89,525 results

  • Predator free Banks Peninsula: scoping analysis

    Curnow, M.; Kerr, Geoffrey N.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    There has been considerable public interest in predator control following the release of the government’s goal to make New Zealand predator free by 2050. Prompted and supported by the Rod Donald Banks Peninsula Trust, this report undertakes an initial scoping analysis of the methods, cost and time required to remove five predator species from Banks Peninsula and maintain them at zero density. Because eradication requires permanent removal of the five target species (Norway rats, ship rats, possums, stoats, ferrets) but there are ongoing opportunities for reinvasion it would be necessary to indefinitely monitor and manage these predators after initial removal. Predator removal, using ground control, would rely on a mix of methods and would cost from $88 m. to $134 m. Ongoing costs would be in the order of $1.65 m. per annum, excluding buffer, quarantine and biosecurity measures. Even with a work force of 100 full time employees, eradication would take several years.

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  • The group theory of the harmonic oscillator with applications in physics.

    Haskell, T. G. (1972)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The possibility of the group SU₃ being used in the description of the (d+s)N and (d+s)npm many-electron complexes is examined by symmetrization of the Coulomb Hamiltonian. By dividing the Coulomb interaction into symmetry conserving and symmetry violating terms it is found that while the SU₃ scheme tends to give a better description in the (d+s)N case it shows no improvement over the configurational scheme in the (d+s)npm complex. The scheme is, however, very useful for the calculation of matrix elements of operators normally found in atomic spectroscopy and a complete set of symmetrized , scalar, Hermitian spin-independent two particle operators acting within (d+s)npm configurations is constructed. The radial wavefunctions of the harmonic oscillator are found to form a basis for the representations of the group 0(2,1) in the group scheme Sp(6,R) ⊃ S0(3) x 0(2,1). The operators Tkp = r2k are shown to transform simply under the action of the group generators. The matrix elements of Tkq and a selection rule similar to that of Pasternack and Sternheimer are derived. Finally the rich group structure of the harmonic oscillator is investigated and a dynamical group proposed which contains, as subgroups, the groups Sp(6,R), SU(3), H₄ and the direct product 0(2,1) x S0(3). Some remarks are made about contractions of groups, semidirect and direct products, and the generalization of the method to n-dimensions.

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  • Challenges and Facilitators Influencing Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Among South Asian Migrant Women in New Zealand

    Silva, Wasani

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This qualitative descriptive study was conducted to fill the knowledge gap identified in the past literature by answering the research question, what are the challenges and facilitators influencing physical activity and sedentary lifestyle among South Asian migrant women in New Zealand? From the study findings, it is evident that the study has accomplished its goal as a number of challenges and facilitators to physical activity and sedentary lifestyle particularly relevant to the New Zealand environment were revealed. The study also presents an in-depth discussion of the findings, introducing suggestions to overcome the identified challenges and to strengthen the recognised facilitators. A need for culturally and gender-appropriate public health policies to improve the engagement of physical activity among South Asian migrant women in New Zealand, which may ultimately aid in reducing the burden of lifestyle diseases, was highlighted. Every possible step was taken to ensure the trustworthiness of this research project. With all the strengths of the study, few limitations were are also noted. Finally, this study can be seen as drawing the attention of New Zealanders to public health issues among minority women.

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  • The Influence of Water Scarcity and Drought on the Lindis River, Central Otago.

    Loft, Jessie (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Water scarce situations are a critical issue in water resource management. Water scarcity can be exacerbated by drier than usual conditions (such as drought), and separating the effects of water scarcity and drought can be difficult. This study investigates the relative importance of water scarcity and drought on the availability of water in the Lindis River (Central Otago, New Zealand). The Lindis catchment is a tributary of the Clutha River and frequently becomes disconnected in the summer months. To determine the extent to which these extreme low flows are driven by abstractions versus the naturally dry conditions that occur in summer, a two-step hydrological modelling procedure was employed. First, the HBV-Light hydrological model was developed for the upper Lindis. This model is then applied to the lower Lindis, to provide an indication of what ‘natural’ flow should be in the lower catchment. Comparison of the modelled (natural) river flow record with the observed (anthropogenic + natural) river flow record suggested that summer river flow in the lower Lindis is substantially lower than it would be in the absence of human abstraction. Anomaly analysis indicates that the ‘natural’ Lindis River would not disconnect from the Clutha River from January-March, and would only have rare short disconnection events in December and April, in comparison to their frequent occurrence in reality. As such, the results of this study have the potential to provide vital information for the on-going management of flow in this catchment.

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  • Investigation into the conservation of the regulatory pathways controlling flowering time

    Safavi, Manda (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Flowering is a prerequisite for crop production and its timing needs to be optimized to suit local conditions. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, several flowering pathways regulate FT, a highly conserved protein known as florigen. FT is expressed in the leaves under long day conditions and moves to the shoot apical meristem to induce flowering. For flowering to occur, FLC - the major repressor of FT - needs to be suppressed by the prolonged winter cold, allowing FT to be expressed in the spring once the day length is long enough. This project set out to investigate the genetic regulation of flowering time in non-Arabidopsis model plants. Unlike FT, which is a universal floral promoter, a role for FLC has only been established within the members of the Brassicaceae family. To elucidate whether FLC-like genes control flowering time in plant families other than the Brassicaceae, Nicotiana benthamiana was used as a model plant belonging to the Solanaceae (tomato) family. To distinguish FLC-like genes from the other MADS-box genes, 10 amino acid residues were identified which are only conserved between FLC-like proteins, and are not conserved in other MADS-box sequences. Based on the conserved residues, two FLC-like sequences were identified in N. benthamiana. To discover whether these could function to regulate Arabidopsis flowering time, transgenic Arabidopsis lines were produced over-expressing NbFLC-like genes. A late-flowering phenotype was observed in the transgenic plants that suggested a conserved floral repressing function for NbFLC-like genes. Although the roles of the NbFLC-like genes could not be tested endogenously, two other genes - NbFCA and NbFPA - were investigated, as their homologues in Arabidopsis repress FLC. The late-flowering phenotypes of the knock-down Nbfca and Nbfpa RNAi mutants revealed that NbFCA and NbFPA contribute to the promotion of flowering time. Based on qRT-PCR analyses, it was appeared that unlike their counterparts in Arabidopsis, these genes potentially promote flowering through the activation of NbFT, rather than through the down-regulation of NbFLC. However, RNA-seq analyses of the Nbfca and Nbfpa RNAi lines indicated that FCA regulates NbFLC-L1 through alternative splicing. While FLC-like genes were identified from a range of plant families, there do not appear to be any FLC-like genes in legumes. As FLC plays a key role in the vernalization process, the lack of its homologues in legumes suggests that the process of vernalization might have involved an alternative mechanism. Our laboratory has recently identified a novel gene from the model legume Medicago that we hypothesize may have obtained an FLC-like function. In this study the up-regulation of this gene in response to prolonged cold, and its down-regulation in the subsequent warm temperatures, was identified by qRT-PCR analyses. Its up-regulation preceded the upregulation of MtFTa1 suggesting a potential function as an upstream regulator of MtFTa1 in the vernalization process. By studying knock-out mutants, the MtFD gene was identified as a downstream gene of MtFTa1 in the promotion of flowering time. Moreover, various candidate transcription factors from other organisms were identified as potential trans-activators of MtFTa1, MtFTb1 and the FT-derived ncRNA promoters, by transient assays. Amongst them, members of the DOF family were identified as novel regulators of these genes which have not been previously reported. Overall, this study provided further evidence that the floral repressing function of FLC-like genes is potentially conserved outside the Brassicaceae family. Evidence (NbFCA and NbFPA) suggested that the function of some components of the autonomous pathway may be conserved in N. benthamiana, although they may have diverged regulatory mechanisms. In Medicago, the vernalization-response of the FT-derived ncRNA and its potential function upstream of MtFTa1 suggested an alternative mechanism, independent of FLC.

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  • Using DGHostTM To Determine the Hosting Capacities of Low Voltage Networks

    McNab SJ; Lemon S; Crownshaw T; Strahan R; Le Quellec I; Miller A (2017)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • The Impact of Digital Platforms on New Zealand Firms’ Entry Strategies: The Case of Alibaba

    Jin, Huijun

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The advent of digital platforms has changed the way in which Asia-Pacific firms conduct international transactions, condensing time and geographic distance (Manyika, Lund, & Bughin, 2016). However, the impact of digital platforms on firms’ internationalisation strategy, and in particular entry strategy, is under-researched in current International Business literature. This study aims to explore how digital platforms in China, and specifically the digital platforms of Alibaba Group, impact New Zealand small and medium-sized (SMEs) companies’ entry strategies in the Chinese market. Empirical data were collected from four New Zealand companies through semi-structured in-depth interviews. The results of this study suggest that digital platforms impact these firms’ entry strategies through easing entry barriers to some extent, particularly in helping overcome resource constraints and obtain access to networks. However, the participating firms still required local staff as a key part of successful market entry. Therefore, it is concluded that while digital platforms can help alleviate some entry barriers traditionally faced by SMEs, limitations in human resources still impose challenges on firms in seeking internationalisation in China.

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  • Development and Examination of In-browser GPU Accelerated Cryptography

    Win, Dajne

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Many of us use encryption frequently whether realising it or not; it is the active yet often invisible element keeping our information and data safe. Despite this, many of us underestimate the value of encryption in our daily lives. Schneier (2016) explains encryption is instrumental in protecting identities, governments, lawmakers, law enforcement, military, critical infrastructure, communications networks, power grids, transportation, and everything else we rely on in society. “As we move to the Internet of Things ... encryption will become even more critical to our personal and national security” (Schneier, 2016). Understanding the ever-changing threat landscape, predicting potential trends, and current security issues are the core roles of the security researcher. The process of establishing frameworks helps mitigate risks of the critical reliance on encryption. One of the challenges encryption faces is it is inherently computationally intensive and therefore slow. Due to mobile devices' focus on performance over security, it is vital to find methods to accelerate modern encryption algorithms to preserve information security in the future. Previous research has successfully investigated the use of hardware to accelerate encryption algorithms. Algorithm accelerators have used Graphics Processing Units (GPU) for many years and have proven these to be effective for parallel workloads. An advantage is that GPUs are already part of most computer systems, making them a fertile area for research into hardware performance. However, previous research has been limited to system specific compiled code. This research explores the ability to perform acceleration on any modern browser through a scripted programming language. The selection of NTRUEncrypt for this experiment was due to its suitability towards acceleration, protection against quantum computers and as an alternative to RSA or Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC). A pure JavaScript and GPU accelerated version of NTRUEncrypt were developed. The Three.js library was selected to utilise the latest version of WebGL in modern browsers and reduce development time. OpenGL ES 1.0 compatible shaders then replaced the addition and convolution operations of NTRUEncrypt, utilising the system GPU for processing. Performance comparison of encryption and decryption between NTRUEncrypt.js and NTRUEncrypt-GPU.js was then performed. Polynomial convolution at the highest security settings was 1.6 times faster on the GPU compared to the Central Processing Unit (CPU). However, results from this experiment show NTRUEncrypt-GPU.js failed to accelerate the NTRUEncrypt cryptographic algorithm. Furthermore, comparisons within this research showed JavaScript was up to 80 times slower than C, C++, and Java. Future research into accelerated cryptography would provide further knowledge, understanding and open new opportunities for improvement to information security. While NTRUEncrypt-GPU.js failed to accelerated NTRUEncrypt using currently available standards, preliminary testing using Compute Shaders proved successful and warrents further investigation.

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  • Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) for Disaster Management : A Case Study for Floods in Jakarta

    Hartato, E.; Delikostidis, I.; De Roiste, M. (2016)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Estimating bias of technical progress with a small dataset

    Khaled, Mohammed S (2017)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Economic historians frequently face the challenge of estimation and inference when only a small sample of the relevant data is available. We illustrate solutions to the challenges through a case study analysis of the Uselding and Juba (1973) data. They have only seven observations available to estimate of the bias of technical progress in United States manufacturing in the nineteenth century. They are able to offer estimates of the bias only by assuming that production technology is not Cobb-Douglas, technical progress is non-neutral and that elasticity of substitution between labour and capital is less than 0.9. These assumptions could not be tested owing to the paucity of the required historical data. This case study illustrates the use of both additional theoretical information and appropriate statistical techniques to alleviate problems of estimation and inference with small samples.

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  • Girls will be boys, and boys will be girls: An analysis of gender bias and stereotyping in a sample of New Zealand picture books

    Munro, Rhiann (2015)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Research Problem: This research project explores whether a sample of award nominated New Zealand picture books contain evidence of gender bias and stereotyping. As award nominated titles receive a greater level of public exposure, it is more likely they will be found in kindergartens, schools, and personal collections. Therefore it is more likely they will be read by educators, librarians, and young children. The sample included 54 titles nominated for the New Zealand Post Book Awards (best picture book prize) over the last ten years (2004-2014). Methodology: This study developed a quantitative content analysis tool in order to assess the books. The content analysis quantified the number of times males and females were featured, and the number of times they were depicted participating in a range of stereotypical behaviours (active/passive character types, time spent indoors/outdoors, brave and nurturing actions). This study also explored the number of male and female characters that were depicted in paid employment, and the types of jobs they were assigned. Results and Implications: The results demonstrated a likeness to trends seen in several overseas studies, and in general the female characters were vastly under-represented throughout the sample pool. However, some clear differences could be noted in the type and number of gender stereotypes seen throughout the books compared to those other studies. In particular, the sample demonstrated a prominent environmental theme, and had a strong focus on individuality and self-empowerment. As this study demonstrates, gender bias and stereotyping is evident in New Zealand children’s literature and may consequently be having a negative effect on the gender development of young New Zealanders. It is the researcher’s hope that this study raises awareness of gender bias and stereotyping that is found in many modern picture books, and that educators and librarians will feel equipped to recognise, discuss, and eliminate them in the future.

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  • What is the impact of the South Auckland Geek Camps in developing young people's confidence in the application of their digital competencies?

    Munro, Sonia Fay (2016)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Auckland Libraries is the largest public library system in Australasia. Mangere Town Centre Library, a community library located in South Auckland, embarked on a journey to reposition itself as an innovative digital space in 2015, working collaboratively with NGO Accelerating Aotearoa to deliver a series of community digital events called Park Jams and Geek Camps. NGO Accelerating Aotearoa has delivered Geek Camps in Mangere, Otara, Manukau, and Clendon over the past four years. "Geek camps," are essentially makerspace sessions where young people have the opportunity to engage with digital technology and are inspired to think about the possibility of a future career in the digital field. This qualitative research examines the impact of these South Auckland Geek Camps in developing young people's confidence in the application of their digital competencies. Research methodology consisted of two semi-structured interviews conducted with six purposefully selected intermediate-aged students before and after a Geek Camp, together with observations of the participants at the "Geek Camp" and the "Celebration of Learning" event. A content and thematic analysis of the interview transcripts, and responses from a Likert Scale questionnaire, supported by student observations, confirmed that students' digital confidence levels grew, as a result of attending a Geek Camp, and the newly acquired digital skills were likely to be applied in the future.

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  • Samoa: Exploring the Linkages Between Climate Change and Population Movements

    Flores-Palacios, Ximena

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This Samoan study explores people’s experiences and understandings of climate change, including whether and how climate-related factors have influenced internal and international mobility patterns in the last 30 years. This interdisciplinary village and family-based study combined a Samoan worldview which acknowledges the place of traditional knowledge, values, beliefs and practices in people’s responses to climate change, and Western-based perspectives to set the knowledge base. Findings were: (a) that family resilience in dealing with the effects of climate change was grounded in fa’a Samoa norms including access to customary land and reciprocity, (b) that mobility has become an integral adaptation strategy as seen in relocation from coastal areas to inland customary lands, temporary and permanent migration to the capital, and overseas migration, and (c) that climate change effects have exacerbated differences among groups. Those with limited access to resources and support systems have fewer adaptation options and are less able to use mobility as an adaptive mechanism. The main implication for policy design is that the voices of people affected by climate change must be incorporated in both research and policy. While this may serve a political purpose, axiomatic also is that the voices carry considerable knowledge.

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  • Integration of molecular and physiological models to explain time of anthesis in wheat

    Brown, H. E.; Jamieson, P. D.; Brooking, I. R.; Moot, Derrick J.; Huth, N. I.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Background and Aims - A model to predict anthesis time of a wheat plant from environmental and genetic information requires integration of current concepts in physiological and molecular biology. This paper describes the structure of an integrated model and quantifies its response mechanisms. Methods - Literature was reviewed to formulate the components of the model. Detailed re-analysis of physiological observations are utilized from a previous publication by the second two authors. In this approach measurements of leaf number and leaf and primordia appearance of near isogenic lines of spring and winter wheat grown for different durations in different temperature and photoperiod conditions are used to quantify mechanisms and parameters to predict time of anthesis. Key Results - The model predicts the time of anthesis from the length of sequential phases: 1, embryo development; 2, dormant; 3, imbibed/emerging; 4, vegetative; 5, early reproductive; 6, pseudo-stem extension; and 7, ear development. Phase 4 ends with vernalization saturation (VS), Phase 5 with terminal spikelet (TS) and Phase 6 with flag leaf ligule appearance (FL). The durations of Phases 4 and 5 are linked to the expression of Vrn genes and are calculated in relation to change in Haun stage (HS) to account for the effects of temperature per se. Vrn1 must be expressed to sufficient levels for VS to occur. Vrn1 expression occurs at a base rate of 0·08/HS in winter ‘Batten’ and 0·17/HS in spring ‘Batten’ during Phases 1, 3 and 4. Low temperatures promote expression of Vrn1 and accelerate progress toward VS. Our hypothesis is that a repressor, Vrn4, must first be downregulated for this to occur. Rates of Vrn4 downregulation and Vrn1 upregulation have the same exponential response to temperature, but Vrn4 is quickly upregulated again at high temperatures, meaning short exposure to low temperature has no impact on the time of VS. VS occurs when Vrn1 reaches a relative expression of 0·76 and Vrn3 expression begins. However, Vrn2 represses Vrn3 expression so Vrn1 must be further upregulated to repress Vrn2 and enable Vrn3 expression. As a result, the target for Vrn1 to trigger VS was 0·76 in 8-h photoperiods (Pp) and increased at 0·026/HS under 16-h Pp as levels of Vrn2 increased. This provides a mechanism to model short-day vernalization. Vrn3 is expressed in Phase 5 (following VS), and apparent rates of Vrn3 expression increased from 0·15/HS at 8-h Pp to 0·33/HS at 16-h Pp. The final number of leaves is calculated as a function of the HS at which TS occurred (TSᴴˢ): 2·86 + 1·1 × TSᴴˢ. The duration of Phase 6 is then dependent on the number of leaves left to emerge and how quickly they emerge. Conclusions - The analysis integrates molecular biology and crop physiology concepts into a model framework that links different developmental genes to quantitative predictions of wheat anthesis time in different field situations.

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  • Bacterial foraging-optimized PID control of a two-wheeled machine with a two-directional handling mechanism

    Goher, K. M.; Fadlallah, S. O.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    This paper presents the performance of utilizing a bacterial foraging optimization algorithm on a PID control scheme for controlling a five DOF two-wheeled robotic machine with two-directional handling mechanism. The system under investigation provides solutions for industrial robotic applications that require a limited-space working environment. The system nonlinear mathematical model, derived using Lagrangian modeling approach, is simulated in MATLAB/Simulink® environment. Bacterial foraging-optimized PID control with decoupled nature is designed and implemented. Various working scenarios with multiple initial conditions are used to test the robustness and the system performance. Simulation results revealed the effectiveness of the bacterial foraging-optimized PID control method in improving the system performance compared to the PID control scheme.

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  • Recasting knowledge governance: the struggle of accommodating divergent knowledge systems in East Java, Indonesia

    Nugroho, Hesthi

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The role of knowledge in environmental policy development and implementation is gaining more attention nowadays. Scholars have argued for some time that the implementation of environmental policy should appreciate the local situation more, as people’s understanding about the environment is diverse, and scientific knowledge cannot be the only knowledge to view, explain and solve environmental issues. It is believed that including the knowledge of local people can improve the implementation of environmental policies. Nevertheless, what happens when local knowledge is explicitly included in the decision-making process? Drawing on a knowledge governance conceptual framework and an analysis of documents, field observations and 35 semistructured interviews, this qualitative research investigates knowledge governance in practice through a conservation agriculture programme introduced to two rural villages in East Java, Indonesia. The programme endeavoured to integrate the scientific knowledge of public agency scientists and the local knowledge of farmers with the expectation that this integrative approach would foster social, economic and environmental sustainability and improve the water quality of the Brantas River at the same time. Inspired by Arnstein’s (1969) ladder of participation, this thesis develops a knowledge governance ladder as a way to understand and assess the processes of knowledge production in environmental decision-making in terms of power sharing, divergent ways of knowing, and the ontologies held by different groups of stakeholders. This research concludes that the knowledge governance ladder needs to incorporate a pathway of “coexistence” to move beyond current conceptions of coproduction. It is argued that coexistence highlights mutual understanding, recognition and respect for different ways of knowing and ontologies of different stakeholders. The thesis concludes that recent definitions of knowledge governance in the context of environmental management lack sufficient applicability in developing countries as they do not adequately address the existence of traditional/ or local traditions and rituals. The definition of knowledge governance should, therefore, include respect for local knowledge and the elements within it, which are traditions, rituals, and religious values. The expected goals to be achieved from knowledge governance must be based on the consent of all stakeholders without overlooking others’ beliefs and values. This thesis also provides recommendations for both practice and further research.

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  • Investigation of ovine DGAT1 intron 1 variation and its association with variation in carcass traits

    Barr, Sarah

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The economic importance of a carcass is determined by the quantity of saleable meat. The quality of a carcass is determined by the lean meat yield and the ratio of lean meat to fat. Therefore, the heightened quality is portrayed by a carcass that is low in subcutaneous fat, high in lean meat yield with a minimum of 3% of intramuscular fat to give the meat marbling, enhancing eating attributes such as, juiciness and tenderness. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 or DGAT1 has shown to have a strong association with fat production as the last committed step to triglyceride synthesis. In this trial, 338 NZ Romney lambs were genotyped using PCR-SSCP to see if variation occurred in DGAT1 intron 1. It was determined that a variation occurred, and following sequencing, the variation was identified to be a C to T substitution at position 171 between primer sites and equated to three genotypes; AA, AB and BB. 190 lambs were further investigated for association between their genotypes and carcass traits. Three data sets were used, 2015, Glenleith progeny 2014 and Doughboy progeny 2014, of these, two (2015 and Glenleith 2014) showed a strong correlation, P=0.040, P=0.027 respectively, between an increase in leg yield and the presence of allele B. With further analysis it showed that the presence of B increased the leg yield by between 670-706g. It may be assumed that this increase is due to heightened intramuscular fat and therefore the identification of the presence of allele B may be incorporated into a selective breeding system to enhance the intramuscular fat in a leg cut in NZ Romney lambs.

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  • Duration dependence test of rational speculative bubbles: a case study of the Hong Kong stock market

    Gan, Christopher; Nartea, Gilbert; Dou, Ling Ling; Hu, Baiding

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    This study tests the presence of rational speculative bubbles in the Hong Kong stock market over a sample period from 1993-2008 using the duration dependence test. The duration dependence test shows no evidence of duration dependence, suggesting that the Hong Kong stock market did not exhibit rational speculative bubbles before (1993-1997) and after (1998-2008) the 1997 Asian financial crisis. The results also suggest that the tests are not sensitive to the choice of different models, monthly versus weekly runs of returns and equally- versus value-weighted portfolio in the Hong Kong stock market. The results imply that the stock prices could be a reflection of the market fundamentals.

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  • Exploring career success with the new paradigm of career crafting

    Vidwans, Mohini

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    With the key objective of testing the new paradigm of career crafting, this study examined the main questions about career decisions – how do people choose careers, what motivates and guides their decision-making with regard to exploration, growth and change, and how do they define career success? These are important issues given the rapid pace of the far-reaching changes that have taken place over the past few decades, resulting in a paradigm shift in the personal and work spheres. A qualitative research approach was adopted utilising semi-structured in-depth interviews with 36 accounting professionals in New Zealand – 15 from accounting academia and 21 from large accounting firms. Built on the job crafting model (Wrzesniewski & Dutton, 2001), this study has created the new paradigm of career crafting by enhancing the principles of cognitive, task and relational crafting. While capturing the agentic spirit of individuals in developing their careers, it is acknowledged that an individual’s choices do not completely reside within the person. The external factors play a vital role in the shaping of career pathways, either by offering support and facilitating growth, or by creating and imposing constraints. However, the central principle of career crafting is that individuals create new opportunities or utilise the opportunities provided by the positive changes or mitigate the negative impact of the adverse situation through invention/adaptation strategy. A figure depicting a crafting triad represents the close association between the three crafting practices – cognitive, task and relational crafting. These factors are interlinked and interdependent; they have to act together cohesively in order to attain the desired effect of career crafting. It was identified that career crafting played an important role in achieving personal success which is determined by satisfaction in personal and professional spheres. It was also recognised that the desired outcomes varied for different individuals. Finally, career crafting paradigm confirmed the association between crafting skills, external factors and personal success. Gender and the redefinition of gender-based roles added new dimensions to the analysis of these career decisions. Investigation of career orientation revealed distinct gender differences. It was noted that women had an adaptive focus on career whereas men could focus on their careers to a greater extent confirming the traditional career patterns. This study comments on the other side of the glass ceiling, wherein it is observed that women chart their career pathways mainly through the perception of their roles and the behaviours that comprise them. Married women were able to focus on careers when they garnered support from their spouse and organization though their crafting practices. While this study focussed on the accounting profession, it is believed that the awareness of career crafting practices would benefit individuals in charting their career pathways. This information could also be embedded in the process of building better work designs where organizations could consider these issues while planning human resource policies for mutual benefits. The eventual outcome of career crafting is that individuals can develop their possible selves and build capabilities to achieve personal success.

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  • Holocene Evolution of the Upper Western Channel within Tauranga Harbour

    Podrumac, Alyosha (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The Tauranga Harbour is a mesotidal lagoon that is actively infilling with sediment. The southern basin of the harbour is important from both ecological and socio-economic standpoints. An understanding of sediment dynamics is necessary for the management of the harbour. Previously, the Tauranga Harbour Sediment Study (THSS) analysed the terrigenous flux of sediments into the harbour. It identified predominantly silt-sized sediment yields, from catchments, which remains confined to entry points into the harbour, or get exported out to the open coast. However, mapping of the tidal inlet and parts of the Western Channel through to Rangiwaea Island, has identified that accretion involves sand-sized sediment. The presence of eroding cliffs has provided speculation that sediment is primarily derived by local source erosion, as opposed to terrestrial or marine inputs. However, little is known about the sediment dynamics through the central harbour region. This thesis involved seismic reflection surveying through the Western Channel, from Rangiwaea Island to Matakana Point, utilising a Knudsen Sub-Bottom Profiler that operates on a chirp sonar system. Through the seismic analysis, patterns of sandwave occurrence were analysed to discover how sediment dynamics varied along the Western Channel. Additionally, three fault sites were identified in the seismic profiles. Two of these faults occur parallel to a previously mapped fault at Omokoroa, where doming has been suggested. The third fault occurs in the southeast where subsidence has been identified. Vibracoring was utilised to collect intact, contiguous, and undisturbed cores through the field area. Sand is identified as the primary contribution to ongoing sedimentation in the harbour. A general coarsening trend of sedimentary texture is observed from the central intertidal flats through the upper Western Channel towards the tidal inlet. This pattern is disrupted where current amplification or close proximity to a sediment source is associated with the accretion of coarser sediment to form sandwaves. Rates of sedimentation through the Western Channel over the last 7,200 years, ranged from 0.0482 mm/yr approaching the tidal flats, to 0.436 mm/yr where extensive sandwave were identified. A sedimentation rate of 0.0977 mm/yr was calculated within the channel where no sandwaves were present. The primary source of sediment appears to be local erosion of coastal cliffs, with sedimentation rates strongly correlating to erosional sites.

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