89,525 results

  • Constructing 'ana' : pro-ana/anorexia women's understandings of themselves and their internet communities : a thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    De Faria, Natasha

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis is a study of pro-ana/anorexia communities on the Internet. In these communities women from around the world communicate through a range of message boards, bulletin boards, live journals and chat rooms. Here they 'talk' honestly about such 'taboo' topics as achieving weight loss goals, their ability to sustain their ana/anorexia and about the day to day issues of living with ana/anorexia. As a result these communities have been met with much opposition, and the women challenged on their position. My study of these communities was informed by the understanding that all meaning is constructed and that language plays a powerful part in this. As such I was not concerned with explicating the one 'true' meaning of pro-ana/anorexia. Rather my aim was to understand how pro-ana/anorexia women construct themselves and their communities. Through the method of passive analysis I obtained electronic archival records of the women's naturalistic discursive interaction ('talk'), from seven pro-ana/anorexia communities. These communities were selected on the basis of their compatibility with my ethical requirements, greater number of community members and variation in content. Through the analysis of this 'talk', it can be seen that the women's constructions of pro-ana/anorexia were inextricably linked with their understandings of what ana/anorexia is, what it is about and of themselves as ana/anorexic. I found that the women's constructions were based around three main issues. In the first, pro-ana/anorexia was constructed in relation to understandings of ana/anorexia as an 'illness/disorder'. In the second, constructions of what ana/anorexia is about were based on the 'objects' of 'the body' and 'the mind', and how these relate to 'self-discipline/self-control'. In the third, the women constructed the self in relation to the 'real' anorexic and ana/anorexia as a 'range' of'experience', and in doing this personified anorexia as 'ana'. These constructions were complex in that the women drew on and were positioned by existing understandings, and also constructed new meanings. In this way their 'talk' was both constitutive of meaning and constituted by meaning. The implications of these findings for the field of psychology are discussed.

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  • Retirement villages : a lifestyle choice for older New Zealanders : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Sociology at Massey University

    Bowen, Barbara Evelyn

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis explores why increasing numbers of older New Zealanders choose to live in retirement villages. In the apparent absence of any similar New Zealand-based research it comprises an exploratory study employing a resident-driven approach and a socio-relational focus. The central issues examined include: factors that cause older people to consider leaving their current homes; their reasons for choosing a retirement village; their experiences of life within those villages and the impact that residence within a circumscribed, age-defined housing complex has on their contacts with members of the outside community. Informal correspondence with former and present retirement village residents; a self-administered questionnaire; face-to-face interviews and impressions gained during visits to retirement villages are used to develop a picture of retirement village life. The information gained is discussed in relation to those issues that appear to be important for older New Zealanders and in the light of negative comments about retirement villages encountered in several publications. The conclusions of this research are that older people who are having difficulties coping in their present homes or have concerns about their health or security are most likely to conclude they should move house. The particular appeal of retirement villages relates to the support services, facilities and amenities provided; the security features; the maintenance-free accommodation and the opportunities for social interaction with like-minded people. No evidence was found to support the argument that retirement villages isolate residents from the wider community. However, access to the retirement village option is restricted to those who have the money to pay for accommodation and who are capable of living independently with minimal support.

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  • Playing in the zone : a Vygotskian interpretation of young children's television-inspired play and talk : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Masters Degree of Education at Massey University

    Brennan, Margaret

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Children's 'representational play' has been extensively acknowledged as contributing to early learning and development. This qualitative case study examined a specialised form of representational play prompted by children's television watching. Participants involved children over the age of 3 years attending a community based childcare centre in a city in New Zealand. The study was carried out over a period of 2 weeks and employed 'naturalistic, observational' and 'stimulated recall' techniques during data collection. Children's 'television play' and talk became both the focus of the investigation and the unit of analysis. The original focus of Superhero play was extended to include other forms of television play that emerged as dominant themes within the studied centre. Vygotsky's sociocultural theory of learning was used as a theoretical tool for analysis with special attention given to Vygotsky's concepts of 'intersubjectivity' and 'cultural tools.' Intersubjectivity was defined and discussed in relation to children's appropriation of 'cultural tools' during representational play. A Vygotskian focus necessitated embedding these concepts within Vygotsky's wider theory of learning and development. Vygotsky's concept of the 'zone-of-proximal development' therefore was also considered in regard to 'television related play and talk'. Nelson's (1986) concept of 'scripts' was examined as Vygotsky viewed language as a primary 'mediating tool' that significantly contributed to children's intersubjective understandings. This study concluded that 'Superhero play' and other forms of television play are the outcome of children's appropriation of sociocultural influences. The study's conclusion supported Vygotsky's theory of development that sees learning as occurring as the result of children's 'internalization' and 'appropriation of cultural tools'.

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  • Conceptualisations of teaching and learning in the policies of the NZQA : critique and case studies : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Educational Administration at Massey University

    Perry, John

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The study originated from a concern that the nature of teaching in polytechnics was undergoing a fundamental change. Increasingly, it seemed, teaching and learning were being seen as the means for achieving measurable outcomes, rather than as processes, valuable in their own right, encompassing outcomes that are difficult to define and measure. The research aimed to discover whether, in the context of changes associated with the educational reforms, which began impacting upon teaching in New Zealand polytechnics in the late 1980s and continued into the 1990s, polytechnic lecturers were conceptualising teaching and learning in a similar way to the conceptualisation implied by the reforms. A major part of the study involved exploratory case studies of six polytechnic lecturers, aimed at discovering how the lecturers conceptualised teaching and learning. Data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews. Attention was given to not only the surface meanings clearly expressed by the lecturers, but also to deeper meanings and influences that may not have been clear to the individual lecturers, and, thus, not accessible by direct questioning. Three automotive engineering and three nursing lecturers were chosen for the case studies. Documents and legislation relating to teaching and learning in polytechnics were analysed to find how teaching and learning were conceptualised. The conceptualisation inferred from the document analysis was attributed to the New Zealand Qualifications Authority (NZQA) which , in effect, is the government's "arm" developing and implementing policies and changes affecting teaching and learning in polytechnics, including changes related to the National Qualifications Framework. The findings reveal a marked contrast between the lecturers' and the NZQA's conceptualisations. The NZQA is inferred to conceive that the means are separated from the ends of teaching and learning; learning and knowledge are capable of precise description, pre-specification and accurate measurement; knowledge comprises the sum of its discrete components; and knowledge has a universal character. Whereas, with exceptions on some points, the lecturers are inferred to conceive that teaching and learning involve a continuing process in which the means and the ends are integrated; that teaching, learning and knowledge include more than can be described precisely, pre-specified and measured accurately; that holistic knowledge involves more than the sum of its component parts; and that knowledge is related to its context. The NZQA's conceptualisation is argued to be consistent with economics discourses while the lecturers' .conceptualisations are argued to be consistent with education discourses. An interpretation of the differences between the NZQA's and the lecturers' conceptualisations, through the frames of poststructuralism and critical discourse analysis, suggests that the lecturers may be resisting the power-holders economics-based discourses because they are simultaneously influenced by, what are for them, more influential, educationally-based discourses. A further analysis of documents indicated a change to the NZQA's conceptualisation, but no change to the means-ends conception implicit in its objectives/outcomes model of curriculum development and teaching. The validity of the findings from the document analysis and the case studies is supported by their consistency with educational literature. However the research was qualitative and exploratory and no claim is made that the findings are generalisable. The research, nevertheless, does raise an important question concerning the consequences for knowledge, if today's professional lecturers become tomorrow's technician-lecturers. It also suggests the need for more than one curriculum model in courses.

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  • Pilot error : cognitive failure analysis : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master in Aviation at Massey University

    Zotov, Dmitri Victorovitch

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Rasmussen (1982) suggested that there was a need for a taxonomy of human errors based on the operator performing the task, rather than upon the task itself; the "internal human malfunction" (p. 323). This proposal was adopted by O'Hare, Wiggins, Batt & Morrison (1994) in a study of pilot errors derived from the New Zealand official Accident Reports. O'Hare et al. (1994) found differences in the types of errors that led to major and minor accidents. These differences were at variance with the proposition by Billings and Reynard (1981) that the errors in accidents and incidents came from a common population, the outcome being due to chance. The results of O'Hare et al. (1994) cast some doubt on the validity of investigating incidents as a means of forestalling accidents. Some of the accident reports used by O'Hare et al. (1994) had not been the result of independent investigation, but were self-reports by the pilots involved. The inclusion of these reports had the potential to produce the apparent dichotomy between the distributions of error types in major and minor accidents, found by O'Hare et al. (1994). It was therefore decided to revisit their work, using as a database the entire population of New Zealand official Accident Reports since 1965, which had been the subject of official investigation. With the large database available, variability in the distribution of error types was also examined between different classes of aircraft, and between pilots of different levels of experience. Some variability between major and minor accidents was found, but not enough to be of practical significance. No variability was found between pilots of different levels of experience. There was little difference between classes of aircraft, except in the case of fixed-wing agricultural aircraft. In the latter case, the difference in the distribution of error types from other classes of aircraft was marked, and further study to identify the reasons might assist in reducing the accident rate for agricultural aircraft.

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  • Reflective thinking in nursing practice : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Nursing, Massey University

    Teekman, Bert

    Thesis
    Massey University

    While it is claimed in the nursing literature that reflective thinking is the approach par excellence for learning and advancing the art and practice of nursing, few empirical studies have been undertaken in this area to date. This thesis presents a study of reflective thinking. Sense-Making, a qualitative research method, was utilised to obtain and analyse data from interviews from ten Registered Nurses. After exploring the seminal works of Dewey and Schön, the concept of reflective thinking was clarified in order to arrive at an operational definition. Ten non-routine nursing situations were analysed for the presence of reflective thinking Time-Line interviews of the ten events resulted in a total of 59 Micro-Moments, each of which was explored in terms of how nurses engaged in reflective thinking, and furthermore, what the focus of this reflective thought was. Reflective thinking was extensively manifest, especially in moments of doubt and perplexity. 'Pre-perceptions' played an important part in how the participants perceived their situation. Reflective thinking, an active cognitive process to create meaning and understanding, consisted of such activities as comparing and contrasting phenomena, recognising patterns, categorising perceptions, framing, and self-questioning. The latter activity was identified as a significant process within reflective thinking. By exploring and analysing the type of questions participants were asking themselves, the study uncovered three hierarchical levels of reflective thinking. Participants most often engaged in reflective thinking-for-action which centred on the here and now in order to act. Reflective thinking-for-evaluation focused on creating wholeness and contributed to the realisation of multiple perceptions and multiple responses. Reflective thinking-for-critical-inquiry is the highest level of the 'Reflective Thinking Pyramid' even though its occurrence could not be demonstrated in the study sample. The findings of this study resulted in the development of a 'Dynamic Process Model of Reflective Thinking', and are discussed in terms of the implications for nursing practice and nursing education. Finally, the Sense-Making Method is recommended as a framework to encourage and guide reflective thinking in nursing practice.

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  • 'Intensification vs urban sprawl' : the cultural pull towards low density suburban living : a dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Resource and Environmental Planning at Massey University

    Hitchcock, Kylie Rochelle

    Thesis
    Massey University

    With the population of the Auckland region expected to reach 2 million people within the next 50 years, the physical form of the city is topical. The Regional Growth Strategy (RGS) and various other planning documents for the region apply New Urbanist principles of urban design, including compact development, and alternative transports. The focus of the current research looks generally at peoples preferred growth patterns. From the research conducted the following major themes emerged: - Renters and/or younger respondents favoured peripheral growth over compact; - Home Owners and/or older respondents favoured compact growth over continued peripheral growth; although compact development was only slightly preferred over peripheral and both options combined; - Planners strongly preferred compact development, yet none of those questioned chose this option for themselves; and, - Space, privacy, social issues, rural and natural values and proper provision of infrastructure were strong themes of discussion from all the respondent groups. The findings also illustrated a lack of appreciation from the general public of the benefits of medium density housing. Education and experience could enhance this understanding and reduce opposition to intensive developments in existing neighbourhoods. Finding a common link between 'consolidationists' and 'expansionists' is vital to the success of the RGS. Many of the concepts raised in support of compact development, including adequate provision of infrastructure, protection of rural and natural values and improved transport are likely to be positive outcomes of successful implementation of the RGS. The physical size of the city is important with regard to these three issues, as well as socially. Social issues were used to justify continued peripheral development by the respondents choosing this option, however a compact city can equally produce positive social benefits. For example 'walkability' positively impacts on public health and good urban design can encourage social interaction. Physical size relates directly to these notions which are promoted through more intensive urban form. The interrelationship between reasons for and against compact development should be more closely examined in the public realm.

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  • Electronic mail, an exploration of the level of use and knowledge of the email facility by Business Studies academic staff at Massey University : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business Studies in Human Resource Management at Massey University

    Stirton, Nicole Lynn

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Despite the widespread adoption and use of electronic mail in academia we still do not have a clear understanding of how well it is used or how knowledgeable users are of the email systems they use. In the present study, academic staff members in Business Studies at Massey University completed a questionnaire detailing their use of email in terms of frequency and ability to use sophisticated functions. The effects email has on communication behaviours, including effects on communication participants, content, and process was also investigated as well as the knowledge users had of the Massey University email system in particular, and the general process of communicating electronically. The sample included 72 respondents (a 47.5% response rate); of which 60% were male, 39% female, and one respondent failed to supply demographic information. The ages of respondents varied, with 29% in the 26-35 category, 38% in the 36-45 category, 32% in the 46-55 category, and 1 respondent was under 26 years old. The findings show that while the Massey University email facility is used relatively frequently, the level of sophistication in usage was quite low. Several interesting effects on communication were discovered; typically email provided a potential to communicate with a wider pool of people, although such potential is undermined by colleagues not having the facility, not using the facility if they do have it, and the difficulty in accessing email addresses. Respondents also recognised the need to alter the process of their communication when choosing to use the electronic medium as opposed to more traditional media. Generally, respondents had a sound knowledge of the email systems and packages that they used, although they were less able to identify all the facilities they had access to. Respondents had received different forms of written information and/or training on how to use email, and the helpfulness of such support was given mixed ratings. The present study is one of the few that looks at variation in behaviours and attitudes related to email from academic respondents that range in levels of use, including non-users and those demonstrating excessive levels of use. It shows distinct differences in the efficacy of the medium in academia as opposed to the business environment, and suggests that writers need to stipulate more clearly which setting they are referring to. The findings of the present study point to a need for more effective user support systems to encourage maximum use of the resource, the introduction of an international email directory, more widespread use of the facility, and the development of standardised norms or etiquette of use. The present study provided important basic information about the use and understanding of email among academics. It also lays the foundation for a longitudinal study of influences on changes in use and understanding following the implementation of the new email system and support network at Massey University.

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  • Homecoming : reverse culture shock : an investigation of New Zealand trained graduates returning home to Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia : a thesis presented in (partial) fulfilment for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Development Studies at Massey University

    McGrath, Terry

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The aim of the study was to discover and describe how International Graduates experience and adjust to their home country upon re-entry. Sixty seven graduates of New Zealand Universities were interviewed. Twenty eight in Singapore, twenty five in Malaysia and fourteen in Indonesia. The interviews were conducted face to face without undue time constraints. The first phase of each interview was non-directed and simply asked the graduate to describe their experiences of leaving New Zealand and re-entering their home society. In the second phase, the graduate was directed to comment on their experience in the light of the general categories of graduate re-entry adjustment listed in the rather sparse literature on the subject. The first phase elicited information relating to graduate re-entry adjustment from the viewpoint and perceptions of the graduates themselves. Each had a unique experience of re-entry. In the second phase interviewees covered the full range of adjustments mentioned in the literature on graduate re-entry, but the categories listed proved to be indicative rather than exhaustive and some categories featured very little in the lives of interviewees. What stood out in this study were three areas of adjustment common to all who were interviewed, and felt strongly by all. These three areas were drawn from the non directed phase and carried a strong sense of perception amongst those interviewed as being the areas of readjustment for them. Certainly the three areas were universal to all interviewed and although there was overlap with the categories used in phase two of the interviews, it was apparent that such universality made these three the major adjustments graduates face. Therefore, the three categories of: work environment; world view change; and lifestyle expectations are the three major areas focused on in this study. Several non-universal indications were found in this study. In phase II of the interviews a check was made of a category list of indications of potential re-entry problems compiled from a literature search. This enabled some comparison with other studies. Additionally several other non-universal indications were found that are significant in preparing graduates for re-entry and in helping them in the process of re-entry. The findings of this study differ from the findings of other studies due to method used. The prime method used in this study was non-directed face to face interviews in contrast to the few, but major studies, which used surveys and sought answers to directed questions. The method of this study allowed the findings to be described as the perceptions of the graduates involved and the universality of the three major areas across the interviews allowed for the conclusion that these are the areas of adjustment, that graduates returning from New Zealand to their home countries, will encounter. This study describes in detail the three universal areas of work environment, world view change and lifestyle expectations as detailed by the graduates in their interviews. In the discussion of these, some understanding is sought as to why these three stand out. Culture distancing occurring during the sojourn experience is postulated as one possible reason. This study highlights areas for further research: The world view change that occurs in students while studying overseas; The effect on re-entry of the country chosen to study in; and what assists graduates in the re-entry process.

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  • A comparative analysis of equal employment opportunities law and policy in Japan and New Zealand : a thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Arts in East Asian Studies at Massey University

    Broadfoot, Dani

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis is a comparative analysis of Equal Employment Opportunities (EEO) law and policy in Japan and New Zealand. This study was undertaken due to the fact that Japan has had an EEO law since 1986, and New Zealand first gave EEO legislative intent in the 1988 State Sector Act. and even though these laws and policies were enacted, women's position in the workplace has only changed marginally. Thus, my thesis offers extensive sign posting, starting with an analysis of theoretical perspectives of EEO. In Japan and New Zealand it has been noted that patterns and conditions of work in both the preindustrial and industrial economies have become differentiated by gender, The many reasons for this are and include, ideological, political, economic and social, or more accurately, a complex interaction of all of these factors. The nature of societies and government's attitudes to EEO in both Japan and New Zealand has been poor, as has been indicated by the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). Unfortunately, not enough is known in both Japan and New Zealand about EEO, for both countries to implement effective EEO laws and policies. I propose that the long-term outcome for EEO is the elimination of all forms of unfair discrimination in employment. I propose that this will be achieved when three conditions prevail in organisations. Firstly, inclusive, respectful and responsive organisational cultures which enable access to work, equitable career opportunities, and maximum participation for members of designated groups and all employees. Secondly, procedural fairness as a feature of all human resource strategies, systems and practices, and thirdly, employment of EEO groups at all levels in the workplace. I argue that to have operational equality in employment, it is necessary to have legislation for violators of EEO, to implement solid, strategic initiatives to EEO and give both the private sector and public sector education in how to deliver effective EEO programmes and policies. I also suggest that as both Japan and New Zealand have ratified CEDAW, they should both be looking at implementing an Optional Protocol, which will give international backing to EEO initiatives and which has been proposed to provide better enforcement of women's human rights. The Optional Protocol would give women the right to complain to a specialist United Nations (UN) Committee (CEDAW) about violations of CEDAW by their governments. By implementing the Optional Protocol it would enable the UN Committee to conduct inquiries into serious or systematic abuses of women's rights in countries. The Optional Protocol raises many issues about the cultural context of inequalities and the way specific national histories are used to authorise certain workplace issues.

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  • An evaluation of the production and profitability of alternative management regimes for Pinus radiata on a high fertility site : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Applied Science in Plant Science at Massey University

    Blair, Alexander Jason

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Conversion of farmland to forestry is occurring at the rate of approximately 60,000ha/annum, much of it on hill country sheep and beef properties. The potential productivity of ex farm sites is high, mainly due to improved soil fertility but may produce trees with defects such as excessive branching, large branches and stem malformations. Adapting silvicultural practices to suit plantations on high fertility sites is necessary to effectively utilise this potential. However, many of the tools available for planning and assessing alternative silvicultural options in Pinus radiata stands have limitations for farm sites. This study utilises a 12.5ha stand of Pinus radiata established in 1973 on a Manawatu hill country sheep and beef property. Currently 'Tuapaka' has 31.3ha of Pinus radiata occupying land use capability class VI and VII. Of this total, 12.5ha is nearing maturity, while remaining areas are now reaching a stage where decisions on silvicultural management are necessary. The growth modelling system, STANDPAK, was used as an aid for developing and evaluating silvicultural options on Tuapaka. Existing Pinus radiata growth models have been primarily derived from traditional forest site data. They can be utilised for simulating growth on ex farm sites but will generally provide more accurate predictions of growth and yield if they are configured with local growth data. The EARLY and NAPIRAD growth models are recommended for simulating the growth of Pinus radiata on farm sites and formed the basis for the simulation of the Tuapaka stand. Inventory data, including diameter at breast height, mean crop height, and stocking were collected from the existing 12.5ha stand and used to configure these growth models and other STANDPAK components. Site index at Tuapaka was found to be 23m, with a high basal area increment potential. The best STANDPAK configuration combined the growth models EARLY (high +20% basal area increment) and NAPIRAD (switched at mean top height 18m). The results from this configuration predicted basal area to within 6% of the field estimate. These configurations were used to simulate and evaluate the growth of a new stand (at the 1ha level) for both clearwood and framing regimes. The combined influence of low site index and high basal area increment created problems associated with maintaining a target diameter over stubs (DOS) while utilising an acceptable number of pruning lifts. The required number of pruning lifts to achieve a 6.0m pruned height was able to be manipulated by delaying thinning, reducing the green crown length (CRL) at the first and second lifts, and maintaining a high ratio of unpruned trees through to thinning. Net present value (NPV) was primarily used as the selection criteria to determine the best regimes, because it reflects the final harvest revenues and associated silvicultural costs. The most profitable regime required a 3 lift pruning schedule. This regime provided the best compromise between final harvest value and silvicultural costs and was achieved by severe early pruning (CRL of 2.0m and 2.2m), delayed thinning, and maintaining a high ratio of unpruned to pruned trees. Clearwood regimes were more profitable than the framing regimes because of a higher average timber value which more than compensated for increased silvicultural costs and reduced log volume. The clearwood regime produced a final merchantable volume of 698m3 /ha, of which 37% graded in the higher value pruned log class. This regime had a pre tax net revenue of $39,500/ha and an NPV of $2,681/ha (8% discount rate). In contrast, the best framing regime produced a merchantable volume of 787m3/ha, a net revenue of $18,800/ha, and a NPV of $1,100/ha. The best clearwood and framing regime were subjected to economic analysis at the estate level (31.3ha) to determine the best silvicultural options for existing and future stands on Tuapaka. The clearwood regime was the most profitable, having a pre tax IRR of 9.1%, compared with 7.6% for the framing regime. These returns are likely to exceed the potential returns from farming, particularly on steep hill country.

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  • The impact of post-exercise protein-leucine ingestion on subsequent performance and the systematic, metabolic and skeletal muscle molecular responses associated with recovery and regeneration : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Health), Massey University

    Nelson, Andre Richard

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The objective was to determine the effect of post-exercise protein-leucine coingestion with carbohydrate and fat on subsequent endurance performance and investigate whole-body and skeletal-muscle responses hypothesised to guide adaptive-regeneration. Methods. Study-JA Twelve trained-men ingested protein/leucine/carbohydrate/fat (20/7.5/89/22 g· h- 1 ) or carbohydrate/fat (control, 119/22 g· h- 1 ) supplements after intense cycling over six days. Glucose and leucine turnover, metabolomics, nitrogen balance and performance were examined. Study-] B Immune-function responses to supplementation were investigated via neutrophil 0 2- production, differential immune-cell count, hormones and cytokines. Study-2A Twelve trained-men ingested low-dose protein/leucine/carbohydrate/fat (23 .3/51180/30 g), high-dose (70115/180/30 g) or carbohydrate/fat control (274/30 g) beverages following 100- min of intense cycling. Vastus lateralis biopsies were taken during recovery (30-min/4-h) to determine the effect of dose on myofibrillar protein synthesis (FSR), and mTOR-pathway activity infened by western blot. Study-2B The transcriptome was intenogated to determine acute-phase biology differentially affected by protein-leucine dose. Results. Protein-leucine increased day-1 recovery leucine oxidation and synthesis, plasma and urinary branch-chain amino acids (BCAAs), products of their metabolism, and neutrophil-priming plasma metabolites versus control. Protein-leucine lowered serum creatine kinase 21-25% (±90% confidence limits 14%) and day 2-5 nitrogen balance was positive for both conditions, yet the impact on sprint power was trivial. Protein-leucine reduced day-1 neutrophil 02- production (15-17 ±20 mmol·02-·celr1 ) but on day-6 increased post-exercise production (33 ±20 mmol·02-·celr1 ) having lowered pre-exercise cortisol (21% ±15%). The increase in FSR with high-dose (0.103%· h-1 ± 0.027%· h-1 ) versus low-dose (0.092%· h-1 ± 0.017%· h-1 ) was likely equivalent. High-dose increased serum insulin (1.44-fold x/+90% confidence limits 1.18), 30- min phosphorylation ofmTOR (2.21-fold x/+1.59) and p70S6K (3.51-fold x/+1.93), and ii 240-min phosphorylation of rpS6 ( 4.85-fold x/-d .37) and 4E-BP1-a (1.99-fold x/-d .63) versus low-dose. Bioinformatics revealed a biphasic dose-responsive inflammatory transcriptome centred on interleukin (IL)-1~ at 30-min (high-dose) and IL6 at 240-min (highdose, low-dose) consistent with regulation of early-phase myeloid-cell associated muscle regeneration. Conclusions. Protein-leucine effects on performance during intense training may be inconsequential when in positive nitrogen balance, despite saturating BCAA metabolism, protein synthesis, and attenuating cell-membrane damage. 24 g of protein and 5 g leucine near saturated post-exercise myofibrillar FSR and simulated an early inflammatory promyogenic transcriptome common to skeletal muscle regeneration that was accentuated with 3-fold higher protein-leucine dose.

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  • Increased intake of vegetables, herbs and fruit : effects on bone in postmenopausal women : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Nutritional Science, Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Gunn, Caroline Ann

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Dietary approaches to address bone loss at midlife usually involve supplementation or fortification. We aimed to investigate a food based approach to reduce bone turnover in post-menopausal (PM) women in two studies. In the first study, we investigated whether daily inclusion of specific vegetables attributed with bone resorbing inhibiting properties was feasible. We hypothesised increased intake of fruit/vegetables to ≥9 servings/day would lower potential renal acid load (PRAL) significantly (~20mEq/day) and increase urine pH (0.5 pH units) sufficiently to affect bone markers. The results of the first study confirmed the feasibility of daily inclusion of specific vegetables, reduction in renal acid load and increased urine pH. The subsequent Scarborough Fair Study (SF) used a randomised, active comparator design to increase specific vegetable/herb/fruit intake in two groups (A and B) of 50 PM women, from ≤ 5 servings/day to ≥ 9 servings/day for 3 months while a control group consumed their usual diet (n=43). Primary outcome variables were plasma bone markers which were assessed at baseline, six weeks and twelve weeks. Secondary outcome variables were plasma inflammation markers including adiponectin, urinary electrolytes (calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium) and dietary intake assessed at baseline and 12 weeks and urinary pH assessed twice weekly. Increased intake of vegetables/herbs/fruit reduced P1NP and CTX (osteopenia) in Group B (SF) and urinary calcium loss in both intervention groups A and B (SF) with reduced PRAL. Adiponectin, tumour necrosis factor, interleukin 6 and 10 reduced in all groups. This study showed the SF vegetables/herbs/fruit may influence bone turnover and inflammatory markers. Few human intervention studies demonstrate reduction in plasma bone resorption markers with diet. Even fewer studies demonstrate reduction without supplementation with calcium, vitamin D, alkaline substrates, concentrated extracts or consumption of large quantities of a single functional food. The SF vegetables/herbs/fruit may protect against high bone turnover and subsequent bone loss in women with osteopenia and may have possibilities as an adjuvant to pharmaceutical therapies or a holistic dietary approach to reduce bone turnover and bone loss. Trial registration ACTRN 12611000763943

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  • Improving the response to synchronisation programmes of dairy cattle : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Veterinary Science at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Sahu, Santosh Kumar

    Thesis
    Massey University

    A gonadotrophin, prostaglandin, gonadotrophin + progesterone (GPG+P4) programme with fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) is the current recommended synchronisation programme for both heifers and anoestrous cows on New Zealand dairy farms. However, it is an expensive programme and a better understanding of the role of all of its components would be very useful in developing alternative cheaper programmes. The two components of the programme that are the least understood, in terms of their underlying physiological actions and how they influence the outcome of synchronisation, are the Day 0 gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) injection and the progesterone device. Additionally it is well known that energy status has a significant impact on fertility but there is little evidence, particularly under New Zealand conditions, of how energy status affects the response to GPG-based treatments in anoestrous postpartum dairy cows. The effects of a GPG (Day 0: 100 µg GnRH, Day 7: 500 µg PGF2a, Day 9: 100 µg GnRH) programme upon follicular and luteal dynamics, ovulation synchronisation and patterns of oestradiol and progesterone secretion in postpartum anoestrous dairy cows and nulliparous dairy heifers were compared with (i) a GPG programme plus a progesterone insert from Days 0–7 (GPG+P4) and (ii) a GPG+P4 programme from which the first GnRH treatment had been omitted (P+G+P4). Interactions of each treatment with energy balance, as determined by NEFA, IGF-I and insulin concentrations, were also studied in postpartum anoestrus cattle. Finally the conception rate (CR) to fixed time AI of a GPG+P4 programme in which AI was done concurrent with the Day 9 GnRH injection (Cosynch) was compared with a progesterone + prostaglandin programme (P4+PG; Day 0–7: progesterone releasing intravaginal device, morning of Day 6: 500 µg PGF2a, afternoon of Day 9: FTAI) in heifers. The physiological effects of the GPG and the GPG+P4 programmes were similar in anoestrous dairy cows. The inclusion of the Day 0 GnRH still appeared feasible in a GPG programme for treating anoestrous cows as it led to a higher probability of a corpus luteum (CL) on Day 7. In addition, treatment response was significantly affected by the postpartum duration and negative energy balance as evidenced by the significantly higher NEFA concentrations on Days 0, 7 and 9, and a lower insulin concentration on Day 0, in cows that failed to ovulate in response to the synchronisation protocol compared with cows that did ovulate. A clear and significant relationship between NEFA concentrations and ovulation in response to all synchronisation protocols showed that, regardless of the regimen that was used to treat anoestrus, the response was moderated and limited by the degree of negative energy balance. In heifers, the removal of the progesterone-releasing device from a GPG+P4 programme had no effect on follicular dynamics or on the proportion of heifers which ovulated after either the GnRH injection on Day 0 or Day 9. Additionally, unlike the anoestrus cows, omitting the GnRH injection on Day 0 did not result in significantly delayed ovulation at the end of the programme, inasmuch as treatment with P+G+P4 was associated with earlier ovulation than GPG. Furthermore, synchronising heifers with a significantly less expensive programme (P4+PG) resulted in similar CR to synchronising with GPG+P4 (54.8% versus 52.4%, respectively) further confirming that Day 0 GnRH was not essential in heifer synchrony. In conclusion, the higher conception rate in cows treated with a GPG+P4 programme rather than a GPG programme reported previously does not seem to be modulated by the actions on follicular dynamics and improved synchronised ovulation in dairy cattle with postpartum anoestrous (or in nulliparous heifers); however, the treatment response in anoestrous cows can be significantly affected by negative energy balance. In contrast, in dairy heifers, no benefit of Day 0 GnRH or the progesterone device in a GPG+P4 programme suggests the possibility of more cost effective options (e.g. P4+PG) which can lead to a CR as high as those synchronised using a GPG+P4 programme.

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  • Measurement of true ileal phosphorus digestibility in feed ingredients for poultry : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Poultry Science at Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences (IVABS), Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Mutucumarana, Ruvini Kamalika

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Global interest in improving the utilisation of phosphorus (P) by poultry has recently increased due to concerns over environmental pollution through excess P excretion, depletion of non-renewable inorganic phosphate deposits, and increasing price of inorganic phosphate supplements. Use of a sound criterion, preferably based on P digestibility, to assess P availability is needed to enable greater efficiency of utilisation of dietary P. No established methodology is currently available to measure the true digestible P contents in common feed ingredients for poultry. The first experiment of this thesis (Chapter 3) investigated the effects of dietary calcium (Ca) concentrations (6, 9 and 12 g/kg) on the digestibility of P, Ca, nitrogen, fat and starch in different intestinal segments and on the apparent metabolisable energy of diets in young broiler chickens. The results showed that the digestion of P and Ca was completed by upper ileum and jejunum, respectively. The site of digestion of P and nitrogen was found to shift depending on the dietary Ca concentrations. The digestibility coefficients of P in low, normal and high Ca diets at the lower ileum were determined to be 0.417, 0.379 and 0.325, respectively. The overall data showed that increasing dietary Ca concentrations negatively influenced the digestion of P, nitrogen and fat, but had no effect on those of Ca, starch and apparent metabolisable energy. The second experiment (Chapter 4) was conducted to determine endogenous losses of P and Ca in broiler chickens. The data showed that the ileal endogenous P losses in birds differed depending on the methodology employed. The ileal endogenous flow of P in birds fed P-free, gelatin-based and casein-based diets were 25, 104 and 438 mg/kg dry matter intake (DMI), respectively. Ileal endogenous flow of Ca in birds fed casein-based diet was estimated to be 321 mg/kg DMI. The next three experiments (Chapters 5, 6 and 7) investigated the potential usefulness of regression method to evaluate true ileal P digestibility of seven feed ingredients. True ileal P digestibility coefficients of maize, canola meal, wheat, sorghum, soybean meal and maize-distiller‟s dried grains with solubles for broiler chickens were determined to be 0.676, 0.469, 0.464, 0.331, 0.798 and 0.727, respectively. For plant-based ingredients, the determined true digestible P values were consistently higher than corresponding non-phytate P values (Maize, 1.72 vs. 0.75; canola meal, 4.55 vs. 2.82; wheat, 1.49 vs. 1.11; sorghum, 0.78 vs. 0.55; soybean meal, 5.16 vs. 2.15; maize-distiller‟s dried grains with solubles, 5.94 vs. 4.36 g/kg, as fed ii basis, respectively). Phytate P in maize (54.25%), soybean meal (69.7%) and maize- distiller‟s dried grains with solubles (41.5%) were well digested by broilers compared to canola meal (25.2%), wheat (18.1%) and sorghum (13.0%). True ileal P digestibility coefficients of three meat and bone meal (MBM) samples ranged from 0.420 to 0.693. Total and true digestible P contents of three MBM samples (MBM-1, MBM-2 and MBM-3) were determined to be 37.5 and 26.0; 60.2 and 36.6; and 59.8 and 25.1 g/kg, as fed basis, respectively, suggesting that P in MBM is not highly digestible. The overall data suggested that the use of regression approach to estimate true ileal P digestibility in feed ingredients has number of limitations. Overestimation as a result of using Ca- and P-deficient diets and the negative endogenous P losses observed for some ingredients (canola meal, sorghum and MBM-3) were main concerns. Negative ileal endogenous P losses were also shown to be associated with low true ileal P digestibility in these ingredients. In the final experiment (Chapter 8), two regression-based methodologies were compared for the measurement of true ileal P digestibility in maize and soybean meal. The results showed that the methodology influenced P digestibility in maize and soybean meal. The use of assay diets containing a narrow Ca:total P ratio yielded higher P digestibility for both ingredients. In this thesis research, the regression method was used to determine true ileal P digestibility of ingredients, but this approach suffers from several drawbacks. The data reported in this thesis also demonstrated that high dietary Ca concentrations were detrimental to the digestibility of nutrients, particularly of P, nitrogen and fat.

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  • Planning for a night out : local governance, power and night-time in Christchurch, New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Resource and Environmental Planning at Massey University, Turitea, Aotearoa, New Zealand

    Johnston, Karen Marie

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This research explores the changing nature of local governance and how power is exercised within Christchurch City Council’s decision-making process of its revitalisation of the Central Business District (CBD). A governmentality theoretical framework extends the scholarly debate on local government decision-making and allows for the exploration of social relations and lived realities of young people who use the night-time spaces created by the CBD revitalisation process. Three research questions structure the thesis: how is power exercised during CBD decision-making processes within Christchurch City Council?; what governmental technologies are adopted by Christchurch City Council to revitalise the CBD between 1999 and 2010?; and, what are the lived realities of the young people who use the revitalised spaces of the CBD? Christchurch, New Zealand’s second largest city, is the case study because of its recent CBD revitalisation and the significant changes to its decision-making processes. These changes impact on the way revitalisation is executed. The decision-making process of CBD revitalisation is examined through a qualitative methodology. Methods involved: document analysis; observations; individual, semi-structured interviews (with elected and non-elected local government representatives, business people, and police); and, focus-group interviews with young people who enjoy the CBD night-time entertainment spaces. There are three key research findings. First, power is simultaneously dispersed to an outside organisation and concentrated within the Council in fewer people. Particular actors have significant influence over decision-making. Second, governing at a distance occurs using technologies of a key stakeholder group followed by changes to internal Council decision-making. A post-political turn emerged where consensus is encouraged and political dissent discouraged. Third, the revitalisation project is successful in the creation of a vibrant night-time economy where young people drink and socialise. Paradoxically, these new subjects are constituted through the revitalised spaces as a problem, bringing into stark relief the conflicts between public and private interests in Christchurch’s CBD revitalisation. This research offers new possibilities for planning scholars. Governmentality allows for the critical examination of power in local governance with the explicit inclusion of the lived realities of the subjects of that governance.

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  • Epidemiological investigations of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 And STEC O26 in New Zealand slaughter cattle, and the source attribution of human illness : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Veterinary Science at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Jaros, Patricia

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC O157) and related non-O157 STEC strains are enteric pathogens of significant public health concern worldwide, including New Zealand, causing clinical diseases ranging from diarrhoea and bloody diarrhoea to the life-threatening haemolytic uraemic syndrome. Cattle are considered the principal hosts and have been shown to be a source of STEC infection for both foodborne and environmental outbreaks of human diarrhoeal disease overseas. A series of observational studies were conducted to gain knowledge on the epidemiology of STEC O157 and STEC O26 in New Zealand slaughter cattle and assess the relative importance of cattle as a source of domestically-acquired STEC infections in humans. A repeated cross-sectional study conducted on four selected New Zealand beef slaughter plants provided detailed data on the prevalence and concentration of faecal shedding of STEC O157 and STEC O26 in 695 very young calves (4–7 days-old) and 895 adult cattle post-slaughter, identifying calves as more prevalent carriers of STEC. Findings of a subsequent cohort study, the first of its kind, provided evidence that for the 60 calves examined, transportation and lairage was not associated with increase of faecal shedding of E. coli O157 and O26 (STEC and non-STEC) but increase of cross-contamination of hides and carcasses post-slaughter. In a national prospective case-control study, 113 STEC cases and 506 random controls were interviewed for risk factor evaluation. The study findings implicate that environmental and animal contact, but not food, as significant exposure pathways for sporadic STEC infections in humans in New Zealand, and suggest ruminants as the most important source of infection. The molecular analysis of bovine and human STEC O157 isolates provided evidence for the historical introduction of a subset of the globally-circulating STEC O157 strains into New Zealand and ongoing localised transmission of STEC between cattle and humans. These findings will contribute to the development of a risk management strategy for STEC, similar to those already implemented for Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Listeria, which pose a high risk to public health and New Zealand’s access to international markets. Furthermore, risk factors identified in the case-control study will contribute to the design of public health interventions to reduce the incidence of STEC infections in New Zealand.

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  • Post-release survival and productivity of oiled little blue penguins (Eudyptula minor) rehabilitated after the 2011 C/V Rena oil spill : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Conservation Biology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Sievwright, Karin Amy

    Thesis
    Massey University

    There is ongoing global debate about the effectiveness and conservation value of rehabilitating oiled wildlife, with post-rehabilitation monitoring of released individuals being required to evaluate the medium- and long-term effectiveness of the rehabilitation process. This study provides the first assessment of the efficacy of the oil-rehabilitation process used in New Zealand by monitoring the post-release survival and productivity of little blue penguins (Eudyptula minor) that were oiled and subsequently rehabilitated following the 2011 C/V Rena oil spill in Tauranga, New Zealand. This study was enabled as all rehabilitated penguins were tagged with passive integrated transponders (PIT-tags/micro-chips) before release, as were similar numbers of non-oiled control penguins from within the local area around the same time. This enabled survival and productivity to be compared between rehabilitated and non-oiled penguins. Surveys for the presence of marked penguins were made in 18 of the 23 months following the release of rehabilitated penguins at three study sites (Mount Maunganui/Mauao, Leisure Island/Moturiki, and Rabbit Island/Motuotau). Mark-recapture analyses indicated that survival rates of rehabilitated penguins were comparable to those of control penguins. However, survival was reduced for both groups in the first six months following rehabilitation/micro-chipping. Survival probabilities increased thereafter and were high and reasonably constant over time. Probabilities estimated are likely to represent minima as by the end of the study an asymptote of first-time re-sightings of control and rehabilitated penguins was yet to be reached. Survival was not influenced by selected variables including oiling degree, admission and release body mass index, packed cell volume, total protein levels, blood glucose levels, and captive duration. This work also found that rehabilitated penguins were heavier than control penguins upon release and during the subsequent two months, however following the moult and post-moult foraging period masses reduced and thereafter were similar to those of control penguins. The behaviour of individual penguins was also recorded during surveys; rehabilitated penguins were more likely to stay (not move) when approached during surveys and were more docile than control penguins when handled. Breeding monitoring found that productivity of rehabilitated penguins was somewhat reduced in the year after the spill. The timing and duration of egg laying, clutch sizes and pre-fledging chick masses were similar between rehabilitated pairs (pairs including at least one rehabilitated penguin) and control pairs (pairs including two control penguins), whereas hatching, fledging and egg success were lower in rehabilitated pairs; however, only hatching success was significantly reduced. Despite these reductions, hatching, fledging and egg success rates of rehabilitated pairs were within ranges reported for other little blue penguin colonies in Australia and New Zealand. These findings suggest that the oil-rehabilitation process used during the C/V Rena oil spill was reasonably effective at treating and reversing most negative effects of oil-contamination on the post-release survival and productivity of rehabilitated penguins. This demonstrates the general effectiveness of the rehabilitation process used to treat oiled little blue penguins in New Zealand and justifies, with on-going improvement and adaption of treatments and techniques used, the continued practise of oiled wildlife rehabilitation in New Zealand.

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  • How do interprofessional practice teams work together to identify and provide for gifted students with multiple exceptionalities? : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Educational Psychology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    O'Brien, Jilly

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Whilst there is some international research regarding multidisciplinary collaboration as a means to identify and meet the needs of gifted learners with multiple exceptionalities, there is little New Zealand based information, much less research, on this practice. This multiple case study research explored how gifted learners with multiple exceptionalities are supported in New Zealand by interprofessional (IPP) teams of teachers, special needs coordinators, gifted and talented coordinators, educational psychologists, school counsellors, resource teachers and others. The purpose of the study was to explore experiences and understandings around how IPP teams work against core competencies of interprofessional practice. These are shared values, roles and responsibilities, communication, and teamwork. Key findings of this study were that the interprofessional practice team identity is still in its infancy, with core competencies not fully developed. Whilst there were shared values and a willingness towards recognising inclusive practices for gifted learners with multiple exceptionalities, these shared values were hampered by limited knowledge and expertise across the IPP team. Limited understandings of teamwork processes, and limited recognition of the importance of communication within the IPP team were common themes. Parents were seldom considered, and students were never considered part of the IPP team, which by its very name excludes parent and student voice. Whilst not evaluative, these findings show that gifted learners with multiple exceptionalities in New Zealand may not have adequate support at a systems level. Recommendations include the development of interprofessional practice competencies as one way to ensure gifted learners with multiple exceptionalities and their whanau experience full inclusion in our education system, and more research to evaluate whether effective IPP teams translate to more positive student outcomes.

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  • Effectiveness in changing a primary school's culture : a case study : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Educational Administration at Massey University

    Joyce, Andrea

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Change has been a constant feature of contemporary educational organisations since 1989 and the instituting of Tomorrow's Schools. However, knowing that change is required is one thing, achieving 'real change' is quite another. Contemporary educational writers and researchers strongly suggest that an organisation's culture, effectiveness, improvements and leadership are the major, interconnected, concepts that enable an organisation - whether it be educational or a corporate business - to initiate, manage, maintain and monitor real change. This research study, using ethnographic approaches of participant observation, interviews and document collection, attempted to view an educational organisation in the throes of re-establishing itself from an 'historical culture', to a more 'contemporary culture'. The research indicated, by comparing historical and present ways of doing things, that organisational concepts - culture, effectiveness, improvement and leadership - were interpreted in different ways to produce quite contrasting sets of beliefs and assumptions, norms and expectations. The research also highlighted the fact that leadership was at the 'heart' in influencing the way/s in which - both historically and in the present - culture, effectiveness and improvements were to be implemented and shaped. This research concluded that the concept of organisational culture (as an umbrella for defining how things are done, effectiveness, improvements and leadership) was useful in developing an understanding of what creates real change in an organisation. This research study, in adding to current debate and research, implies that, in identifying beliefs and assumptions, norms and expectations, an environment could be prudently positioned to design and change systems, rather than merely to identify systems that are possibly inadequate to meet contemporary educational (or other) challenges.

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