85,898 results

  • User-guided Disambiguation for Semantic-enriched Search

    Ren, Xinning (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    In this thesis, we develop, implement and evaluate a strategy for user-guided disambiguation for semantic-enriched search. We use the prototype system Capisco that combines some features of traditional text-based search engines and semantic search engines. Unlike many semantic search approaches that require formulating queries in quite complex semantic languages, the Capisco system is a keyword-based search engine. In this work, we focus on the user-guided disambiguation which helps to capture the users’ information needs. The user-guided disambiguation developed in this thesis explores the semantic meanings for a user-provided keyword and displays these to the users for selection. We explored three different orderings in which the possible keyword meanings may be shown. Using our newly-developed disambiguation interface, the user selects one or several of these meanings from the list offered. The selected semantic meanings are then transferred to the search engine to identify matching documents. This thesis provides an analysis of related work on search interfaces in semantic search, and in methods for semantic disambiguation. We developed the concept of user-guided disambiguation and implemented this concept in a prototype that explored three interface variations. We executed a user study on the three interface alternatives. Finally, we discuss the insights gained during this project, compare our approach to existing literature, and explore possible future work.

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  • Spatial-temporal data modelling and processing for personalised decision support

    Othman, Muhaini

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The purpose of this research is to undertake the modelling of dynamic data without losing any of the temporal relationships, and to be able to predict likelihood of outcome as far in advance of actual occurrence as possible. To this end a novel computational architecture for personalised (individualised) modelling of spatio-temporal data based on spiking neural network methods (PMeSNNr), with a three dimensional visualisation of relationships between variables is proposed. In brief, the architecture is able to transfer spatio-temporal data patterns from a multidimensional input stream into internal patterns in the spiking neural network reservoir. These patterns are then analysed to produce a personalised model for either classification or prediction dependent on the specific needs of the situation. The architecture described above was constructed using MatLab© in several individual modules linked together to form NeuCube (M1). This methodology has been applied to two real world case studies. Firstly, it has been applied to data for the prediction of stroke occurrences on an individual basis. Secondly, it has been applied to ecological data on aphid pest abundance prediction. Two main objectives for this research when judging outcomes of the modelling are accurate prediction and to have this at the earliest possible time point. The implications of these findings are not insignificant in terms of health care management and environmental control. As the case studies utilised here represent vastly different application fields, it reveals more of the potential and usefulness of NeuCube (M1) for modelling data in an integrated manner. This in turn can identify previously unknown (or less understood) interactions thus both increasing the level of reliance that can be placed on the model created, and enhancing our human understanding of the complexities of the world around us without the need for over simplification.

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  • The Information Designer Through the Lens of Design for Learning

    Potter, E

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    All effective information design helps people to access, understand, and use information, but not all information design is intended to help people learn. This paper examines instructional design—the activity of creating and developing learning experiences that meet learners’ needs—and places it as a lens through which to identify the key skills and personal attributes that information designers need to succeed in their field.

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  • The Computation of Key Properties of Markov Chains via Perturbations

    Hunter, J

    Report
    Auckland University of Technology

    Computational procedures for the stationary probability distribution, the group inverse of the Markovian kernel and the mean first passage times of a finite irreducible Markov chain, are developed using perturbations. The derivation of these expressions involves the solution of systems of linear equations and, structurally, inevitably the inverses of matrices. By using a perturbation technique, starting from a simple base where no such derivations are formally required, we update a sequence of matrices, formed by linking the solution procedures via generalized matrix inverses and utilising matrix and vector multiplications. Four different algorithms are given, some modifications are discussed, and numerical comparisons made using a test example. The derivations are based upon the ideas outlined in Hunter, J.J., “The computation of stationary distributions of Markov chains through perturbations”, Journal of Applied Mathematics and Stochastic Analysis, 4, 29-46, (1991).

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  • Zoo, Aussie, and the EU

    Unclassified
    Auckland University of Technology

    A twenty-first century riddle of real politik throve: what did the Tongan Prime Minister’s zoo, Australia, and the European Union have in common? Two factors illustrating how preserving the unequal distribution of wealth between northern hemisphere states, and the global south, determined international relations: climate change and asylum seekers. (Idrissov, 2015; Al Jazeera, 2015; Perraudin, 2015). In context, the ill-fated decision making of political leaders had allowed climate change and asylum seekers to overshadow world affairs as leading markers of the present age. (Quartz, 2015; Hedges, 2010).

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  • The impact of economic and social human rights in New Zealand case law

    McGregor, J; Wilson, M

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Although New Zealand has traditionally relied on ‘positive progressive realisation’ of economic, social and cultural rights (ESCR) through public policy decision-making, recently there has been small number of cases relying on international human rights treaties, including the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), to support the legal argument. This article reviews the implementation of the ICESCR in New Zealand through an analysis of this case law. The article argues that although there has been an increase in the number of cases relying of ESCR, the courts have been reluctant to grant a remedy without ESCR being explicitly incorporated into the domestic law. The article further argues that the attempt to provide a remedy for ESCR through the declaration of inconsistency under the Human Rights Amendment Act 2001 has highlighted the need for the inclusion of ESCR into the New Zealand Bill of Rights Act 1990.

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  • How can I support children’s learning through ICT: a self- study of my own teaching

    Damoory, Shahla

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    In this study, I illustrated how I, as an early childhood teacher, could improve my own teaching by exploring innovative uses of ICT with young children. To do this, I conducted a small scale qualitative study based on action research. The action was the exploring and reflecting on the innovative use of ICT by interviewing a purposive sample of four teachers in the greater Auckland region who were experts in the use of ICT. Based on text analysis of the data from the interviews, the findings showed the most meaningful ICT uses by the teachers resulted in enhancing relationships, expanding on inquiry based teaching approach and improving communication and documentation processes. To improve my teaching practice, I also reflected on ICT innovations in relation to my own values. Ultimately, it was the competence of the teachers and the collective thinking between colleagues that could make ICT initiatives work best for the purpose of enhancing learning, not the technical aspects of the technology. The findings are significant to help teachers draw an action plan for improving their own teaching practice.

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  • Disaster e-Health: a new paradigm for collaborative healthcare in disasters

    Parry, D; Norris, A; Madanian, S; Martinez,, S; Labaka, L; Gonzalez, JJ

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    Disaster management and disaster medicine are well-established disciplines for responding to disasters and providing care for individuals whose health and wellbeing has been affected. However, these disciplines have different origins, development, and priorities so that communication and coordination across them during disasters is often lacking, leading to delayed, sub-standard, inappropriate or even unavailable care. Moreover, neither discipline exploits the new range of ehealth technologies such as the electronic health record or telehealth and mobile health that are revolutionizing non-disaster healthcare. We need a new paradigm that applies information and e-health technologies to improve disaster health planning and response. This paper describes the initial stages of a project to develop such a paradigm by scoping and developing the area of disaster e-health.

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  • A multi-strategy approach for location mining in Tweets: AUT NLP Group entry for ALTA-2014 shared task

    Nand, P; Perera, R; Lingmin, H

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    This paper describes the strategy and the results of a location mining system used for the ALTA-2014 shared task competition. The task required the participants to identify the location mentions in 1003 Twitter test messages given a separate annotated training set of 2000 messages. We present an architecture that uses a basic named entity recognizer in conjunction with various rule-based modules and knowledge infusion to achieve an average F score of 0.747 which won the second place in the competition. We used the pre-trained Stanford NER which gives us an F score of 0.532 and used an ensemble of other techniques to reach the 0.747 value. The other major source of location resolver was the DBpedia location list which was used to identify a large percentage of locations with an individual F-score of 0.935

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  • RealText-cs - Corpus based domain independent Content Selection model

    Perera, R; Nand, P

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    Content selection is a highly domain dependent task responsible for retrieving relevant information from a knowledge source using a given communicative goal. This paper presents a domain independent content selection model using keywords as communicative goal. We employ DBpedia triple store as our knowledge source and triples are selected based on weights assigned to each triple. The calculation of the weights is carried out through log likelihood distance between a domain corpus and a general reference corpus. The method was evaluated using keywords extracted from QALD dataset and the performance was compared with cross entropy based statistical content selection. The evaluation results showed that the proposed method can perform 32% better than cross entropy based statistical content selection.

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  • He iwi rangatira anō tātou i mua, kia pai te whakahaere o ngā tikanga mō te iwi. Kia mangu ki waho kia mā i roto

    Ross, Michael Dennis

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This thesis contends that tapu (spiritual and physical boundaries), mana (power and authority), utu (reciprosity) and rūnanga (debate and decision-making) were the four pou (guiding principles) which delegated power and determined leadership roles and responsibilities, within the social structures of the Waikato people. It describes how these pou informed the tribe when embarking on major activities, resolving disagreements and addressing failures. It investigates how the pou fared after the descendants of Tainui waka (canoe) suffered a relatively sudden and devastating reversal of fortunes following the colonisation of Aotearoa (New Zealand) by British settlers in the nineteenth century. The thesis describes and analyses the formation and influence of the Kīngitanga (King Movement) from the mid-nineteenth century to the present day. Including Kīngitanga relations with the Government after its invasion and confiscation of Waikato lands and the 1995 settlement which established Te Kauhanganui (Tribal Council), a legal entity to manage the returned settlement assets. The thesis investigates the extent to which the pou are incorporated or threatened by structures within Te Kauhanganui. The pou have a pervasive influence on the personnel and practice of leadership and its accountabilities in Waikato. At stake is control of significant tribal assets, and an opportunity to restore a rūnanga system that represents and engages Waikato people.

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  • Oral ketone supplementation: effect on cognitive function, physiology and exercise performance

    Rodger, Shem (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Nutritional strategies play an important role in facilitating peak athletic performances and research has shown that a state of physiological ketosis, from either a ketogenic diet or ketone supplementation, may have several benefits for athletes. These ergogenic properties may stem from the thermodynamic advantages ketones possess over other energy substrates as well as their ability to preserve glucose stores. Physiological ketosis has also shown improvements in cognitive performance, particularly for those suffering from neurological disease. The following thesis uses an oral ketone supplement (sodium- and potassium-based β-hydroxybutyrate) to elevate blood ketone concentrations to assess the effects of supplement induced ketosis on exercise metabolism and cycling performance (study 1, Chapter 2), as well as its effect on cognitive performance in an active population (study two, Chapter 3). As part of study 1, Twelve participants took part in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised crossover design. The research assessed the effect of supplement-induced ketosis on 4 minute all-out cycling performance which followed 90 minutes at second ventilatory threshold (VT2). Upon ingestion of a ketone supplement (KET: 30 ml of Ketoforce; Prototype Nutrition, IL, USA) or placebo (PLA: 3g table salt; NaCl), effect size (ES) analysis, revealed an unclear 2.3 ±4.8% (Δ mean ±90% Confidence Interval (CI)) change in power output during a 4-minute maximal cycling performance test (4PT) in the KET trial compared to PLA. Therefore no substantial performance outcomes came as a result of ketone supplementation despite a three-fold increase in blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentration (ES ±90% CI= 3.02 ±0.8; very large) which was accompanied by a 2.2 ±1.9% increase in the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) during the submaximal exercise phase (ES = 0.51 ±0.4; moderate). During the 4PT increases in both VO2 (2.4 ±3.3%; ES = 0.24 ±0.3; small) and RER (4.3 ±3.3; ES = 0.75 ±0.5, moderate) were evident during the KET trial compared to the PLA. Similarly in study 2, the effects of oral ketone supplementation on cognitive function were assessed. Using a single blind, placebo-controlled design cognitive function was evaluated through five tests intended to assess different components of neuro-muscular performance, reaction time, processing speed and memory recall: finger tap test (FTT), stroop test (ST), reaction time test (RT), monkey-ladder test (MLT) and one-card test (OCT). The reliability of each test was also assessed using a test-retest protocol. No statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed in cognitive function between groups. ES analysis revealed small improvements in the KET trial for ST (ES = 0.34 ±0.4) as well as the MLT (ES = 0.34 ±0.4) with either trivial or unclear results for FTT, RT and OCT when compared to PLA. In conclusion, ingestion of an oral ketone supplement was shown to have no substantial impact on human performance as measured through 4-minute cycling performance and measures of cognitive function.

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  • The Effect of Powder Characteristics and Processing Conditions on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Titanium Alloys Made by Powder Forging

    Jia, Mingtu (2013)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    Powder compact forging was used to produce Ti and Ti-6Al-4V rocker arms using pre-alloyed and blended elemental powders. Green powder compacts with high relative density were manufactured by warm compaction. Due to the characteristics of raw powders, interlocking and cold welding are the main mechanisms for HDH powder compaction, while warm welding is the main mechanism for GA powder compaction. During induction heating of the powder compact, it was found that necks formed extensively in as-sintered HDH Ti powder compact, leading to an average elongation to fracture of 7.5%, whereas necks did not form so extensively in as-sintered HDH Ti-6Al-4V and GA Ti-6Al-4V powder compacts, which make them brittle due to their low relative density. As a rapid consolidation process, the densification rate was enhanced by powder compact forging due to pore collapsing caused by material flow driven by a large amount of localized plastic deformation. The degree of powder consolidation of powder compact forging using HDH Ti, HDH and GA Ti-6Al-4V powders were studied by characterising their porosity distributions, microstructure, mechanical properties and fracture behaviour. Due to the positive effect of shear deformation on the powder consolidation of powder compact forging, the powder compact in the centre of forged parts were consolidated completely with full density and had better mechanical properties than those from ingot metallurgy. The effects of heat treatments on microstructure and mechanical properties of as-forged HDH Ti part, HDH and GA Ti-6Al-4V parts were investigated, and the ductility of forged HDH Ti part was improved significantly by annealing treatment. Recrystallization annealing was regarded as one of the best heat treatments to achieve the high ductility of as-forged HDH and GA Ti-6Al-4V parts, which can open the applications of forged HDH Ti-6Al-4V part with high oxygen content (~0.5%). The mechanical properties of forged HDH and GA Ti-6Al-4V parts after solution and aging treatment and recrystallization annealing were much better than those from both the ones from reported pre-alloyed approaches and wrought parts, which were caused by the enhancement of powder consolidation during recrystallization process. Blended elemental approach and mechanical alloying method were applied to produce Ti-6Al-4V rocker arm by powder compact forging at 1350 oC. The effect of holding time at forging temperature on the samples produced by forging the compact of HDH Ti/Al-V master alloy powder mixture was studied, and it was found that a holding time of 5-10 minutes at forging temperature is required to get the as-forged part with good mechanical properties and homogeneous microstructure of free undissolved master alloy powders. Also, in order to reduce the holding time for achieving composition homogeneity, the powder mixture of Ti and Al-V master alloy powders was milled to produce Ti/Al-40wt%V composite powder. With such composite powder, the master alloy layers/particles were dissolved rapidly into Ti matrix, but the oxygen pick up during milling and powder passivation make the mechanical properties of the forged samples inferior to those of the parts made by powder compact forging of the powder mixture or pre-alloyed powder.

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  • The race to bridge the gap: An analysis of women's policy within the spectrum of New Zealand politics in the lead up to the 2014 general election

    Holdsworth, Roxanna Elizabeth (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Women in Aotearoa New Zealand were the first in the developed world to receive the right to vote in parliamentary elections. However, despite this early promise of gender equality, the introduction of a variety of initiatives aimed to foster equality has had limited success, and such equality remains a contentious issue. This paper focuses on political communication surrounding women’s affairs in the most recent general election in Aotearoa New Zealand. I examine the media campaigns and policy statements from seven political parties to determine how each party represents the gender divide and seeks to address women’s issues. My analysis is based on interviews with party spokespersons for women’s affairs and documented party policy sourced from both websites and party representatives. I draw on thematic and critical discourse analysis to determine how messages about women’s affairs are constructed and positioned in relation to current socio-political issues. Through the implementation of gendered communication theory, which acknowledges that men and women observe and practice different communication tools and styles, and social construction feminism—the exercise of gendering as a consistent aspect of who we are, how we view others, as well as our societal standing—my analysis of the findings identifies the dominant discourses within the political spectrum in New Zealand. I discuss the implications of the various party policies in relation, for example, to parental leave and domestic violence and whether the enactment of these policies is likely to prove beneficial to New Zealand women. My analysis of the findings highlights the strategic direction of current policy aimed at closing the gender gap and addressing women’s issues in Aotearoa New Zealand, represented through themes. The discussion demonstrates that differing perspectives of equality as opposed to equity require further consideration before significant progress can be made towards developing cohesive, culturally relevant practices, as opposed to the temporary measures often instigated by ideology to support a political campaign.

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  • Making a case for Pasifika principals in Aotearoa New Zealand schools: a Samoan perspective

    Galu, M

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    Why are there so few Pasifika teachers in Principals positions in New Zealand Schools? Are Pasifika teachers actively being encouraged to aspire to leadership roles? Do those who are identified as leaders early nurtured, supported, coached and mentored to achieve that goal, or are there hegemonic factors that disadvantage them in the promotion and selection process, namely social class, negative stereotyping, discrimination or ultimately the decisions made by Boards of Trustees!

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  • Distraction, distrust, enemies, and selfishness: social liabilities at work

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    Aim We propose a higher order construct termed Employee Social Liability (ESL), incorporating four clusters of employee “bad” behaviour and integrating them under a common latent variable. The key contribution of this paper is to create, describe and validate a measure of ESL to aid in the study of negative relationships at work. Design To develop our measure of social liability, we conducted a series of linked, qualitative and quantitative studies. The overall research design being mixed-methods. Method Study 1 focused on generating a pool of potential items to measure the theorised four dimensions of the social liability construct. Study 2 utilised a Q-sort process to systematically reduce this item pool. Study 3 refined this reduced pool of items by analysing their factor structure and other psychometric properties in order to examine their measurement of employee behaviour as it contributes to employee social liabilities. 1000 participants completed an online questionnaire containing the 42 items retained from the previous two studies along with measures of other aspects of work and also individual differences including deviant work behaviours, personality and EQ. Validation of the measure and the dimensionality of the social liability items was undertaken by estimating a series confirmatory factor analysis models using AMOS (V22). This final study also examined the nomological network of ESL with these other variables. Results We provide empirical evidence that ESL represents a higher-order construct incorporating four categories of employee bad behaviour in the domains of 1) experiencing distrust, 2) lack of cooperation, 3) social demand, and 4) negative relationships. Finally we provide a nomological network for the ESL construct. Conclusion We provide initial evidence that the negative relational constructs distrust, lack of reciprocity, negative interactions and distraction have a common core labelled Employee Social Liabilities. Further we provide evidence that ESL can be measured and that it is related to one’s own bad workplace behaviours, low emotional intelligence and inversely to having supportive colleagues. We anticipate that this measure will prove useful to the study of behaviour at work, and will facilitate further empirical research into this important area of enquiry.

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  • Dear diary: an investigation of emotionally engaging computer-game narratives

    Wang, Hengbo

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Beginning with an analysis of design principles utilised in the computer-game medium in relation to its interactive nature as well as other storytelling disciplines, this project aims to investigate how emotional narrative experiences can be crafted through effective game design. Through examination of successful examples of computer-game storytelling, hypotheses relating to meaningful play, emotional engagement and effective narrative techniques are formed and refined. In parallel to the theoretical research, an iterative series of design frameworks are progressively developed – accumulating in an interactive prototype demonstrating key findings in assistance of game narrative design practices.

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  • Six Steps to Coaching Oscar Performances From Under-graduate Nursing Students in Simulation: An Action Research Study

    Erlam, GD; Wright-St Clair, Valerie

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    No abstract.

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  • Beneath the skin

    Coleman, Mary Ellen

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Beneath the Skin explores the possibilities of a figurative painting practice drawn from an archive of disquieting material. The archive is a highly subjective assembly of historical medical material that raises important issues of voyeurism, morbid curiosity, and appropriate use. The project has utilised these issues as the basis of a painterly exploration. Retaining the anonymity and dignity of the subjects of the archival material has been a key consideration of the painterly research.

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  • Combined map personalisation algorithm for delivering preferred spatial features in a map to everyday mobile device users

    Bookwala, Avinash Turab (2010-06-18)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    In this thesis, we present an innovative and novel approach to personalise maps/geo-spatial services for mobile users. With the proposed map personalisation approach, only relevant data will be extracted from detailed maps/geo-spatial services on the fly, based on a user’s current location, preferences and requirements. This would result in dramatic improvements in the legibility of maps on mobile device screens, as well as significant reductions in the amount of data being transmitted; which, in turn, would reduce the download time and cost of transferring the required geo-spatial data across mobile networks. Furthermore, the proposed map personalisation approach has been implemented into a working system, based on a four-tier client server architecture, wherein fully detailed maps/services are stored on the server, and upon a user’s request personalised maps/services, extracted from the fully detailed maps/services based on the user’s current location, preferences, are sent to the user’s mobile device through mobile networks. By using open and standard system development tools, our system is open to everyday mobile devices rather than smart phones and Personal Digital Assistants (PDA) only, as is prevalent in most current map personalisation systems. The proposed map personalisation approach combines content-based information filtering and collaborative information filtering techniques into an algorithmic solution, wherein content-based information filtering is used for regular users having a user profile stored on the system, and collaborative information filtering is used for new/occasional users having no user profile stored on the system. Maps/geo-spatial services are personalised for regular users by analysing the user’s spatial feature preferences automatically collected and stored in their user profile from previous usages, whereas, map personalisation for new/occasional users is achieved through analysing the spatial feature preferences of like-minded users in the system in order to make an inference for the target user. Furthermore, with the use of association rule mining, an advanced inference technique, the spatial features retrieved for new/occasional users through collaborative filtering can be attained. The selection of spatial features through association rule mining is achieved by finding interesting and similar patterns in the spatial features most commonly retrieved by different user groups, based on their past transactions or usage sessions with the system.

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