88,788 results

  • Duration dependence test of rational speculative bubbles: a case study of the Hong Kong stock market

    Gan, Christopher; Nartea, Gilbert; Dou, Ling Ling; Hu, Baiding

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    This study tests the presence of rational speculative bubbles in the Hong Kong stock market over a sample period from 1993-2008 using the duration dependence test. The duration dependence test shows no evidence of duration dependence, suggesting that the Hong Kong stock market did not exhibit rational speculative bubbles before (1993-1997) and after (1998-2008) the 1997 Asian financial crisis. The results also suggest that the tests are not sensitive to the choice of different models, monthly versus weekly runs of returns and equally- versus value-weighted portfolio in the Hong Kong stock market. The results imply that the stock prices could be a reflection of the market fundamentals.

    View record details
  • Exploring career success with the new paradigm of career crafting

    Vidwans, Mohini

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    With the key objective of testing the new paradigm of career crafting, this study examined the main questions about career decisions – how do people choose careers, what motivates and guides their decision-making with regard to exploration, growth and change, and how do they define career success? These are important issues given the rapid pace of the far-reaching changes that have taken place over the past few decades, resulting in a paradigm shift in the personal and work spheres. A qualitative research approach was adopted utilising semi-structured in-depth interviews with 36 accounting professionals in New Zealand – 15 from accounting academia and 21 from large accounting firms. Built on the job crafting model (Wrzesniewski & Dutton, 2001), this study has created the new paradigm of career crafting by enhancing the principles of cognitive, task and relational crafting. While capturing the agentic spirit of individuals in developing their careers, it is acknowledged that an individual’s choices do not completely reside within the person. The external factors play a vital role in the shaping of career pathways, either by offering support and facilitating growth, or by creating and imposing constraints. However, the central principle of career crafting is that individuals create new opportunities or utilise the opportunities provided by the positive changes or mitigate the negative impact of the adverse situation through invention/adaptation strategy. A figure depicting a crafting triad represents the close association between the three crafting practices – cognitive, task and relational crafting. These factors are interlinked and interdependent; they have to act together cohesively in order to attain the desired effect of career crafting. It was identified that career crafting played an important role in achieving personal success which is determined by satisfaction in personal and professional spheres. It was also recognised that the desired outcomes varied for different individuals. Finally, career crafting paradigm confirmed the association between crafting skills, external factors and personal success. Gender and the redefinition of gender-based roles added new dimensions to the analysis of these career decisions. Investigation of career orientation revealed distinct gender differences. It was noted that women had an adaptive focus on career whereas men could focus on their careers to a greater extent confirming the traditional career patterns. This study comments on the other side of the glass ceiling, wherein it is observed that women chart their career pathways mainly through the perception of their roles and the behaviours that comprise them. Married women were able to focus on careers when they garnered support from their spouse and organization though their crafting practices. While this study focussed on the accounting profession, it is believed that the awareness of career crafting practices would benefit individuals in charting their career pathways. This information could also be embedded in the process of building better work designs where organizations could consider these issues while planning human resource policies for mutual benefits. The eventual outcome of career crafting is that individuals can develop their possible selves and build capabilities to achieve personal success.

    View record details
  • Holocene Evolution of the Upper Western Channel within Tauranga Harbour

    Podrumac, Alyosha (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The Tauranga Harbour is a mesotidal lagoon that is actively infilling with sediment. The southern basin of the harbour is important from both ecological and socio-economic standpoints. An understanding of sediment dynamics is necessary for the management of the harbour. Previously, the Tauranga Harbour Sediment Study (THSS) analysed the terrigenous flux of sediments into the harbour. It identified predominantly silt-sized sediment yields, from catchments, which remains confined to entry points into the harbour, or get exported out to the open coast. However, mapping of the tidal inlet and parts of the Western Channel through to Rangiwaea Island, has identified that accretion involves sand-sized sediment. The presence of eroding cliffs has provided speculation that sediment is primarily derived by local source erosion, as opposed to terrestrial or marine inputs. However, little is known about the sediment dynamics through the central harbour region. This thesis involved seismic reflection surveying through the Western Channel, from Rangiwaea Island to Matakana Point, utilising a Knudsen Sub-Bottom Profiler that operates on a chirp sonar system. Through the seismic analysis, patterns of sandwave occurrence were analysed to discover how sediment dynamics varied along the Western Channel. Additionally, three fault sites were identified in the seismic profiles. Two of these faults occur parallel to a previously mapped fault at Omokoroa, where doming has been suggested. The third fault occurs in the southeast where subsidence has been identified. Vibracoring was utilised to collect intact, contiguous, and undisturbed cores through the field area. Sand is identified as the primary contribution to ongoing sedimentation in the harbour. A general coarsening trend of sedimentary texture is observed from the central intertidal flats through the upper Western Channel towards the tidal inlet. This pattern is disrupted where current amplification or close proximity to a sediment source is associated with the accretion of coarser sediment to form sandwaves. Rates of sedimentation through the Western Channel over the last 7,200 years, ranged from 0.0482 mm/yr approaching the tidal flats, to 0.436 mm/yr where extensive sandwave were identified. A sedimentation rate of 0.0977 mm/yr was calculated within the channel where no sandwaves were present. The primary source of sediment appears to be local erosion of coastal cliffs, with sedimentation rates strongly correlating to erosional sites.

    View record details
  • Colonisation, Fragment Recovery, and Disturbance in Zostera muelleri Beds, Raglan

    Cade, Octavia Jane (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Zostera muelleri is a seagrass currently on the decline in New Zealand. Potential conservation methods rely on accurate information tailored to local sites. This thesis considers the Z. muelleri beds at Raglan harbour, New Zealand. It focuses on their mechanisms for acquiring genetic diversity, and their ability to prove resilient to small-scale disturbance. Extensive sediment sampling at four different study sites within the Raglan harbour has yielded no evidence of a seed bank. Z. muelleri reproduction at this site is likely therefore vegetative. Without sexual reproduction to increase the genetic diversity (and therefore the resilience) of the beds, this diversity can be increased by the natural mechanism of seagrass fragments or the deliberate transplantation of seeds, seedlings, or adult plants. This, however, raises conservation questions regarding the tension between “original” and “resilient” environmental states. Genetic diversity within the seagrass beds may be introduced via the natural dispersal of seagrass fragments. Fragments collected in austral autumn (April) and spring (September) were tested to determine if length of dispersal (floating) time impacted their ability to grow either rhizome length or new shoots. Fragments were randomly assigned to one of five treatments (T0-T4) and left to float for between 0-28 days before planting (T0 = 0 days; T1 = 7 days; T2 = 14 days; T3 = 21 days; T4 = 28 days). After a six-week planting there was no statistically significant difference in rhizome or shoot growth between treatments or between collection times. The ability of Z. muelleri to respond to small-scale disturbance was also assessed. The presence of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) has been noted feeding on New Zealand seagrass for the first time, and an experiment mimicking their feeding patterns performed. Z. muelleri proved highly resilient to single-event, small scale disturbance at all tidal levels. However, the rapidly increasing population of geese in the Waikato region is expected to increase the level of disturbance to the Raglan beds, and their ability to respond to repetitive, large-scale disturbance may be crucial to their continued survival.

    View record details
  • The Fairy-tale of weight loss: Fact or Fantasy

    Loomans, Cushla Rose (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Being overweight or obese is if often associated with prejudice, stereotyping, stigmatisation, and discrimination, and can lead to both physical and mental health difficulties. It is commonly thought that weight loss will lead to improvements in various areas within the individual’s life including; body image, social, family, and work. The present study aimed to enhance the understanding of the weight loss journey and the associated outcomes, with a specific focus on the expectation that individuals held, and how these compared to actual outcomes and perceptions. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eleven participants. Data was then analysed using a grounded theory approach. Findings showed that although weight loss had benefits such as fitting ‘normal’ sized clothes, increased attention, and a growth in confidence, there were also difficulties that were experienced. These included: a lack of support and unintentional sabotage, perceived body imperfections, and time taken for body perception to match up with actual physical appearance. It was found that positive outcomes of weight loss (such as compliments) could actually be viewed from a negative perspective and may have the opposite effect than what was intended. While some outcomes were congruent with participants’ expectations, there were also instances where these were incongruent; for example being left with loose skin as a result of weight loss. It appeared as though having an expectation of life being ‘perfect’ after weight loss was more likely to lead to dissatisfaction, while having some form of education or insight about what life and their physical appearance would be like was more likely to result in higher levels of satisfaction.

    View record details
  • Carbonate alteration associated with lamprophyres and orogenic gold, Southern Alps, New Zealand

    Wellnitz, Anne Katrin (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    In this thesis the chemistry and textures of void-filling hydrothermal carbonate and associated altered metamorphic and lamprophyric rock in western Otago, New Zealand, were studied. With this information a detailed model of the mobility behaviour of various elements is established. Conduits for CO2-bearing fluids were faults, joints, folds and, in the northernmost part of the study area, volcanic diatremes. The southernmost study area lies in the Shotover Valley, where many of the larger fault zones are auriferous. Throughout the studied area, many larger faults, including the gold-bearing ones, strike W to NW. In addition to these faults, there are also structures (i.e. veins and fold hinges) that trend northwards. The formation of most of the structures happened in the Oligocene -Miocene andwas closely connected to the movements along the newly forming Alpine Fault and reverse movements along the Moonlight Fault. Adjacent to the fluid conduits, the wall rock has been extensively altered. This alteration is especially obvious in greenschist and the altered rock has a pale creamy colour due to the replacement of various metamorphic phases (epidote, chlorite, actinolite) mostly by Fe-bearing carbonate and phyllosilicates. In quartzo-feldspathic greyschists the same metamorphic minerals as in greenschist are unstable in response to the incoming CO2-bearing fluid. However, as those minerals are less abundant in greyschist, the alteration is less obvious. Textural and chemical data of the individual metamorphic and hydrothermal minerals forming during replacement were obtained using SEM, microprobe and LA-ICP-MS. The hydrothermal minerals replacing metamorphic minerals describea diverse array of mineral textures, which give insight into relative solubility of the different mineral phases. The replacement reactions also attest to mobility and immobility of the different major and trace elements. For example, in the breakdown of epidote in rocks which contain metamorphic muscovite, Al is mobilised potentially in F-OH complexes and transported away from the original epidote site, whereafter carbonate forms. In cases where there is no muscovite in the rock, epidote is replaced by muscovite, hence resulting in local loss of Ca. At the same time, the REE of this epidote are also mobilised on microscopic scale (µm to mm) as the growing muscovite cannot accommodate the REE in its crystal structure. These REE are then incorporated in the ankerite replacing the chlorite. On a macroscopic scale (cm to m), Sr, Ba, Rb, K and Cs show the largest mobility during the hydrothermal alteration (sometimes up to 20 times enrichment in the altered rock compared to the unaltered rock) and are often brought into the rock by the hydrothermal fluid. The REE and Al, on the other hand, do not show any signs of mobility at thatscale. Overall, of all elements in alteration-sensitive metamorphic minerals, only titanium is shown to be immobile throughout, also on µm scale. In addition to carbonate forming in the hydrothermal alteration halo around fluid conduits, carbonate is also a common void-filling mineral, such as fractures and vesicles. The chemical composition of these carbonates shows that the different elements are controlled by various factors. Contents of Ca, Sr, Mg, Fe, Mn and according ratios show that these elements can travel metres to tens of metres in the fluid before they are precipitated in carbonate. REE contents and patterns in the carbonate are the product of the interplay between fluid- and rock-dominated processes; in cases were only little rock needs to be leached to form the carbonate, the REE patterns are very similar to the wall rock. In cases where relatively large rock volumes need to be leached to provide the main components of the void-filling carbonate, the REE content of the carbonate is dominated by fluid-controlled processes and the REE patterns reflect the relative solubility of the different REE in the fluid. Radiogenic isotopic compositions (Nd, Sr) of void filling carbonates and wall rock show that Nd and Sr in the carbonates travel different distances in the fluid conduit; Nd isotopic ratios show that the bulk of the LREE are transported for short distances in the fluid passing through the void (cm to dm), whereas Sr isotopic ratios confirm that Sr can be for transported many meters by the aqueous fluid. Stable isotope data (C, O) in conjunction with assessing the regional geological and tectonic settings permitted to reconstruct the history and sources of the fluids in the studied areas; after taking temperature effects on isotope fractionation and relative sample locations into account, it is concluded that two main fluid types were present in the studied area. One of these is a mixture of meteoric and magmatic components, while the other fluid interacted extensively with the metamorphic rock in Western Otago, but was most likely originally meteoric-derived water. Only in the volcanic diatremes is there indication that these two fluid types mix. Outside the diatreme, the isotopic composition of the carbonate give evidence that only the second mentioned fluid type was present, including in the auriferous structures and there is no indication that the gold-bearing and magmatic system had any connection to each other

    View record details
  • There and back again: Spatial and temporal variation in the recruitment dynamics of an amphidromous fish

    Neilson, Conor Stewart Bruce (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    A primary goal of ecology is to identify the factors underlying recruitment variability, and how they may shape population dynamics. Recruitment is driven by the input of new individuals into a population. However, these individuals often show high diversity in phenotypic traits and life histories, and the consequences of this variation are poorly understood. Phenotypic variation is widespread among the early life stages of fish, and this variation may be influenced by events occurring across multiple life stages. While many studies have investigated phenotypic variation and its effect on population dynamics, comparatively few studies use an integrated approach that evaluates patterns and processes across multiple life history stages. Here I focus on a native amphidromous fish, Galaxias maculatus, and I explore patterns and consequences of phenotypic variation during larval stages, migratory stages, and post-settlement stages of this fish. I explore variability in phenotypes and early life history traits of G. maculatus through both space and time. I use metrics derived from body size and otolith-based demographic reconstructions to quantify potentially important early life history traits. I found that cohorts of juvenile fish sampled later in the year were comprised of individuals that were older, smaller, and grew more slowly relative to fish sampled earlier in the year. I also found that two sampled sites (the Hutt River and the Wainuiomata River) showed different temporal trends, despite their close geographical proximity. I then investigated whether phenotype was related to mortality. I used otolith-based traits to characterise larval ‘quality’ for individual fish. I then calculated the average larval quality for discrete cohorts of fish, and used catch-curve analysis to estimate mortality rates for these cohorts. I investigated the overall relationship between quality and mortality, and compared the trend between two sites. My results indicate that phenotype and mortality were not significantly correlated. However, this inference may be limited by low statistical power; the non-significant trends suggest that the relationship might be negative (i.e., larvae of higher quality tend to have lower rates of mortality). This trend is typical of systems where population expansion is limited by food rather than predators. I then investigated whether phenotypic traits in the juvenile cohorts were correlated with traits in adult cohorts. I resampled the focal populations ~6 months after sampling the juvenile stages (i.e., targeting fish from sampled cohorts that had survived to adulthood), and I used data from otoliths to reconstruct life history traits (hatch dates and growth histories). I compared adult life history traits to the traits of discrete juvenile cohorts. My results suggest that fish that survived to adulthood had comparatively slower growth rates (reconstructed for a period of larval/juvenile growth) relative to the sampled juvenile cohorts (where growth rate was estimated for the same period in their life history). I also found that the distributions of hatch dates varied between sites. Fish that survived to adulthood at one site hatched later in the breeding season, while adult stages from the other site had hatch dates that were distributed across the entire breeding season. Both hatch date and growth rate are likely linked to fitness, and their interaction may have influenced patterns of survival to adulthood. These results provide evidence for carry-over effects of larval phenotype on juvenile success Collectively my thesis emphasises the importance of phenotype and life history variability in studies of recruitment. It also highlights the importance of spatial scale, and how biological patterns may differ between geographically close systems. Some of the general inferences from my study may extend to other migratory Galaxiid species, and perhaps more generally, to many species with extensive larval dispersal. Finally, my work highlights potentially important interactions between phenotypes, life histories, and mortality, which can ultimately shape recruitment, and the dynamics of populations.

    View record details
  • Longitudinal relationships between phonology and the lexicon in typically developing toddlers and late talkers : a psycholinguistic perspective.

    Ahmat, Hamimah (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Background: Research spanning more than two decades has emphasised the lexical deficits of late talkers. However, late talkers have been found to have associated delayed phonological acquisition. Given the close connection between these two linguistic domains, it may be that the late language emergence often observed in these children, arises from deficits in their underlying phonological processing system. This thesis explored the longitudinal relationships between the phonological and lexical development in typically developing toddlers (TD) and those who fit the criteria of late talkers (LT), in light of a psycholinguistic speech processing framework. Methods: The cohort comprised 168 children aged 2;0 (years; months) at intake who were reassessed when they were about 3;6 and 5;0 years, on measures of phonological accuracy and expressive language. Phonological accuracy (expressed in terms of a percentage of consonants correct) was used as the main behavioural indicator of children‘s phonological development and was measured in two conditions; in a test of nonword repetition (NWR), and a standardised picture naming/articulation test. Children‘s lexical development was assessed using standardised tests of language. Relationships between phonology and expressive language were derived based on correlation and regression analyses of groups‘ scores, as well as in the varied clinical profiles characterised by children‘s abilities in one domain of language relative to the other. With the dataset, analysis of concurrent correlations was conducted in order to identify and compare statistical significance between individual measures of phonological accuracy and the lexicon at each time-point for TD children and LTs. Regression analyses were conducted to identify the proportion of variance in expressive language explained by each measure of phonological accuracy in TD children and LTs. Differences between TD and LT groups in mean scores for phonology and expressive language at each time point were analysed to determine statistical significance. Results and conclusions: Late talkers‘ performance on a range of measures was significantly different to that of their typically developing peers at all time points. Results indicated that the patterns of individual and combined relationships between phonological accuracy and expressive language also differed between TD and LT children across development. Sufficient phonological representations and motor programs were prerequisites for expressive language development at age 2;0. By age 3;6 and 5;0 continued vocabulary acquisition and expressive language development increasingly relied on their ability to employ phonological units for generating new / nonwords (i.e., the motor programming facility of their speech processing system). The LTs were found to form a heterogeneous group with varied profiles across development. The emergence of subgroups of LTs and observed shifts in their patterns of phonological relative to expressive language over time, suggested differential underlying deficits in terms of access to different levels of the processing system depending on their phases of development and profiles at different ages. By age 5;0 although the early language difficulties for a majority of LTs resolved, more than half manifested delayed phonological development indicating persistent immaturity in motor programs. The corollary of persisting phonological difficulties in children is that it places them at risk for literacy difficulties at school age. Implications for clinical practice and research were discussed.

    View record details
  • A geospatial approach to measuring the built environment for active transport, physical activity and health outcomes.

    Donnellan, Niamh Marie (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Active transport and physical activity behaviours are recognised as important determinants of a number of health outcomes, including obesity. Over the last decade, there has been a significant amount of research focused on the need to quantify the ‘walkability’ of neighbourhoods or urban environments as a means of predicting physical activity behaviours. The most common methods used to create indices of walkability focus on a combination of land use mix, street connectivity and dwelling density, as developed by Frank et al., (2005). What is largely missing in this research, however, is a focus on other modes of active transport (such as cycling) and a related recognition of how different delineations (Euclidean and network) of neighbourhoods may affect results. This thesis investigates the influence of the built environment at a number of spatial levels and different neighbourhood delineations, using both standard and novel methods. This research advances and improves our current understandings of the built environment by being the first to use a novel method based on kernel density estimation, to measure associations between the built environment, active transport, physical activity, and health outcomes in a city in New Zealand (Wellington City). This novel method is used to create an Enhanced Walk Index, improving on standard walk indices by including measures of slope, street lights and footpaths and tracks. In addition, this research is the first to test and validate indices of bikeability and neighbourhood destination accessibility (NDAI), based on the novel method. Results of the study suggest that the novel Basic and Enhanced Walk Indices had strong significant positive associations with active transport and overweight/obesity. In comparison the standard method had weaker significant associations, potentially indicating previous research has underestimated the effect of the built environment on active behaviours and health outcomes. In addition, the novel indices of bikeability and NDAI also showed significant positive associations with active transport and overweight/obesity, however effect sizes were small. Furthermore, results varied depending on the type of neighbourhood delineation and spatial scale used. However, in general, the network buffer showed stronger associations between indices of the built environment and active transport, physical activity and overweight/obesity. This research thus strengthens current international and national evidence on how the built environment affects active transport, physical activity behaviours and health outcomes. It expands a preoccupation with walkability to encompass other modes of transport, such as bikeability. Furthermore it provides an alternative, and potentially more nuanced novel method to assess the relationships between the built environment, active transport, physical activity and health outcomes.

    View record details
  • The architecture of opportunity : creating the box for people to think out of

    Ayrey, Oliver (2015)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    This research document looks to highlight the central issue that has plagued the architectural industry to date: that is, the concept of the Starchitect. For too long the field of architecture has celebrated the glamorously shallow works that continue to fill the world’s magazines and internet blogs. This project questions the architect’s role in creating built environments, identifying the common problem where designers chose to, or are instructed to construct buildings as statement pieces that portray their own idealized visions and the aspirations of their client, rather than constructing buildings that acknowledge and encourage the clients vision while enabling future occupants to impart their identity. Since architects are tasked with forming the environments in which people spend their lives, why then, in larger developments, does the industry show more interest in imposing designs that embody their own identity or style rather than guiding the people they are designing for in realising their own visions. The design component of this project looks at the current state of the architectural industry in relation to post-earthquake Christchurch and its rebuild. This project is essentially a criticism of the contemporary approach to rebuilding, renewing and reconstructing new cities. The relevance of this project comes from the conflicting responses between the community and the officials in charge of rebuilding Christchurch’s CBD. The earthquakes have unearthed an appetite for citizenry inclusion alongside a growing culture of exploratory development, allowing a new city identity to form. The method of recovery proposed by those in charge of the rebuild does not encourage the development of this culture and is instead looks to impose an identity. This document will look closely at Christchurch’s development, from the city’s conception through to today and will make comments on how the proposed recovery plan is repeating the same mistakes made in the past. Discussions will relate to the role that the architect plays within the development of urban space. The stance this paper takes is that architecture should be seen as a tool for enabling people to continuously reconstruct their city’s identity, rather than a vehicle for portraying an identity to the world. The design component for this project is to be an example of how we, as designers, can create the first stages of a piecemeal development that encourages people to explore different possibilities while providing the necessary restrictions that creativity requires. This design will be developed from an analysis of different forms of incremental developments in relation to the specific context of Christchurch. The project's main conceptual basis rests on the idea that creativity needs a box to think out of. Without boundaries, creative thought is suffocated by possibilities.

    View record details
  • The co-creation of gamified fitness experiences

    Hawkins, Tess E. (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis aims to investigate the different motivations of fitness technology users. Specifically, this thesis examines technology-based fitness experiences and the motivations and value that users derive from these experiences. Three literature streams are used to explain user engagement in technology-based fitness experiences: experience marketing, co-creation and gamification. In order to understand user motivations and the value derived from using this type of technology, an online survey was created using Qualtrics and a sample was recruited through Mechanical Turk. The scales used in the survey were sourced and adapted from the co-creation and gamification literature streams. A total of 360 responses were collected, and statistically analysed using multivariate procedures, including factor analysis and cluster analysis. On the basis of this analysis, users were put into distinct groups and profiled. The results revealed that functional, social and emotional value are significant sources of motivation for engaging in technology-based fitness experiences. It was also found that gamification is a significant area of value for users and, therefore, is as an important consideration for fitness app designers. The most relevant and influential constructs, in relation to technology-based fitness experiences and product usage co-creation, were also identified. These include the risk and accessibility components of the DART framework and the four factors of the mobile Internet experience. In contrast, personalisation and flow were identified as unimportant to users. It was found that users predominantly utilise fitness apps to help meet their need to achieve fitness and health related goals. However, it was also identified that the gamification aspects of fitness apps are highly valued by users. This study demonstrates that fitness app designers must endeavour to make their apps functional and entertaining as it will likely elicit user adoption.

    View record details
  • Perceptions of Chinese People in New Zealand Towards Nature and Possums

    Niu, Bo (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This study explores perceptions of Chinese people in New Zealand toward nature and the environment, particularly towards possums, an introduced pest species that people have been trying to eradicate from New Zealand for decades. Perceptions of possums by Chinese people and other people living in New Zealand have been compared and contrasted in the study as well. Chinese people who have never been to New Zealand were excluded from the research. Before the research, previous research studies on topics relating to public perceptions of various ethnicities towards nature or pests in New Zealand, were investigated as supportive backgrounds for this study. Only a few studies were found. Out of those studies, there were either no Asian people separated as one ethnic group, or they were under-represented. This research, through the combination of quantitative survey research and qualitative research interviews with Chinese academics in New Zealand, has deduced that: Chinese people in New Zealand have no less knowledge about possums in terms of their effects than New Zealand people have; also, Chinese people have more neutral perceptions towards possums compared with those of New Zealanders. However, as the survey received rather limited respondents, even with the complementary data from qualitative interviews with Chinese academics, we cannot conclude that the survey results represent all the Chinese people in New Zealand. My small non-representative sample was of people with higher average education and with more outdoor activities than the Chinese population in New Zealand as a whole. As a case study, this research can still help guide future research in New Zealand in terms of differences between ethnicities and quantitative research surveys. Further research could focus on using quantitative research methods with available data in New Zealand, to differentiate the perceptions among different ethnicities, in order to help future policymaking and policy execution.

    View record details
  • BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) and its impact on teacher pedagogy: a New Zealand case study

    Rae, Genevieve (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The practice of students bringing their own device to school BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) has now become reasonably common in New Zealand primary schools after being first introduced in the late 1990s. It has become a strategy that schools can use to provide 21st century learning opportunities for students without having to provide school-­‐owned devices. This study raises important questions for teachers and schools to ask themselves before implementing BYOD. This study explores the experiences of three New Zealand primary school teachers as they introduce BYOD into their classrooms. The case study sought to understand what factors impacted on their ability to implement new pedagogical practices and how professional learning might help support teachers with BYOD. The literature review examines national and international literature on the implementation and impact of BYOD. It discusses how and why teachers do or do not engage with ICT in classrooms and how BYOD impacts on their practice. This case study utilises SAMR (Puentedura, 2006) and TPACK (Mishra & Koehler, 2006) in order to analyse the data and discuss the findings. The findings suggest that, in order for teachers to maximise the potential of BYOD, professional learning and technical support is essential. The teachers experienced a number of challenges as they introduced BYOD, yet all managed to persevere and remain positive as they trialled new teaching methods, and utilised new programs and applications. The study concludes by making a number of pertinent recommendations that can be actioned by schools in order to ensure implementation is smooth and successful. It is very important that teachers are supported adequately by the school and are given opportunities to engage in relevant and timely professional learning.

    View record details
  • Phenological, physiological, and ecological factors affecting the epiphyte Notheia anomala and its obligate host Hormosira banksii

    Metcalfe, Isis Hayrunisa (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Notheia anomala is an obligate epiphyte commonly found on the abundant habitat-forming alga Hormosira banksii in intertidal areas throughout temperate Australasia. The tight co-evolved relationship between these species is unique because: (i) Notheia is a true obligate epiphyte, which is uncommon in the marine environment, (ii) the order Fucales is over 70 million years old and includes over 10 families, but Notheia is one of few fucoid epiphytes, and (iii) phylogenetically close species are rarely so closely linked (Hormosira, the obligate host of Notheia, is also a fucoid). This project is the first to address the phenological, physiological, and ecological factors affecting the Notheia-Hormosira relationship through a combination of field surveys and manipulative experiments. Phenological observations indicated that the two species may have asynchronous life cycles. I found that Notheia reproduction peaked in April (Austral autumn) when seawater temperatures were mild, whereas previous studies have shown peak reproduction in Hormosira during the period July to October (Austral winter/spring). There were differences in the development of Notheia conceptacles across different habitats (high shore areas, low shore areas and tide pools). Conceptacles developed faster, and were at full maturity for longer in the tide pool habitat. It is likely that lower levels of desiccation stress in tide pools allow faster conceptacle development and longer periods of reproductive maturity. From an evolutionary and ecological perspective, it is expected that the distribution of Notheia should closely resemble that of Hormosira across spatial and temporal scales. To test this, I compared distribution patterns of Hormosira and Notheia from the large continental scale to the small individual host plant scale. While Notheia biogeographical distribution is intricately linked to its host Hormosira, I found contrasting ecological habitat preferences, with tide pools hosting the lowest abundance of Hormosira and the highest abundance of Notheia respectively. At the host plant scale, I found that Hormosira plants from the high shore had the greatest number of Notheia clumps attached near the low-holdfast region. In the low shore and tide pools the pattern was opposite, with most Notheia clumps attached to the mid and high regions of the host. Notheia was equally likely to be found attached to male and female host plants, and more epiphytes were found attached to older than younger host plants. Using field tagging and translocation experiments, I also quantified the survival and growth of Notheia at different densities exposed to various stressful environmental conditions. Tagged Notheia clumps, with different plant densities and sizes, from the low shore and tide pools all experienced high mortality over a five-month period associated with high dislodgement rates of the host Hormosira. In translocation experiments of Notheia fronds (without its host), I found that individuals translocated to the high shore experienced close to 100% mortality, suggesting that desiccation and possibly photo inhibition are the main factors limiting the upward distribution of Notheia. Translocations to the low shore and tide pools demonstrated that Notheia fronds can survive and grow detached from its obligate host and suggest that the obligate dependency is most likely an early life stage requirement. Finally, I tested whether the abundance of invertebrate inhabitants associated with Hormosira varies in the presence of Notheia across spatio-temporal scales. Field surveys showed that, as predicted, there were strong positive density-dependent effects of Notheia on both richness and abundance of invertebrates, regardless of the spatio-temporal context and resident invertebrate taxa, providing one of the first examples of a habitat cascade occurring in rocky intertidal systems. Through a recolonization experiment, I tested whether invertebrate abundance was driven by (1) Notheia or Hormosira, (2) high or low amounts of Notheia and (3) living Notheia fronds or abiotic mimics. Hypotheses 1 and 2 were strongly supported, with more biomass of Notheia (as opposed to Hormosira) supporting more invertebrates, but not Hypothesis 3, as richness and abundances of inhabitants were similar between living Notheia fronds and artificial mimics. This suggests that Notheia is primarily providing habitat rather than food to the invertebrate inhabitants. Based on these results I hypothesized that invertebrates exert little or no grazing pressure on Hormosira and Notheia. This was tested in a laboratory food choice experiment focusing on potential grazing effects from herbivorous gastropods. In contrast to this hypothesis, I found negative effects of gastropods on both Hormosira and Notheia, with stronger grazing on Notheia. However, grazing rates were low overall and are likely to play only a minor role in regulating the abundance and distribution of the two species under natural field conditions. In support of the spatio-temporal surveys and colonization experiment, the grazing experiment also suggests that Notheia provide a better habitat for small invertebrates than Hormosira. Seaweeds are key components of coastal ecosystems, providing habitat and food for a wide range of marine organisms. Therefore, understanding their life history patterns and reproduction dynamics is essential for managing coastal areas and assessing ecosystem health. This study is the first to explore the long-term phenology and periodicity of reproduction in Notheia. Furthermore, my results support a growing number of habitat cascade studies from different ecosystems, and suggest that these processes are common in marine benthic systems.

    View record details
  • Climate change and national security: Analysis of the New Zealand Defence White Paper 2016 and the effect climate change will have on New Zealand's national security

    James, Joshua (2017)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Climate change is going to be a driver of regional instability and conflict, and the New Zealand Government needs to take this into account when preparing its national security plan. The New Zealand Defence White Paper 2016 has omitted any mention of climate change and this thesis has addressed the ramifications of this, as well as providing policy recommendations where the Defence White Paper 2016 could be strengthened. There are five areas in which it can be strengthened: the strategic outlook, Antarctica, the South Pacific, Humanitarian Work, and a domestic focus. Through using the Copenhagen School of Security we can identify that by naming climate change as a threat to national security, it enables us to address these threats through a securitisation of climate change. This securitisation involves, but is not limited to, reducing carbon emissions, increasing humanitarian aid, and purchasing more off-shore patrol vessels.

    View record details
  • Leading in Collaborative, Complex Education Systems

    Gilbert, J

    Report
    Auckland University of Technology

    No abstract.

    View record details
  • A Strategy for Improving Student Engagement in Auditing: Evidence from Reflective Journals

    Chiang, C; Well, P

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    Deficiencies identified in accounting graduate skills and capabilities have resulted in the spotlight being placed on techniques for improving student learning outcomes. Research has established that student approaches to learning have a significant influence on the achievement of learning outcomes. It has further been found that the contextual basis on which learning occurs contributes to the achievement of improved learning outcomes through improved motivation. One such basis is experiential learning. Through the analysis of student reflective journals, this study reveals how the inclusion of a mini-audit in the auditing course is perceived positively and leads to heightened motivation of students thus encouraging them to adopt a deep approach to learning. The implications of these findings for accounting educators are discussed and future research opportunities arising from this research are identified.

    View record details
  • Tagalog Language Maintenance and Shift Among the Filipino Community in New Zealand

    Umali, Ronalyn

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors that affect the attitudes and behaviours of Filipino migrants regarding their ethnic language maintenance in New Zealand. The research design was guided by a social psychological perspective, focusing on the attitudes and behaviours of 15 participants based on particular situations and social interactions. Qualitative data were collected through one-on-one interviews and informal fieldwork observations. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, coded, and analysed using Thematic Analysis. Results showed that the majority of participants have positive attitudes towards ethnic language maintenance in the Filipino-New Zealand community. Their positive attitudes were influenced by their constant involvement with the Filipino ethnic group, good relationships with members of the host society, and their views on heritage language as core to their ethnic identities. It was also found that the participants tended to fulfil the linguistic expectations of their family members and the wider Filipino community by using the ethnic language often. However, despite the participants’ positive attitudes, findings revealed that the use of the Tagalog language is not maintained among second-generation Filipino migrants. Regardless of their desire to pass on their ethnic language, most participants with New Zealand-born children use English as their main language of communication at home. In cultural events and gatherings, it was also found that Filipino adults would use English when speaking with Filipino children, but would switch back to Tagalog when conversing with other Filipino adults. Tagalog is only used by the first generation and those who have already acquired it, while the younger generation is left isolated from the language. There is a clear contradiction between the participants’ positive attitudes and their behaviours towards ethnic language maintenance. This suggests that English will most likely be the main language of the succeeding Filipino-New Zealand generations. Without proper attention and diligent use of Tagalog among Filipino children, a language shift seems inevitable among the second and third-generation Filipino migrants.

    View record details
  • Selective Laser Re-melting

    Chung, Sonia

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The additive manufacturing (AM) industry is heavily employed in a wide variety of applications today. Initially, the different processes have been used for concept modelling and rapid prototyping but are now capable of building fully functional parts. Selective laser melting (SLM) is one of the rapidly growing technologies since its inception in early 2000s. It creates parts by melting powder materials in layers using a laser heat source based on the information provided by a three-dimensional computer-aided design model. The parameters of SLM have been continuously optimised while attempting to produce fully dense parts comparable to the traditionally counterparts. This is an ongoing area of research due to the considerable number of variables involved in the process, including but not limited to powder material properties (powder deposition, particle morphology, particle size, particle size distribution and particle porosity), laser parameters (laser power, laser scan speed and laser scan spacing), and build chamber conditions (atmosphere, powder bed temperature and substrate plate preheating). Selective laser re-melting (SLR) is yet another approach visualised for improving the quality of SLM parts by integrating the laser surface re-melting (LSR) schemes into the SLM process planning. By re-melting every layer of a part, improved mechanical and physical properties can be obtained through decreased porosities. The re-melting process promotes grain refinement with a larger temperature gradient and balling within solidified layers is reduced leading to the reduction of pores and defects. However, the SLR technique further complicates the small SLM process window and requires careful selection of parameters for a successful build. Additionally, past SLR experiments employed laser powers less than 100 W as were made available with the older SLM machines. This study explores the effects of laser re-melting in SLM with varying energy density settings, establishing the process to structure and the structure to property relationships. Laser powers up to 375 W are used, with appropriate laser scan speed settings, ensuring the minimum energy densities as required for the laser melting of 316L stainless steel powders. Microstructural analyses are performed on the cross-sectional areas of the parts evaluating the formation of melt pools and the structures within. Both mechanical and physical properties including surface roughness of the top and the lateral faces, hardness, tensile strength, and density are the critical responses measured and analysed based on experimental conditions with varying levels of laser re-melting. Other aspects such as the laser scan strategies and the build orientations are also given due considerations in the experimental designs. All the experiments are conducted on the Renishaw laser melting system. One of the main problems faced is that the re-melting approach led to excessive heating, bubbling and loss of the layer structures when attempted at the same original density levels as required for the first pass. This has led to limiting the energy densities in the repeated passes at either a half or a quarter of the original energy density level. Certain improvements are noticed from the laser re-melting process, though the end results are the combined effects of a number of factors. 

    View record details
  • Central automorphisms of finite Laguerre planes

    G.F. Steinke (2016)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    View record details