96,071 results

  • Municipal sewage sludge compost promotes Mangifera persiciforma tree growth with no risk of heavy metal contamination of soil

    Chu, Shuangshuang; Wu, Daoming; Liang, Liyin L.; Zhong, Fengdi; Hu, Yaping; Hu, Xinsheng; Lai, Can; Zeng, Shucai (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Application of sewage sludge compost (SSC) as a fertilizer on landscaping provides a potential way for the effective disposal of sludge. However, the response of landscape trees to SSC application and the impacts of heavy metals from SSC on soil are poorly understood. We conducted a pot experiment to investigate the effects of SSC addition on Mangifera persiciforma growth and quantified its uptake of heavy metals from SSC by setting five treatments with mass ratios of SSC to lateritic soil as 0%:100% (CK), 15%:85% (S15), 30%:70% (S30), 60%:40% (S60), and 100%:0% (S100). As expected, the fertility and heavy metal concentrations (Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd) in substrate significantly increased with SSC addition. The best performance in terms of plant height, ground diameter, biomass and N, P, K uptake were found i n S30, implying a reasonable amount of SSC could benefit the growth of M. persiciforma. The concentrations of Cu, Pb and Cd in S30 were insignificantly different from CK after harvest, indicating that M. persiciforma reduced the risk of heavy metal contamination of soil arising from SSC application. This study suggests that a reasonable rate of SSC addition can enhance M. persiciforma growth without causing the contamination of landscaping soil by heavy metals.

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  • The Influence of Match-Day Napping in Elite Female Netball Athletes

    O'Donnell, Shannon; Beaven, Christopher M.; Driller, Matthew W. (2018)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Purpose: To assess the effect of match-day napping and duration of naps on perceptual and performance indices in elite female netball players over two consecutive netball seasons. Methods: Fourteen elite female netball athletes (mean ± SD; age = 23 ± 6 yr) participated in an observational study over 26 competition matches. On each match day, athletes provided information on their napping habits, perceived energy levels, and then performed 3 countermovement jumps (CMJ) 3h30 prior to the start of the match. One hour following the match, subjective player performance ratings from the players and two members of the coaching staff were obtained. Naps were characterized into 3 conditions for analysis; No Nap (NN), < 0.05). A moderate, significant difference (d = 0.85; p < 0.05) was observed for the coach rating of performance (out of 10) between the SHORT and the NN condition (7.2 ± 0.8 and 6.4 ± 0.9, respectively) in favor of SHORT. Conclusion: The findings from the study would suggest that a short nap (<20 min) on the day of competition can enhance jump velocity and improve subjective performance in elite netball players, as assessed by coaching staff.

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  • Students’ experiences of learning in a virtual classroom

    Gedera, Dilani S.P. (2014)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Online learning environments can offer learners opportunities for flexibility, interaction and collaboration distinctly different from face-to-face learning environments. However, the integration of educational technologies also presents challenges and concerns in relation to students’ learning. This article attempts to develop a better understanding of students’ experiences of learning with the specific online learning technology of Adobe Connect virtual classroom. The study was conducted in a university in New Zealand using a case study method. With Activity Theory as its research framework, the research methods of this study include individual interviews, online observation and analysis of other relevant documents. This article includes some of the findings of the research and a discussion on how the synchronous technology— Adobe Connect virtual classroom, used in an online learning environment affected students’ active participation in e-learning activities. The article also offers some suggestions that can be of use to instructors who teach online courses.

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  • Incidence of infants born small- and large-for-gestational-age in an Italian cohort over a 20-year period and associated risk factors

    Chiavaroli, Valentina; Castorani, V; Guidone, P; Behrensdorf Derraik, Jose; Liberati, M; Chiarelli, F; Mohn, A (2016-04-26)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    We assessed the incidence of infants born small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) in an Italian cohort over 20 years (1993-2013). Furthermore, we investigated maternal factors associated with SGA and LGA births.A retrospective review of obstetric records was performed on infants born in Chieti (Italy) covering every 5(th) year over a 20-year period, specifically examining data for 1993, 1998, 2003, 2008, and 2013. Infants with birthweight 90(th) percentile as LGA. Data collected included newborn anthropometry, birth (multiple vs singleton), maternal anthropometry, previous miscarriage, gestational diabetes, hypertension, and smoking during pregnancy.There were a pooled total of 5896 live births recorded across the 5 selected years. The number of SGA (+60.6 %) and LGA (+90.2 %) births increased considerably between 1993 and 2013. However, there were no marked changes in the incidence of SGA or LGA births (8.3 % and 10.8 % in 1993 versus 7.6 % and 11.7 % in 2013, respectively). Maternal factors associated with increased risk of SGA infants included hypertension, smoking, and previous miscarriage (all p?????0.05), while greater pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational diabetes were risk factors for LGA births (all p?????0.05).There was an increase in the number of SGA and LGA births in Chieti over the last two decades, but there was little change in incidence over time. Most maternal factors associated with increased odds of SGA and LGA births were modifiable, thus incidence could be reduced by targeted interventions.

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  • Improving team information sharing with a structured call-out in anaesthetic emergencies: a randomized controlled trial

    Weller, Jennifer; Torrie, Jocelyn; Boyd, M; Frengley, R; Garden, A; Ng, WL; Frampton, C (2014-06)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    BACKGROUND: Sharing information with the team is critical in developing a shared mental model in an emergency, and fundamental to effective teamwork. We developed a structured call-out tool, encapsulated in the acronym 'SNAPPI': Stop; Notify; Assessment; Plan; Priorities; Invite ideas. We explored whether a video-based intervention could improve structured call-outs during simulated crises and if this would improve information sharing and medical management. METHODS: In a simulation-based randomized, blinded study, we evaluated the effect of the video-intervention teaching SNAPPI on scores for SNAPPI, information sharing, and medical management using baseline and follow-up crisis simulations. We assessed information sharing using a probe technique where nurses and technicians received unique, clinically relevant information probes before the simulation. Shared knowledge of probes was measured in a written, post-simulation test. We also scored sharing of diagnostic options with the team and medical management. RESULTS: Anaesthetists' scores for SNAPPI were significantly improved, as was the number of diagnostic options they shared. We found a non-significant trend to improve information-probe sharing and medical management in the intervention group, and across all simulations, a significant correlation between SNAPPI and information-probe sharing. Of note, only 27% of the clinically relevant information about the patient provided to the nurse and technician in the pre-simulation information probes was subsequently learnt by the anaesthetist. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a structured communication tool, SNAPPI, to improve information sharing between anaesthetists and their team, taught it using a video-based intervention, and provide initial evidence to support its value for improving communication in a crisis.

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  • CATALISE: A multinational and multidisciplinary Delphi consensus study. Identifying language impairments in children

    Bishop, DVM; Snowling, MJ; Thompson, PA; Greenhalgh, T; Adams, C; Archibald, L; Baird, G; Bauer, A; Bellair, J; Boyle, C; Brownlie, E; Carter, G; Clark, B; Clegg, J; Cohen, N; Conti-Ramsden, G; Dockrell, J; Dunn, J; Ebbels, S; Gallagher, A; Gibbs, S; Gore-Langton, E; Grist, M; Hartshorne, M; H??neke, A; Joanisse, M; Kedge, S; Klee, T; Krishnan, S; Lascelles, L; Law, J; Leonard, L; Lynham, S; Arnold, EM; Mathura, N; McCartney, E; McKean, C; McNeill, B; Morgan, A; Murphy, CA; Norbury, C; O'Hare, A; Cardy, JO; O'Toole, C; Paul, R; Purdy, Suzanne; Redmond, S; Reilly, S; Restrepo, L; Rice, M; Slonims, V; Snow, P; Soppitt, R; Speake, J; Spencer, S; Stringer, H; Tager-Flusberg, H; Tannock, R; Taylor, C; Tomblin, B; Volden, J; Westerveld, M; Whitehouse, A (2016-07-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Delayed or impaired language development is a common developmental concern, yet there is little agreement about the criteria used to identify and classify language impairments in children. Children's language difficulties are at the interface between education, medicine and the allied professions, who may all adopt different approaches to conceptualising them. Our goal in this study was to use an online Delphi technique to see whether it was possible to achieve consensus among professionals on appropriate criteria for identifying children who might benefit from specialist services. We recruited a panel of 59 experts representing ten disciplines (including education, psychology, speech-language therapy/pathology, paediatrics and child psychiatry) from English-speaking countries (Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, United Kingdom and USA). The starting point for round 1 was a set of 46 statements based on articles and commentaries in a special issue of a journal focusing on this topic. Panel members rated each statement for both relevance and validity on a sevenpoint scale, and added free text comments. These responses were synthesised by the first two authors, who then removed, combined or modified items with a view to improving consensus. The resulting set of statements was returned to the panel for a second evaluation (round 2). Consensus (percentage reporting 'agree' or 'strongly agree') was at least 80 percent for 24 of 27 round 2 statements, though many respondents qualified their response with written comments. These were again synthesised by the first two authors. The resulting consensus statement is reported here, with additional summary of relevant evidence, and a concluding commentary on residual disagreements and gaps in the evidence base.

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  • Search for a low-mass pseudoscalar Higgs boson produced in association with a bb[U+203E] pair in pp collisions at ???s=8 TeV

    Khachatryan, V; Sirunyan, AM; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Asilar, E; Bergauer, T; Brandstetter, J; Brondolin, E; Dragicevic, M; Eroe, J; Flechl, M; Friedl, M; Fruehwirth, R; Ghete, VM; Hartl, C; Hoermann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Knunz, V; Koenig, A; Kraemmer, M; Kratschmer, I; Liko, D; Matsushita, T; Mikulec, I; Rabady, D; Rahbaran, B; Rohringer, H; Schieck, J; Schoefbeck, R; Strauss, J; Treberer-Treberspurg, W; Waltenberger, W; Wulz, C-E; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Gonzalez, JS; Alderweireldt, S; Cornelis, T; De Wolf, EA; Janssen, X; Knutsson, A; Lauwers, J; Luyckx, S; Rougny, R; De Klundert, MV; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Van Spilbeeck, A; Abu Zeid, S; Blekman, F; D'Hondt, J; Daci, N; De Bruyn, I; Deroover, K; Heracleous, N; Keaveney, J; Lowette, S; Moreels, L; Olbrechts, A; Python, Q; Strom, D; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Onsem, GP; Van Parijs, I; Barria, P; Brun, H; Caillol, C; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Fasanella, G; Favart, L; Grebenyuk, A; Karapostoli, G; Lenzi, T; Leonard, A; Maerschalk, T; Marinov, A; Pernie, L; Randle-conde, A; Reis, T; Seva, T; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Yonamine, R; Zenoni, F; Zhang, F; Beernaert, K; Benucci, L; Cimmino, A; Crucy, S; Dobur, D; Fagot, A; Garcia, G; Gul, M; Mccartin, J; Ocampo Rios, AA; Poyraz, D; Ryckbosch, D; Salva, S; Sigamani, M; Strobbe, N; Tytgat, M; Van Driessche, W; Yazgan, E; Zaganidis, N; Basegmez, S; Beluffi, C; Bondu, O; Brochet, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, A; Ceard, L; Da Silveira, GG; Delaere, C; Favart, D; Forthomme, L; Giammanco, A; Hollar, J; Jafari, A; Jez, P; Komm, M; Lemaitre, V; Mertens, A; Nuttens, C; Perrini, L; Pin, A; Piotrzkowski, K; Popov, A; Quertenmont, L; Selvaggi, M; Vidal Marono, M; Beliy, N; Hammad, GH; Alda Junior, WL; Alves, GA; Brito, L; Correa Martins Junior, M; Hamer, M; Hensel, C; Mora Herrera, C; Moraes, A; Pol, ME; Rebello Teles, P; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E; Carvalho, W; Chinellato, J; Custodio, A; Da Costa, EM; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Huertas Guativa, LM; Malbouisson, H; Matos Figueiredo, D; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Prado Da Silva, WL; Santoro, A; Sznajder, A; Tonelli Manganote, EJ; Vilela Pereira, A; Ahuja, S; Bernardes, CA; De Souza Santos, A; Dogra, S; Fernandez Perez Tomei, TR; Gregores, EM; Mercadante, PG; Moon, CS; Novaes, SF; Padula, SS; Romero Abad, D; Ruiz Vargas, JC; Aleksandrov, A; Hadjiiska, R; Iaydjiev, P; Rodozov, M; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Vutova, M; Dimitrov, A; Glushkov, I; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Ahmad, M; Bian, JG; Chen, GM; Chen, HS; Chen, M; Cheng, T; Du, R; Jiang, CH; Plestina, R; Romeo, F; Shaheen, SM; Tao, J; Wang, C; Wang, Z; Zhang, H; Asawatangtrakuldee, C; Ban, Y; Li, Q; Liu, S; Mao, Y; Qian, SJ; Wang, D; Xu, Z; Zou, W; Avila, C; Cabrera, A; Chaparro Sierra, LF; Florez, C; Gomez, JP; Gomez Moreno, B; Sanabria, JC; Godinovic, N; Lelas, D; Puljak, I; Cipriano, PMR; Antunovic, Z; Kovac, M; Brigljevic, V; Kadija, K; Luetic, J; Micanovic, S; Sudic, L; Attikis, A; Mavromanolakis, G; Mousa, J; Nicolaou, C; Ptochos, F; Razis, PA; Rykaczewski, H; Bodlak, M; Finger, M; Abdelalim, AA; Awad, A; Mahrous, A; Radi, A; Calpas, B; Kadastik, M; Murumaa, M; Raidal, M; Tiko, A; Veelken, C; Eerola, P; Pekkanen, J; Voutilainen, M; Harkonen, J; Karimaki, V; Kinnunen, R; Lampen, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Linden, T; Luukka, P; Maenpaa, T; Peltola, T; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Tuovinen, E; Wendland, L; Talvitie, J; Tuuva, T; Besancon, M; Couderc, F; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Fabbro, B; Faure, JL; Favaro, C; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; de Monchenault, GH; Jarry, P; Locci, E; Machet, M; Malcles, J; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Titov, M; Zghiche, A; Antropov, I; Baffioni, S; Beaudette, F; Busson, P; Cadamuro, L; Chapon, E; Charlot, C; Dahms, T; Davignon, O; Filipovic, N; Florent, A; de Cassagnac, RG; Lisniak, S; Mastrolorenzo, L; Mine, P; Naranjo, IN; Nguyen, M; Ochando, C; Ortona, G; Paganini, P; Pigard, P; Regnard, S; Salerno, R; Sauvan, JB; Sirois, Y; Strebler, T; Yilmaz, Y; Zabi, A; Agram, J-L; Andrea, J; Aubin, A; Bloch, D; Brom, J-M; Buttignol, M; Chabert, EC; Chanon, N; Collard, C; Conte, E; Coubez, X; Fontaine, J-C; Gele, D; Goerlach, U; Goetzmann, C; Le Bihan, A-C; Merlin, JA; Skovpen, K; Van Hove, P; Gadrat, S; Beauceron, S; Bernet, C; Boudoul, G; Bouvier, E; Montoya, CAC; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Courbon, B; Depasse, P; El Mamouni, H; Fan, J; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Gouzevitch, M; Ille, B; Lagarde, F; Laktineh, IB; Lethuillier, M; Mirabito, L; Pequegnot, AL; Perries, S; Alvarez, JDR; Sabes, D; Sgandurra, L; Sordini, V; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Viret, S; Toriashvili, T; Tsamalaidze, Z; Autermann, C; Beranek, S; Edelhoff, M; Feld, L; Heister, A; Kiesel, MK; Klein, K; Lipinski, M; Ostapchuk, A; Preuten, M; Raupach, F; Schael, S; Schulte, JF; Verlage, T; Weber, H; Wittmer, B; Zhukov, V; Ata, M; Brodski, M; Dietz-Laursonn, E; Duchardt, D; Endres, M; Erdmann, M; Erdweg, S; Esch, T; Fischer, R; Gueth, A; Hebbeker, T; Heidemann, C; Hoepfner, K; Klingebiel, D; Knutzen, S; Kreuzer, P; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Millet, P; Olschewski, M; Padeken, K; Papacz, P; Pook, T; Radziej, M; Reithler, H; Rieger, M; Scheuch, F; Sonnenschein, L; Teyssier, D; Thueer, S; Cherepanov, V; Erdogan, Y; Fluegge, G; Geenen, H; Geisler, M; Hoehle, F; Kargoll, B; Kress, T; Kuessel, Y; Kuensken, A; Lingemann, J; Nehrkorn, A; Nowack, A; Nugent, IM; Pistone, C; Pooth, O; Stahl, A; Martin, MA; Asin, I; Bartosik, N; Behnke, O; Behrens, U; Bell, AJ; Borras, K; Burgmeier, A; Cakir, A; Calligaris, L; Campbell, A; Choudhury, S; Costanza, F; Pardos, CD; Dolinska, G; Dooling, S; Dorland, T; Eckerlin, G; Eckstein, D; Eichhorn, T; Flucke, G; Gallo, E; Garcia, JG; Geiser, A; Gizhko, A; Gunnellini, P; Hauk, J; Hempel, M; Jung, H; Kalogeropoulos, A; Karacheban, O; Kasemann, M; Katsas, P; Kieseler, J; Kleinwort, C; Korol, I; Lange, W; Leonard, J; Lipka, K; Lobanov, A; Lohmann, W; Mankel, R; Marfin, I; Melzer-Pellmann, I-A; Meyer, AB; Mittag, G; Mnich, J; Mussgiller, A; Naumann-Emme, S; Nayak, A; Ntomari, E; Perrey, H; Pitzl, D; Placakyte, R; Raspereza, A; Roland, B; Sahin, MO; Saxena, P; Schoerner-Sadenius, T; Schroeder, M; Seitz, C; Spannagel, S; Trippkewitz, KD; Walsh, R; Wissing, C; Blobel, V; Vignali, MC; Draeger, AR; Erfle, J; Garutti, E; Goebel, K; Gonzalez, D; Goerner, M; Haller, J; Hoffmann, M; Hoeing, RS; Junkes, A; Klanner, R; Kogler, R; Lapsien, T; Lenz, T; Marchesini, I; Marconi, D; Meyer, M; Nowatschin, D; Ott, J; Pantaleo, F; Peiffer, T; Perieanu, A; Pietsch, N; Poehlsen, J; Rathjens, D; Sander, C; Schettler, H; Schleper, P; Schlieckau, E; Schmidt, A; Schwandt, J; Seidel, M; Sola, V; Stadie, H; Steinbruck, G; Tholen, H; Troendle, D; Usai, E; Vanelderen, L; Vanhoefer, A; Vormwald, B; Akbiyik, M; Barth, C; Baus, C; Berger, J; Boeser, C; Butz, E; Chwalek, T; Colombo, F; De Boer, W; Descroix, A; Dierlamm, A; Fink, S; Frensch, F; Giffels, M; Gilbert, A; Hartmann, F; Heindl, SM; Husemann, U; Katkov, I; Kornmayer, A; Pardo, PL; Maier, B; Mildner, H; Mozer, MU; Mueller, T; Plagge, M; Quast, G; Rabbertz, K; Roecker, S; Roscher, F; Simonis, HJ; Stober, FM; Ulrich, R; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Wayand, S; Weber, M; Weiler, T; Woehrmann, C; Wolf, R; Anagnostou, G; Daskalakis, G; Geralis, T; Giakoumopoulou, VA; Kyriakis, A; Loukas, D; Psallidas, A; Topsis-Giotis, I; Agapitos, A; Kesisoglou, S; Panagiotou, A; Saoulidou, N; Tziaferi, E; Evangelou, I; Flouris, G; Foudas, C; Kokkas, P; Loukas, N; Manthos, N; Papadopoulos, I; Paradas, E; Strologas, J; Bencze, G; Hajdu, C; Hazi, A; Hidas, P; Horvath, D; Sikler, F; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Zsigmond, AJ; Beni, N; Czellar, S; Karancsi, J; Molnar, J; Szillasi, Z; Bartok, M; Makovec, A; Raics, P; Trocsanyi, ZL; Ujvari, B; Mal, P; Mandal, K; Sahoo, DK; Sahoo, N; Swain, SK; Bansal, S; Beri, SB; Bhatnagar, V; Chawla, R; Gupta, R; Bhawandeep, U; Kalsi, AK; Kaur, A; Kaur, M; Kumar, R; Mehta, A; Mittal, M; Singh, JB; Walia, G; Kumar, A; Bhardwaj, A; Choudhary, BC; Garg, RB; Malhotra, S; Naimuddin, M; Nishu, N; Ranjan, K; Sharma, R; Sharma, V; Bhattacharya, S; Chatterjee, K; Dey, S; Dutta, S; Jain, S; Majumdar, N; Modak, A; Mondal, K; Mukherjee, S; Mukhopadhyay, S; Roy, A; Roy, D; Chowdhury, SR; Sarkar, S; Sharan, M; Abdulsalam, A; Chudasama, R; Dutta, D; Jha, V; Kumar, V; Mohanty, AK; Pant, LM; Shukla, P; Topkar, A; Aziz, T; Banerjee, S; Bhowmik, S; Chatterjee, RM; Dewanjee, RK; Dugad, S; Ganguly, S; Ghosh, S; Guchait, M; Gurtu, A; Kole, G; Kumar, S; Mahakud, B; Maity, M; Majumder, G; Mazumdar, K; Mitra, S; Mohanty, GB; Parida, B; Sarkar, T; Sudhakar, K; Sur, N; Sutar, B; Wickramage, N; Chauhan, S; Dube, S; Sharma, S; Bakhshiansohi, H; Behnamian, H; Etesami, SM; Fahim, A; Goldouzian, R; Khakzad, M; Najafabadi, MM; Naseri, M; Mehdiabadi, SP; Hosseinabadi, FR; Safarzadeh, B; Zeinali, M; Felcini, M; Grunewald, M; Abbrescia, M; Calabria, C; Caputo, C; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; Cristella, L; De Filippis, N; De Palma, M; Fiore, L; Iasellia, G; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Miniello, G; My, S; Nuzzo, S; Pompili, A; 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Klute, M; Kovalskyi, D; Lai, YS; Lee, Y-J; Levin, A; Luckey, PD; Marini, AC; Mcginn, C; Mironov, C; Niu, X; Paus, C; Ralph, D; Roland, C; Roland, G; Salfeld-Nebgen, J; Stephans, GSF; Sumorok, K; Varma, M; Velicanu, D; Veverka, J; Wang, TW; Wyslouch, B; Yang, M; Zhukova, V; Dahmes, B; Evans, A; Finkel, A; Gude, A; Hansen, P; Kalafut, S; Kao, SC; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Lesko, Z; Mans, J; Nourbakhsh, S; Ruckstuhl, N; Rusack, R; Tambe, N; Turkewitz, J; Acosta, JG; Oliveros, S; Avdeeva, E; Bloom, K; Bose, S; Claes, DR; Dominguez, A; Fangmeier, C; Suarez, RG; Kamalieddin, R; Keller, J; Knowlton, D; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Meier, F; Monroy, J; Ratnikov, F; Siado, JE; Snow, GR; Alyari, M; Dolen, J; George, J; Godshalk, A; Harrington, C; Iashvili, I; Kaisen, J; Kharchilava, A; Rappoccio, S; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Baumgartel, D; Chasco, M; Hortiangtham, A; Massironi, A; Morse, DM; Nash, D; Orimoto, T; De Lima, RT; Trocino, D; Wang, R-J; Wood, D; Zhang, J; Hahn, KA; Kubik, A; Mucia, N; Odell, N; Pollack, B; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Sung, K; Trovato, M; Velasco, M; Brinkerhoff, A; Dev, N; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, DJ; Kellams, N; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Meng, F; Mueller, C; Musienko, Y; Pearson, T; Planer, M; Reinsvold, A; Ruchti, R; Smith, G; Taroni, S; Valls, N; Wayne, M; Wolf, M; Woodard, A; Antonelli, L; Brinson, J; Bylsma, B; Durkin, LS; Flowers, S; Hart, A; Hill, C; Hughes, R; Ji, W; Kotov, K; Ling, TY; Liu, B; Luo, W; Puigh, D; Rodenburg, M; Winer, BL; Wulsin, HW; Driga, O; Elmer, P; Hardenbrook, J; Hebda, P; Koay, SA; Lujan, P; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Palmer, C; Piroue, P; Saka, QH; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, JS; Zuranski, A; Barnes, VE; Benedetti, D; Bortoletto, D; Gutay, L; Jha, MK; Jones, M; Jung, K; Kress, M; Miller, DH; Neumeister, N; Radburn-Smith, BC; Shi, X; Shipsey, I; Silvers, D; Sun, J; Svyatkovskiy, A; Wang, F; Xie, W; Xu, L; Parashar, N; Stupak, J; Adair, A; Akgun, B; Chen, Z; Ecklund, KM; Geurts, FJM; Guilbaud, M; Li, W; Michlin, B; Northup, M; Padley, BP; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Rorie, J; Tu, Z; Zabel, J; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Eshaq, Y; Ferbel, T; Galanti, M; Garcia-Bellido, A; Han, J; Harel, A; Hindrichs, O; Khukhunaishvili, A; Petrillo, G; Verzetti, M; Demortier, L; Arora, S; Barker, A; Chou, JP; Contreras-Campana, C; Contreras-Campana, E; Duggan, D; Ferencek, D; Gershtein, Y; Gray, R; Halkiadakis, E; Hidas, D; Hughes, E; Kaplan, S; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R; Lath, A; Nash, K; Panwalkar, S; Park, M; Salur, S; Schnetzer, S; Sheffield, D; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Thomassen, P; Walker, M; Foerster, M; Riley, G; Rose, K; Spanier, S; York, A; Bouhali, O; Hernandez, AC; Dalchenko, M; De Mattia, M; Delgado, A; Dildick, S; Eusebi, R; Flanagan, W; Gilmore, J; Kamon, T; Krutelyov, V; Mueller, R; Osipenkov, I; Pakhotin, Y; Patel, R; Perloff, A; Safonov, A; Tatarinov, A; Ulmer, KA; Akchurin, N; Cowden, C; Damgov, J; Dragoiu, C; Dudero, PR; Faulkner, J; Kunori, S; Lamichhane, K; Lee, SW; Libeiro, T; Undleeb, S; Volobouev, I; Appelt, E; Delannoy, AG; Greene, S; Gurrola, A; Janjam, R; Johns, W; Maguire, C; Melo, A; Ni, H; Sheldon, P; Snook, B; Tuo, S; Velkovska, J; Xu, Q; Arenton, MW; Boutle, S; Cox, B; Francis, B; Goodell, J; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Li, H; Lin, C; Neu, C; Sun, X; Wang, Y; Wolfe, E; Wood, J; Xia, F; Clarke, C; Harr, R; Karchin, PE; Don, CKK; Lamichhane, P; Sturdy, J; Belknap, DA; Carlsmith, D; Cepeda, M; Christian, A; Dasu, S; Dodd, L; Duric, S; Friis, E; Gomber, B; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Herndon, M; Herve, A; Klabbers, P; Lanaro, A; Levine, A; Long, K; Loveless, R; Mohapatra, A; Ojalvo, I; Perry, T; Pierro, GA; Polese, G; Ruggles, T; Sarangi, T; Savin, A; Smith, N; Smith, WH; Taylor, D; Woods, N (2016-07-10)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    A search is reported for a light pseudoscalar Higgs boson decaying to a pair of ?? leptons, produced in association with a bb pair, in the context of two-Higgs-doublet models. The results are based on pp collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1. Pseudoscalar boson masses between 25 and 80 GeV are probed. No evidence for a pseudoscalar boson is found and upper limits are set on the product of cross section and branching fraction to ?? pairs between 7 and 39 pb at the 95% confidence level. This excludes pseudoscalar A bosons with masses between 25 and 80 GeV, with SM-like Higgs boson negative couplings to down-type fermions, produced in association with bb pairs, in Type II, two-Higgs-doublet models.

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  • Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), third-wave CBT and interpersonal therapy (IPT) based interventions for preventing depression in children and adolescents

    Hetrick, Sarah; Cox, GR; Witt, KG; Bir, JJ; Merry, Sally (2016-08-09)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: Depression is common in young people. It has a marked negative impact and is associated with self-harm and suicide. Preventing its onset would be an important advance in public health. This is an update of a Cochrane review that was last updated in 2011. Objectives: To determine whether evidence-based psychological interventions (including cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), interpersonal therapy (IPT) and third wave CBT)) are effective in preventing the onset of depressive disorder in children and adolescents. Search methods: We searched the specialised register of the Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Group (CCMDCTR to 11 September 2015), which includes relevant randomised controlled trials from the following bibliographic databases: The Cochrane Library (all years), EMBASE (1974 to date), MEDLINE (1950 to date) and PsycINFO (1967 to date). We searched conference abstracts and reference lists of included trials and reviews, and contacted experts in the field. Selection criteria: We included randomised controlled trials of an evidence-based psychological prevention programme compared with any comparison control for young people aged 5 to 19 years, who did not currently meet diagnostic criteria for depression. Data collection and analysis: Two authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and rated their risk of bias.??We adjusted sample sizes to take account of cluster designs and multiple comparisons. We contacted trial authors for additional information where needed.??We assessed the quality of evidence for the primary outcomes using GRADE. Main results: We included 83 trials in this review. The majority of trials (67) were carried out in school settings with eight in colleges or universities, four in clinical settings, three in the community and four in mixed settings. Twenty-nine trials were carried out in unselected populations and 53 in targeted populations. For the primary outcome of depression diagnosis at medium-term follow-up (up to 12 months), there were 32 trials with 5965 participants and the risk of having a diagnosis of depression was reduced for participants receiving an intervention compared to those receiving no intervention (risk difference (RD) -0.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.05 to -0.01; P value = 0.01). We rated this evidence as moderate quality according to the GRADE criteria. There were 70 trials (73 trial arms) with 13,829 participants that contributed to the analysis for the primary outcome of depression symptoms (self-rated) at the post-intervention time point, with results showing a small but statistically significant effect (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.21, 95% CI -0.27 to -0.15; P value < 0.0001). This effect persisted to the short-term assessment point (up to three months) (SMD -0.31, 95% CI -0.45 to -0.17; P value < 0.0001; 16 studies; 1558 participants) and medium-term (4 to 12 months) assessment point (SMD -0.12, 95% CI -0.18 to -0.05; P value = 0.0002; 53 studies; 11,913 participants); however, the effect was no longer evident at the long-term follow-up. We rated this evidence as low to moderate quality according to the GRADE criteria. The evidence from this review is unclear with regard to whether the type of population modified the overall effects; there was statistically significant moderation of the overall effect for depression symptoms (P value = 0.0002), but not for depressive disorder (P value = 0.08). For trials implemented in universal populations there was no effect for depression diagnosis (RD -0.01, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.01) and a small effect for depression symptoms (SMD -0.11, 95% CI -0.17 to -0.05). For trials implemented in targeted populations there was a statistically significantly beneficial effect of intervention (depression diagnosis RD -0.04, 95% CI -0.07 to -0.01; depression symptoms SMD -0.32, 95% CI -0.42 to -0.23). Of note were the lack of attention placebo-controlled trials in targeted populations (none for depression diagnosis and four for depression symptoms). Among trials implemented in universal populations a number used an attention placebo comparison in which the intervention consistently showed no effect. Authors' conclusions: Overall the results show small positive benefits of depression prevention, for both the primary outcomes of self-rated depressive symptoms post-intervention and depression diagnosis up to 12 months (but not beyond). Estimates of numbers needed to treat to benefit (NNTB = 11) compare well with other public health interventions. However, the evidence was of moderate to low quality using the GRADE framework and the results were heterogeneous. Prevention programmes delivered to universal populations showed a sobering lack of effect when compared with an attention placebo control. Interventions delivered to targeted populations, particularly those selected on the basis of depression symptoms, had larger effect sizes, but these seldom used an attention placebo comparison and there are practical difficulties inherent in the implementation of targeted programmes. We conclude that there is still not enough evidence to support the implementation of depression prevention programmes. Future research should focus on current gaps in our knowledge. Given the relative lack of evidence for universal interventions compared with attention placebo controls and the poor results from well-conducted effectiveness trials of universal interventions, in our opinion any future such trials should test a depression prevention programme in an indicated targeted population using a credible attention placebo comparison group. Depressive disorder as the primary outcome should be measured over the longer term, as well as clinician-rated depression. Such a trial should consider scalability as well as the potential for the intervention to do harm.

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  • Patient-specific finite element estimated femur strength as a predictor of the risk of hip fracture: the effect of methodological determinants

    Qasim, M; Farinella, G; Zhang, Ju; Li, X; Yang, L; Eastell, R; Viceconti, Marco (2016-09)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Summary A finite element modelling pipeline was adopted to predict femur strength in a retrospective cohort of 100 women. The effects of the imaging protocol and the meshing technique on the ability of the femur strength to classify the fracture and the control groups were analysed. Introduction The clinical standard to estimate the risk of osteoporotic hip fracture is based on the areal bone mineral density (aBMD). A few retrospective studies have concluded that finite element (FE)-based femoral strength is a better classifier of fracture and control groups than the aBMD, while others could not find significant differences. We investigated the effect of the imaging protocol and of the FE modelling techniques on the discriminatory power of femoral strength. Methods A retrospective cohort of 100 post-menopausal women (50 with hip fracture, 50 controls) was examined. Each subject received a dual-energy absorptiometry (DXA) exam and a computed tomography (CT) scan of the proximal femur region. Each case was modelled a number of times, using different modelling pipelines, and the results were compared in terms of accuracy in discriminating the fracture and the control cases. The baseline pipeline involved local anatomical orientation and mesh morphing. Revised pipelines involved global anatomical orientation using a full-femur atlas registration and an optimised meshing algorithm. Minimum physiological (MPhyS) and pathological (MPatS) strengths were estimated for each subject. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was calculated to compare the ability of MPhyS, MPatS and aBMD to classify the control and the cases. Results Differences in the modelling protocol were found to considerably affect the accuracy of the FE predictors. For the most optimised protocol, logistic regression showed aBMDNeck, MPhyS and MPatS to be significantly associated with the facture status, with AUC of 0.75, 0.75 and 0.79, respectively. Conclusion The study emphasized the necessity of modelling the whole femur anatomy to develop a robust FE-based tool for hip fracture risk assessment. FE-strength performed only slightly better than the aBMD in discriminating the fracture and control cases. Differences between the published studies can be explained in terms of differences in the modelling protocol and cohort design.

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  • Stillbirths: recall to action in high-income countries

    Flenady, V; Wojcieszek, AM; Middleton, P; Ellwood, D; Erwich, JJ; Coory, M; Khong, TY; Silver, RM; Smith, GCS; Boyle, FM; Lawn, JE; Blencowe, H; Leisher, SH; Gross, MM; Horey, D; Farrales, L; Bloomfield, Francis; McCowan, Lesley; Brown, SJ; Joseph, KS; Zeitlin, J; Reinebrant, HE; Ravaldi, C; Vannacci, A; Cassidy, J; Cassidy, P; Farquhar, Cynthia; Wallace, E; Siassakos, D; Heazell, AEP; Storey, C; Sadler, Lynn; Petersen, S; Fr??en, JF; Goldenberg, RL (2016-02)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Variation in stillbirth rates across high-income countries and large equity gaps within high-income countries persist. If all high-income countries achieved stillbirth rates equal to the best performing countries, 19,439 late gestation (28 weeks or more) stillbirths could have been avoided in 2015. The proportion of unexplained stillbirths is high and can be addressed through improvements in data collection, investigation, and classification, and with a better understanding of causal pathways. Substandard care contributes to 20-30% of all stillbirths and the contribution is even higher for late gestation intrapartum stillbirths. National perinatal mortality audit programmes need to be implemented in all high-income countries. The need to reduce stigma and fatalism related to stillbirth and to improve bereavement care are also clear, persisting priorities for action. In high-income countries, a woman living under adverse socioeconomic circumstances has twice the risk of having a stillborn child when compared to her more advantaged counterparts. Programmes at community and country level need to improve health in disadvantaged families to address these inequities.

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  • INTERGROWTH-21st vs customized birthweight standards for??identification of perinatal mortality and morbidity

    Anderson, Ngaire; Sadler, Lynn; McKinlay, Christopher; McCowan, Lesley (2016-04)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The recently published INTERGROWTH-21st Project international population standard for newborn size is intended for global use, but its ability to identify small infants at risk of adverse outcomes in a general obstetric population has not been reported.The objective of the study was to compare adverse neonatal outcomes among small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants between the INTERGROWTH-21st standard and a customized birthweight standard (accounting for maternal characteristics of height, weight, parity, and ethnicity). We hypothesized that in a multiethnic general obstetric population in Auckland, New Zealand, a customized birthweight standard would better identify SGA infants at-risk of neonatal morbidity/mortality and stillbirth than the INTERGROWTH-21st standard.Using prospectively gathered maternity data from a general obstetric population in Auckland, New Zealand, from 2006 to 2013 (n??= 53,484 births at ??? 33 weeks), infants were classified as SGA (birthweight < 10th centile) by INTERGROWTH-21st and customized standards. Infants were further categorized as SGA by both criteria, INTERGROWTH-21st only, customized only, or not SGA (met neither criteria). Composite adverse neonatal outcome was defined as neonatal death, neonatal intensive care admission > 48 hours, or ventilation > 4 hours or 5-minute Apgar score < 7. Relative risks for primary outcomes were estimated using modified Poisson regression, with the non-SGA group as the referent.Incidence of SGA was 4.5% by INTERGROWTH-21st and 11.6% by customized standard. Compared with those not SGA, infants identified as small for gestational age by both criteria had the highest risk of adverse neonatal outcome (relative risk [RR], 4.1, 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.7-4.6) and stillbirth (RR, 8.3, 95% CI, 5.1-13.4). Infants SGA by customized standard only (n??= 4015) had an increased risk of adverse neonatal outcome (RR, 2.0, 95% CI, 1.8-2.2) and stillbirth (RR, 3.0, 95% CI, 1.7-5.3). Few infants were identified as SGA by INTERGROWTH-21st only (n??= 172), and risks of adverse neonatal outcome and stillbirth were not increased. Findings were unchanged when analyses were limited to term infants (n??= 50,739). The INTERGROWTH-21st standard identified more Indian (12.8%) and Asian (5.8%) but fewer European (3.0%) and Pacific (2.9%) infants as SGA (P < .01). Customized criteria identified more than 3 times as many SGA infants among Maori (14.5%), Pacific (13.5%), and European (11.2%) infants and twice as many among Asian (10.3%) infants (P<0.01) compared with INTERGROWTH-21st criteria. The majority of SGA infants by INTERGROWTH-21st only were born to Indian and Asian mothers (95.4%).In our general obstetric population, birthweight customization identified more SGA infants at risk of perinatal mortality and morbidity compared with the INTERGROWTH-21st standard. The INTERGROWTH-21st standard failed to detect many at-risk SGA infants, particularly among ethnic groups with larger maternal size while disproportionately identifying higher rates of SGA among those with smaller maternal size. Local validation is needed prior to implementation of the INTERGROWTH-21st standard to avoid misclassification of infant birth size.

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  • The impact of oxidative stress on chaperone-mediated human sperm???egg interaction

    Bromfield, EG; Aitken, RJ; Anderson, AL; McLaughlin, Eileen; Nixon, B (2015-11)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    STUDY QUESTION: How does oxidative stress impact upon human sperm-egg interaction and in particular the formation of zona pellucida-receptor complexes on the sperm surface? SUMMARY ANSWER: Oxidative stress during human sperm capacitation resulted in the chemical alkylation of the molecular chaperone heat shock protein A2 (HSPA2), a concomitant reduction in surface expression of the zona pellucida-receptor arylsulphatase A (ARSA) and a severe loss of zona pellucida binding ability. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: An inability to bind to the zona pellucida is commonly encountered in the defective spermatozoa generated by male infertility patients; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unresolved. Recent studies have revealed that zona pellucida binding is mediated by molecular chaperones, particularly HSPA2, that facilitate the formation of multimeric zona pellucida-receptor complexes on the surface of mammalian spermatozoa during capacitation. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Spermatozoa were collected from healthy normozoospermic donors (n = 15). Low levels of oxidative stress were induced in populations of non-capacitated spermatozoa by a 1 h treatment with 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and then these insults were removed and cells were capacitated for 3 h. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Motility, membrane fluidity, protein tyrosine phosphorylation and lipid raft distribution were evaluated after sperm capacitation to determine the impact of oxidative stress on this process. The surface expression of ARSA and sperm adhesion molecule 1 (SPAM1) was observed using fluorescence microscopy, and the ability of treated cells to interact with homologous human zonae pellucidae was assessed through gamete co-incubation. Proximity ligation was used to evaluate the state of the HSPA2-laden zona pellucida-receptor complex and an immunoprecipitation approach was taken to establish the chemical alkylation of HSPA2 by the cytotoxic lipid aldehyde 4HNE. The validity of these findings was then tested through treatment of oxidatively stressed cells with the nucleophile penicillamine in order to scavenge lipid aldehydes and limit their ability to interact with HSPA2. All experiments were performed on samples pooled from two or more donors per replicate, with a minimum of three replicates. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: The oxidative treatments employed in this study did not influence sperm motility or capacitation-associated changes in membrane fluidity, tyrosine phosphorylation and lipid raft redistribution. However, they did significantly impair zona pellucida binding compared with the capacitated control (P < 0.01). The reduction in zona pellucida binding was associated with the impaired surface expression (P < 0.02) of a zona pellucida-receptor complex comprising HSPA2, SPAM1 and ARSA. Proximity ligation and immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that impaired zona pellucida binding was, in turn, associated with the chemical alkylation of HSPA2 with 4HNE and the concomitant disruption of this zona pellucida-receptor complex. The use of penicillamine enabled a partial recovery of ARSA surface expression and zona pellucida adherence in H2O2-treated cells. These data suggest that the ability of low levels of oxidative stress to disrupt sperm function is mediated by the production of lipid aldehydes as a consequence of lipid peroxidation and their adduction to the molecular chaperone HSPA2 that is responsible for co-ordinating the assembly of functional zona pellucida-receptor complexes during sperm capacitation. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: While these results extend only to one particular zona pellucida-receptor complex, we postulate that oxidative stress may more broadly impact upon sperm surface architecture. In this light, further study is required to assess the impact of oxidative stress on additional HSPA2-laden protein complexes. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: These findings link low levels of oxidative stress to a severe loss of sperm function. In doing so, this work suggests a potential cause of male infertility pertaining to a loss of zona pellucida recognition ability and will contribute to the more accurate diagnosis and treatment of such conditions.

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  • A multicentre, randomized, controlled study to investigate EXtending the time for Thrombolysis in Emergency Neurological Deficits with Intra-Arterial therapy (EXTEND-IA)

    Campbell, BCV; Mitchell, PJ; Yan, B; Parsons, MW; Christensen, S; Churilov, L; Dowling, RJ; Dewey, H; Brooks, M; Miteff, F; Levi, CR; Krause, M; Harrington, TJ; Faulder, KC; Steinfort, BS; Kleinig, T; Scroop, R; Chryssidis, S; Barber, Peter; Hope, A; Moriarty, M; McGuinness, B; Wong, AA; Coulthard, A; Wijeratne, T; Lee, A; Jannes, J; Leyden, J; Phan, TG; Chong, W; Holt, M; Chandra, RV; Bladin, C; Badve, M; Rice, H; de Villiers, L; Ma, H; Desmond, PM; Donnan, GA; Davis, SM; on behalf of the EXTEND-IA investigators (2013-11-10)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background and Hypothesis Thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator is proven to reduce disability when given within 4??5???h of ischemic stroke onset. However, tissue plasminogen activator only succeeds in recanalizing large vessel arterial occlusion in a minority of patients. We hypothesized that anterior circulation ischemic stroke patients, selected with ???dual target??? vessel occlusion and evidence of salvageable brain using computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging ???mismatch??? within 4??5???h of onset, would have improved reperfusion and early neurological improvement when treated with intra-arterial clot retrieval after intravenous tissue plasminogen activator compared with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator alone. Study Design EXTEND-IA is an investigator-initiated, phase II, multicenter prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint study. Ischemic stroke patients receiving standard 0??9???mg/kg intravenous tissue plasminogen activator within 4??5???h of stroke onset who have good prestroke functional status (modified Rankin Scale 1??2, absolute mismatch >10???ml, ischemic core volume <70???ml) will be randomized to either clot retrieval with the Solitaire FR device after full dose intravenous tissue plasminogen activator, or tissue plasminogen activator alone. Study Outcomes The coprimary outcome measure will be reperfusion at 24???h and favorable clinical response (reduction in National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale by ???8 points or reaching 0???1) at day 3. Secondary outcomes include modified Rankin Scale at day 90, death, and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage.

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  • ???Sometimes I???ve gone home feeling that my voice hasn???t been heard???: a focus group study exploring the views and experiences of health care assistants when caring for dying residents

    Fryer, S; Bellamy, G; Morgan, Tessa; Gott, Caryl (2016-08-19)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Abstract Background In most developed countries, Health Care Assistants comprise a significant, and growing, proportion of the residential aged care workforce. Despite the fact that they provide the majority of direct care for residents, little is known about a key care aspect of their work, namely their experience of caring for dying residents. Methods Twenty-six Health Care Assistants working in aged residential care facilities in Auckland, New Zealand participated in six focus group discussions. Focus groups were designed to explore the experiences of Health Care Assistants caring for imminently dying residents in aged care facilities and to identify barriers and facilitators to their work in this area. The focus groups were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a general inductive approach. Results Participants confirmed that Health Care Assistants provide the majority of hands on care to dying residents and believed they had a valuable role to play at this time due to their unique ???familial??? relationship with residents and families. However, it was apparent that a number of barriers existed to them maximising their contribution to supporting dying residents, most notably the lack of value placed on their knowledge and experience by other members of the multidisciplinary team. Whilst a need for additional palliative and end of life care education was identified, a preference was identified for hands on education delivered by peers, rather than the didactic education they currently receive. Conclusion Given ageing populations internationally coupled with a constrained health budget, the role of Health Care Assistants in most developed countries is likely to become even more significant in the short to medium term. This study makes a unique contribution to the international literature by identifying the barriers to caring for dying residents experienced by this valuable sector of the aged care workforce. These data have the potential to inform new, innovative, interventions to address the urgent need identified to improve palliative and end of life care management in aged care internationally.

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  • An Evaluation Model for Financial Reporting Supply Chain Using DEMATEL-ANP

    Lan, S; Zhong, Runyang (2016)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The quality of corporate financial reporting is not only related to the internal accounting process of the company, but also with a variety of external factors. Therefore, it is necessary for scholars to alter the methods to research problems from the internal to the external, and to propose the concept of ???financial reporting supply chain??? which will gradually become an important subject in the accounting research and accounting practice. The evaluation results show that: the auditing process plays the biggest role in the optimization process of financial reporting supply chain, which is the base for the effectiveness of the system of financial reporting supply chain.

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  • Teachers' reasons for using peer assessment: Positive experience predicts use

    Panadero, E; Brown, Gavin (2017-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Peer assessment (PA) is one of the central principles of formative assessment and assessment for learning (AfL) fields. There is ample empirical evidence as to the benefits for students??? learning when AfL principles are implemented. However, teachers play a critical role in mediating the implementation of intended policies. Hence, their experiences, beliefs, and attitudes towards PA are important factors in determining whether the policy is actually carried out. A survey of over 1500 primary, secondary, and higher education teachers in Spain elicited their beliefs and values around PA as well as other aspects of formative assessment; only 751 teachers provided complete responses to all PA items. Teachers reported occasional use of PA in their classrooms but with positive experience of it. The vast majority did not use anonymous forms of PA and half of the teachers considered the students were accurate when assessing peers. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used to examine relationships of attitudes and beliefs to self-reported frequency of using of PA. The self-reported frequency of using PA was strongly predicted by teacher experience of PA which included positive reasons for using PA, rather than negative obstacles for avoiding, prior use, and beliefs that students should participate in assessment, and willingness to include PA in grading.

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  • Donor Hepatic Steatosis and Outcome After Liver Transplantation: a Systematic Review.

    Chu, MJJ; Dare, AJ; Phillips, Anthony; Bartlett, Adam (2015-09)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    BACKGROUND: There is increasing need to expand availability of donor liver grafts, including steatotic livers. Steatotic liver is associated with poor outcome post-transplantation but with conflicting results in the literature. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the impact of steatotic livers on liver transplantation outcomes. METHODS: An electronic search of OVID Medline and Embase databases was performed to identify clinical studies that reported outcomes of steatotic livers in liver transplantation. Data were extracted, and basic descriptive statistics were used to summarise data pooled from individual clinical studies. RESULTS: Ninety-two articles were identified, of which 34 met the inclusion criteria, and stratified analysis were performed. There was a lack of standardised definition of primary non-function or impaired primary function amongst the studies and description of type of steatosis. Severely (>60%) steatotic grafts are associated with increased risk of poor graft function, whilst moderate-severe (>30%) steatotic grafts are associated with decreased graft survival. CONCLUSIONS: Available evidence showed increased risk of poor graft outcome in moderate-severe steatotic livers. A large prospective multi-centred trial will be required to identify the true risks of steatotic livers. Consistent definition of primary non-function/impaired primary function and description of type of steatosis is also required.

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  • Textural complexity model foods assessed with instrumental and sensory measurements

    Tang, J; Larsen, DS; Ferguson, Lynnette; James, Bryony (2017-02)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The term textural complexity is associated with a range of different perceivable textures and sensations occurring from first bite through to swallow. The aim of this study was to develop gel-based model foods with "built-in" levels of textural complexity for use in a wider study of the impact of texture on satiation and satiety. The model foods needed to be quantified for textural complexity and that assessment was conducted using instrumental and sensory measurements model foods of different structural complexity (based on inclusions and layers with differing mechanical properties) resulted in puncture curves with differing numbers of peaks caused by the sequential puncture of structural features, and in differing lengths; in general higher complexity led to a greater number of peaks and greater length. Consistent with the definition of textural complexity, more texturally complex samples generated a greater number of descriptors during the "chewdown" phase in descriptive sensory analysis. Temporal dominance of sensation (TDS) analysis gave different information on the dynamics of texture perception during chewing sequence compared to descriptive analysis but confirmed the levels of textural complexity of the model foods. In particular TDS indicates the evolution of the number of texture attributes perceived, and the number of times the dominant texture changed. Practical Applications: These gel-based model foods with different textural complexity, similar nutritional densities and comparable chewing time can be used for investigating the hypothesized relationship between textural complexity and satiation. The instrumental and sensory tests used in this study proved capable of differentiating levels of textural complexity. The findings of Quantitative Descriptive Analysis and Temporal Dominance of Sensation, and using the number of peaks and length of a puncture curve to quantify textural complexity could be expanded on in the future to create standardised tests.

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  • The effects of cold water immersion and active recovery on inflammation and cell stress responses in human skeletal muscle after resistance exercise

    Peake, JM; Roberts, LA; Figueiredo, VC; Egner, I; Krog, S; Aas, SN; Suzuki, K; Markworth, JF; Coombes, JS; Cameron-Smith, David; Raastad, T (2016-11)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    KEY POINTS: Cold water immersion and active recovery are common post-exercise recovery treatments. A key assumption about the benefits of cold water immersion is that it reduces inflammation in skeletal muscle. However, no data are available from humans to support this notion. We compared the effects of cold water immersion and active recovery on inflammatory and cellular stress responses in skeletal muscle from exercise-trained men 2, 24 and 48 h during recovery after acute resistance exercise. Exercise led to the infiltration of inflammatory cells, with increased mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and neurotrophins, and the subcellular translocation of heat shock proteins in muscle. These responses did not differ significantly between cold water immersion and active recovery. Our results suggest that cold water immersion is no more effective than active recovery for minimizing the inflammatory and stress responses in muscle after resistance exercise. ABSTRACT: Cold water immersion and active recovery are common post-exercise recovery treatments. However, little is known about whether these treatments influence inflammation and cellular stress in human skeletal muscle after exercise. We compared the effects of cold water immersion versus active recovery on inflammatory cells, pro-inflammatory cytokines, neurotrophins and heat shock proteins (HSPs) in skeletal muscle after intense resistance exercise. Nine active men performed unilateral lower-body resistance exercise on separate days, at least 1 week apart. On one day, they immersed their lower body in cold water (10??C) for 10 min after exercise. On the other day, they cycled at a low intensity for 10 min after exercise. Muscle biopsies were collected from the exercised leg before, 2, 24 and 48 h after exercise in both trials. Exercise increased intramuscular neutrophil and macrophage counts, MAC1 and CD163 mRNA expression (P < 0.05). Exercise also increased IL1??, TNF, IL6, CCL2, CCL4, CXCL2, IL8 and LIF mRNA expression (P < 0.05). As evidence of hyperalgesia, the expression of NGF and GDNF mRNA increased after exercise (P < 0.05). The cytosolic protein content of ??B-crystallin and HSP70 decreased after exercise (P < 0.05). This response was accompanied by increases in the cytoskeletal protein content of ??B-crystallin and the percentage of type II fibres stained for ??B-crystallin. Changes in inflammatory cells, cytokines, neurotrophins and HSPs did not differ significantly between the recovery treatments. These findings indicate that cold water immersion is no more effective than active recovery for reducing inflammation or cellular stress in muscle after a bout of resistance exercise.

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  • The safety and efficacy of benzbromarone in gout in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Stamp, LK; Haslett, J; Frampton, C; White, Douglas; Gardner, D; Stebbings, S; Taylor, G; Grainger, R; Kumar, R; Kumar, S; Kain, T; Porter, D; Corkill, M; Cathro, A; Metcalfe, S; Wyeth, J; Dalbeth, Nicola (2016-09)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Benzbromarone is a potent uricosuric, but is not widely available due to concerns about hepatotoxicity. In Aotearoa New Zealand benzbromarone has been available since April 2013, subject to funding restrictions, for patients with inadequate urate-lowering response or intolerance to allopurinol and probenecid.The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of benzbromarone in a real-life setting.All patients who received funding for benzbromarone from 1/4/2013 to 30/9/2014 were identified. Prescribers were sent a questionnaire for each individual. Information on demographics, efficacy of previous urate-lowering drugs and reasons for discontinuation were collected. Specific information about the dose, effect on serum urate, adverse effects and liver function tests after commencing benzbromarone was recorded.Completed questionnaires were returned for 123/164 (75%) patients. Mean (SD) serum urate prior to benzbromarone was 0.57 (0.12) mmol/l and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 50.3 (22.8) ml/min/1.73???m(2) . The median dose of benzbromarone was 100???mg/day (25-200???mg/day). Six months after commencing benzbromarone, mean (SD) serum urate was 0.35 (0.12) mmol/l. Benzbromarone related adverse events included rash (n???=???4), diarrhoea (n???=???9), nausea (n???=???6), and urate stones (n???=???3). Liver function tests abnormalities were uncommon and tended to be mild. There were 14 patient deaths; none were considered related to benzbromarone. Allopurinol had been prescribed prior to benzbromarone in 117/123 patients; median maximum allopurinol dose was 200???mg/day (range 25-600???mg/day), and 19% patients received allopurinol >300???mg/day.Benzbromarone provides useful urate-lowering efficacy and does not appear unsafe in patients with gout. Urate-lowering therapy prescribing requires further optimisation.

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