88,686 results

  • Secondary Sexting: A Restorative Framework for Understanding and Addressing the Harms of Sexting Behaviour among Secondary School Students

    Wicks, Emma (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In New Zealand there is a growing concern over the engagement of teenagers in sexting, especially so-called ‘secondary sexting’, the non-consensual distribution of intimate images. This thesis aims to analyse the behaviour of sexting through a restorative lens and to outline the role of restorative responses can make in a New Zealand context. It combines a review of international literature on the subject with a pilot study of senior students at a New Zealand secondary school, a school that has deemed itself to be a “restorative school”. The empirical study employs a mixed-methods approach. The quantitative phase involved students (n=125) in Year 11 -13 completing a survey to ascertain the prevalence of sexing and their attitudes towards criminalization of different types of sexting. The qualitative phase involved focus groups with students (n=13), one-on-one interviews with staff (n=7) and parents (n=17) discussing how they would respond to a hypothetical scenario of secondary sexting. The study finds that although only a small percentage of students engaged in secondary sexting, secondary sexting is the cause of significant harm and there is need for an effective response. This thesis argues that restorative response has the most promise at addressing these harms. It also shows that applying a restorative framework to the analysis of the practice enables us to identify and challenge victim blaming tendencies in both popular opinion and official responses. It proposes that for New Zealand to adequately respond to sexting there needs to be a shift away from viewing secondary sexting as a result of poor choices to one that focuses on respectful relationships and the obligations that go with them.

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  • Young People’s Experience of Post-Separation Fathering Where the Father has been Violent to the Mother

    Nelson, Pamela (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    My intention in undertaking this research was to examine young people’s experiences of living with their father following parental separation where their father has been violent to their mother. To date there is little knowledge of children’s post-separation experiences of fathering or of the parenting abilities of partner abusive men. This study takes a feminist approach and is informed by scholarship on family issues, childhood studies and the sociology of the child. The study was guided by hermeneutic phenomenology and thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Twenty young people aged 18 to 26 took part in the study and face to face interviews were carried out over a one year period. The findings revealed that some fathers were overly punitive in their parenting style with a number of fathers continuing to be physically and/or emotionally abusive to their children. Authoritarian or permissive parenting practices were also identified and a number of fathers were shown to be neglectful, making little effort to bond with their children or provide quality care. In cases where fathers were unable to accept the break-up and move on this was also shown to have an adverse effect on their ability to parent effectively including an inability to co-operate with children’s mothers. In contrast, the majority of mothers were shown to be central to children’s lives undertaking most of the caring responsibilities. Mothers also recognised children’s changing needs as they grew older, encouraged autonomy, and contributed to children’s social development and maturity by trusting their judgement. However, this was not necessarily a protective factor against difficulties that participants have experienced as young adults. A time-share or full-time arrangement was revealed as being the most problematic for children although weekend contact could also pose a risk where pre-separation violence towards children had been severe. The study concluded that a safe outcome for children will require a shift away from a father’s right to contact, emphasising instead children’s right to a life free from abuse.

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  • Improving the Effectiveness of Emergency Risk Communication in Thailand

    Pincharoen, Sutiwa

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    For the last twenty years, Emergency Risk Communication (ERC) has become an important part of disaster management. However, many low- and middle-income countries have little best-practice guidelines about ERC because ERC is relatively new in such countries. This study examined the effectiveness of ERC practices in Thailand. Content analysis was the selected method to analyse good practices in ERC through ERC guidance, lessons learnt, reports, and academic publications. The thematic analysis was employed to develop the ERC framework of good practices criteria. The framework consisted of five key criteria of good practices including cultural, managerial, stakeholder, risk analysis, and communication channels, which were pulled from the academic literature and ERC practices globally. Each factor was further investigated by using the defined framework to provide additional insights into the gaps and good practices associated with the effectiveness of ERC in Thailand. The findings reveal that 1) cultural considerations and risk concerns are often neglected by ERC practitioners, 2) managerial issues such as policy, plan and guidance are also insufficient documents available at all level, 3) ERC stakeholders, particularly vulnerable groups, are usually ignored within ERC planning, 4) there is a lack of coordination among government agencies in the risk analysis process, which results in conflicting information, and 5) communication channels especially social media could be used to strengthen the ERC capability. The study concludes by proposing strategies to fill the gaps and strengthening ERC good practices in Thailand such as law amendment and underpinning ERC plan and guidance. These strategies are believed to potentially enhance disaster management capacity in Thailand and to that end increasing resilience in Thai communities.

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  • Leadership in Early Childhood Education: The Journey of Pasifika Educators

    Moodley, Emeavallie

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Leadership theory and practice are well developed in the business sector, corporate organisations and in the compulsory schooling sector. However, leadership in the early childhood sector lacks direction and effective support from Government (Cooper, 2014; Thornton, 2005). Furthermore, these mainly Western notions of educational leadership, in relation to a definition and guidelines for practice, are predominant in contrast to literature concerning the cultural paradigms and indigenous ways of leading that are yet to be fully acknowledged (Fitzgerald, 2003). Statistics collected by the Ministry of Education about early childhood teachers reveal that, of the six percent of teachers from Pasifika ethnic groups working in the sector, an even smaller proportion of this statistic accounts for Pasifika educators in leadership roles (Ministry of Education, 2014). The purpose of this study was to critically examine the aspirations and perspectives of Pasifika educators in regard to leadership in early childhood education, in order to identify the factors that have led to the appointment of leadership roles among these educators, and the challenges they have faced along the way. A qualitative research methodology was employed in this research to emphasise the voices of Pasifika leaders and educators in examining the issue of the under-representation of Pasifika women in leadership roles in the early childhood sector. The major findings from this study indicate that traditional Pasifika approaches to leadership that apply to male leaders are at odds with the early childhood sector in which females dominate. Women tend to be relational in their leadership approach and several authors canvas the need to develop a leadership model that emphasises the strengths of women and that aligns with early childhood pedagogical approaches (Cooper, 2014; Fitzgerald, 2006; Thornton, 2005; Thornton et. al., 2009). This study concurs with the position of Scrivens (2003) who argues, that women prefer leadership models that embrace power for rather than power over people. The findings highlighted several challenges faced by Pasifika women in leadership in early childhood education. The most significant challenge that most Pasifika women face has been described as “walking between two worlds” (Fitzgerald, 2006, 2010). As Indigenous women in stereotypically male dominated leadership structures and as Indigenous Pasifika women working and living in a Western society, whilst trying to preserve their cultural values, beliefs and identity (Fitzgerald, 2006, 2010). The findings also suggest that professional development specific to leadership is integral for future leadership development within the sector. Professional mentoring and coaching offers a starting point to building and sustaining Pasifika leadership in early childhood education. Furthermore, this study indicates that models for leadership should be developed that recognises: Indigenous ways of leading, in order to address the issues of uncertainty and reluctance of educators to participate in leadership, and to promote leadership among Pasifika educators in early childhood education. This study has provided insight into the association between leadership in the cultural contexts of Pasifika leadership and the concept of servant leadership in early child education. It is concluded that servant leadership offers a valid culturally appropriate paradigm of leadership that may inform the future development of Indigenous ways of leading in the early childhood sector. This research study affirms a structure of direction and effective support that aligns with the statement by Thornton (2005); “There is not just one way to be a leader and leadership will vary from culture to culture and situation to situation” (p. 2).

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  • Plant Modelling Framework: software for building and running crop models on the APSIM platform

    Brown, H. E.; Huth, N. I.; Holzworth, D. P.; Teixeira, E. I.; Zyskowski, R. F.; Hargreaves, J. N. G.; Moot, Derrick J.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    The Plant Modelling Framework (PMF) is a software framework for creating models that represent the plant components of farm system models in the agricultural production system simulator (APSIM). It is the next step in the evolution of generic crop templates for APSIM, building on software and science lessons from past versions and capitalising on new software approaches. The PMF contains a top-level Plant class that provides an interface with the APSIM model environment and controls the other classes in the plant model. Other classes include mid-level Organ, Phenology, Structure and Arbitrator classes that represent specific elements or processes of the crop and sub-classes that the mid-level classes use to represent repeated data structures. It also contains low-level Function classes which represent generic mathematical, logical, procedural or reference code and provide values to the processes carried out by mid-level classes. A plant configuration file specifies which mid-level and Function classes are to be included and how they are to be arranged and parameterised to represent a particular crop model. The PMF has an integrated design environment to allow plant models to be created visually. The aims of the PMF are to maximise code reuse and allow flexibility in the structure of models. Four examples are included to demonstrate the flexibility of application of the PMF; 1. Slurp, a simple model of the water use of a static crop, 2. Oat, an annual grain crop model with detailed growth, development and resource use processes, 3. Lucerne, perennial forage model with detailed growth, development and resource use processes, 4. Wheat, another detailed annual crop model constructed using an alternative set of organ and process classes. These examples show the PMF can be used to develop models of different complexities and allows flexibility in the approach for implementing crop physiology concepts into model set up.

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  • Measuring the relationship between audit committee characteristics and earnings management: evidence from New Zealand listed companies

    Toh, Moau Yong

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The recent corporate accounting scandals, such as the Enron scandal in 2001 and the WorldCom scandal in 2002, have increasingly drawn the attention of regulators around the globe to the monitoring role of audit committees in the financial reporting process. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the NZX’s recommendations on audit committee characteristics and earnings management in NZX listed companies. In particular, this study examines the relationships between earnings management and audit committee size, independence, financial expertise and diligence, as per the NZX’s recommendations. This study finds that the NZX’s recommendations that audit committees should comprise a majority of independent directors and at least one financial expert are associated with lower earnings management. Besides, companies whose audit committees meet at least quarterly report lower earnings management. Since the NZX does not recommend best practice for audit committee meetings, this finding has implications for New Zealand regulators and practitioners that meeting at least quarterly is a key criterion of audit committee effectiveness, hence, a change to corporate governance rules and principles may be necessary. However, this study finds that audit committee size is not related to lower earnings management, suggesting that detection and control of earnings management relies more on the independence, financial expertise and diligence of audit committees to generate quality discussions and monitoring duties. Except for the U.S.A., the results of this study do not differ materially from other major countries, such as Australia. This study contributes to the existing literature by providing evidence about the relationship between audit committee characteristics, as per the NZX’s recommendations, and earnings management in countries with similar institutional and legal environment to New Zealand.

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  • Understanding Carbon Emission Mitigation in the New Zealand Accommodation Industry: A Mixed Methods Study

    Knowsley, Amber

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The accommodation sector is a key source of greenhouse gas emissions within tourism, and therefore there is a need to understand emission mitigation in the sector. As there is a geoscientific consensus that excessive emissions are responsible for climate change, international efforts towards a low carbon economy need to be realised. The 2015 Paris Climate Agreement will facilitate efforts by all parties to mitigate carbon, with New Zealand's current target to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 30 per cent below 2005 levels by 2030. It is suggested that due to its high energy use, the accommodation sector has excellent potential to lower its emissions. Previous research in New Zealand on the accommodation industry has not focused specifically on the mitigation initiatives being undertaken, nor the motivations for doing so. Therefore, the primary aim of this study is to examine the extent to which carbon emission mitigation initiatives in the New Zealand accommodation industry are currently being implemented. A mixed methods research design, with two sequential phases, was adopted for this study. Phase One consisted of a national online survey, gathering information on the accommodation industry’s emission mitigation initiatives and motivations for implementing them. Phase Two undertook a case study which holistically investigated emission mitigation initiatives, environmental certification and corporate motivations at New Zealand’s only carbon neutral certified hotel. Statistical analysis of 566 survey responses reveals that recycling is the most implemented initiative throughout the industry, with almost all properties undertaking this initiative. Accommodation categories in the luxury cluster implement more emission mitigation measures than either mid-­range or budget cluster properties. Accommodation providers that hold a Qualmark™ Enviro award are more likely to implement LED lighting, have a ‘Switch Off’ policy and provide a towel reuse option, however, they are equally as likely as those who do not hold the award to recycle and select Energy Star appliances. In addition, analysis shows that some establishments who hold this award do not actually implement some of the initiatives studied. Corporate motivations for implementing initiatives indicate that ‘ecological responsiveness’ is behind recycling; however, the other four main initiatives are reported to be undertaken due to ‘competitiveness’. The case study reveals specific details of environmental sustainability and mitigation initiatives at New Zealand’s only certified carbon neutral accommodation establishment. This provides a role model establishment for other accommodation providers to emulate in a move towards a lower carbon operation. However, it is also suggested that there were still opportunities for the organisation to further lower its emissions, and capitalise on its carbon neutral status through marketing and advertising. Implications of this study showed that there is potential for the New Zealand accommodation sector to become a role model of environmental sustainability and emission mitigation behaviour, as the majority of respondents were interested in lowering their carbon emissions further, as well as currently undertaking initiatives to do so. The results should be of interest to carbon mitigation businesses such as Enviro-­mark, industry stakeholders such as Tourism New Zealand, Qualmark Enviro and tourists, and government policy makers when considering New Zealand’s 2015 Paris Climate Agreement targets, as mitigation of emissions will be required from all sectors, including accommodation.

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  • Spirituality and Religion in Clinical Practice: The Experiences of Psychologists in the Integration of Spirituality and Religion in Therapy in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Lee, Dana

    Masters Research Projects thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    While spiritual and religious beliefs and practices have been found to have positive impacts on wellbeing, many clinicians do not address spiritual and religious issues in therapy, and there is some ambiguity around the practicalities of integrating spirituality and religion in psychological practice. The present study aimed to gain a better understanding of this existing concern and explored the experiences of clinical psychologists in integrating the client’s spirituality and religion into their practice. A thematic analysis of six interviews with clinical psychologists in Aotearoa New Zealand identified themes around techniques, meanings, barriers and the importance of the integration of spirituality and religion in clinical practice. It is hoped that the findings will raise awareness and facilitate changes to training and attitude regarding spirituality and religion in clinical practice.

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  • BDSM and Helpseeking: An Exploratory Qualitative Survey

    Hamer, Walter John

    Masters Research Projects thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Background: Awareness of the subculture of BDSM has grown considerably in recent years, particularly through media and fictional depictions of BDSM. Societal responses to BDSM have ranged from vilifying, to pathologising, to fictional glorifying. Due to the stigmatised nature of BDSM and the prevalence of sadistic abuse in the wider society, the BDSM community has a number of significant barriers to help-seeking, particularly around legal, medical, and therapeutic needs. Objectives: First, exploring how New Zealand BDSM practitioners experience and make sense of help-seeking, including the barriers and benefits of doing so. Second, based on this, informing the BDSM community and helping professions on guidelines around help-seeking with this niche population. Methods: Online qualitative survey, using thematic analysis to construct an interpretive description of the results. Results: Three themes were constructed from the data. The first theme is how BDSM practitioners engage with the dominance of helpers, including use or avoidance of negotiation, limit setting, and aftercare. The second theme covers three distinct patterns of appropriation of BDSM by outsiders, from dominant societal groups, from predators, and from the medical and psychological community. In response to this appropriation, a range of resistance techniques used by the BDSM community are discussed. The final theme is the interpretation of consent as technology. This technology takes skill to be used, and is a tool to aid protection from abuse as well as enabling valued interactions. Conclusions: This research supports the need for helping professionals to have cultural competence when working with this niche population. The cultural resources held by the BDSM community can be a valuable asset in improving help-seeking for BDSM practitioners, and improving the professional helping environment in general.

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  • Novel Organic Carbon Monoxide Releasing Molecules as a Potential Treatment for Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Gunatunga, Kishan (2011)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Carbon monoxide (CO) plays a role in many physiological and pathophysiological processes as a second messenger. Emerging evidence reveals the potential CO has as a therapeutic agent as it has been implicated in the modulation in a range of intracellular functions including apoptosis and proliferation. In the case of cancer, specifically triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), there is very little information regarding the effects of this molecule. Here we hypothesize that the targeted delivery of CO to a tumour will result in an anti-cancer effect in TNBC. The current study examines a novel class of compounds termed organic CO releasing molecules (CORMs) (CO-1 – CO-8) and previously published metal containing CORMs (CORM-2), as potential treatments for TNBC. Firstly a wide range of synthesised novel organic CORMs were screened for toxicity in MDA-MB-231 cells, a model for TNBC, and the lead compound CO-1 was identified from a range of 8 potential candidates (CO-1 – CO-8). Analysis of cell viability data revealed that CO-1 (1 – 200 μM) resulted in significant reductions in cell viability with an IC75 value of around 5 μM in the MDA-MB-231 TNBC cell line, while the by-product of CO-1, BP-1, demonstrated no residual cytotoxic effects. Time course and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) studies revealed that the compound released CO at a slow rate with a half-life in vitro between 9 and 24 hours. The ability of CO-1 and CORM-2 to modulate cell death via the induction of apoptosis was demonstrated using Annexin V conjugated to fluorescein (FITC) and propidium iodide (PI) staining followed by FACS analysis. CO-1 was able to induce apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells at both low (10 μM) and high (200 μM) concentrations (6% and 6% respectively) with no apoptotic or necrotic effects being observed when cells were treated with the by-product of CO-1, BP-1. The transition metal containing CORM-2 (200 μM) did not increase apoptotic markers compared to control, however treatment of cells with its “inactive” counterpart iCORM-2 (200 μM) resulted in a significant increase (7%) in apoptosis. In addition high (200 μM) but not low (5 and 10 μM) concentrations of CO-1 and CORM-2 produced a significant increase in the percentage of cells with a damaged mitochondrial membrane (3% and 5% for CO-1 and CORM-2 respectively), indicating that CO may have some concentration specific effects in vitro. High (200 μM) concentrations of both CO-1 and CORM-2 were also shown to induce mitochondrial damage in the MDA-MB-231 cell line and further to the potential anti-cancer effects of the novel compound CO-1, we have shown that low (10 μM) concentrations of the molecule causes a 1.2-fold and 1.4-fold increase in caspase 3 and p53 expression and a 1.2-fold increase in caspase 3 activation. The safety of both organic and transition metal CORMs were also assessed in the renal epithelial MDCK cell line. In MDCK cells treated with CO-1 (10 and 200 μM), COM-2 and iCORM-2 (20 and 100 μM) showed histopathological changes indicative of cell death were observed. These changes were not present in cells treated with the by-product of CO-1, BP-1. Interestingly the changes in histological architecture in MDCK cells treated with iCORM-2 appeared more extensive and severe that in cells treated with the active form of the compound CORM-2. Furthermore treatment of MDCK cells with low (10 μM) concentrations of CO-1, 20 and 200 μM CORM-2 and 200 μM iCORM-2 resulted in G2/M cell cycle arrest in the MDCK cell line. The current study proved CO-1, to be a safe and efficacious pharmacological agent with the ability to induce a cytotoxic and cytostatic effect in the MDA-MB-231 and MDCK cell line with no residual toxic effects resulting from treatment of cell with the by-product of CO-1 (BP-1). Our findings cast doubt over the notion that existing transition metal CORMs in their “inactive” form are not without biological effects. Therefore the current study has shown that novel organic CORMs have a combination of properties that translate into a desirable and potential treatment for TNBC.

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  • Pregnant Adolescents: How do Social Worker's assess their parenting capacity?

    Bruce, Gabrielle Claire (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    It is the role of Child, Youth and Family (CYF) Social Workers in Aotearoa New Zealand to decide whether pregnant adolescents have the capacity to raise and effectively parent their children when reports of concern are received. This research identified issues that Social Workers consider when assessing adolescent parental capacity and how their views and opinions influence practice and decision making. Social Workers’ assessments were considered through a qualitative research study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven CYF Social Workers across New Zealand. The research found that assessment and decision making is subjective and based upon a number of factors, including the informal and formal supports in place and the capacity of the young person. Supervision and Consults were not fully utilised to support Social Workers’ decision making. Residential parenting programmes featured as a potential intervention from the baby’s birth. There was a high frequency of pregnancy due to rape or unlawful sexual connection raising ethical questions regarding paternal family involvement in assessment and decision making. Social Workers’ beliefs about adolescents raising children varied, with themes of empathy for the young person and concerns about egocentrism emerging.

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  • Bird fossils from the Takatika Grit, Chatham Island, New Zealand.

    Blokland, Jacob Christopher (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • The financial implication of the three design guidelines used during the Christchurch rebuild.

    Botha, P. S. (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    With the occurrence of natural disasters on the increase, major cities around the world face the potential of complete loss of infrastructure due to design guidelines that do not consider resilience in the design. With the February 22nd, 2011 earthquake in Christchurch, being the largest insured event, lessons learnt from the rebuild will be vital for the preparation of future disasters. Therefore the objective of this research is to understand the financial implications of the changes to the waste water design guidelines used throughout the five year rebuild programme of works. The research includes a study of the SCIRT alliance model selected for the delivery that is flexible enough to handle changes in the design with minimal impact on the direct cost of the rebuild works. The study further includes the analysis and compares the impact of the three different guidelines on maintenance and replacement cost over the waste water pipe asset life. The research concludes that with the varying ground conditions in Christchurch and also the wide variety of materials in use in the waste water network up to the start of the CES, the rebuild was not a ‘one size fits all’ approach.

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  • Carbon and root system architecture : key regulators in nitrogen uptake in Lolium perenne L. and Brassica napus L.

    Guo, Qianqian (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential macronutrient that limits plant yield and productivity. In order to increase crop yield, considerable amounts of nitrogenous fertilizers are applied to agriculture systems each year. However, about 25-70% of the applied fertilizer in ecosystem has been leached and released to the environment, in the form of NO, N₂O and NH₃, aggravating environmental pollution. Therefore, increasing nitrogen use efficiency in agriculture systems is essential to maintain the food production while alleviating the deleterious environmental effects of applied N. The mechanisms linking C/N balance to N uptake and assimilation are central to plant responses to changing soil nutrient levels. Defoliation and subsequent regrowth of pasture grasses both impact C partitioning, thereby creating a significant point of interaction with soil N availability. Using defoliation as an experimental treatment, the dynamic relationships between plant carbohydrate status and NO₃⁻-responsive uptake systems, transporter gene expression and N assimilation were investigated in Lolium perenne. High- and low-affinity NO₃⁻ uptake were reduced in an N-dependent manner in response to a rapid and large shift in carbohydrate remobilization triggered by defoliation. This reduction in NO₃⁻ uptake was rescued by an exogenous 1% glucose supplement, confirming the carbohydrate-dependence of NO₃⁻ uptake. The regulation of NO₃⁻ uptake in response to the perturbation of plant C/N was associated with changes in expression of the nitrate high-affinity transporter LpNRT2.1b. Furthermore, NO₃⁻ assimilation appears to be regulated by the C/N balance, implying a mechanism that signals the availability of C metabolites for NO₃⁻ uptake and assimilation at the whole-plant level. This study also shows that cytokinins are involved in the regulation of nitrogen acquisition and assimilation in response to the changing C/N ratio. Root architecture is also a crucial component that impacts the capacity of plants to access nutrients and water. By using the recently developed package RootNav, comprehensive morphological changes in root system architecture in response to different N sources were investigated in Brassica napus. In order to avoid a light-induced morphological and physiological responses affecting whole plant growth, an existing solid agar vertical-plate system was modified so that to allow roots to be shielded from light without sucrose addition and the emerging shoot to be grown without direct contact with the medium, thereby mimicking more closely the environmental conditions in nature. The results of 10-days-old B. napus seedlings showed that total root length, LR density and root exploration area decreased with increasing external NO₃⁻ concentrations from 0.5 mM to 10 mM. The application of 0.5 mM NO₃⁻ induced more branching in the root system relative to the treatments with higher N concentrations (5 mM and 10 mM). The proportion of biomass allocation occupied by roots was greater in the low NO₃⁻ treatment relative to the high NO₃⁻ treatments, reflecting the fact that plants invested more resources in their roots when nutrient uptake from the environment was limited. In treatments of increasing NH₄⁺ concentration from 0.5 mM to 10 mM, primary root length, total root length, LR branching zone, LR density and root exploration area were reduced. These results indicated that NH₄⁺ toxicity usually leads to a stunted root system in B. napus, whereas a low concentration of NH₄⁺ is an optimal nitrogen resource for plant growth. Increasing L-glutamate concentration from 0.01 mM to 0.1 mM suppressed primary root length, whilst the LR branching zone did not change in the different L-glutamate treatments, suggesting that L-glutamate even at micromolar level could arrest primary root growth and LR branching in B. napus. By using in situ ¹⁵N isotope labelling, morphological and molecular phenotypes generated pharmacologically were employed to investigate whether the impacts of contrasting root traits are of functional interest in relation to N acquisition. Brassica napus L. were grown in solid medium containing 1 mM KNO3 and treated with cytokinin, 6-benzylaminopurine, the cytokinin antagonist (PI-55), or both in combination. The contrasting root traits induced by PI-55 and 6-benzylaminopurine were strongly related to ¹⁵N uptake rate. Large root proliferation led to greater ¹⁵N cumulative uptake rather than greater ¹⁵N uptake efficiency per unit root length. This relationship was associated with changes in C and N resource distribution between the shoot and root, and in expression of BnNRT2.1. The root/shoot biomass ratio was positively correlated with ¹⁵N cumulative uptake, suggesting the functional utility of root investment for nutrient acquisition. These results demonstrate that root proliferation in response to external N is a behaviour which integrates local N availability and systemic N status in the plant. In conclusion, using two major economic forage species, L. perenne and B. napus, this thesis illuminates the impacts of carbon and root system architecture on N uptake. This work contributes to our understanding of the mechanisms regulating N uptake and will help further in efforts to improve nitrogen use efficiency.

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  • An integrated water-electricity market design for multi reservoir, mixed operation.

    Mahakalanda, Indrajanaka (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Water markets are often regarded as the most promising method of managing this increasingly important natural resource, but the literature on water market concepts is only emerging. Most of the focus is on physical trading arrangements, but financial property rights appear both conceptually and practically appealing, as a way to develop commercial and organizational arrangements to improve liquidity and ultimately increase efficient resource use. This thesis focuses on market arrangements to manage hydrology dependent surface water supplies, where consumptive and/or non-consumptive use occurs in a network with storage. Binding resource constraints create temporal and locational price differences. Moreover, the uncertainty about price differentials creates barriers to trade. Participant bids, reflecting their marginal use values, are assumed to be cleared by a benefit-maximising optimisation, such as Stochastic Linear Programming. This also creates price differences between locations, and time periods, and causes the market to accumulate a “settlement surplus” of rents associated with resource constraints. This thesis draws on the Financial Transmission Right (FTR) concepts developed for electricity markets to outline a general structure of financial hedging instruments that could be used to deploy this settlement surplus to hedge against price risks, across space and time. We also consider a swing option based approach, which bundles the above rights to create a virtual “slice of system” model that could be practically and conceptually appealing to both aggregated and disaggregated hydro reservoir systems. While only preliminary, our discussion of these options suggests that developments along these lines may be important in creating a water market environment that is acceptable to potential consumptive and non-consumptive participants. The remainder of this thesis is about the problem of intra-period consumptive and non-consumptive water allocation in a mixed-use catchment. We develop a deterministic nodal Constructive Dual Dynamic Programming (CDDP) procedure which implicitly clears a market determining both consumptive and non-consumptive water allocations, across all nodes in a catchment with a single reservoir. Consumptive users extract water from the system, so each unit of water flow can only be used for a single consumptive use. A non-consumptive user transfers water from one node to another, extracting some benefit, or incurring some cost. Arc flow bounds may limit the opportunities for using water at the nodes. Costs can be associated with arc flow bounds and distributary demands to represent in-stream and environmental reserve flows enforced using penalty costs. The algorithm constructs the intra-period demand curve for release by sequentially forming marginal water value curves at each node, passing these curves towards the reservoir. This approach can generate net demand curves representing all possible market-clearing solutions at nodal and user levels. It can also be used to construct net demand curves for water release from the reservoir, in each period, which could then be used in a stochastic inter-temporal CDDP model to construct marginal water value curves stored in the reservoir over an appropriate time horizon. Several variants on this approach are explored. We discuss extending the procedure to assess the marginal value of water stored in two inter-connected reservoirs in a mixed-use catchment. A “lower level” intra-period CDDP is applied to construct a two dimensional “demand surface” for transfer, representing the marginal benefit from net release into either end of the inter-reservoir chain between the two reservoirs. Then a higher level inter-period CDDP demand-curve-adding method could be deployed to strike the optimal trade-off between the current release demands for the inter-reservoir chain and other sub-trees leading from the two reservoirs and the future storage demands.

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  • The effects of sub-lethal concentrations of biocides copper, pyrethrins and atrazine on antibiotic tolerance of Escherichia coli.

    Jun, Hyun (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Biocides are used in different stages of crop production as herbicides, insecticides and fungicides. The toxicological mechanisms of these chemicals on their target organism is known, however, their sub-lethal effects on microbes are not. Previous work from this laboratory had shown that commercial formulations of herbicides can change the susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics upon concurrent exposure. This is most likely due to changes in the expression of genes involved in influx and efflux and hence a physiological effect, reversible without requiring mutation. Out of the 12 combinations of biocide formulations and antibiotics tested, nine exhibited statistically significant differences in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) between treatments in the presence and absence of biocides. The strongest effect was a greater than 30- fold change in MIC following exposure to copper and tetracycline. Where changes in susceptibility due to biocide exposure were observed, minimum inducing concentrations were identified from dose response curves. All observed effects were induced by biocide concentrations lower than the recommended application rate. The formulation had no observed effect on mutation frequency and the change in susceptibility was displayed uniformly by the population. Thus the effects on phenotype are consistent with adaptive resistance. To test whether efflux pumps were indeed responsible for the observed effects, different pump mutant strains were tested for the effect of copper on tetracycline resistance. The tolerance to tetracycline and copper in the pump mutant strains were significantly lower than the wildtype, indicating that the pump contributes to intrinsic resistance to both substances. In the mutant strains, copper exposure increased the tetracycline MIC 3 to 5 folds. This indicates that the AcrAB-TolC efflux system is not the only contributors to adaptive resistance. The persistence of the elevated tetracycline tolerant phenotype in the absence of copper fungicide was quantified. Although reversible, the induced phenotype was heritable for approximately 1 generation and the population uniformly reverted to a susceptible phenotype in the second generation post exposure. Continuous exposure to copper and tetracycline induced a morphological change in most or all exposed bacteria. The morphology changes included filamentation and then return to single cells, depending on exposure time. The morphological changes did not correlate with changes in genotype because the frequency of acquired resistance did not change. Dilution and re-growth experiments were used to determine whether the single cell form was outgrowth of a minority population or arose from filaments. The source of single cells was determined to be filaments.

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  • Tourism’s impact on the environment : a systematic review of energy and water interventions.

    Paul-Andrews, Leroy (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The purpose of this research was to examine longitudinal assessments of the ways in which behavioural and policy interventions have been used to reduce energy and water use in tourism. Although previous research has used single-shot cases or surveys to study interventions there is little knowledge of the extent to which interventions result in sustainable personal or organisational behaviour over time. Therefore this thesis specifically focuses on identifying those studies in the literature that are longitudinal in nature to gain a better understanding of sustainable behaviour change. A systematic review was conducted to identify relevant studies. The systematic search returned a total of 333 papers relating to energy use, and 430 papers relating to water use. After screening and reviewing those returned papers against a predetermined, and specific criteria, only two papers relating to each topic remained. The two papers for each topic were then analysed and specific factors noted. The most effective outcomes of the energy papers were that of investing in modern, efficient technologies, and that of investing in and managing education of staff. The most effective outcomes of the water papers were again that of upgrading to modern, water-efficient equipment, and effective management of water resources. However, a critical finding was the absence of longitudinal studies of interventions which raises significant questions regarding the helpfulness of previous findings based on one-shot studies alone. The research was also the first of its kind looking at long-term interventions within sustainable tourism, and provides many avenues for future research.

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  • Integrated response as a process for enhancing the incident command system

    Fakuade, Dolapo (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The devastating societal impacts of disruptive events have emphasised the need for more effective and unified emergency response arrangements. While policies that guide strategies, measures or approaches are not lacking in the emergency sector, they tend to be inadequate for response and relatively ineffective during response to large-scale or unprecedented events. This research critically examines theoretical bases and practice systems for emergency response, in order to identify useful community functions which can be integrated with emergency management response. The aim is to develop an integrated response framework that can be adopted to improve response to disruptive events. The data for this research were gathered through case study analyses of communities in Christchurch, which provided context for and helped define the scope of community functions required for emergency response. Data were also collected in semi-structured interviews and focus group sessions with different community groups and organisations, emergency management professionals, and officials working in Christchurch City Council. The analysis indicates that relevant functions exist within communities, and that four types of community functions can be used for improving emergency management response. Community functions identified were seen to possess relationships, interactions and qualities lacking in the emergency sector; characteristics that are essential for operational command and control response processes. The major research outcome is the development of a framework that integrates community functions with command and control structure as a contribution to improving response to disruptive events.

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  • Scott’s and Shackleton’s huts : Antarctic heritage and international relations.

    Lintott, B. J. (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Three British wooden huts remain on Ross Island, Antarctica from Scott’s and Shackleton’s expeditions: the Nimrod Hut and the Terra Nova Hut were operational bases with accommodation, laboratories, darkrooms and used as workshops while Discovery Hut was a general purpose storeroom, workshop and shelter. In 1957, the New Zealand Government decided that it would retain and maintain the huts in situ as a geopolitical statement to the United States of America that New Zealand remained firm in its Antarctic territorial claim. Throughout the Huts Project (1957 onwards) there have been two central issues. The first are the technical and financial challenges of retaining the huts (temporary wooden buildings) in their historical settings given that the Antarctic environment is one of the most hostile on the planet, and how they should be interpreted. Associated with this is a prevailing myth that items in the Polar Regions can remain frozen in a state of “timelessness”. This thesis argues that this misinformed the “Huts Project” in its early years (once removed from the ice, artefacts quickly began to decay) and that in the latest restoration many artefacts have been treated so as to reproduce their original appearance, removing the patina of age and compromising their authenticity. The second is how New Zealand has conducted its interrelationships regarding the huts with the United States of America and the United Kingdom. The United States is New Zealand’s strategic ally and provides logistical support for its Antarctic endeavours and whilst it respects the huts as being historic it does not accept that they could enhance a future Antarctic territorial claim by New Zealand. The United Kingdom retains a strong cultural interest in the huts and has diplomatically, morally and – to a limited extent – financially supported the Huts Project. The Huts Project has been successfully utilized in cultural diplomacy since its beginnings however, since 2000, two activities proposed by New Zealand related to the huts have not proceeded due to diplomatic concerns. This thesis provides the cultural and historical background to New Zealand’s decision in 1957 to retain the huts and the subsequent external factors which influenced the project. A review of how the concept of “timelessness” was developed and deployed leads onto the substantive chapters about the heritage aspects of the project. The huts are then considered in the context of international relations and how they have been utilized and affected by diplomatic concerns. The thesis concludes by considering the possible futures of the huts, e.g. climate change, and areas for future research on Antarctic heritage and international relations.

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  • Upper atmospheric studies using radio meteors

    Wilkinson, Philip James (1973)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The atmospheric motions in the 80-110 km height region, and methods of measuring them are discussed. Wind measurements using radio meteor trails are then considered in greater detail and an account is given of the equipment at the field station of the Physics Department of Canterbury at Rolleston near Christchurch, as well as details of the data reduction methods used. An analysis of the errors associated with the collection of data indicates that approximately half the variance in an average of wind velocities observed in a thirty minute period is due to atmospheric variability. Results from the first year's observations suggest that the solar diurnal and semidiurnal tides are of roughly the same magnitude, this magnitude being in agreement with the latitudinal variations observed at other stations.

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