephesus and that their teaching is best described as an erroneous eschatological position that derived from the complexity of Paul’s views. Each doctrinal and ethical issue raised in the explicit and implicit units of the letters can be explained as a distortion of Pauline doctrine. Additionally, I contend that the opponents had an active “didactic/evangelistic ministry” in Ephesus, for which they received remuneration. They likely set out to recruit as large a following, and as large an income, as possible, but found a particularly fruitful field among the women in Ephesus. As I formulate my view of the opponents, I critique a number of the extant theories, including “Gnostic,” Jewish, and Proto-Montanist identifications. I also conclude that the author engages with the false teachers in significant ways throughout the letters. I draw attention to a number of literary and theological maneuvers that are intended to counteract the opponents’ influence and/or to bolster the faithful community’s confidence as they struggle against the opponents. These include the way the author turns features of the opponents against them, his use of the faithful saying formula, the way he relates the Triune God and the principal adversary, Satan, to the opponents, and the way the author portrays the gospel as an unstoppable force in his own ministry. Though the author pictures the opponents as enemies of God, he also highlights the fact that the opponents are not beyond the reach of God’s grace; thus, Timothy is called to minister the saving word to them. In the explicit and implicit units, the author instructs Timothy to occupy himself with five specific activities: reflection on his commissioning and on the apostolic gospel, rejection of the opponents’ claims, proclamation of the healthy teaching, demonstration of the gospel in actions that are pleasing to God, and correction of the false teachers themselves. The wider faithful community is at least implicitly included in the activities of rejection, demonstration, and correction.

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  • Dissolved organic matter in New Zealand natural waters

    Gonsior, Michael (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xi, 186 leaves :ill. (some col.), col. maps ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. "1st of April 2008". University of Otago department: Chemistry.

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  • Public Theology, Core Values and Domestic Violence in Samoan Society

    Ah Siu-Maliko, Mercy (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The purpose of this research is to formulate a theologically coherent perspective on the complex social and moral questions facing contemporary Samoan society. It does so by constructing a contextual Samoan public theology, based on the core Samoan-Christian values of alofa (love), fa’aaloalo (respect), soalaupule (consensual dialogue), tautua (selfless service) and amiotonu (justice). Drawing on scholarship on public theology, as well as relevant interdisciplinary sociological, cultural and religious studies, the thesis examines the nature and constituent elements of public theology, both in the West and in Samoa. To construct a framework for a public theology for Samoa based on its core values, the study examines the significance of the fa’asamoa (Samoan way of life) and its value system. Key to this framework is an understanding of the fusion between Samoan values and Christian values. Because ‘the public’ are the subjects of public theology, a crucial element of the construction of a Samoan public theology is the incorporation of the views of representative voices within Samoan society. Using constructivist grounded theory and talanoa Pacific research methodologies, seventy-five interviews from representatives of government, civil society, churches and villages garner valuable information on Samoans’ core values and their relevance for a public theology. The information on core values gleaned from research participants and other scholarship reveals how they can be brought to bear on social issues in the Samoan public sphere – the ‘why, who, what and how’ of a Samoan public theology. This collective knowledge suggests concrete ways of shaping theological discourse and moral action in contemporary Samoan society. The thesis ends with a contextual application of core Samoan-Christian values, as a public theology response to the social problem of domestic violence in Samoa.

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  • The X-ray Crystal Structure of Alanine Racemase from Acinetobacter baumannii

    Davis, Emily (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic Gram-negative bacterium, which is a common cause of hospital acquired infections. Numerous antibiotic resistant strains exist, emphasising the need for developing new antimicrobials. Alanine racemase is a pyridoxal 5’-phosphate dependent enzyme, responsible for racemisation between enantiomers of alanine. As D-alanine is an essential component of the bacterial cell wall, its inhibition is lethal to prokaryotes, making it an excellent antibiotic drug target. In this study, A. baumannii alanine racemase (AlrAba) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. A purification protocol was then developed involving ammonium sulphate fractionation and chromatography steps (Hydrophobic interaction, anion exchange and size exclusion). This purification protocol was able to produce 11.5 mg/L of AlrAba with a purity of greater than 95 %. The kinetic parameters of AlrAba were determined using spectrometric coupled enzyme activity assays. The Vmax and Km for the L-alanine to D-alanine reaction were found to be 220.5 U/mg and 1.56 mM, respectively. The Vmax and Km for the D-alanine to L-alanine reaction were found to be 11.3 U/mg and 0.56 mM, respectively. AlrAba was successfully crystallised and the structure was determined using X-ray crystallography. The structure was initially solved to 1.9 Å resolution via molecular replacement using the monomer of Pseudomonas aeruginosa alanine racemase as the search model. The final structure had an Rfactor of 19.7 % and an Rfree of 23.4 %. The resolution was then extended to 1.65 Å with an Rfactor of 20.6 % and Rfree of 23.6 %. The tertiary structure AlrAba was established to be a homodimer, in which the two monomers interact in a head to tail manner, resulting in two active sites per enzyme. Each active site is comprised of residues from the N-terminal domain of one monomer and the C-terminal domain of the second monomer. The N-terminal domain corresponds to residues 1 – 230, and consists of an eight-stranded α/β barrel. The C-terminal domain corresponds to residues 231 – 356, and mainly contains β-strands. Comparison of AlrAba with alanine racemases from closely related bacteria demonstrated a conserved overall fold, substrate entryway and active site. The structure of AlrAba will provide a template for future structure-based drug design studies.

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  • Living in Two Cities: Lessons for the church today from Augustine's City of God

    Broome, Deborah Louise (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Reading Augustine’s City of God through the lens of public theology, as well as in conversation with some of his leading commentators, provides an opportunity to discover how Augustine’s account of the two Cities (the civitas Dei and the civitas terrena) might inform the role of Christians in contemporary New Zealand, those who are living both as citizens in temporal society (the secular realm) and members of an alternative, Christian, society. There are parallels between Augustine’s society and our own which make a reading of City of God instructive for the Church today. The occasion of Augustine’s writing of City of God is briefly discussed, as is the theme of the two cities in the Bible and elsewhere in ancient literature. Attention is given to the nature of public theology and significant issues which public theologians must address, including the location of the debate (a secular public square), the language used, and the right to speak. A key notion is ‘seeking the welfare of the city’. Augustine is considered as public theologian and as apologist. The structure of City of God is analysed, key themes considered, and a précis offered which focuses on Augustine’s treatment of the two cities throughout the work. The nature of the City of God and the Earthly City are examined, in discussion with major commentators: the cities are societies defined by their members and by what their members love. The Church is not the City of God, but is rather a sign and an anticipation of it. Likewise, the Earthly City is not Rome, nor the State. The two cities are interwoven and intermixed, perplexae and permixtae with one another, and interact in this present age, in the saeculum. Central to Augustine’s thinking is that members of the City of God on pilgrimage in the world should not withdraw from that world but be involved in its society and institutions. Ways in which Christian communities might engage with the surrounding culture are examined, including the idea of work as loving service; and a number of lessons for the Church today are drawn. Dealing with ‘the other’ and encountering diversity are important issues. The relationship between the Church and the State is considered, as is the nature of the Church as public space in its own right. A deeper relationship between Christian faith and public engagement is encouraged. Central to the application of City of God to our current setting is the idea of the citizens of the civitas Dei on pilgrimage, and what it means to be part of a pilgrim city. Viewing City of God through an eschatological lens is crucial. A major conclusion is that ‘living in two cities’ is not merely a description of what it feels like for Christians today: it is an indication of how our life is actually meant to be.

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