82,930 results

  • The effects of supplemental vitamin E and selenium on feline immunity : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Nutritional Science at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    O'Brien, Teresa J (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Both vitamin E and selenium are essential for optimal immune function and their supplementation in the diet is known to enhance various immune parameters in many species. Immune function may be enhanced further by their combined supplementation (Kubena & McMurray, 1996). There have been very few studies on the effects of vitamin E supplementation on immune function in the cat and it appears that vitamin E does not produce the same enhancement of immune parameters that has been found in other species, although older cats may benefit from supplementation (Hayek et al., 2000). No studies have investigated the effects of selenium supplementation or of combined vitamin E and selenium supplementation on immune function in the cat. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of both single and combined supplementation of vitamin E and selenium on immune function in the cat. The 4 week study followed a 3x3 factorial design with 9 diets, including a control or basal diet containing 68.2 IU/kg DM Vitamin E and 0.38 mg/kg DM selenium, and 8 diets supplemented with moderate or high levels of Vitamin E (250 or 500IU/kg DM diet) and/ or Selenium (2 or 10mg/kg DM diet). Blood samples were analysed for immune cell phenotype expression, lymphocyte proliferation to concanavalin A and phytohaemagglutinin, phagocytosis, immunoglobulin G concentration and prostaglandin E2 concentration. Results were analysed in SAS by mixed procedure repeated measures analysis. Vitamin E supplementation at both a moderate and high level were found to significantly increase lymphocyte proliferative responses to concanavalin A and phytohaemagglutinin, whether or not selenium was supplemented in the diet. Phagocytic activity was significantly in increased by vitamin E and combined vitamin E and selenium supplementation. Selenium supplementation alone had no significant effect on any of the immune parameters measured. None of the supplemental diets were found to have a significant effect on the expression of immune cell phenotypes, immunoglobulin G concentration or prostaglandin E2 concentration. Overall, a moderate level (250 IU/kg DM) of vitamin E supplementation may benefit feline immune health when supplemented in the diet. A higher level of vitamin E supplementation is unlikely to offer any added benefit to immune health and would add unnecessary cost to the manufacture of the diet. Selenium supplementation appears to offer no benefit to immune health in cats.

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  • Social development outcomes of participation in the New Zealand Recognised Seasonal Employer (RSE) scheme for ni-Vanuatu seasonal migrant workers : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Development Studies at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Cameron, Ed (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis is focused on the New Zealand Recognised Seasonal Employer (RSE) scheme which enables low-skilled seasonal migrant workers, primarily from the Pacific Islands, to work temporarily in New Zealand’s horticulture and viticulture industries. This study examines how seasonal work schemes contribute to the social development of participating workers and their families, and therefore links to previous research that tended to focus on the positive economic development outcomes for workers, their families and communities. The primary focus of this study is on the experiences of ni-Vanuatu migrant workers. Fieldwork, utilising qualitative research methods, was conducted in two field sites – vineyards of Blenheim, New Zealand, and Tanna Island, Vanuatu. Findings suggest that the scheme is delivering social and economic benefits to participating ni-Vanuatu migrants and their families. Furthermore, migrants gain skills and knowledge, particularly in relation to their management of time and money. Although not always directly transferable to Vanuatu, the skills and knowledge gained by migrants enable their success during repeat RSE contracts in New Zealand, reflecting migrants’ cultural adaptability; the ability to move and adjust successfully to the cultural settings of both Vanuatu and New Zealand. Alongside these positive development outcomes, there are power issues at play within the RSE scheme which result in the ni-Vanuatu migrants becoming dependent on pastoral care support, and involved in a submissive relationship with their RSE employers. Positively, with the increasing independence of experienced migrants, this situation is beginning to change. Nevertheless, with the success of experienced migrants comes a caution: if a group of experienced circulating migrants come to dominate participation in the RSE scheme, opportunities for first-time migrants to participate will be reduced, and inequitable development outcomes at the grassroots level in Vanuatu may result. It would seem then, that with equitable consideration of future recruitment, the RSE scheme may continue to deliver benefits to participating migrants and their families, as well as to Vanuatu and New Zealand.

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  • Should Oscar Pistorius be Allowed to Compete at the Olympic Games?

    Davidson, Terence (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    On the 4th of August 2012 South African runner Oscar Pistorius became the first athlete to compete at the Olympic Games while running on prosthetic limbs. Pistorius is a double below the knee amputee who runs on carbon J-shaped fibre blades. He represents a fusion of humanity and technology that will become an increasingly pressing issue for the sporting arena in the coming years. In this essay I use Pistorius as a case study to investigate how decisions regarding the use of enhancement technologies in sport should be made. I argue that the key characteristic that should be assessed is whether Pistorius' prosthetic legs mean that he is competing in a different sport to able-bodied athletes when he runs. I contend that the best method for deciding whether or not Pistorius is competing in the same sport as able-bodied athletes is to adopt a balance of excellences view of sport (Devine, 2010). I use this model to show that the excellence of exploiting technical aids is far more important for Pistorius than it is for his able-bodied counterparts. From this I conclude that what Pistorius does when he runs is not comparable to able-bodied runners. Thus he should not be allowed to compete against able-bodied athletes at the Olympic Games.

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  • Understanding Inequality in Chile: A Revisited Dependency Analysis of Education

    Kennedy, Colin M. (2013)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis makes a case for a revisited dependency analysis in understanding how socio-economic inequality is produced and reproduced. It illustrates that a succession of Chilean governments has been unable, despite policies from across the full political spectrum, to disrupt the processes of disparity. As the study spans a considerable timeframe, the research is divided into two sections: 1964 – 1989 and 1990 – 2010. The data from the initial time period reveals that levels of inequality remained as high as at any other time in the previous thirty years. The return to democracy under the Concertación (1990 – 2010) brought a policy emphasis to reduce inequality, but the impact was also less than what had been hoped for. The research uses descriptive statistics to track persistent patterns of inequality in contexts such as income, healthcare, employment and education. This is combined with interviews with various academics and policy-makers concerning their perceptions of the roots and consequences of Chilean inequality, and their opinions regarding the impact of various policies upon it. Despite the considerable amount of existing research addressing socio-economic inequality there is a conspicuous gap in the literature regarding the role of dependency analysis. The thesis includes a case study of educational inequalities under the Concertación and undertakes a dependency analysis of the situation. Through this work it is evident that the features of structural heterogeneity and educational commodification, along with a failure to place social and class relations at the centre of such an approach, has prevented any progressive change. The thesis posits a set of theoretical assertions and policy recommendations that are intended to counter the criticisms that have forced dependency to the peripheries of development thinking. In summary, this research makes theoretical, empirical and policy contributions to the understanding of the processes of socio-economic disparity, within and beyond the education sector, both in Chile and elsewhere.

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  • The Adaptive Reuse of Warehouse and Factory Buildings into Residential Living Spaces in Wellington, New Zealand

    Kouzminova, Anya (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Adaptive reuse does not only mean successfully putting new uses into an old shell. At best the impression is given that a building at the moment of its conversion has finally achieved its true destiny. Constructed during the industrial era, often utilitarian and non-descript in their design, warehouse and factory buildings were constructed to store and manufacture goods. Upon their obsolescence, due to containerisation, the closure of business, and subsequent dereliction through disrepair or disuse, these largely structurally sound buildings were left vacant until a cultural movement began in America, converting them into living and studio spaces. The adaptive reuse of these buildings resulted in a new programme, which was to provide residence and ‘store’ people. Much later, in the 1990s this movement spread to Wellington, New Zealand. This delay raises the issue of what makes a successful conversion of a warehouse or factory building to loft-style living space, and through which architectural approaches, criteria and methods may we examine these buildings? This thesis first examines pioneering examples of loft and warehouse living in SoHo, New York, from the initial subversive beginnings of the movement, when artists illegally occupied these spaces. It looks at the gentrification of neighbourhoods and how the loft eventually emerged as a highly sought after architectural living space, first in SoHo, New York before spreading globally to Wellington, New Zealand. Four Wellington warehouse and factory buildings that were converted into residential living spaces are examined and compared. The aim is to understand the conversion process and necessary strategies required to instil a new architectural programme within an existing warehouse or factory building, recognising the unique conditions in such converted architectural spaces. A reused, converted warehouse or former factory can acquire characteristics unique to that building: a certain patina of age, a residue of industrial history, imbedded qualities of surface, a unique architectural structure, as well as the location of the building itself. The case studies show how these imbedded characteristics, can be preserved when the building is converted, thereby retaining the building’s former history while providing a new function. This thesis then analyses whether any commonalities and differences in warehouse and factory living existed between Wellington and SoHo New York, in terms of the evolution of the cultural movement and architectural design. The thesis shows that successful approaches to conversion of factories or warehouses can both save the buildings from demolition, preserve and highlight their heritage and create an architecturally unique space, with inherent qualities that cannot be recreated in a new building. Thus, only upon conversion, can the building gain a sense that it has achieved its true destiny.

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  • The influence of grooming style on recruiters' evaluations of female applicants for a managerial position : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements of Master of Business Studies in Communication Management, at Massey University, Palmerston North

    Heke, Joanna (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    In an ideal world, employment assessments would only be based on rational decision-making involving, for example, the evaluation of employment history, education, references and demonstrable experience (Kyle & Mahler, 1996). However, physical appearance plays a significant role in interpersonal communications because it functions as a readily available source of nonverbal information (Graham & Jouhar, 1980). The aim of this research project was to examine how employment decisions regarding women in management might be influenced by gender-related aspects of women’s grooming style. Evaluations from 114 British recruitment consultants were used to determine the influence of cosmetics, hairstyle and eyeglasses on impressions and evaluations of a female managerial job applicant. Eight variations of cosmetics, hairstyle and eyeglasses were used in the experimental treatments. Recruitment consultants viewed an identical job description and Curriculum Vitae for the fictional job applicant with one of the eight head and shoulders colour photos attached, and rated the job applicant on a number of impressions related to personal qualities and employment potential. The data gained were analysed using analysis of variance. Results indicated that amendments to the grooming conditions did not significantly affect perceptions of employment potential, competence, independence or recommendations of salary. However, there were some significant main effects of femininity and masculinity related to the job applicant’s hairstyle and the respondents’ gender. Hairstyle changes had the strongest impact on the model’s perceived femininity and masculinity, with long hair significantly enhancing perceived femininity. Interestingly, female respondents gave significantly higher masculinity ratings to the job applicant than did male iii respondents. There were also a number of other significant two-way interactions that serve to consolidate the main grooming interactions found regarding femininity and masculinity. The two-way interaction between hairstyle and eyeglasses was significant for the reactions concerning ‘employment potential’, ‘would work well under direction’ and ‘practical’, and came near significance for the participants’ impressions of ‘competence’. In responding to all of these differently presented views of the same person, under the impressions listed above, it appears that respondents gave higher scores when they viewed the job applicant with a balance of grooming elements that were masculine (hair up, eyeglasses and no cosmetics) and feminine (hair down, no eyeglasses and cosmetics). Therefore, a job applicant with a very feminine appearance is perhaps not seen as appropriate for a managerial role compared with a moderately feminine-seeming applicant and likewise, a very masculine appearance may also be considered a less likely indicator of future success in a managerial role.

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  • Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) as a remediation species for biosolids amended land : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Soil Science at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Prosser, Jennifer Ann (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The application of biowastes such as biosolids to land is a viable means of recycling valuable nutrients in an otherwise useless waste product. With this practice comes the risk of introducing contaminants such as heavy metals and pathogenic microorganisms into the soil system, posing a risk to humans and animals. A landmanagement system is needed to mitigate any potential risk. One such system finding application at many locations around the world is phytoremediation, the use of plants to remove, degrade or render harmless environmental contaminants. The plant species Leptospermum scoparium (Manuka) is a hardy native New Zealand plant resistant to heavy metals, with the ability to grow on degraded and erosion prone sites, and encourage re-vegetation in zones of impaired soil quality. In addition, manuka products have been shown to have antiseptic and antimicrobial properties. The aim of this research was to investigate the potential use of manuka in the remediation of contaminated land, through the use of manuka’s antiseptic properties to aid in pathogen control, and on the extraction or stabilisation of heavy metals in soil. Experiments were carried out using water extracts of manuka, as well as soil from underneath manuka stands, to test for antimicrobial activity of manuka against a number of pathogenic bacteria potentially found in biosolids. Results found that the presence of prepared manuka-water extracts significantly reduced the growth of the five bacterial strains tested, in some cases exhibiting complete die off. However, in-situ effects of antimicrobial ability in soil from underneath manuka were not observed. Further research using whole plants, and different plant components would be useful. Research was also conducted to investigate the effect of manuka growth on Zn and Cu bioavailability in soil. Three plant species, (manuka, Coprosma robusta and rye grass), were grown for six months and one year in Zn - and Cu - spiked soil to assess their effect on metal availability. Results clearly showed that the three plant species investigated differ in their ability to uptake and accumulate both metals, but have no apparent effect on HM bioavailbility over a one year time period. The experiments in this research were able to closely evaluate the potential of manuka as a remediation species for biosolids-amended land. Results indicate that further research into the potential use of manuka in this way is warranted, particularly with respect to manuka’s ability to manage levels of pathogenic soil microorganisms. In addition, manuka components are economically valuable, and in future, biosolids disposal systems may be able to combine with that of manuka production to produce a sustainable disposal system with potential for economic return. The solution may be to develop manuka plantations on otherwise unuseable land, where biosolids application can help recondition soil and enhance manuka growth, whilst manuka acts as a means of ‘treating’ both the bacterial and inorganic contaminants in the biosolids. Continual leaf fall or rotational cropping and mulching of manuka biomass would aid in the attenuation of introduced bacteria, and manuka roots may help stabilise metals. In an age where waste reduction and contaminant control are top priority, remediation systems such as this may represent an economically, socially and environmentally acceptable solution.

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  • Investigation of the immunostimulatory effects of some New Zealand honeys and characterization of an active component : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology in Food Technology at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Gannabathula, Swapna (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Medicinal use of honey has re-emerged recently indicating that honey accelerates wound healing activity. Honey has been shown to stimulate TNF-α production from monocytes and macrophages which is apparently correlated with a high molecular weight fraction, and not lipopolysaccharide (LPS, an immunostimulatory endotoxin) levels. Cytokine production by honey has been attributed to the endotoxin content. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of Comvita sourced honeys to elicit a TNF-α cytokine response from acute monocytic leukemia (THP-1) cells as well as identify the responsible component. Five honey samples were used together with sugar and methylglyoxal controls. The samples were incubated with THP-1 cells, with and without LPS. After incubation, the cell culture supernatants were collected and TNF-α was measured by the enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA). The most active honey samples were further heat-treated to remove enzyme/protein/peptide-like stimulation; the samples were treated with polymixin [i.e. polymyxin] B (PmB) to remove LPS-like stimulation and not protein fraction. The samples were then filtered by molecular weight centrifugal filters to separate constituents according to their size and the fractions were re-analysed. All five honey samples in the absence of LPS stimulated TNF-α release from THP-1 cells, whereas untreated, sugar- and methylglyoxal-treated cells did not. The cytokine production was partially inhibited by heating, but mostly by PmB. In the filtered honey samples, the activity was observed in the >30 kDa fraction. These results suggest that the activity may be associated with one or more components which are partially heat-labile, LPS-like stimulated with a high molecular weight. Further, honey samples were analyzed for the concentration of LPS present. The tests revealed that the cytokine stimulation was higher than would be expected from the concentration of LPS present in the honey. The possibility that this component was a plant-derived ß-glucan, which is known to have LPS-like activity and can interfere with detection of LPS in the LAL assay, was investigated. Subsequent analyses confirmed the presence of arabinogalactan, a large complex carbohydrate. The data presented in this study suggests that arabinogalactans in honey may stimulate inflammatory responses and the release of cytokines that are crucial in regulating wound- healing. This heralds a significant advancement in the usage and understanding of medicinal honey.

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  • Educative Mentoring: Challenges and Enablers of Implementation in an Intermediate School Context

    Patterson, Sarah Catherine Mary (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    An effective mentoring programme has a positive effect on the quality of teaching, student achievement, the retention of trained teachers and the teaching profession as a whole and the importance of mentoring beginning teachers cannot be overstated. Recently, there has been a shift in thinking on the most effective way to mentor beginning teachers. This shift has been away from a mentoring approach that only provides support and guidance towards educative mentoring which both challenges and transforms teaching practice and is based on a co-constructed learning relationship. In 2012, the New Zealand Teachers Council introduced guidelines into schools to assist mentor teachers in the educative mentoring of beginning teachers. The purpose of this case study was to examine how effectively one intermediate school was implementing these guidelines, identify challenges involved in the implementation process and describe the conditions necessary to support effective, educative mentoring. To answer the research questions, data was collected through an on-line survey, focus groups and an interview. The findings indicated that while both the mentors and beginning teachers felt that the guidelines were being implemented, neither group believed the mentoring process at the school was particularly effective. The biggest challenge to the implementation of the guidelines was differing perceptions of the purpose and potential of a mentoring programme. The beginning teachers, mentor teachers and principal all held differing views on the purpose of mentoring, leading to other challenges including the lack of clarity around procedures and expectations and tension between assistance and assessment.

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  • Radical spaces: New Zealand's resistance bookshops, 1969-1977

    Simpson, Megan (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    ‘Radical Spaces’ explores the Resistance Bookshops and their place within the culture of protest and radical politics in New Zealand between 1969 and 1977. The bookshops, which were set up by activists in Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch aimed to raise consciousness about political issues by selling political and countercultural texts which had limited availability in New Zealand. These ‘radical spaces’ of the 1970s are closely examined, looking at specific political campaigns, the interconnections between the groups and individuals involved, and the role that the Resistance Bookshops played in supporting the radical political momentum that flourished in New Zealand from the late 1960s until the mid-1970s. For the Resistance Bookshops, distributing texts was part of the political process, it was recognised that there was power in ideas and print was a leading medium for which to circulate them. This thesis examines the role of print as a key part in political mobilisation. All radical political groups whether ‘Old Left’, ‘New Left’, feminist or anarchist used print to educate, communicate and persuade people to participate in street politics and the wider radical culture that was emerging in New Zealand during this period. The Resistance Bookshops provided a bridge between political groups and the printed material that helped shape the ideas behind individual campaigns. These spaces were instrumental in the dissemination of radical ideas and are important expressions of a ‘movement’ which placed prime importance on education as a political tool.

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  • Appropriate Transgression: An Intertextual Approach to Problems of Genre and Heroism in Statius' Achilleid

    Mason, Hanna Z. C. (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Statius’ second epic poem, the Achilleid, deals with a subject matter that is particularly problematic: Achilles’ early life, in which he is raised by a centaur in the wilderness and then disguises himself as a woman in order to rape the princess of Scyros. Recent scholarship has also pointed to other problematic elements, such as Achilles’ troublesome relationship with his mother or the epic’s intertextual engagement with elegiac and ‘un-epic’ poetry. This thesis extends such scholarship by analysing Statius’ use of transgression in particular. It focuses primarily upon the heroic character of Achilles and the generic program of the Achilleid as a whole. The first chapter focuses upon Achilles’ childhood and early youth as a foster child and student of the centaur Chiron. It demonstrates that the hero’s upbringing is used to emphasise his ambiguous nature in line with the Homeric Iliad, as a hero who is capable of acting appropriately, but chooses not to. Achilles’ wild and bestial nature is emphasised by its difference to the half-human character of Chiron, who might be expected to be act like an animal, but instead becomes an example of civilisation overcoming innate savagery, an example of what Achilles could have been. The second chapter discusses the ambiguities inherent in a study of transgression, in the light of Achilles’ transvestite episode on Scyros. Numerous intertextual allusions construct various sets of expected behaviours for the transvestite youth, but his failure to live up to any of them portrays him as a truly transgressive hero. In this way, he is similar to Hercules or Bacchus, whose heroism is constructed partly upon their transgressive natures and inability to conform to societal custom. In the final chapter, the study of transgression is extended to Statius’ generic program, associating the epic with elegy. Statius employs many elegiac tropes, and makes numerous allusions to the poetry of elegists such as Ovid and Propertius. In particular, elegiac poetry’s peculiar trope of constructing and emphasising boundaries in order that they may be crossed (thus making the poetry feel more transgressive) is mirrored in the Achilleid. In this way, the Achilleid’s engagement with transgression is considered to be, in part, a method for presenting an innately problematic hero to Statius’ Flavian audience in an accessible and interesting manner.

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  • Journeys Through Shape and Time: Palaeobiology of Cenozoic New Zealand Spissatella and Eucrassatella (Bivalvia, Crassatellidae)

    Collins, Katie Susanna (2013)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    A novel, highly-integrated approach combining morphometric, stratocladistic and sclerochronological methods has been applied to two genera of New Zealand Cenozoic crassatellid bivalve (Family Crassatellidae): Spissatella Finlay, 1926 and Eucrassatella Iredale, 1924. This study builds on previous work on Spissatella that demonstrated their amenability to shape analysis and provided a foundation for evolutionary studies of the group. The taxonomy of these crassatellids has been in need of revision; a number of changes to generic placement having been proposed in recent publications without redescription. These bivalves are character-depauperate and known only from fossil material within New Zealand, making them challenging subjects for the phylogenetic analysis that would, ideally, inform taxonomic revision. Geometric morphometric methods have been used to characterise the morphological variation of the study group in terms of shape. Landmarks/semilandmarks that capture internal hard-part morphology and external shell shape, have been compared with internal landmarks only, outline shape semilandmarks only, and outline shape Fourier transform methods, and are shown to best combine comprehensive coverage of total shell form with high correct reassignment of individuals to taxa in multidimensional morphospace. Procrustes-superimposed landmark/semilandmark configurations have been ordinated using Principal Components Analysis (PCA), and PCA plots have been used to compare the shape variation of each species. The independance in morphospace of Spissatella n. sp. C from S. trailli and S. clifdenensis has been established. Covariation of internal morphology and shell-shape has been interpreted as supporting the interdependance of shell and body/mantle proposed by Stasek (1963). PCA scores have been combined with traditional morphological characters and stratigraphic data to produce a phylogenetic tree using stratocladistics, a form of parsimony-based analysis which seeks to minimise combined morphological and stratigraphic debt. This technique also assesses the placement of taxa in ancestral positions on internal nodes of the tree. Combining discretised morphometric data with stratigraphic and morphological data in a single analysis has been shown to produce a more resolved tree than analyses based only on continuous morphometric data. The new analyses demonstrate paraphyly of both Eucrassatella and Spissatella as previously recognised. A taxonomic revision of the studied taxa has been undertaken, incorporating information from both morphometric and phylogenetic studies. Spissatella subobesa and S. maudensis are referred to Eucrassatella. Spissatella discrepans is synonymised with S. acculta. Triplicitella n. gen. and S.maxwelli n. sp. are described. Oxygen isotope analysis has been employed to show that shell-banding in these species is, on average, likely to have been laid down annually. Using this information, the longitudinal dataset of outlines from Crampton & Maxwell (2000) has been recalibrated to use chronological age rather than size to compare shape across taxa, and investigate heterochrony in twelve pairs of species representing either ancestor-descendant, sister-group or lineage-segment relationships. All of the heterochronic processes sensu Gould (1977), namely progenesis, neoteny, acceleration and hypermorphosis, as well as proportioned dwarfism and proportioned gigantism, are identified as having affected evolution within this clade.

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  • Royal Polis Policy in the Seleukid Heartland

    de L'isle, Christopher Mark (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In the Hellenistic Period most of the Greek poleis (city-states) came under the control of the Greco-Macedonian kings. The ideology of the poleis, which stressed the importance of autonomy, conflicted with the reality of royal domination. In Western Asia Minor, this conflict was resolved by presenting the relationship between king and polis as one of free association, in which the poleis were allowed a large amount of autonomy. The kings used ideas of reciprocity to tie the poleis to them and worked to make their rule as amenable as possible, while the poleis of Western Asia Minor continued to aspire to complete independence. This was not the only possible resolution of the conflict between polis autonomy and royal dominance, however. In the Seleukid heartland of Syria and Mesopotamia the Seleukids founded and maintained new poleis. By means of names, myths, and symbols, the identities of these poleis were closely linked to the Seleukid dynasty. As a result, expressions of polis identity were expressions of loyalty to the dynasty, rather than of opposition. Their internal structures were based around an alliance between the royally-appointed epistatēs and the magistrates of the city, who represented a small civic elite. Royal support was thus important to the internal power structure of these poleis. The poleis of the Seleukid heartland did not pursue full independence, even when the Seleukid royal power collapsed at the end of the Hellenistic period because, entirely unlike the poleis of Western Asia Minor, submission to a higher power was a central part of their identities and internal structures.

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  • On-campus students' remote use of Internet-based library services and resources : is there an impact on students' use of the library in-house

    Schonhagen-Broring, Angela (2001)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    With the increase of Internet access available to on-campus students and a growing number of Internet-based library services and resources available by remote access, ongoing research is necessary to monitor who the remote users are and whether remote use of the library has an impact on the use of the library in-house. This study surveyed on-campus students at the School of Education of the University of Waikato. At the beginning of April 2001 a questionnaire was distributed in a number of classes representing the different levels of the main teacher training programmes. Nearly half of all students enrolled in these programmes were surveyed. In line with findings of previous studies, this study found that a greater number of higher level and older students use the library resources and services by remote access. However, there was also evidence that younger students and students at lower levels increasingly use remote access to the library. The study did not find a clear pattern of how remote use of the library affects on-campus students' use of the library in-house, but identified some trends of remote user behaviour. There was evidence that some remote users are heavier users of the library in-house than on-campus students who use the library in-house only. On the other hand, this study also found that some remote users used the library less in-house as a result of having remote access.

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  • What is a cellphone? A tetradic odyssey : a study in media ecology : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Media Studies at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Palmer, Stephen Matthew (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study asks the question, “What is a cellphone?” Marshall McLuhan et al. jointly devised the tetrad as a method for revealing the hidden characteristics of any human medium or artefact. This study views a cellphone through the tetrad’s distinctive four-dimensional non-dialectical approach. In the process, many intriguing, surprising and even contradictory aspects come to light.

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  • Kiwi talent flow : a study of chartered accountants and business professionals overseas

    Hooks, J. J.; Carr, S. C.; Edwards, M. F.; Inkson, K.; Jackson, D. J. R.; Thorn, K. J.; Allfree, N. (2005)

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    New Zealanders have always had a propensity to travel overseas. The globalisation of the world has seen an increase in the number of people who, having completed their education and gained some work experience, set off on their overseas experience. Concern has been expressed as to the potential “brain drain” that would result should these well-educated and talented citizens remain overseas permanently. This research considers the propensity to return of over 1,500 expatriate Kiwis working in the areas of accounting and finance. It examines their demographics, attitudes, values, motivations, factors of attraction to, and repulsion from, New Zealand and their concerns for change in New Zealand. It therefore provides insights into the nature and purpose of this significant group of professionals resident mainly in the United Kingdom and Australia. We find that less than half are likely to return to New Zealand. This is because of the lack of career and business opportunities despite the “pull” of family and relations in New Zealand.

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  • Web assisted teaching: an undergraduate experience

    van Staden, C. J.; Kirk, N. E.; Hawkes, L. C. (2002)

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    The emergence of the Internet has created a number of claims as to the future of education and the possibility of dramatically changing the way in which education is delivered. Much of the attention has focussed on the adoption of teaching methods that are solely web-based. We set out to incorporate web-based teaching as support for more traditional teaching methods to improve the learning outcomes for students. This first step into web-based teaching was developed to harness the benefits of web-based teaching tools without supplanting traditional teaching methods. The aim of this paper is to report our experience with web-assisted teaching in two undergraduate courses, Accounting Information Systems and Management Accounting Services, during 2000. The paper evaluates the approach taken and proposes a tentative framework for developing future web-assisted teaching applications. We believe that web-assisted and web-based teaching are inevitable outcomes of the telecommunications and computer revolution and that academics cannot afford to become isolated from the on-line world. A considered approach is needed to ensure the integration of web-based features into the overall structure of a course. The components of the course material and the learning experiences students are exposed to need to be structured and delivered in a way that ensures they support student learning rather than replacing one form of learning with another. Therefore a careful consideration of the structure, content, level of detail and time of delivery needs to be integrated to create a course structure that provides a range of student learning experiences that are complimentary rather than competing. The feedback was positive from both extramural (distance) and internal students, demonstrating to us that web sites can be used as an effective teaching tool in support of more traditional teaching methods as well as a tool for distance education. The ability to harness the positives of the web in conjunction with more traditional teaching modes is one that should not be overlooked in the move to adopt web based instruction methods. Web-based teaching need not be seen as an all or nothing divide but can be used as a useful way of improving the range and type of learning experiences open to students. The Web challenges traditional methods and thinking but it also provides tools to develop innovative solutions to both distance and on campus learning. Further research is needed to determine how we can best meet the needs of our students while maintaining high quality learning outcomes.

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  • Drawing Conclusions: Analyzing Graphic Novels Alongside American Literacy Standards

    Virello, Molly Kathryn (2013)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Research problem: This project proposes to address how graphic novels can be applied to American Common Core State Standards, aid student achievement of those standards, and how teachers can approach teaching the graphic novel format in the classroom. It also discusses the visual attributes presented by the images of graphic novels and how those attributes might aid in visual and traditional literacy acquisition. Methodology: A qualitative approach was used to analyse a selection of graphic novel adaptations of classic texts which are used in the American High School classroom. These graphic novel adaptations were analysed using visually reinterpreted criteria and attributes from the Common Core State Standards for Reading Literature. A sample of seven graphic novels were chosen for analysis for this project. Results: The results of this study illustrate how the CCSS can be applied to the images in graphic novels and still be satisfied. The visuals in graphic novel adaptations provide concrete examples of the CCSS criteria expected to be found in text-based novels, and present a way to provide access points to difficult concepts and texts in an educational setting through a visual lens. Implications: This study provides a starting point that teachers and librarians can use to apply CCSS to graphic novels and presents one, non-exhaustive, way which teachers and librarians can apply the CCSS to the classroom. It presents a set of attributes which can be used to judge the effectiveness of a graphic novel to help students achieve CCSS. Librarians and educators may be able to use the criteria presented to build their graphic novel collections so they possess the necessary qualities to aid in student literacy acquisition. Future research on this topic should be broadened to include student testing in grade levels: 9-12, in order to ascertain if the attributes and graphic novels do promote student satisfaction of the standards and aid in visual, critical, multimodal, etc., literacy acquisition. Refining the attributes created for this study is another possibility for future research, as well as developing specific questions which link to CCSS criteria, and testing a broader sample of graphic novels which include original graphic novels, as opposed to adaptations, with the attributes presented in this study.

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  • Modelling of Planetary Gravitational Microlensing Events

    Miller, Michael L. J. (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis describes and develops procedures for the generation of theoretical lightcurves that can be used to model gravitational microlensing events that involve multiple lenses. Of particular interest are the cases involving a single lens star with one or more orbiting planets, as this has proven to be an effective way of detecting extrasolar planets. Although there is an analytical expression for microlensing lightcurves produced by single lensing body, the generation of model lightcurves for more than one lensing body requires the use of numerical techniques. The method developed here, known as the semi-analytic method, involves the analytical rearrangement of the relatively simple ‘lens equation’ to produce a high-order complex lens polynomial. Root-finding algorithms are then used to obtain the roots of this ‘lens polynomial’ in order to locate the positions of the images and calculate their magnifications. By running example microlensing events through the root-finding algorithms, both the speed and accuracy of the Laguerre and Jenkins-Traub algorithms were investigated. It was discovered that, in order to correctly identify the image positions, a method involving solutions of several ‘lens polynomials’ corresponding to different coordinate origins needed to be invoked. Multipole and polygon approximations were also developed to include finite source and limb darkening effects. The semi-analytical method and the appropriate numerical techniques were incorporated into a C++ modelling code at VUW (Victoria University of Wellington) known as mlens2. The effectiveness of the semi-analytic method was demonstrated using mlens2 to generate theoretical lightcurves for the microlensing events MOA-2009-BLG-319 and OGLE-2006-BLG-109. By comparing these theoretical lightcurves with the observed photometric data and the published models, it was demonstrated that the semi-analytic method described in this thesis is a robust and efficient method for discovering extrasolar planets.

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  • Public and private saving and the long shadow of macroeconomic shocks

    Aizenman, Joshua; Noy, Ilan (2013)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The global crisis of 2008-9 and the ongoing Euro crisis raise many questions regarding the long-term response to crises. We know that households that lost access to credit, for example, were forced to adjust and increase saving. But, will households remain bigger savers than they would have been had the global financial crisis not occurred? And for how long will this increased saving persist? We also ask similar questions about the public sector’s saving decisions. We study the degree to which past income crises increase the saving rates of affected households and the public sector. We find evidence consistent with history-dependent dynamics: more experience of past crises tends to increase savings among households, but lead to decreased public sector saving. This decrease in public saving, however, is about 1/3 in magnitude than the corresponding increase in private/household saving. We follow up on these findings with an investigation of the importance of historical exposure for current account dynamics, but find no strong indication that our measure of past exposure is important to the current account’s determination. We conclude by examining the likely impact of the 2008-9 GFC on future saving.

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