89,537 results

  • Cost benefit analysis of riparian planting options for freshwater coastal streams in Horowhenua : ngā utu kia piki te Mauri o ngā wai a Parawhenuamea : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Environmental Management, Massey University, Manawatū, New Zealand

    Tangatatai, Tene

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Freshwater ecosystem health is an important policy priority in New Zealand, recently highlighted by the government’s launch of the ‘Freshwater Reform 2013’. One practical way of improving freshwater ecosystem health is riparian planting. In this context, the aim was to develop and apply a cost benefit analysis (CBA) methodology to evaluate riparian planting options for restoring five freshwater coastal streams of importance to iwi/hapu in the Horowhenua, drawing on two distinct disciplines – freshwater ecology and economics. Essential to this CBA methodology was an explicit evaluation of a desired policy outcome. Accordingly, attention was given to assessing what constitutes the desired policy outcome that is ‘freshwater ecosystem health of coastal streams’. This assessment was based on developing a detailed understanding of the attributes that must managed to achieve ‘freshwater ecosystem health’ including: in-stream temperature, periphyton, sediment, water flows, ecological connectivity, nitrate and ammonia, key fish species and stream invertebrates. The CBA methodology then focused on developing a new systems framework (interrelated ecosystem ‘biophysical structures’, ‘processes’ and ‘functions’) for assessing the ecological role of riparian vegetation in improving freshwater ecosystem health. Non-market economic values required for CBA calculations were then derived using a benefit transfer method. Data from three study sites (Karapiro South Waikato, Hurunui Canterbury, and Canterbury) based on ‘choice experiment’ values were evaluated for their suitability for use in the policy site (Horowhenua). The suitability of data from study sites for use in the policy site applied the Welch T test and Wilcoxon rank sum, using ‘personal income’ as the assessment criterion. Over 100 hundred planting scenarios were then tested by CBA, with almost all having positive net present values for both 5m and 10m width planting options. The study concludes with a discussion of the practical and policy implications of these findings, and highlights the limitations of this study and how these can be overcome in future research. Keywords: Indigenous, ecosystem health, freshwater coastal streams, riparian, environmental cost benefit analysis, benefit transfer.

    View record details
  • The paranoid metanarrative and the postcolonial response in post-9/11 fiction : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in English Literature, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Dous, Abdulaziz Nasser

    Thesis
    Massey University

    No abstract. The following is an excerpt from the preface "The Pit and the Ladder": In the critical component of this project: “Fiction Under the Clout of the Dominant 9/11 Metanarrative”, I will examine the extent of the influence of the dominant 9/11 metanarrative on post-9/11 fiction. This section is conducted in terms of literary analysis and gauges whether the selected novels succeed at producing counternarratives that incite literary and public incredulity in the dominant 9/11 metanarrative or, conversely, if they aid in perpetuating that same metanarrative. Through the creative component entitled The Righteous Man, I will recreate the post-9/11 world, but from a perspective that is loosely based on my personal experience after 9/11 in both the US and Saudi Arabia. I would contend that this perspective deterritorialises and forces the reader to look through the vantage point of someone who is neither a direct victim nor a culprit of the terrorist attacks of 9/11. Through the construction of a protagonist who suffers unjustly from racial profiling - under the guise of the implementation of stricter security measures - I hope to showcase how the perpetuation of the 9/11 metanarrative creates a vicious cycle of paranoid and xenophobic tendencies. These, in turn, feed into the metanarrative’s pool of doctrines and exacerbate the endless cycle of victims-turned-offenders.

    View record details
  • Nematodiasis and larval migrans in kiwi (Apteryx spp.) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Zoology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    van Zyl, Nicki

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate the inter-relationships between host and parasite specificity and aberrant larval migration, using the kiwi family (Apteryx spp) and their nematodes as the study system. Kiwi are endemic to New Zealand, and have been estimated to have declined by 90% since human settlement in New Zealand. The effect of disease, mainly parasitism on kiwi populations have been a minor issue compared to predation, however with intensive conservation management the effect of parasites on kiwi are likely to increase. Very little is known about parasites in kiwi and how they impact the birds, especially the aberrant larval migrans syndromes. I determined the prevalence of nematodes in all kiwi species from 1991-2012 (n=642) that were necropsied at Massey University, using the National Wildlife Pathology Database (Huia), with a specific focus on larval migrans. Brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli) were found to have the highest prevalence of nematodiasis, and were also the only species to show evidence of neural larval migrans. Visceral larval migrans were found in brown, rowi (A. rowi) and little spotted kiwi (A. owenii). With the brown kiwi showing the highest incidence of larval migrans, I focused on this species for further investigation. It has previously been proposed that the larval migrans could be caused by nematodes from the Toxocara spp, since wild kiwi can share habitats with wild cats and dogs, which are the normal host of this nematode). However, with specific PCR analysis conducted on archived tissue, I concluded that neither Toxocara cati or T. canis was present in the tissues. I also investigated the cause of cutaneous larval migrans (CLM) in rowi. Uniquely, CLM has not been previously recorded in any avian host. A generic nematode PCR analysis followed by DNA sequencing were used in this study to identify the nematode involved in CLM as being closely related to a nematode from the Trichostrongylus species. ii My results suggest that introduced animal hosts are having an indirect effect on our native bird populations, but to what extent is still unknown. The parasites transmitted between the introduced species and our native species are causing adverse effects to our native populations’ health, in the case of larval migrans; but how often are these introduced parasites infecting our native population and could our native species cope with this competition? From my study it can be presumed that our native species are struggling to adapt to new parasites, and competition between introduced and native species could be contributing to the decline in our species.

    View record details
  • Application of a sedation scoring system in dogs following premedication : thesis is submitted by Deepti Deshpande to fulfil the requirements for the degree of Masters of Veterinary Studies in the Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences, College of Sciences, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Deshpande, Deepti

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Pharmacogenetics is the study of how variations in the genome influence drug pharmacokinetics (the body's effect on the drug) and pharmacodynamics (the drug's effect on the body). The MDR1 gene codes for a membrane-bound drug transporter protein, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) that transports drugs across the cell membrane using an energy-dependent mechanism. Anecdotal reports in the literature suggested that dogs with a mutation in the MDR1 gene (MDR1-1Δ) show increased sensitivity to routinely used veterinary sedatives such as acepromazine and butorphanol, resulting in increased duration and depth of sedation. This study has 3 aims. First is to gain experience with a sedation scoring system that can be used to assess the level of sedation. The second aim is to assess the difference in sedation of dogs premedicated with dexmetomidine and acepromazine. The third aim is to investigate the effect of acepromazine (n=29) and a combination of acepromazine and butorphanol (n=12) on MDR1 genotyped rough-coated collies. In the study assessing the sedation of dogs premedicated with dexmadetomidine and acepromazine, 30 dogs scheduled for orchidectomy were divided into two groups; the DEX group (n=15) and the ACE group (n=15). Dogs in the DEX group received dexmedetomidine (125 μg/m2) and morphine (0.5 mg/kg) while the dogs in the ACE group received acepromazine (0.04 mg/kg) and morphine (0.5 mg/kg). The dogs were sedation scored at 0, 10, 20 and 30 minute intervals. The dogs in the DEX group had a statistically higher sedation score at 30 minutes than the dogs in the ACE group (p value =0.0189). Dogs premedicated with dexmedetomidine had a higher sedation score than dog’s premedicated acepromazine at 30 minutes. The heart rate, respiratory rate and mean arterial blood pressure were not different between the DEX and the ACE group at 30 minutes post administration of premedication agent. The second study investigated the effects of acepromazine and a combination of acepromazine and butorphanol in dogs carrying the MDR1-1Δ mutation. Genotyping for the MDR1-1Δ mutation was performed in 31 rough-coated collies. Dogs were considered healthy based on clinical history, physical examination, complete blood count, serum chemistry and urinalysis. Twenty-nine of the 31 rough coated collies were deemed healthy and were enrolled in the sedation trial assessing the effects of acepromazine on the MDR1-1Δ mutants. A subset of the 29 rough coated collies was enrolled in the study assessing the effects of combination of acepromazine and butorphanol. The rough coated collies were divided in 3 groups based on their genotype: homozygous mutants, heterozygous carriers and normal group. After administration of acepromazine (0.04 mg/kg, IV) or a combination of acepromazine (0.04 mg/kg) and butorphanol (0.05 mg/kg), sedation scoring was performed at 0, 30 minutes, 60 minutes, 90 minutes, 2 , 2.5 , 3 , 4 and 6 hour intervals by an observer blinded to the results of the MDR1 genotype. Following administration of acepromazine, homozygous mutant collies (MDR1 -/-) (n = 10) reached a greater level of sedation and remained sedated for a longer duration as compared to the heterozygous carriers (MDR1 +/-) (n =10) and wild-type collies (MDR1 +/+) (n = 9) (p= 0.0176). A subset of 12 dogs was sedated with a combination of acepromazine (0.04 mg/kg) and butorphanol (0.05 mg/kg). Heterozygous carriers (MDR1 -/+) had significantly higher sedation scores than homozygous mutants (MDR1 -/-) and normal groups (MDR1 +/+) when sedated with the combination (p=0.0423). This unexpected result may have been due to the small number of dogs tested. The author recommends lower dosing of acepromazine and butorphanol in dogs that are homozygous mutants to the MDR1-1Δ mutation and recommends the constant monitoring of sedation.

    View record details
  • A study of the bacteriological quality of bottled and tap water in Cebu City, Philippines : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Environmental Management at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Ybanez, Bryan B

    Thesis
    Massey University

    A study was conducted in the mega urban centre of Cebu City, Philippines between July and October 2013, with the aim of assessing the bacteriological quality of bottled and tap drinking waters. The study was performed during the warm, rainy season, when prevalence of diarrhoea linked to bacterial contamination of water supply is usually at its highest level in tropical countries. The bacteriological tests performed on the water samples were: isolation of E. coli, thermotolerant coliforms, total coliforms, and heterotrophic plate counts. In addition, sanitation programs applied by bottled water manufacturers and the local water system supplier were surveyed by means of a questionnaire. The study focussed on bottled water brands with the greatest combined market share in the study area, and the household taps surveyed were located in villages with the greatest number of local water supply concessionaires. The results indicated the presence of bacteria in both bottled and tap water samples. A considerable number of bottled water samples from one brand were positive for heterotrophic plate count bacteria. On the other hand, positive tap water samples collected from one household were positive for E. coli, thermotolerant coliforms, total coliforms, and the HPC bacteria. Multivariable Poisson regression modelling indicated a significant variability in heterotrophic bacterial counts between production batches of bottled water. For the tap water samples, statistical analysis was not indicated because all contaminated samples belonged to a single household tap and were collected on one sampling occasion. In regard to sanitation programs, the municipal water supplier and all except one bottled water manufacturer reported the application of Good Manufacturing Practice and Quality Control programs in the production plant. Interestingly, the only bottled water manufacturer which did not respond to the survey questionnaire manufactured the only brand consistently showing positive bacterial counts and failing the Philippine regulatory standards. It is concluded that a number of factors associated with bacterial contamination in the study area require close monitoring by bottled water manufacturers, water suppliers, and health authorities.

    View record details
  • Going with and against the flow : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy (by thesis only) in Sociology at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Fielder, Anna

    Thesis
    Massey University

    In the act of breastfeeding their children beyond the age of two years women aspire to ideals for the future of the next generation. They seek physical health, emotional wellbeing, freedom of speech and human connection for their children. Yet the road is not clear for the realisation of such aspirations, and women develop various ways of managing the challenges they encounter on their breastfeeding journeys. In the face of social stigma about nursing a child beyond toddlerhood many women do not disclose their breastfeeding to others. Some encounter difficulties in the breastfeeding practice itself and an absence of places in which to talk openly about those challenges. I draw Julia Kristeva’s notion of abjection into Jameson’s dialectic of ideology and utopia in order to develop an interpretative methodology for reading women’s words about sustained breastfeeding. This enables manifestations of stigma and maternal guilt to be situated within an historical and social context. It also facilitates a particular way of understanding how women attempt to shift -to sublimate,in psychoanalytical terms-the tensions they encounter in the context of breastfeeding, into more manageable spaces. Such sublimatory practices include ways of talking and writing that hold the potential for influencing social change.

    View record details
  • The effect of applications of different nitrogen types and potassium on seed quality and AR37 endophyte presence at different spikelet and floret positions of perennial ryegrass cv. Halo

    Wang, Muyu

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Nitrogen has been considered as an important nutrient in the terrestrial system. In the seed production of ryegrasses, one of the most popular pastures used in New Zealand and other temperate-zone areas, the application of nitrogen is responsible for improving seed yield and seed quality. Novel fungal endophytes are also now commonly used in perennial ryegrass pasture systems. The effect of different forms of nitrogen on seed quality and endophyte infection frequency and alkaloid concentration including spikelet/floret positional effects is also of interest to researchers. This study was designed to determine the effects of three nitrogen forms and potassium treatments (six in total) on the seed quality (purity, thousand seed weight (TSW), and germination) and AR37 endophyte presence in the offspring seedlings of the perennial ryegrass cv. Halo at three spikelet positions (top, middle and bottom). Also the effect of two nitrogen forms (nitrate and ammonium) at different floret positions was investigated. The two nitrogen forms (urea and nitrate) with potassium had a poorer seed quality compared with the control and all nitrogen treatments applied without potassium. Nitrogen application (any form by itself) did not affect TSW of ‘Halo’, but a reduction was found under urea or nitrate with potassium. Also, seed germination percentages were not affected by nitrogen type when compared with the control, but urea with potassium gave a lower germination than the three nitrogen forms alone; and nitrate with potassium was lower than just the urea treatment. In the purity test, urea applied alone had a higher pure seed percentage than the control and the other nitrogen forms applied alone, but, again, the nitrogen with potassium application had the poorest performance in the test. On the other hand, none of these seed quality parameters differed among the three spikelet positions (top, middle and bottom). Both nitrogen and potassium application and different spikelet positions did not affect endophyte content in the offspring seedlings of ‘Halo’.In the minor experiment, where seven floret positions and only two nitrogen forms (ammonium (NH4+)and nitrate (NO3-)) were compared, the individual seed weights of Halo in florets3, 4, and 7 under nitrate application were higher than that under ammonium. The seed weight in floret 7 wasthe only position lower than floret 1 and 2 when ammonium was applied. The germination percentages were not affected by the two nitrogen forms, nor were different floret positions. Further, nitrogen application also did not alter empty seed percentages (in frequency), but the basal florets produced less empty seeds. Differences in endophyte content between ammonium and nitrate applications were found only in floret position 1 where nitrate reduced endophyte. Also amongst florets under nitrate there was higher endophyte content in floret positions 2, 4 and 7.

    View record details
  • Corticosterone responses of captive and wild northern brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Zoology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Adams, Dominic Christian

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Conservation strategies should work to mmnruse the occurrence of stressful situations, which are likely to result in chronic elevations of corticosterone. Consequently, identification of such situations would yield important information for conservation management. The objective of this study was to compare the basal levels of corticosterone and the corticosterone response of kiwi (Apteryx mantelli) in different management systems. Repeated blood sampling enabled us to describe the magnitude and duration of the corticosterone response, which is a measure of the sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HP A) axis to stress. All kiwi responded to capture and handling with a rise in plasma levels of corticosterone, which peaked 30 min after capture. Corticosterone levels immediately after capture in wild kiwi were significantly higher than those of captive kiwi. This was most likely due to the method of capture, as wild kiwi took considerably longer to catch than captive kiwi. The plasma level of corticosterone 30 min after capture in nocturnal house kiwi was significantly lower than wild kiwi, but similar to those in outdoor penned kiwi. The cause of these differences is unclear. Nocturnal house kiwi may have become habituated to the presence of humans. Alternatively, it may be due to nocturnal house kiwi being held on a different light cycle to outdoor pen and wild kiwi. In addition, corticosterone levels in nocturnal house kiwi returned to basal levels 2 h after capture and handling. There was no significant difference in the binding affinity (I(I) and binding capacity (Bmax) of corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) between nocturnal house, outdoor pen and wild kiwi. Furthermore, at no stage did maximum plasma levels of corticosterone exceed Bmax· Therefore, the Bmax of kiwi CBG was not a major factor when interpreting corticosterone responses of kiwi. Regularly handled kiwi do not respond to public display and handling with an increase in plasma levels of corticosterone. Therefore, these kiwi appear to have become habituated to this procedure. Elevated corticosterone levels in wild kiwi immediately after capture indicate that determining the precise location of wild kiwi is sufficient to induce a stress response. Therefore this practice should be kept to a minimum. Low basal levels of corticosterone indicate that captive kiwi have acclimatised to captivity. Furthermore, these results indicate that captive kiwi are not exposed to chronic elevations in corticosterone.

    View record details
  • How does the interaction between the Filamin A repeat 10 domain and F-actin lead to severe OPD skeletal disorders? : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Biochemistry at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Barzak, Fareeda Maged

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The cytoskeleton network allows cells to differentiate, divide, and move in response to the external environment creating a mechanoprotection system against cell stress. The actin cytoskeleton is stabilised and tightly regulated by various actin-binding proteins, one of which are the family of Filamin (FLN) proteins that crosslink F-actin into three-dimensional networks. Filamins also link the actin cytoskeleton to the cellular membrane through interactions with transmembrane proteins and function as a molecular scaffold for signalling molecules. In addition to an actin binding domain, each monomer contains a rod region of 24 immunoglobulin-like repeat domains with dimerisation of the monomers occurring at repeat 24. The human filamin family contains three FLN isoforms; FLNA, FLNB, and FLNC which are differentially expressed where FLNA is identified as the dominant isoform located on the X-chromosome essential for mammalian development. Mutations in Filamin A (FLNA) have been identified to cause distinctly different human diseases affecting the central nervous system, vascular system, or skeletal muscles; however, the molecular mechanisms of FLNA leading to these diseases remain unclear. Mutations cluster in distinct FLNA domains, suggesting their functional importance for mediating correct functions. Mutations in the FLNA repeat 10 domain are correlated with severe forms of the skeletal disorders Otopalatodigital syndrome spectrum disorders (OPD) thought to be due to an altered or gain-of-function phenotype. The aim of this study was to provide an insight into the biochemical properties of FLNA repeat 10 domain by better understanding how mutations in this domain lead to OPD. Initially, recombinant wildtype (Wt) and mutant (V1249A and A1188T) FLNA repeat 10 domain proteins (FLNAR10) were purified then compared by in vitro biochemical studies to investigate secondary structure, stability, and affinity towards F-actin. The FLNAR10 protein was revealed to have relatively weak binding affinity towards F-actin, consistent with being an additional contributor in the filamin protein to bind F-actin. Mutations in the FLNAR10 protein exhibited a slight increase in affinity towards F-actin, accompanied by a slight reduction of thermostability in comparison to the Wt protein, but no significant changes in the secondary structure were observed. This slight increase in the affinity of the mutant FLNA repeat 10 proteins towards F-actin is consistent with a gain-of function mechanism for the disease phenotype. Overall, these results contribute towards a better understanding of the FLNA function, providing further evidence towards a gain-of function mechanism for OPD.

    View record details
  • The impact of post death communication [PDC] on bereavement : thesis completed to fulfill the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts, Massey University, May 2014

    McCormick, Brigid

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Post Death Communication (i.e. perceived communication from someone who has died), has been part of the human experience since the earliest recorded history, and it is now known to be highly beneficial to almost all bereaved individuals who experience it. Despite the fact that PDC appears to be common to all cultures and is usually very welcome and very healing, it has been judged by Western society in a negative way and as a result, fear of negative judgment has meant that experients are hesitant to discuss it. Using Thematic Analysis, this study conducted a small qualitative investigation into the experience of PDC among New Zealand and North American populations. In a semi-structured interview, conducted face to face where possible, and by Skype where necessary, 14 participants aged between 52 and 80 years were asked about the nature of their PDC experience, how they felt about it, and how it impacted their bereavement. Results showed conclusively that PDC is welcome and beneficial, and that experients are wary of discussing it for fear of being judged negatively. Thematic analysis revealed a meta-theme of Affirmation – participants were unanimous in believing PDC to be beneficial. Within this meta-theme were the three themes of Comfort - PDC brings comfort to the bereaved; Continuity – PDC brings a sense of personal and relational continuation, and Growth - PDC brings a sense of personal growth and a change in values. A fourth theme arising from the analysis was Negativity. Participants expressed fear of being judged in a pejorative way for having experienced PDC. Since 2000 it has been possible to induce PDC in a clinical setting, thereby elevating what had been a serendipitous, random occurrence into a powerful therapeutic tool. The protocol of Induced PDC is practiced on five continents, yet few people in the healing professions are aware of it. In New Zealand, Induced PDC appears to be unknown. This means that grieving Kiwis are going without the therapeutic benefits of PDC. The findings of this thesis indicate spontaneous PDC as experienced by the sample is overwhelmingly beneficial, and they support the use of Induced PDC in therapeutic settings. The findings have implications for raising awareness about and the use of Induced PDC by New Zealand clinicians.

    View record details
  • A brief intervention to reduce offending : the study of a faith-based programme : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Psychology at Massey University

    Lees, Jeffrey N

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Concern about the growing level and cost of criminal behaviour in New Zealand has resulted in a high priority being given to the research and development of effective interventions. The targeting of appropriate interventions to those at greatest risk of reoffending is identified as a key to successful outcomes. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Making Right Choices (MARC) programme in reducing offending of those at moderate to high risk of persisting in criminal conduct. MARC is a brief, faith-based, biblical approach to curtailing offending, developed at Tauranga Community Probation Service between 1993 and 2003. Seven recidivist male offenders, 19 – 26 years of age, volunteered to participate in this study. Five of the participants were prison inmates serving short sentences and two were on supervision in the community. Two risk measures (RoC*RoI and YLS/CLI) were used to ensure that participants met the medium/high risk criteria. In addition to attending the 10-session MARC course, participants were asked to undertake pre- and post-treatment assessments of antisocial attitudes, criminal associations and offending. Sessions were on average 60 minutes long, delivered one-on-one in an office setting. In addition to conviction history from the Law Enforcement System (LES), measures included the Measure of Criminal Attitudes and Associates (MCAA), the Social Problem Solving Inventory for Offenders (SPSIO), the Marlowe Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS) and the MARC Self-report Measure of Offending (MSMO). Follow-up assessment was carried out 6 months and 12 months after completion of the programme and/or release from prison. Results at six and twelve months after MARC showed that of the seven MARC participants, five had markedly reduced their offending on the selfreport measure, three had significantly less conviction on the LES measure, four recorded a distinct drop in contact with criminal companions and two had noticeably ameliorated their antisocial attitudes. Five participants were able to describe ways they had been helped by the programme. While the limitations of the methods preclude certainty about this programme’s effectiveness, the positive outcomes provide tentative support to the hypothesis that facilitating spiritual change can be an effective way to bring about cognitive and behavioural change with recidivist offenders.

    View record details
  • Digestibility of Fiberezy® and Timothy Haylage and behavioural observations and voluntary feed intake of FiberEzy® and rye clover hay in Thoroughbred horses : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Patel, Deepa

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis describes a field study, a laboratory study and two animal studies evaluating the production of timothy grass grown under New Zealand conditions, the composition of a commercially prepared ensiled lucerne and timothy mix ( FiberEzy®: a 50:50 timothy lucerne mix) and ensiled timothy grass;, the stability of FiberEzy® during 12 months of storage; and also the digestibility and voluntary feed intake of FiberEzy®, ensiled timothy grass and Rye-clover hay when fed to Thoroughbred horses. For the field study, grass samples were collected from a representative section (6m x 16m) of a field in Reporoa, (Waikato, New Zealand) sown with timothy grass (Phleum pratense L.) on the 10th of March 2010 at Longitude 176°34’E, Latitude 38°39’S. The samples were collected at regular intervals to investigate changes in the dry matter (DM), acid detergent fibre (ADF), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and lignin content of the crop over the growing season. There was an increase (17.7to 35.89%) in the dry matter content and lignin content (3.0to 6.3%) of timothy grass over time as the grass matured. Once harvested and ensiled, a sample of timothy grass and FiberEzy® were analysed for total DM, percentages of: crude protein; crude fat; crude fibre; ash; gross energy; hot water soluble carbohydrates; pectin, (NDF), (ADF), lignin, and vitamin E content. Lab analysis showed that FiberEzy® had higher levels of crude protein, pectin, lignin, ash and vitamin E (p3% of the body weight. The horses were again stalled individually in loose boxes (4 x 4 m) lined with rubber matting. Voluntary feed intake was measured over 17 days. Day 1 to 8 was the adaptation phase and from day 9-17 of the study the horses were scan sampled and videoed for two hours every morning(9:30-11:30 am) after feeding and two hours in the evening (4:30-6:30 pm) after feeding. There were significant differences in VFI between time periods (24.3±0.9 vs 17.8±0.4 kg DM /day, p<0.05) and between feeds (FiberEzy®: 24.3±0.4 vs. Rye-clover hay: 17.8±0.7 kg DM /day) but not an interaction. Behaviours were typical of loose box housed horses and differences in feeding behaviour observed correlated with the differences in VFI measured between feeds. The results of this thesis suggest that FiberEzy® is a suitable alternative to concentrate-based supplementary feed.

    View record details
  • Primary school teachers [sic] perceptions of gender-based differences : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Educational Psychology at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Booth, Ingrid

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This study explores primary school teachers [i.e. teachers'] perceptions of gender-based differences in primary school in New Zealand. In this mixed-method study, the research utilised an online survey to collect data in three domains: teacher as self, teacher-student dynamics, and teacher collegiality. Quantitative analysis revealed overall no differences; however, quantitative analysis showed differences in the participants' perceptions of teachers content knowledge, the ability to treat students fairly, and teachers' positive attitude toward the profession. Qualitative analysis also revealed differences in participants' perceptions of the jobs held by males and females in the primary sector with male teachers receiving more negative responses when compared to female primary teachers. Furthermore all of the participants perceived a need for more male primary teachers in the primary sector. The participants were unsure if male teachers had an adequate amount of content knowledge and whether female teachers treated their students fairly. The participants perceived that males [i.e. male] teachers' attitudes toward the profession was not as positive as female teachers' attitudes toward the profession. Male primary teachers' [i.e. teachers] are always in demand in primary schools in New Zealand; but could that be for the wrong reasons? The literature has cast doubt on the common assumptions that male teachers are needed as male role models and that their presence can improve the behaviour and academic achievement of boys. The literature suggests that men in the primary teacher workforce are often viewed in terms of their inherent male qualities rather than personal attributes; their ability to be a role model rather than their caring qualities and ability to build relationships. The research findings provide insight into primary teachers perceptions of gender-based differences and could lead to improved teacher education and professional development programs as well as the recruitment of more effective male primary teachers.

    View record details
  • The measurement of stress and burnout among university students : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Collins, David

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This study examines stress and burnout in a university student population and focuses on the relationship between interpersonal and academic demands and perceived stress and burnout. The mediating roles of social support and life events on the demand-burnout relationship is also considered. Four measures were used in this study. The Student Stress Inventory was used as a stress measure and the Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to measure student burnout. The Student Life Events Questionnaire was used for the measurement of concurrent stressors that the student had experienced and the Multi-Dimensional Support Scale was used to identify levels of social support and by what source the support was provided. The results of this study suggest that a high level of social/academic problems in combination with low levels of support and interaction from lecturers leads to lower levels of personal accomplishment and higher levels of depersonalisation and emotional exhaustion. It was also concluded that high levels of social support from family and friends, and from other students leads to an increase in personal accomplishment and a decrease in depersonalisation and emotional exhaustion. The manner in which counselling services and academic departments can use these findings identify students at risk before problems reach serious proportions is also discussed.

    View record details
  • Strategy instruction, metacognitive training and attribution retraining : a combined approach for remediating secondary students' reading comprehension difficulties : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education at Massey University

    Horrex, Jan Erica

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Students who adequately decode but have difficulty comprehending what they read, often possess a limited range of comprehension strategies. Furthermore, they often lack the metacognitive knowledge to use these strategies effectively. These two factors limit the likelihood of students experiencing success on a range of academic activities. As a consequence these students often develop dysfunctional attributional beliefs which also negatively impact on future learning. In the present study, 39 students with comprehension difficulties participated in an intervention programme comparing the effects of strategy-plus-attribution training, strategy-only training, and no training conditions on reading comprehension. The results revealed no significant improvement in students' reading comprehension. However, there was a significant improvement in students' use of comprehension strategies. A number of reasons have been suggested, which could explain why the increased use of strategies did not translate into improvements in reading comprehension. In light of these suggestions, several recommendations have been made regarding the future development and implementation of reading comprehension intervention programmes.

    View record details
  • The risk and protective factors for the development of compassion fatigue and burnout in psychologists : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Tomkins, Sharon Heather

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The present study examined how both individual and organisational factors combine in different ways to produce risk and protective factors for the development of compassion fatigue and burnout. The reason for undertaking research into secondary traumatic stress disorder in psychologists is because there seems to be an increase in psychologists leaving the field of psychology due to increased stress and burnout. Several variables were examined, including an investigation between risk and protective factors for the development of compassion fatigue and burnout. These included work settings i.e., public institutions and private practices, full time and part time work, life satisfaction, work locus of control, and intention to quit the field, along with several demographic variables, such as gender. The compassion fatigue and burnout variables correlated with many of the protective and risk factors. Public institutions, external work locus of control, poor life satisfaction, and full time work, all predicted a higher risk of developing either compassion fatigue/burnout or both. The results indicated that compassion fatigue and burnout should be considered as a concern for practitioners, mental health organisations and trainers of future psychologists.

    View record details
  • Half the world away : a qualitative study exploring migration and motherhood in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Ni Bhroin, Riona

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Migration is a global phenomenon. An estimated 214 million people worldwide have migrated from their countries of origin; 49% of whom are women. Previous research suggests that the juxtaposition of migration and motherhood has a considerable impact on the identity of women, and is associated with social isolation, economic strain and mental health concerns. In New Zealand, 23% of the population of women were born outside the country; despite this, there is limited local research into the impact of migration and motherhood. Half the World Away is a contribution to this gap in psychological research; the project explores the lived experience of migrant mothers in New Zealand. Feminist methodologies guide this research. Stories of migration and motherhood are explored using narrative analysis against the backdrop of La Mestiza metaphor. Half the World Away rejects previous assertions that migrant women become marginal women due to our inability to reconcile psychological conflict caused by migration. It explores how cultural discourses and master narratives split us into (n)either/(n)or and how women negotiate migration and motherhood by adopting pluralistic identities that transcend the conflicting realities of living between two cultures. Half the World Away offers a holistic analysis of experience and challenges dichotomous, linear models of the same by exploring the fluidity of migrant identity against socio-cultural and political spaces. This research offers new knowledge regarding identity, social and economic features of the lived experience of migrant women and mothers in New Zealand, thereby providing a new cultural resource to inform and guide psychological practice.

    View record details
  • Teacher appraisal : control or empowerment : responses from New Zealand secondary schools : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Educational Administration at Massey University

    Thompson, George W

    Thesis
    Massey University

    As a result of recent legislative changes, Boards of Trustees and, through them, the principal, are now responsible for the appraisal and professional development of their staff. This research aimed to contribute towards an evaluation of current teacher appraisal programmes by: 1. Providing an overview of teacher appraisal programmes which currently exist in Auckland secondary schools, in particular to find out what percentage of secondary schools in the Auckland region have current ongoing teacher appraisal programmes and, where these schools, which have a current teacher appraisal programme rank on summative - formative dimensions. The answers to these questions were obtained from a questionnaire which was sent to all Auckland Secondary Schools 2. Providing an in-depth study of six schools which have an on-going teacher appraisal programme with elements of both summative and formative appraisal. A focused interview with selected staff from each of the six schools was used to enable the writer to ascertain why and how each appraisal programme was developed. The interview was also used to identify any problems which had been encountered in developing the programme and to ascertain how the school had attempted to meet both legislative requirements and teacher development needs. 3. Providing as an action component, a description of the appraisal programme which the writer is currently trialling in his school and, which is a direct result of the research undertaken for this thesis. The major findings of this research were: Section One Seventy three percent of secondary schools in the Auckland region were trialling or using appraisal programmes and, while there was a huge diversity of appraisal systems in operation, the majority involved more formative than summative dimensions. In particular, all schools saw appraisal in terms of helping to improve teacher standards through increased professional development Section Two The common reason given by the six schools for developing a teacher appraisal programme was to give staff an opportunity for professional development. Four of the six schools which participated in the second part of the research had experienced problems in attempting to introduce teacher appraisal programmes, while other problems which the six schools experienced centred around lack of time and staff resentment about "yet another" administrative requirement. Teacher suspicion about the 'real' nature of appraisal, although mentioned, was not a major factor. Self appraisal was the dominant method of teacher assessment as it was seen to be a crucial factor in four schools and desirable in the other two. Only one school produced any evidence of staff training in appraisal techniques. All six schools had developed two appraisal systems; one in which all staff participated and which was largely formative; another which was used when necessary and which involved competency procedures. The teachers interviewed were adamant that the two systems were and had to be kept completely separate. Section Three While a teacher appraisal programme has been operating in the writer's school since 1990, the results of this research have caused the programme to be modified to include: a focus on self rather than external appraisal; the inclusion of senior management and non-teaching staff in the appraisal process and; an emphasis on training in appraisal procedures and techniques for all staff.

    View record details
  • Enabling choice, public health nurses' perceptions of their work with children and their families: a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Arts in Nursing at Massey University

    Green, Barbara Robertson

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The purpose of this study was to provide understanding of the personal practice of public health nurses with their clients, in particular with children within the context of their family. A grounded theory approach was used for the analysis of the data and the generation of a theoretical description and explanation of the way public health nurses perceive their practice world. Data were gathered through in depth interviews with public health nurses and were analysed through the method of constant comparative analysis. Enabling choice as a theoretical framework was formulated to describe and assist others to understand the possibilities that public health nurses aim for in their encounters or relationships with their clients. A number of concepts were identified from the data which contribute to the way public health nurses work to enable choice for their clients. These include the way nurses become accessible to their clients through a process of becoming known and accepted. The way public health nurses frame their practice, assess their clients, and use interaction with their clients within an encounter or a relationship is also described within the framework of enabling choice for clients. Metaphors used by the nurses to describe their practice highlighted contradictions related to the influence of the social context. The consequences of the constraints implicit in the social context of community health nursing practice were discussed as they impacted on the ability of the public health nurses to enable choice for their clients. Public health nursing has not been well documented or understood. The findings of this study go some way towards creating a framework within which to understand and explain aspects of community health nursing practice.

    View record details
  • Free trade or fair trade? How changes in the current international trade system could act as a development tool for third world countries : the Brazilian case : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Development Studies at Massey University

    Couto, Rossana Gabriely de Oliveira

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This study analyses and discusses the impacts of fair trade on cooperatives in Brazil. It also addresses the debate on free trade, showing its weaknesses and strengths; and it acknowledges the importance of governments' macropolicies in promoting development though trade. This study supports the view that international trade, as practised today, is detrimental to the economies of Third World countries, and it suggests actions to overcome negative impacts of international trade. One of these suggestions is alternative trade. However, this study argues that alternative trade, although an efficient tool in promoting the interests of small farmers, poor communities, and unskilled workers, should not be substituted for mainstream trade. Instead, alternative trade should act as a complement and promote the interests of those who have been losing with trade liberalisation policies. In examining one of the alternatives to free trade (the fair trade movement) research was conducted in Brazil in 2001. The evidence from research shows that although fair trade is found in its initial stages in Brazil, the impact has been beneficial to those cooperatives involved with it. The research also found differences between rural and urban participants. Groups in a rural context shared same experiences and types of products (agriculture), while groups in an urban context shared different experiences and were involved in other types of products (manufactures). Although all groups shared some similar difficulties, rural groups were more disadvantaged in terms of the distance, lack of infrastructure, communication problems, and lack of access to services. This study concludes that although the fair trade movement is still in its initial stages in Brazil and has had minor macroeconomic impacts on the Brazilian economy, it should be encouraged since it creates opportunities for marginalised groups to sell their production and reach a minimum standard of living. The study also argues that both alternative and mainstream trading system have their strengths and weaknesses, and that the ideas behind alternative trade should be incorporated into the mainstream trading system in order to make it fairer to all participants.

    View record details