82,930 results

  • Contesting Collective Representations of the Past: The Politics of Memory in South Korea

    Vink, Thomas (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Because monuments, memorials and other 'sites of memory' privilege particular collective interpretations of the past over others, they represent inherently contentious and political spaces. Contention over representing the past is particularly resonant in Korea, where sites of memory are imbued with strong, often polarised meanings. By focusing on two such sites in Korea, this thesis seeks to discuss the wider implications of the ongoing conflict over what representations of the past should be privileged. In Gwangju, the area surrounding the former provincial hall (docheong) is being redeveloped, part of the city's attempts to become 'reborn' as a capital city of human rights and democracy in Asia. However, to many citizens in Gwangju, this new image ignores the meaning that the city's dissident past holds for local communal understandings of identity. Conflict arose as citizens protested to keep the symbolism of the docheong intact, thus, helping to maintain local narratives of the past. In Seoul, Myeongdong Cathedral, a key symbol of protest and democracy in the 1970s and 1980s, is now having its meaning re-interpreted, as the Catholic Church de-couples religion from socio-political concerns. The conflicting meanings of Myeongdong Cathedral are representative of a wider divergence in Korean society, as apathy towards Korea's past grows among society at large while other segments appropriate the past to protest contemporary socio-political concerns. Ultimately, these Korean case studies emphasise that the meanings sites of memory convey are not fixed, and that groups are often able to appropriate sites to affirm their own narratives of the past and to emphasise their own collective voice. Therefore, sites that represent particular understandings of the past, while contentious, also provide a space for debate and, thus, help to understand ongoing concerns within wider society.

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  • Feeling Their Way: Four Men Talk About Fatherhood in Valparaiso, Chile

    Evans, Monica (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In this study, I explore the experiences and understandings of fatherhood of four men in Valparaiso, Chile, who became fathers between the ages of 16 and 19 and lived geographically, but not emotionally, distant from their children at the time this fieldwork took place. I seek thus to interrogate stereotypes in social discourse, Gender and Development research and many institutions about Latin American fathers in similar situations (Viveros 2001). Given the emotionally-intense nature of this project, I also examine the impacts of emotions and empathy on the relationships that were developed within it, and on researcher and participant subjectivities inside and outside the research process - a topic seldom addressed in social science literature (Bondi 2005). In framing this research, I draw on feminist, poststructural, structurationist and Participatory Action Research epistemologies, as well as ways-of-knowing that are indigenous to the area in which fieldwork took place. Methodologically, I carried out a series of unstructured and semi-structured interviews with each participant, and spent considerable time 'hanging out' with them as well (Kearns 2000). I also interviewed Chilean academics and practitioners working on issues of masculinity and fatherhood, both individually and in a group discussion. Presenting the work, I use stand-alone 'story sections' as well as interpretive chapters. These story sections provide more space than a 'straight' chaptered structure might allow for each man's personal tale to be told. I postulate that all four participants were emotionally compelled to 'father' and found spaces in which to do so, despite "larger stories" (Aitken 2009, 15) about youth, fatherhood and family that constricted their participation in their children's lives (Aguayo & Sadler 2006). Yet, they all remained unsatisfied with the "fathering spaces" (Aitken 2009, 171) that they were able to negotiate, and all felt pain as a result of this. Being recognised and emotionally understood 'as fathers' through empathetic engagement with me within this research process was thus a largely positive and sometimes transformative experience for participants. Such engagement also helped me to navigate concerns about positionality and representation, and reflecting on it later on enabled me to 'process' this emotionally-intense process, and to shift and deepen my analysis. In sum, the study offers an intimate, nuanced perspective on four men's fatherhoods and my experience of working with them, which I hope will contribute to more careful characterisations of men in similar situations in Gender and Development literature, and to scholarship on emotions and empathy in research relationships more generally.

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  • Anthelmintic treatment and digestive organ morphology of captive-reared kaki (Himantopus novaezelandiae) released to the wild : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Conservation Biology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Robertson, Louisa Mary (2009)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The continued existence of New Zealand’s critically endangered and endemic black stilt or kakï (Himantopus novaezelandiae) relies on an intensive captive management programme. While this is successful at rearing large numbers of birds for release to the wild, poor survivability of these birds is limiting significant increases in the wild population. Predation and starvation are suspected to be the most common causes of death in released birds, but underlying contributing factors to these mortalities have not been fully evaluated. This research investigates the possible contribution of gastrointestinal (GI) helminth burdens and suboptimal digestive organ development to the high mortality rates of released kakï. Emphasis is placed on evaluating the methods used to assess the importance of these factors and to make informed recommendations for future management. The efficacy of the anthelmintic regime used for kakï was assessed by dosing half of the 80 captive birds with praziquantel (PZQ) prior to release in 2007. Faecal samples were collected before and after anthelmintic treatment, and before and after release to the wild. Post mortem worm counts were conducted on 11 birds that died following release and historical worm count records dating back to 1997 were accessed. The main findings were: PZQ had high efficacy against trematodes; treatment did not prevent re-infection; birds were exposed to helminths at release site; and there was no advantage of treatment for survival. Overall, the results suggest that anthelmintic treatment is an unnecessary cost. Consequently, recommendations were made to cease anthelmintic treatment or reduce its intensity, continue health screening, and incorporate annual efficacy testing to monitor the emergence of anthelmintic resistance. The reliability of faecal screening for GI helminths was evaluated. Faecal egg counts (FECs) were found to be poor indicators of worm burden. The two modified sedimentation methods used to detect trematodes provided relatively low egg recovery rates. Trematode egg shedding varied between days but not by hour of the day or temperature. The collection and analysis of pooled faecal samples proved to be more cost and time-effective than samples from individual birds and the larger masses collected resulted in greater sensitivity. In conclusion, faecal analysis of pooled samples is a useful qualitative indicator of helminth presence or absence but is quantitatively unreliable. In order to assess the importance of digestive organ development to captive-reared and released kak?, the digestive organs of healthy and emaciated captive, released and wild Himantopus sp. were compared. Captive and released kak? had generally smaller digestive organs than wild birds, released birds did not increase digestive organ size to match the high fibre wild diet, and emaciated birds did not have atrophied organs. However, the greatest mortality rates occur soon after release, while the birds were still being supplementary fed. These results suggest that reduced digestive efficiency is probably not contributing significantly to mortality rates and the direct impacts of the translocation are probably greater risk factors. The continued provision of supplementary food to released birds and an increased focus on habitat enhancement and predator control at release sites were recommended. The reliability of comparing fresh and formalin fixed Himantopus sp. gut specimens was evaluated. Significant differences in fresh and formalin fixed organ dry masses and variation in preserved organ lengths indicate that this variation should be considered in future studies. In conclusion, current management practices appear to be successful in ensuring that GI helminths and reduced digestive efficiency do not significantly lower the survivorship of captive-reared and released kakï. There is a need for further research into developing a more direct physiological assessment of the impacts of GI helminths and gut morphology as well as considering the role that starvation may have on poor survivability.

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  • The Role of Emotional Content in the Control of Eye Movements

    Phillips, Joseph (2009)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The anti-saccade paradigm has been a favourite among researchers of attention and the control of eye movements. Most pro/anti-saccade studies have utilized meaningless stimuli, though stimulus meaning is known to have an impact on looking behaviour in free viewing conditions. Here, we explore the role of content in the control of pro/antisaccades by contrasting two alternative views on the impact of emotional stimuli. One view supports an "informativeness" hypothesis, where visual processing is directed towards threatening stimuli, suggesting that RT should be particularly large for negative, high arousal pictures in an antisaccade task. An alternative view emphasizes approach and withdrawal behaviours. Here negative images are thought to encourage avoidance behaviours, causing faster RTs for antisaccades; whereas positive pictures encourage approach behaviours, causing faster RTs for prosaccades. Participants performed an antisaccade task in which they were presented with an image to the left or right visual field and instructed to look at or away from the image. The experimental design included five groups of images, with a factorial combination of valence (positive or negative) and arousal (high or low), and a neutral condition. In Experiments one and two the instruction was given 200 ms before the picture was presented and did not produce any effects of emotional content. Thus, if participants are given advanced notice of the upcoming saccade, the initiation of that saccade is not influenced by the emotional content of the target image. In experiments three and four, the cue was presented 200 ms after the onset of the target image. This change of SOA provided an effect of emotional content was observed in experiments three and four which was illustrated by slowed RTs for both pro- and anti-saccades. However erotic images appeared to slow down latencies across both saccades which were accompanied by high error rates.

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  • Organicism, motivic parallelism, and performance in Beethoven's piano sonata Op. 2 No. 3 : a thesis submitted to the New Zealand School of Music in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Music in Musicology

    Robb, Hamish James Alexander (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis summarises the important ideologies and concepts of musical organicism in the late eighteenth century and applies them to motivic analysis and performance. Much has been written about the organic nature of Beethoven’s later works, but less has been written about the organic coherence found in his earlier compositions. This study involves a motivic analysis of his Op. 2 No. 3 sonata (1795), for which little or no significant research has been carried out. This musical work is used as an illustration of ways in which musical organicism, motivic analysis, and performance can interrelate. The thesis is in three parts. Part one presents a review of late eighteenth-century ideologies of unity and their musical applications. In the search for an effective means of comparing motivic development with organicism, it is then argued that Schenker’s ‘motivic parallelism’ or ‘concealed repetition’ is considerably undervalued in his analytical framework. Drawing on the insights of Richard Cohn, I endorse a more autonomous treatment of the motivic parallelism in analysis, so that it is an independent unifying tool in its own right and not only a by-product of tonal analysis. Several approaches are applied to the motivic parallelism in order to illustrate how the parallelism can be used in ways normally only associated with the surface motif. Part two of the thesis consists of a detailed motivic analysis of Beethoven’s Op. 2 No. 3 sonata. It is argued that the motivic parallelisms contained in this sonata reflect late eighteenth-century ideals of organicism. I propose that there are several motivic cells found in the opening four bars of the sonata, which recur (or are ‘paralleled’) within all structural levels and over all four movements, unifying the sonata organically as one whole. In this way, I show that the Op. 2 No. 3 sonata can be seen to foreshadow the organic treatment of motifs by later composers, who were influenced by Goethe’s complex prototype (1802) as an organic model.(1) I also offer an ‘organic narrative’ for the sonata, using motivic parallelisms as the guiding forces in the discourse. The third and final part relates the motivic parallelisms and other analytical findings to performance. Techniques of ‘performing’ motivic parallelisms are discussed and applied to the Op. 2 No. 3 sonata. The organic perspective is proposed as one avenue through which to understand and enhance a performance of a work. (1) The sonata can also be seen to foreshadow the highly seminal treatment of motifs that was to become more widely used in Beethoven’s later works (such as the Eroica Symphony).

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  • ParA: A Novel Target for Anti-Tubercular Drug Discovery

    Nisa, Shahista Yasmin (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Tuberculosis (Tb) continues to be one of the world's greatest challenges in the public health arena. The current treatment for Tb entails a long duration of therapy making adherence to the whole course difficult. This has given rise to drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis which are posing a significant threat to Tb control strategies. To counteract this problem, there is an urgent need to develop alternative anti-tuberculous drugs which target processes that are critical for the growth and/or survival of this microbe. To identify such targets in M. tuberculosis, I used comparative genomics and mutagenesis data to identify conserved essential genes as viable targets for the development of broad-spectrum antibiotics. In addition, I validated the essentiality of three cell division genes in Mycobacterium smegmatis using conditional antisense RNA expression under different culture conditions. Furthermore, I performed high-throughput screens (HTS) using a differential susceptibility assay against one of the validated targets to identify its cognate inhibitor(s). Lastly, I developed a novel biochemical assay of the target to validate the specificity of the inhibitors identified in the HTS and evaluated the potency of the inhibitors against M. tuberculosis. This study identified 261 conserved putative essential genes as broad-spectrum targets. I hypothesized that antisense RNA expression of such genes will lead to its down-regulation and thereby affect the viability of the cells if these genes are essential. I also hypothesized that an essential gene will be required under all culture conditions. One gene, parA, demonstrated that it was essential under various culture conditions. This gene encodes for a protein which contain the conserved Walker A motif thus I theorized that it may posses ATPase activity. The results illustrated that the M. tuberculosis ParA protein possesses ATPase activity. This biochemical activity was used to validate two specific inhibitors of ParA, phenoxybenzamine and octoclothepin, which were identified in the cell-based HTS. Kinetic studies suggest that phenoxybenzamine is a mixed inhibitor while octoclothepin is a competitive inhibitor of ParA. This data is also supported by in silico docking. Both these compounds show low minimum inhibitory concentrations in M. smegmatis under nitrogen starvation conditions. In summary, this thesis illustrates that ParA is a viable target for anti-tubercular drugs. It demonstrates that ParA is an ATPase which has the potential to bind competitive and non-competitive inhibitors that can be exploited to target cell division in M. tuberculosis. Finally, this study presents phenoxybenzamine and octoclothepin as inhibitors of ParA. In conclusion, these compounds can either be developed to increase potency or be used as reference structures to screen for more potent inhibitors of the enzyme.

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  • Improving understanding of music therapy with a non-verbal child: sharing perceptions with other professionals : a research presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Master of Music Therapy at New Zealand School of Music, Wellington, New Zealand

    Park, Yaeun Kyung (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study explored the value of music therapy practice with a non-verbal child conducted by the author, a Music Therapy Student (MTS), as seen through the eyes of two music therapists and the child’s mother, as well as the improvement achieved in the MTS’s understanding of music therapy practice through sharing the three professionals’ insights. The paper addresses two research questions: (1) How is music therapy with a non-verbal child perceived by music therapy professionals? (2) How does sharing these professionals’ understanding of music therapy improve the MTS’s understanding of this therapeutic process? The MTS’s self-reflections were treated as part of the data in this research, as was the non-verbal communication within the music therapy intervention to support the findings. The qualitative research, ‘Naturalistic inquiry’ was used for this research. Data was collected by interviewing these three professionals individually about their perceptions of music therapy after watching three video extracts of normal music therapy sessions with the child. The video extracts were selected from the significant moments of non-verbal communication. Through this process of sharing the professionals’ perceptions, the MTS gained a deeper understanding of both the child and the music therapy practice administered, confirming and extending her understanding of the musical and therapeutic skills and techniques of the three professionals, which they had gained in their varied experiences and which had been shaped by their varied backgrounds. The MTS was thus engaged in a learning process which hoped would enhance the quality of therapy provided by her in the future.

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  • "Shaping and Cutting and Improving and Adding": Acknowledged and Hidden Influences in Scott Westerfeld's Uglies series and Philip Pullman's His Dark Materials

    Ross, Isabel Walker (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis aims to identify and analyse the most prominent influences on Scott Westerfeld's Uglies series and Philip Pullman's His Dark Materials trilogy. It looks particularly at the difference between the authors' attitude towards influences they happily acknowledge and those influences which they attempt to conceal because they cause them anxiety (in the case of Westerfeld) or embarrassment (in the case of Pullman). This focus, combined with the speculative analysis of His Dark Materials' influence on Extras, the fourth book of the Uglies series, is intended to show the variability of literary influence. Comparative close readings throughout the thesis display the variety of ways influences are used within the texts, and illustrate the factors on which their use is dependent: the compatibility of the latecomer text with its precursor, the author's opinion of the earlier work, and the reading the author makes of the precursor text. Pullman's acknowledgement of influences is dependent on whether he considers them worthy precursors (in the case of Heinrich von Kleist, William Blake, and John Milton) or an embarrassing ancestor (in the case of C. S. Lewis). Westerfeld's is dependent on how similar his precursor works are to his own texts, as he does not acknowledge the obvious influence of Aldous Huxley, but happily names Ray Bradbury, John Christopher, Ted Chiang, and Charles Beaumont as influences. The thesis shows that the use of literary influences is not straightforward as one author may, as Westerfeld and Pullman do, display different attitudes to and appropriate precursor texts in differing ways within one work.

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  • Guidelines to Make Victoria University School of Architecture and Design Carbon Neutral Through Minimising its Reliance on Carbon Offsets

    Ryu, Soo Jung (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Universities have always had an important leadership role in society in demonstrating the types of changes that need to occur with respect to the prime issues of the time. All around the world, universities are lining up to declare themselves the next carbon neutral school as part of the global trend of becoming "sustainable." But what does it really mean to be carbon neutral? In 2007 Victoria University's School of Architecture and Design (SoAD) declared themselves the first carbon neutral campus in the world through the use of sponsored and purchased carbon credits. However 100% reliance on offset schemes is not the answer as it does not guarantee the capture of carbon forever. Also, the continuing purchase of carbon offsets could be costly and maintaining businessas- usual without any significant changes will result in continuing environmental degradation as a result of the SoAD's unsustainable activities. This research explores various solutions for reducing the three biggest factors that contribute towards the emissions, which are energy, transport and waste. It looks at the difference between behavioural changes (low cost) and technological investment (high cost) in order for SoAD to reduce its carbon footprint to meet three possible reduction targets, established by this research as 25%, 50% and 90%. The findings are that 25% could be saved through simple behavioural changes which cost very little, as they are mainly related to avoiding wastage, 50% could be saved through a combination of low and high cost measures, and 90% comes from considerable investment in new technologies or drastic reduction in use. A further aim of the research is to translate all possible savings into other means, such as knowing how much carbon or land is saved, using a measure such as the ecological footprint, and more importantly what these savings mean to the third world where resources are scarce and expensive. If SoAD's wasteful activities from neglect can be translated into saving people's lives in other nations, it might lead to more responsible energy use. What this research indicates is that for SoAD to be carbon neutral various factors need to be considered and user behaviour is paramount.

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  • The economic determinants of entrepreneurial activity : evidence from a Bayesian approach : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business Studies in Financial Economics at Massey University

    Winata, Sherly (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    In this paper we investigate the economic, political, institutional, and societal factors that encourage entrepreneurial activity. We do so by applying Bayesian Model Averaging, which controls for model uncertainty, to a panel data set for 33 countries. Our results indicate that the general state of macroeconomic activity, the availability of financing, the level of human capital, fiscal policies implemented and the type of economic system are the main determinants of the level of entrepreneurship. We also document a non-linear, U-shaped relation between distortionary taxation and entrepreneurial activity. Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurial Activity, Total Early-Stage Activity (TEA), Global Entrepreneurial Monitor (GEM), Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA), Panel Estimation. JEL Classification: B30, B53, C11, C23, J20, M13, O10, O40

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  • Transitioning Peer Consulting: a Technology-in-Practice Approach

    Watson, Julie Abbott (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The purpose of this study is to examine the application of ICT to enhance the peer consulting activities of groups of professionals. In this study, peer consulting is defined as the sharing of people's experience through action and reflection in the context of actual practice (Eisen, 2001). The research is undertaken within two New Zealand counselling services organisations, one for-profit and one not-for-profit. The primary guiding research question is: "How do NZ social services organisations apply online technologies to enhance the professional development of their staff?" The study is qualitative in nature, and follows the action research methodology. Within one in-depth action research cycle, key participants of each organisation and the researcher collaborate to describe the problem situation, and select and set up pilot online systems. Groups of counselling practitioners then participate in actual online peer consulting sessions, after which the outcomes of the sessions are evaluated and learnings gained. Data gathered through interviews, observations and systems statistics are analysed to derive the first of two major theoretical contributions of this research, the Model of Peer Consulting Transition. This model reflects the experiences of the research participants as they move through the developmental stages of Defining, Structuring, Experimenting, Engaging and Embedding. The second theoretical contribution of this study is the novel application of the Technology-in-Practice framework developed by Orlikowski (2000). This framework is the lens through which the environmental factors that exist within each organisational situation and influence peer consulting transition are explained. The theoretical models developed in this study provide an important contribution to the use of ICT in facilitating professional development. In addition, the participant organisations benefitted directly from being part of the study. The development of an alternative way to engage staff in professional development activities saves time and financial resources, and engaging in actual peer consulting sessions offered participants the opportunity to further develop their respective professional capabilities.

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  • Engaging practices : re-thinking narrative exhibition development in light of narrative scholarship : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Arts in Museum Studies at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Lambert, Stephanie Jane McKinnon (2009)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis bridges narrative theory and the practice of developing narrative exhibitions in museums. It aims to show how an understanding of narrative theory provides a dynamic context for evaluating ongoing exhibition practices and adapting them to changing attitudes and aspirations. For practitioners within the museum sector it introduces a rich body of previously under-utilised scholarship along with a method of interfacing it with museum practice. The idea of deriving ideas for museums from other sectors is not new. Museums increasingly embraced narrative in the 1980s after seeing its value in attracting audiences to film, theatre and theme-parks. Then it was assumed that what was relevant in one sector would be equally relevant in another. However, the interim upsurge of Media Studies suggests that rigorous examination of how each medium operates is necessary in order to identify similar constraints and affordances before scholarship from one area of practice can be appropriately applied in another sector. In opening a path for museum practitioners to gain insight from narrative practitioners in other sectors, the thesis intends also to open the way for knowledge to flow from the discipline of museum studies out into other areas of narrative practice, where cross-disciplinary approaches have already gained ground. At the outset, a context is established through a review of narrative literature. Two different approaches are used. Firstly a broad review of different ways to approach narrative is carried out and a typology of narrative is developed. Secondly commonalities are identified between narrative in exhibitions and narrative practice in other media. Exhibition practices are then described in detail, focusing on experience at the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa, where research was enriched by in-depth interviews with exhibition development staff. Te Papa’s development of narrative exhibitions is traced, and two case studies demonstrate how their model is put into practice to achieve narrative delivery within the museum galleries. For museum professionals and narrative practitioners in other fields, this thesis provides an opportunity to examine processes of narrative delivery against a backdrop of theory. It makes a useful link between the museum sector and other areas of narrative practice.

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  • Taming the Wild West: a Framework for Regulating and Applying Broadcasting Standards to Internet Content in New Zealand

    Dearing, Matthew Charles (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The role of the Broadcasting Standards Authority (BSA) is to determine the areas where, and the extent to which, television and radio broadcasters' right to freedom of expression should give way to other interests that are highly valued in society. The BSA does this by applying the Codes of Broadcasting Practice, which contain standards relating to things such as good taste and decency, balance and accuracy in news and factual programmes, privacy and children's interests. Due to a combination of media convergence onto the Internet and outdated legislation, the BSA is finding itself caught in a techno-legal time gap, where it has no ability to deal with programming content provided by broadcasters via the Internet. In the not-too-distant future, the Internet will become the dominant platform of choice, both for broadcasters to provide programming content and for consumers to receive it. This dissertation examines the impact that the Internet has had on the modern media environment and the problems raised by the BSA's lack of jurisdiction to deal with programming content located on the websites of New Zealand-based broadcasters. To ensure that the BSA and the broadcasting standards regime in general does not become obsolete, this paper advocates for the BSA to be given express statutory jurisdiction to deal with complaints concerning programming content on New Zealand-based websites operated by Internet broadcasters.

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  • Effectiveness of text-based mobile learning applications: case studies in tertiary education : a thesis presented to the academic faculty, submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Information Sciences in Information Technology, Massey University

    Wang, Lei (2009)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This research focuses on developing a series of mobile learning applications for future 'beyond' classroom learning environments. The thesis describes the general use pattern of the prototype and explores the key factors that could affect users‘ attitudes towards potential acceptance of the mobile learning applications. Finally, this thesis explores the user acceptance of the mobile learning applications; and investigates the mobility issue and the comparison of applying learning activities through mobile learning and e-learning.

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  • General biology and reproductive fitness of Tasmanian lacewing, Micromus tasmaniae Walker : a thesis presented in partial fulfllment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Plant Protection at the Institute of Natural Resources, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Yadav, Anand (2009)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Tasmanian lacewing, Micromus tasmaniae Walker, is an important predator of a number of economically important pests such as aphids. This study was conducted to investigate some aspects of general biology and factors affecting the reproductive fitness of this species Emergence of M. tasmaniae peaked 3 h before light off and there was no significant difference in emergence patterns between males and females. Males became sexually mature earlier than females. Mating success significantly increased from the first to the eleventh hour after lights on. Predation, development and oviposition of M. tasmaniae were affected when reared under different photoperiods [i.e. 24:0, 16:8, 12:12, 0:24 h (light:dark)]. Results indicate that no individuals entered diapause at either an immature or adult stage. M. tasmaniae larvae could feed in both the photophase and scotophase and late instar larvae consumed significantly more aphids than early instar larvae. M. tasmaniae reared at 16:8 h developed faster and had lower mortality, heavier adult body weight and higher reproductive output in terms of fecundity and fertility rate. Therefore, mass-rearing programmes are recommended to be carried out at 16:8 h to obtain the higher quality of individuals and faster increase of populations. The larger-the better theory predicts that the reproductive fitness is positively linearly associated with body size or weight. However, the body weight of female M. tasmaniae had no effect on the reproductive fitness in terms of fecundity, fertility, fertility rate, oviposition period and longevity. The male body weight may contribute to the population growth of M. tasmaniae as the average females that mated with average or heavy males had significantly higher fecundity, fertility and fertility rate and longer reproductive period. These results suggest that development of any control method that should selectively mass-produce heavy and average individuals in the laboratory would help increasing M. tasmaniae quality and populations. M. tasmaniae is a polygamous species. Results indicate that female remating either with the same or different males was crucial for maximizing their reproductive success. Males could inseminate up to eight females and father about one thousand offspring during their life span.

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  • Great transformations : Karl Polanyi and Nikolas Rose on the shifting fortunes of social strategies of government : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment for the degree of Master of Arts in Sociology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Wynyard, Matthew Adam (2009)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis seeks to make sense of the emergence of neoliberalism at the close of the twentieth century and the subsequent appearance of Third Way strategies of government in recent decades. In so doing it deals comparatively with the work of two very different, yet nevertheless both increasingly influential theorists of social change - Karl Polanyi and Nikolas Rose. In the middle decades of the twentieth century Karl Polanyi theorized what he held to be the inevitable shift from a market society to one in which the economy was embedded in a web of social relations. Some half century later in the 1990s, Nikolas Rose theorized the 'death of the social', the process by which the social logic that underpinned Western welfare states for much of the twentieth- century is giving way to a new formula for rule. Rose terms this new way of governing advanced liberalism. This thesis argues that an approach to neoliberalism and the third way that employs both Polanyi's analytical and critical tools as well as the insights gained from Nikolas Rose's governmentality studies can help to render neoliberalism both visible and contestable in new ways. Further such an approach might serve to illuminate potential paths forward.

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  • Female Scarcity and Natal Dispersal Differences Between Sexes Among Bellbirds (Anthornis melanura)

    Cresko, Hilary Misha (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Sex ratio imbalances in wild bird populations have been a challenge for wildlife managers for decades. Differences between sexes during natal dispersal has long been thought to promote sex ratio imbalances. Natal dispersal distances may differ between sexes because of competition for food and space, or intrasexual competition and aggression. I investigated natal dispersal and intrasexual competition as mechanisms for a sex ratio imbalance in a small, translocated population of a New Zealand honeyeater, the bellbird (Anthornis melanura) in the Karori Wildlife Sanctuary- Zealandia, Wellington, New Zealand. I analysed long term records of population size and structure to document annual variation in sex ratios since the reintroduction of bellbirds to Zealandia. Radio telemetry was used to track the 2008/2009 cohort of bellbirds for five months after fledging to observe movements and distances travelled from their hatching location. Observations at a supplemental food source that was used by both adults and fledglings, were used to study intrasexual competition and aggression. Dispersal distances did not differ between the sexes for any of the measurement types used. Males did however significantly dominate the use of a supplemental food source and were significantly more aggressive around this food source, which is most likely responsible for the lower feeding rate among females. Therefore, I conclude that the sex ratio imbalance in the bellbird population in Zealandia may not result from a difference in natal dispersal, but from males dominating a supplemental food source, raising their population and fitness over that of females.

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  • Developing an authoring environment for procedural task tutoring systems : a dissertation presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Computer Science at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Smith, Shamus Paul (1997)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    The use of computers in education is becoming more and more common as the price of technology drops and its general availability is increased. Unfortunately, building computer based tutoring systems is a difficult process which is fraught with many problems. A significant problem in this area is the lack of reuse of system components between computer tutor developments. This means that each new system must be started from scratch and mistakes from earlier projects can easily be repeated. A complementary difficulty is the variety of specialist skills that are required to build these systems. Typical developers do not usually possess the combination of domain, cognitive science and programming knowledge that is needed to build computer tutors. One solution to these problems is the use of an authoring environment for facilitating the building of computer based tutoring systems. This thesis presents an authoring tool for the construction of computer based tutoring systems teaching procedural tasks in a discovery learning environment. TANDEM (Task ANd Domain Environment Model) provides tools for domain and task definition, sub-domain definition and a domain independent tutoring engine. It is argued that such an environment can provide a non-expert user with access to advanced techniques from artificial intelligence research for knowledge acquisition and representation. Several tasks from the construction process have been automated, thus simplifying this activity. The use of sub-domain partitioning has been considered and techniques for the integration of custom built domain interfaces are described. Also, it is proposed that by providing a domain independent tutoring engine, reuse can be encouraged over numerous domains which can reduce the development time required to build these systems.

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  • Job design and wellness in New Zealand Contact Centres: a paradigm shift or same old management? : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the postgraduate degree of Master of Business Studies, Human Resource Management at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Boyte, Karen-Ann (2009)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The impact of the Contact Centre workplace upon employee satisfaction or wellness is attracting the attention of researchers across the globe. Over 10 years of research has resulted in recommendations about how Contact Centres should be managed and how the jobs of Contact Centre agents should be designed. There is growing concern that the current practices result in significant psychosocial risk factors which are ultimately harming the Contact Agents and less obviously the bottom line of their organisations through emotional exhaustion, stress, employee absenteeism and turnover. The aim of this study was to explore whether Contact Centre managers were aware of these recommendations, in particular those relating to the design of motivating, satisfying and “healthy” jobs. Using an expanded Job Characteristic Model, this descriptive study explored the level of awareness of New Zealand Contact Centre managers (n=20) regarding the recommendations about the design of jobs, and what changes, if any, have occurred as a result. Where changes have not been forthcoming, the study explored the constraints which were preventing or limiting change. The results of this study indicated that there is a low level of awareness of the research recommendations, that approaches to improving the management and design of Contact Centre agents roles are ad hoc, and that there is a level of resistance in providing agents with autonomy to manage their day to day roles. Some efforts to increase task and skill variety have been made but these are also ad hoc rather than built into the job. As a result of this study, it appears that Contact Centres in New Zealand are still adopting a mass production model of management. This study has implications for Contact Centre managers and senior organisational managers, these are discussed. Limitations of the research, implications for Contact Centre Managements are highlighted and areas for further research are highlighted

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  • Motion graphics and storytelling : exploring a new way of telling through contextualisation and the development of Philippe Lars Watch, a modern day fairytale : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of Master in Design at Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

    Scott, Susan Jean (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    "Process work" folder of QuickTime and MP4 video files not loaded due to file size; "Sourced works discussed in essay" folder of video files not loaded due to copyright reasons. Both available with hard copy in the library.

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