88,600 results

  • “There are risks to be taken and some just push it too far”: A mixed methods exploration of human risk factors in agricultural quad-bike incidents in New Zealand

    Clay, Lynne (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Quad-bike incidents are a major cause of occupational injury and fatality on New Zealand farms, warranting health and safety attention. Factors pertaining to the rider, quad-bike and environment have been identified as contributors in agricultural quad-bike incident risk. However, how farmers make behavioural decisions regarding quad-bike risk is unknown. Relying on farmers’ knowledge of the risks as a mechanism for adopting more precautionary behaviours appears ineffective. The overall aim of this research was to explore how human factors impact on farmers’ personal risk perception of experiencing a quad-bike incident whilst working. This research was approached in two phases, moving from quantitative to qualitative inquiry. Phase 1 involved a face-to-face structured survey of 216 farmers. The relationship between the number of self-reported quad-bike loss of control events (LCEs) experienced in a working lifetime and standardised measures of unrealistic optimism (UO), fatalism and propensity to risk-taking was investigated using Poisson regression analysis. Open-text data relating to participants’ descriptions of LCEs and how they perceived quad-bike training courses were analysed using qualitative content analysis (QCA). Phase 2 used grounded theory methods to explore how farmers perceived risk using semi-structured interviews with eight farmers purposively sampled from those who took part in Phase 1. In Phase 1, the regression model of best fit to predict LCE included UO (Incident rate ratio (IRR) 0.84, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.94), impulsive sensation-seeking (IRR 1.08, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.16), younger age (IRR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97 to 0.99) and being male (IRR 4.00, 95% CI 2.15 to 7.44). Unexpectedly, farmers with higher levels of UO and, thus, stronger beliefs that “it won’t happen to me”, were less likely to report LCEs. QCA of participants’ LCE descriptions further illustrated the constructs of UO, fatalism and risk-taking, with the latter identified more frequently and suggestive of farmers finding themselves in risky situations, which they then had to deal with, rather than risk-seeking behaviour per se. Farmers wanted quad-bike training courses that address risky scenarios in realistic environments with credible trainers. In Phase 2, farmers’ perception of personal quad-bike incident risk depended on how previous quad-bike incidents impacted on the individual, their personal attributes, having responsibilities (to others and/or the job at hand) and being familiar with the quad-bike, terrain and task being performed. A grounded theory model was developed to explain a temporal aspect to risk perception: the sudden realisation that things are going wrong (‘in the moment’) versus contemplating risk beforehand (‘reflective’) which has implications for safety intervention. The combined findings suggest there is a complex interaction of factors impacting on farmers’ perception of quad-bike incident risk. Although perceiving personal susceptibility contributed to farmers adopting precautionary behaviours, this did not necessarily relate to fewer incidents. Farmers needed a degree of confidence in their ability to manage risk but too much confidence, or too little, could be problematic. ‘In the moment’, however, pressing on with the job despite (or in denial of) risk often took priority over personal safety.

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  • Resource management and Māori attitudes to water in southern New Zealand

    Williams, Jim (2006)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Pre-contact Māori regarded land and water as a single entity, with a common regime of resource management practices. Underpinning these was a world-view that involved unique spiritual concepts, the most important of which was mauri: the notion that a body of water had its own life-force. Waters were classified according to the state of their mauri. The paper outlines traditional approaches and how they are applied today.

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  • Reflections: Te Kura Unua 2006

    Reilly, Michael (2006)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    Paper presented at Te Kura Unua. Te Kura Unua is an annual research exchange hui, which brings together staff and post-graduate students from Te Tumu and Te Kawa a Māui, School of Māori Studies at Victoria University of Wellington, in an effort to share the research interest of both schools and develop collaborative research relationships between the two schools. Te Kura Unua began in 2004 and is hosted alternately every year by each school.

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  • Mai i ngā Ao e Rua – From Two Worlds : An investigation into the attitudes towards half castes in New Zealand

    Boyes, Suzanne (2006-10)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    This dissertation investigates the attitudes of others’ experienced by ‘half-caste’ or bi-ethnic people of New Zealand, that is, people who have both Māori and Pākehā heritage. The dissertation combines the personal narratives of four half-caste people, my own story, and historical/theoretical literature to illuminate this subject. The dissertation introduces the topic by firstly, discussing the current identity politics in New Zealand, which has tended to dominate the political landscape as of late, and left half-caste people between the crossfire. Secondly, I introduce part of my own story as a half-caste person in New Zealand. In Chapter one, the pre-colonial origins of attitudes towards race, intermarriage and miscegenation are examined through an analysis of religious and scientific discourses. Chapter Two provides a basic understanding of Māori and Pākehā identity as separate entities, with the aim of demonstrating the binary opposites that have informed attitudes towards half-castes in New Zealand. The third chapter outlines a number of themes regarding attitudes towards the half caste people I interviewed as part of this research. The final chapter brings together literature and interview material through the lens of a Bill of Rights for Racially Mixed People to provide an approach for looking towards the future of half-caste identity politics.

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  • Kia tū ko taikākā: Let the heartwood of Māori identity stand - An investigation into the appropriateness of the legal definition of ‘Māori’ for Māori

    Coates, Natalie (2008)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the degree of Bachelor of Arts (Honours), in Māori Studies at the University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

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  • Te Ao o te Whaikōrero

    Rewi, Poia (2005-06)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This thesis is the first to be written and submitted entirely in the Māori language only at the University of Otago.

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  • Beginning a conversation: writing a history about Mangaia

    Reilly, Michael (2005)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    Imagine the following scene: Rarotonga International Airport, the date 26 April 1988. A young Pacific historian is standing in front of a weighing machine at the domestic check in. About to place his bags on the tray, he is told that the counter staff must first weigh him. Has he heard right? But they insist and reluctantly, in front of the other passengers, his weight is carefully recorded, before his bags are checked through. The plane is finally called, and being impatient to be off he is the first passenger to arrive at the plane. But he is told off to the side by the crew, so that two students from the local theological college can enter first. Finally, after the other passengers board, he is allowed on. Forty minutes in a small two engined turbo prop high above the dark blue green sea of the Pacific, and he cannot see an island in sight. Then as the plane banks, there to the right a solid triangle of land suddenly emerges on the horizon, its coastline lapped by the rolling waves of the ocean. As the plane descends the young Pacific historian looks out of the window at the land. This is the island of Mangaia, famed amongst Pacific scholars for the learned ethnographies written about it since the nineteenth century. But the island fails to impress the historian: the land seems to comprise barren grey rocks rising up from the seas; there are no sandy inviting beaches, no coconut trees bathed by the waters in the lagoon, not even a sign of life, no habitations, no houses, nothing. Just bush and rock. Amongst the anxieties of arrival, he also experiences disappointment: the land seems desolate and forbidding.

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  • Mental Health Nurses' Understanding of the Concept of Self-Management of Borderline Personality Disorder

    Harrington, Karen (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    BACKGROUND The recovery framework is held as a mainstay in mental health to guide clinical practice. One of the main concepts of the framework is self-management. Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is arguably the most stigmatized diagnosis within mental health nursing. While mental health nurses appear to have embraced the recovery framework, they have struggled to apply this framework to nursing practice for people with a diagnosis of BPD. AIM The objective of this study was to determine what mental health nurses understood the concept of self-management to mean in relation to a service user with a diagnosis of BPD. METHOD A sample of ten mental health nurses working within a large District Health Board Specialist Mental Health Services was interviewed using a semi-structured interview format. The data generated from these interviews was analysed using the general inductive approach resulting in 26 sub-themes. These sub-themes were the varying concepts that participants understood to be self-management and were organised into three over-arching themes. RESULTS The three resulting themes from the study were: self-management is self-responsibility; second, that self-management is self-awareness; and third, that self-management is maintaining safety. CONCLUSION The three themes represented the diverse understanding of self-management held by the study participants. The first and second themes, self-management is self-responsibility and self-management is increasing self-awareness, both fit with the recovery philosophy of client empowerment and required nurses to move from the paternalistic, dominant, medical model. The third theme, self-management is maintaining safety, did not fit with the recovery model. Nurses practicing with a goal of maintaining client safety as self-management, have yet to break free from the aforementioned parochial model and question the use of power employed as well as the goal of their practice. Nurses may have been unaware of the underlying beliefs and assumptions that have shaped their practice and may benefit from a reflective style of supervision. Nurses’ understanding of the concept of self-management for people with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder was embedded in their practice and influenced the roles that they and the person played in their recovery journey.

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  • Māori "Conversion" to the Rule of Law and Nineteenth-Century Imperial Loyalties

    Paterson, Lachy (2008-06)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Missionaries were among the first Europeans to interact with the New Zealand Māori, bringing an evangelical message with a strict set of "laws" for Māori to follow. Māori, whose own religious beliefs required rigid observance to ritual, took time to convert to missionary Christianity but, like many Oceanic peoples, did so with fervour, regulating their daily lives according to the Laws of the missionaries’ God. With the advent of British rule in New Zealand in 1840, the Treaty of Waitangi gave Māori the same rights as British subjects, but also (in the Māori-language version) guaranteed tribal autonomy. As the British administration established itself, it slowly attempted to bring Māori under the authority of the Queen's Laws, using persuasion rather than force. This article, using Māori-language newspapers of the mid-nineteenth century, discusses how some Māori approached the question of Law in a similar way to how they had converted to Christianity. This was partly due to their own, now Christianised, worldview, but it was also due to how the colonial authorities presented the principles of Law to them.

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  • Ngā reo o ngā niupepa: Māori language newspapers 1855-1863

    Paterson, Lachlan (2004-06-23)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This thesis is also available in te reo Māori (the Māori language).

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  • Kā Uri ā Papatūānuku: An investigation of pre-contact resource management in Te Wāi Pounamu

    Mules, Rangimarie (2007-10)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Is the common perception that all indigenous peoples are innately harmonious a true depiction of reality? This research project aims to diffuse this theory. Its prime focus is to explore this notion of conservation in relation to southern Māori, and how, or if, such norms did indeed evolve within pre-contact southern Māori society. Upon arrival into the less biddable environment of Te Wāi Pounamu life proved to be very difficult for these Polynesian voyagers. Te Wāi Pounamu, a land beyond the reaches of tropical Polynesia, gave a whole new meaning to adaptation. Initial settlement was by no means an easy task, however with persistence, cultural divergence transpired. What once were Polynesian voyagers, at home on the ocean, became a uniquely shaped people in accordance to the environmental circumstance of Te Wāi Pounamu. Cultural concepts derived from Polynesia were adapted to give explanation to the new phenomena of Te Wāi Pounamu. Through implementation of such belief systems into everyday life, southern Māori developed a balance between human and their environment. The central aim of this dissertation is to explore the past in order to give meaning to the future. It examines how southern Māori may have adapted their physical, spiritual and cognitive development to suit the environment in which they dwelt, consequently suggesting that the land influenced humans more than humans may have influenced the land.

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  • Māori Perspectives on the Foreshore and Seabed Debate: A Dunedin Case Study

    Suszko, Abby (2005)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    On 19 June 2003, the Court of Appeal ruled that the Māori Land Court had the power to decide foreshore and seabed claims lodged by Māori and to determine ownership. The decision also ruled that the Crown’s assumption of sovereignty was radical and thus it did not extinguish Māori title to land, including the foreshore and seabed. Although not a revolutionary decision, the Court’s ruling launched the nation into a fierce debate, bringing up the issues of beach access and ownership, public interest, customary usage, rights and title, aboriginal, or native, title, Indigenous rights, ‘the public domain’, Crown authority and the Treaty of Waitangi. All these arguments became entwined with political considerations. The mainstream media widely broadcast claims that Māori would restrict access, alienate the foreshore and seabed and veto development, resulting in fear from many Pākehā that they had lost their right to go to the beach. The Government reacted severely, choosing to change the law so to place the foreshore and seabed in Crown hands. Although the mainstream media acknowledged that the majority of Māori were against the proposed legislation, the reasons for this were never explained. Through this dissertation I will show that there is a plethora of reasons for Māori dissension. I also argue that for Māori, the key issues in the debate are not those portrayed in the mainstream media.

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  • Poia atu / mai (?) taku poi – The Polynesian Origins of Poi

    Paringatai, Karyn (2005-11)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    Poi is recognised around the world as a performance item unique to Māori. The word poi refers to a Māori dance or game performed with a ball-like object, to which a cord of varying length is attached. Poi refers to both the ball and the dance, which normally includes hitting and swinging the ball on its string, usually accompanied by music or a chant of some kind. One of New Zealand’s most renowned anthropologists, Sir Peter Buck, who was an authoritative figure spearheading the research into the material culture of the Māori, states that “the women’s poi dance … used an accessory in the form of the poi ball which is unique for Polynesia.” This is a common view of poi. However, this paper questions the uniqueness of poi to the Māori people by showing that the origins of poi can be found in other regions of Polynesia. Specifically, it will trace the movement of poi from Western to Eastern Polynesia; the same path taken by Māori during their migration to New Zealand. It will look at ball games from islands throughout Polynesia with forms and functions similar to those of poi to demonstrate the evolution of poi towards its use in Māori society. Poia atu taku poi, wania atu taku poi (swing far my poi, skim onward my poi) are the age-old words used figuratively in poi compositions to send the poi on a journey over the land and its people; visiting mountains, rivers, forests, villages, whānau (families), hapü (sub-tribes), and iwi (tribes). The words demonstrate the importance of the connections a composer of poi compositions has with each of the above entities. Using this saying I pose the question: Poia atu taku poi? Poia mai taku poi? Did Māori send the poi to the world or was the poi sent to them?

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  • Ngā Tari Māori ki te Ao: Māori Studies in the World

    Reilly, Michael (2008)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    Paper presented at Te Kāhui Kura Māori (Schools of Māori Studies Assembly) held at Te Kawa a Māui, School of Māori Studies at Victoria University of Wellington.

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  • An exploration of the use of videotaped teaching and dialogue to support preservice teachers to critically reflect on their emerging teaching practice

    Tilson, Jane Jennifer (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    How teacher educators can support preservice teachers to critically reflect on their teaching practice forms the primary focus of this thesis. Internationally, teacher education programmes have shown enormous interest in supporting preservice teachers to think critically about their teaching practice. However, problematically for teacher educators, the terms reflective and critically reflective practice remain ill defined and are frequently used interchangeably. Academic literature often describes the focus of reflective practice at a personal level, for example, one’s beliefs, assumptions and practices. This thesis, however, asserts a critically reflective practitioner is prepared to focus their critique at both a personal and societal level. Furthermore, this thesis argues a critically reflective teacher can make teaching decisions informed by their critical reflection on their personal beliefs, formal theoretical frameworks, and on the multiple institutional, cultural, social and political assumptions underpinning their practice, in order to rationalise a foundation for teaching practice. The reflective practice literature suggests critically reflecting on one’s teaching cannot be assumed as an innate skill. This thesis investigated a key challenge for teacher educators, can critically reflective practice be taught to prospective teachers, and if so, how? Underpinned by critical theory, this qualitative study examined whether asking preservice teachers to discuss their personal beliefs, formal theories and wider societal factors around their videotaped teaching practice did, or did not support their critical reflection. In the full study, across one academic year, six preservice teachers participated in an initial interview, three interviews using their videotaped teaching as a prompt for reflection and an exit interview. The main form of data, audiotaped interviews were analysed using a qualitative data management tool HyperRESEARCH. Themes from that analysis informed a generic structure used to report participant’s individual findings as vignettes. A second major focus of inquiry for this research project was on the role of dialogue, and how dialogue does, or does not support critical reflection. A number of studies have examined audiotaped transcripts of preservice teachers’ speech or monologue around their videotaped teaching. This study, using Fairclough’s (1995) model of critical discourse analysis, analysed how dialogue between the preservice teacher and the researcher did, or did not support them to critically reflect on their videotaped teaching practice. Findings from the project raised important implications for teacher educators. These were: while all six preservice teachers drew upon personal beliefs, formal theory and wider factors to critically reflect on their teaching, they did so in surprisingly unique ways, and it is a mistake to assume that preservice teachers will independently make theory to practice connections. When using videotaped teaching, all participants recommended having multiple opportunities to view themselves teach, in order that they can target areas of their practice to refine, and across time evidence and own resultant changes in their practice. Reported findings suggest that unless preservice teachers were asked to discuss wider societal factors impacting their practice, this was an area at risk of remaining invisible and silent. When mentoring preservice teachers’ critical reflection, it appears dialogue is a crucial but complex factor. This thesis highlights dialogue strategies that did, and did not support preservice teachers’ critically reflective dialogue. In conclusion, the thesis poses a range of questions to support teacher educators to critically consider how they mentor preservice teachers’ critically reflective thinking around their teaching practice.

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  • Indigenous Legal Traditions: Looking at ways to reconcile aboriginal law and common law. A practical and principled approach.

    Warbrick, Paerau (2008-03-05)

    Conference item
    University of Otago

    It is rather late in the day to say that customary law and aboriginal law does not form part of the common law system in the twenty-first century. The adoption by the United Nations of the Declaration of Indigenous Rights last year, and barely a fortnight ago the apology by Australia to the lost generations of Aboriginal children, are examples of the tide flowing towards recognition of more and more indigenous rights. With this sort of development in the political and social arena, the common law cannot insulate itself from this change. The first task in reconciling Aboriginal law and the common law is to identify aboriginal law. This will involve reverting to historical and contemporary written and oral sources, as well as an understanding of the original aboriginal words themselves. The task will also inevitably involve labeling of indigenous customary practices or social phenomena as in fact law for purely twenty-first century purposes. When one is faced with any competing, conflicting or even consistency between aboriginal law and the common law, we must look to the various principles, interests and values that such laws are based upon. This is to enable a proper weighing of those principles. Certain principles will ascend others depending upon the facts and circumstances. The process of weighing will ultimately involve value judgments on the part of the examiner.

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  • The physicality of Māori message transmission - Ko te tinana, he waka tuku kōrero

    Matthews, Nathan (2004-12)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    This article explores the transmission of meaning via the body in the Māori performing arts through the medium of haka (Māori posture dances). Both the physical and spiritual aspects of Māori performance will be explored to determine the ideals of effective performance within the Māori world. Haka is an art form with various classes and subclasses; and this article describes these classes and subclasses in relation to their function and physical form. This analysis will highlight the ability and potency of haka to transmit social and political messages. Moreover, I will examine the specific bodily actions and movements associated with Māori performance with regard to the way in which it is used to emphasise, physically articulate and consequently enhance the verbal performance and overall transmission of meaning. Performing arts fulfilled a wide variety of social and political functions in traditional Māori society. These functions included welcoming guests (haka pōwhiri – haka of welcome), fare-welling and mourning the deceased (waiata tangi laments), attracting a mate (waiata whaiāipo – “sweetheart songs”), giving advice or instructions (waiata tohutohu – message bearing songs), restoring self-respect (pātere – fast chants), intimidating an adversary (peruperu – war dance) and the transmission and making public of social and political messages (haka taparahi, ngeri – ceremonial haka). Regardless of function, the key aspect in Māori performing arts was the words and the message they contained. However, it was the body that was the instrument and vessel of delivery. The haka, as one form of performing art, is a posture dance accompanied by chanted or shouted song. Haka are often performed by groups of men, and increasingly today by groups of men and women. One of the main characteristics of haka are that actions involving all parts of the body are used to emphasise the words.

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  • Race tactics: The racialised athletic body

    Hokowhitu, Brendan (2003-12)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    In the nineteenth century, the savage was an instance of the primordial primitive, a living fossil signifying past imperfection healed by time in the emerging evolution. In the twentieth century, the savage was no longer even primitive. She was only data and evidence. In the twenty-first century, the savage Other is still an allegorical figure that represents what the civilised Self is not. However, in mainstream Western culture at least, racism no longer has the overt brutality of its predecessor, the twentieth century. Today racism tends to be veiled within positively framed cultural clichés that enable a global Western culture, which preaches freedom for all, to maintain its façade. One of the most significant sites where this neo-racism exists is in images of the racialised athletic body. The image of the coloured body soaring above adversity into the echelons of sporting success is a powerful symbol of freedom and hope, but ironically, it shackles people of colour to the physical realm and prevents them from being self-determining. We should question those ‘terminal truths’ that make it natural for people to think of the person of colour as inherently good at sport. This article employs poststructuralism to deconstruct the bodies of athletes of colour, which are viewed as genealogical representations of power that have their roots in eighteenth and nineteenth century bio-racist discourses. The central premise of this article is that over time, the body of the athlete of colour has consistently corresponded with the dominant discourse on race by transformation or mutation, enabling it to provide an allegorical juxtaposition for the transitory Self. I begin by describing the debate regarding the predominant success of athletes of colour as largely apolitical, situated within the tenets of modernism and, hence, from a poststructural perspective, merely a buttress for the subjugation of people of colour. I then reframe the debate within a political and poststructural paradigm, suggesting that the racialised athletic body functions to Otherise people of colour. The discussion that follows describes a discursive genealogical representation of the coloured body as inherently physical and one that is steeped in Social Darwinism. Sport is then shown to be a contemporary conduit of this genealogical representation. The constructed body of the athlete of colour is depicted as a neo-racist representation because it is an optimistic portrayal of empowerment that ironically serves to further limit people of colour to their embodied physicality and limited intelligence.

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  • Puna Kei‘ā: Te au tangata ē te ‘enua – The district of Kei‘ā: The people and the land

    Reilly, Michael (2006)

    Conference item
    University of Otago

    A seminar presented to INGX 501 – Indigenous Theory and Method. This paper is a core requirement of the Master of Indigenous Studies (MIndS), an online degree offered by Te Tumu. For further information regarding this programme please visit the MIndS website – www.otago.ac.nz/minds

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  • Poia atu taku poi: Unearthing the knowledge of the past

    Paringatai, Karyn (2005-06)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    The word poi refers to a Maori dance or game performed with a ball-like object, to which a cord of varying length is attached. Poi refers to both the ball and the dance, which normally includes hitting and swinging the ball on its string, usually accompanied by music or a chant of some kind. Poia atu taku poi, wania atu taku poi (swing far my poi, skim onward my poi) are the age-old words used figuratively in poi compositions to send the poi on a journey over the land and its people; visiting mountains, rivers, forests, villages, whanau (families), hapu (subtribes), and iwi (tribes). The words demonstrate the importance of the connections a composer of poi compositions has with each of the above entities. Poi is recognised around the world as a performance item unique to Maori. This article questions the uniqueness of poi to the Maori people by showing that the origins of poi can be found in other regions of Polynesia. Specifically, this article will look at the beginnings of poi in Polynesia, tracing its movement from Western to Eastern Polynesia; the same path taken by Maori during their migration to New Zealand. This article will also look at games and dances from islands throughout Polynesia with forms and functions similar to those of poi to demonstrate the evolution of poi towards the forms known and used in contemporary Maori society.

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