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  • Seismic imaging of gas conduits beneath seafloor seep sites in a shallow marine gas hydrate province, Hikurangi Margin, New Zealand

    Crutchley, GJ; Pecher, Ingo; Gorman, AR; Henrys, SA; Greinert, J (2010)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    We present recently-acquired high-resolution seismic data and older lower-resolution seismic data from Rock Garden, a shallow marine gas hydrate province on New Zealand's Hikurangi Margin. The seismic data reveal plumbing systems that supply gas to three general sites where seeps have been observed on the Rock Garden seafloor: the ???LM3??? sites (including LM3 and LM3-A), the ???Weka??? sites (including Weka-A, Weka-B, and Weka-C), and the ???Faure??? sites (including Faure-A, Faure-B, and Rock Garden Knoll). At the LM3 sites, seismic data reveal gas migration from beneath the bottom simulating reflection (BSR), through the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ), to two separate seafloor seeps (LM3 and LM3-A). Gas migration through the deeper parts of GHSZ below the LM3 seeps appears to be influenced by faulting in the hanging wall of a major thrust fault. Closer to the seafloor, the dominant migration pathways appear to occupy vertical chimneys. At the Weka sites, on the central part of the ridge, seismic data reveal a very shallow BSR. A distinct convergence of the BSR with the seafloor is observed at the exit point of one of the Weka seep locations (Weka-A). Gas supply to this seep is predicted to be focused along the underside of a permeability contrast at the BGHS caused by overlying gas hydrates. The Faure sites are associated with a prominent arcuate slump feature. At Faure-A, high-amplitude reflections, extending from a shallow BSR towards the seafloor, are interpreted as preferred gas migration pathways that exploit relatively-high-permeability sedimentary layers. At Faure-B, we interpret gas migration to be channelled to the seep along the underside of the BGHS ??? the same scenario interpreted for the Weka-A site. At Rock Garden Knoll, gas occupies shallow sediments within the GHSZ, and is interpreted to migrate up-dip along relatively high-permeability layers to the area of seafloor seepage. We predict that faulting, in response to uplift and flexural extension of the ridge, may be an important mechanism in creating fluid flow conduits that link the reservoir of free gas beneath the BGHS with the shallow accumulations of gas imaged beneath Rock Garden Knoll. From a more regional perspective, much of the gas beneath Rock Garden is focused along a northwest-dipping fabric, probably associated with subduction-related deformation of the margin.

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  • Commissioning and performance of the CMS silicon strip tracker with cosmic ray muons

    Chatrchyan, S; Khachatryan, V; Sirunyan, AM; Adam, W; Arnold, B; Bergauer, H; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Eichberger, M; Eroe, J; Friedl, M; Fruehwirth, R; Ghete, VM; Hammer, J; Haensel, S; Hoch, M; Hoermann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kastner, K; Krammer, M; Liko, D; de Abril, I Magrans; Mikulec, I; Mittermayr, F; Neuherz, B; Oberegger, M; Padrta, M; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schmid, S; Schoefbeck, R; Schreiner, T; Stark, R; Steininger, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Themel, T; Uhl, D; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C-E; Chekhovsky, V; Dvornikov, O; Emeliantchik, I; Litomin, A; Makarenko, V; Marfin, I; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Solin, A; Stefanovitch, R; Gonzalez, J Suarez; Tikhonov, A; Fedorov, A; Karneyeu, A; Korzhik, M; Panov, V; Zuyeuski, R; Kuchinsky, P; Beaumont, W; Benucci, L; Cardaci, M; De Wolf, EA; Delmeire, E; Druzhkin, D; Hashemi, M; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; 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    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    During autumn 2008, the Silicon Strip Tracker was operated with the full CMS experiment in a comprehensive test, in the presence of the 3.8 T magnetic field produced by the CMS superconducting solenoid. Cosmic ray muons were detected in the muon chambers and used to trigger the readout of all CMS sub-detectors. About 15 million events with a muon in the tracker were collected. The efficiency of hit and track reconstruction were measured to be higher than 99% and consistent with expectations from Monte Carlo simulation. This article details the commissioning and performance of the Silicon Strip Tracker with cosmic ray muons.

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  • Search for resonances in the dijet mass spectrum from 7 TeV pp collisions at CMS

    Chatrchyan, S; Khachatryan, V; Sirunyan, AM; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Er??, J; Fabjan, C; Friedl, M; Fr??hwirth, R; Ghete, VM; Hammer, J; H??nsel, S; Hoch, M; H??rmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kiesenhofer, W; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Mikulec, I; Pernicka, M; Rahbaran, B; Rohringer, H; Sch??fbeck, R; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Trauner, C; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C-E; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Bansal, S; Benucci, L; De Wolf, EA; Janssen, X; Luyckx, S; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Roland, B; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Blekman, F; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; Gonzalez Suarez, R; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, M; Olbrechts, A; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Onsem, GP; Villella, I; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Gay, APR; Hammad, GH; Hreus, T; Marage, PE; Raval, A; Thomas, L; Vander Marcken, G; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Adler, V; Cimmino, A; Costantini, S; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Lellouch, J; Marinov, A; Mccartin, J; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Walsh, S; Zaganidis, N; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Ceard, L; Cortina Gil, E; De Favereau De Jeneret, J; Delaere, C; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Gr??goire, G; Hollar, J; Lemaitre, V; Liao, J; Militaru, O; Nuttens, C; Ovyn, S; Pagano, D; Pin, A; Piotrzkowski, K; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Caebergs, T; Daubie, E; Alves, GA; Brito, L; De Jesus Damiao, D; Pol, ME; Souza, MHG; Ald?? 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    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    A search for narrow resonances with a mass of at least 1 TeV in the dijet mass spectrum is performed using pp collisions at Sqrt(s) = 7 TeV. View the MathML source corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1 fb???1, collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC. No resonances are observed. Upper limits at the 95% confidence level are presented on the product of the resonance cross section, branching fraction into dijets, and acceptance, separately for decays into quark???quark, quark???gluon, and gluon???gluon pairs. The data exclude new particles predicted in the following models at the 95% confidence level: string resonances with mass less than 4.00 TeV, E6 diquarks with mass less than 3.52 TeV, excited quarks with mass less than 2.49 TeV, axigluons and colorons with mass less than 2.47 TeV, and W??? bosons with mass less than 1.51 TeV. These results extend previous exclusions from the dijet mass search technique.

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  • Indications of Suppression of Excited Upsilon States in Pb-Pb Collisions at root(NN)-N-s=2.76 TeV

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Newman, HB; Rogan, C; Shin, K; Timciuc, V; Traczyk, P; Veverka, J; Wilkinson, R; Yang, Y; Zhu, RY; Akgun, B; Carroll, R; Ferguson, T; Iiyama, Y; Jang, DW; Jun, SY; Liu, YF; Paulini, M; Russ, J; Vogel, H; Vorobiev, I; Cumalat, JP; Dinardo, ME; Drell, BR; Edelmaier, CJ; Ford, WT; Gaz, A; Heyburn, B; Lopez, EL; Nauenberg, U; Smith, JG; Stenson, K; Ulmer, KA; Wagner, SR; Zang, SL; Agostino, L; Alexander, J; Cassel, D; Chatterjee, A; Eggert, N; Gibbons, LK; Heltsley, B; Henriksson, K; Hopkins, W; Khukhunaishvili, A; Kreis, B; Kaufman, GN; Patterson, JR; Puigh, D; Ryd, A; Saelim, M; Salvati, E; Shi, X; Sun, W; Teo, WD; Thom, J; Thompson, J; Vaughan, J; Weng, Y; Winstrom, L; Wittich, P; Biselli, A; Cirino, G; Winn, D; Abdullin, S; Albrow, M; Anderson, J; Apollinari, G; Atac, M; Bakken, JA; Bauerdick, LAT; Beretvas, A; Berryhill, J; Bhat, PC; Bloch, I; Borcherding, F; Burkett, K; Butler, JN; Chetluru, V; Cheung, HWK; Chlebana, F; Cihangir, S; Cooper, W; Eartly, DP; Elvira, VD; Esen, S; Fisk, I; Freeman, J; Gao, Y; Gottschalk, E; Green, D; Gunthoti, K; Gutsche, O; Hanlon, J; Harris, RM; Hirschauer, J; Hooberman, B; Jensen, H; Johnson, M; Joshi, U; Khatiwada, R; Klima, B; Kousouris, K; Kunori, S; Kwan, S; Leonidopoulos, C; Limon, P; Lincoln, D; Lipton, R; Lykken, J; Maeshima, K; Marraffino, JM; Mason, D; McBride, P; Miao, T; Mishra, K; Mrenna, S; Musienko, Y; Newman-Holmes, C; O'Dell, V; Pordes, R; Prokofyev, O; Saoulidou, N; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Sharma, S; Spalding, WJ; Spiegel, L; Tan, P; Taylor, L; Tkaczyk, S; Uplegger, L; Vaandering, EW; Vidal, R; Whitmore, J; Wu, W; Yang, F; Yumiceva, F; Yun, JC; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Bourilkov, D; Chen, M; Das, S; De Gruttola, M; Di Giovanni, GP; Dobur, D; Drozdetskiy, A; Field, RD; Fisher, M; Fu, Y; Furic, IK; Gartner, J; Hugon, J; Kim, B; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kypreos, T; Low, JF; Matchev, K; Mitselmakher, G; Muniz, L; Prescott, C; Remington, R; Rinkevicius, A; Schmitt, M; Scurlock, B; Sellers, P; Skhirtladze, N; Snowball, M; Wang, D; Yelton, J; Zakaria, M; Gaultney, V; Lebolo, LM; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Rodriguez, JL; Adams, T; Askew, A; Bochenek, J; Chen, J; Diamond, B; Gleyzer, SV; Haas, J; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Jenkins, M; Johnson, KF; Prosper, H; Quertenmont, L; Sekmen, S; Veeraraghavan, V; Baarmand, MM; Dorney, B; Guragain, S; Hohlmann, M; Kalakhety, H; Ralich, R; Vodopiyanov, I; Adams, MR; Anghel, IM; Apanasevich, L; Bai, Y; Bazterra, VE; Betts, RR; Callner, J; Cavanaugh, R; Dragoiu, C; Gauthier, L; Gerber, CE; Hofman, DJ; Khalatyan, S; Kunde, GJ; Lacroix, F; Malek, M; O'Brien, C; Silkworth, C; Silvestre, C; Smoron, A; Strom, D; Varelas, N; Akgun, U; Albayrak, EA; Bilki, B; Clarida, W; Duru, F; Lae, CK; McCliment, E; Merlo, JP; Mermerkaya, H; Mestvirishvili, A; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Newsom, CR; Norbeck, E; Olson, J; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Sen, S; Wetzel, J; Yetkin, T; Yi, K; Barnett, BA; Blumenfeld, B; Bonato, A; Eskew, C; Fehling, D; Giurgiu, G; Gritsan, AV; Guo, ZJ; Hu, G; Maksimovic, P; Rappoccio, S; Swartz, M; Tran, NV; Whitbeck, A; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Benelli, G; Grachov, O; Kenny, RP; Murray, M; Noonan, D; Sanders, S; Wood, JS; Zhukova, V; Barfuss, AF; Bolton, T; Chakaberia, I; Ivanov, A; Makouski, M; Maravin, Y; Shrestha, S; Svintradze, I; Wan, Z; Gronberg, J; Lange, D; Wright, D; Baden, A; Boutemeur, M; Eno, SC; Ferencek, D; Gomez, JA; Hadley, NJ; Kellogg, RG; Kirn, M; Lu, Y; Mignerey, AC; Rossato, K; Rumerio, P; Santanastasio, F; Skuja, A; Temple, J; Tonjes, MB; Tonwar, SC; Twedt, E; Alver, B; Bauer, G; Bendavid, J; Busza, W; Butz, E; Cali, IA; Chan, M; Dutta, V; Everaerts, P; Ceballos, GG; Goncharov, M; Hahn, KA; Harris, P; Kim, Y; Klute, M; Lee, YJ; Loizides, C; Luckey, PD; Ma, T; Nahn, S; Paus, C; Ralph, D; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, M; Stephans, GSF; Stoeckli, F; Sumorok, K; Sung, K; Velicanu, D; Wenger, EA; Xie, S; Yang, M; Yilmaz, Y; Yoon, AS; Zanetti, M; Cooper, SI; Cushman, P; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Dudero, PR; Franzoni, G; Gude, A; Haupt, J; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Pastika, N; Rekovic, V; Rusack, R; Sasseville, M; Singovsky, A; Tambe, N; Cremaldi, LM; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Perera, L; Rahmat, R; Sanders, DA; Summers, D; Bloom, K; Bose, S; Butt, J; Claes, DR; Dominguez, A; Eads, M; Keller, J; Kelly, T; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Malbouisson, H; Malik, S; Snow, GR; Baur, U; Godshalk, A; Iashvili, I; Kharchilava, A; Shipkowski, SP; Smith, K; Zennamo, J; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Baumgartel, D; Boeriu, O; Chasco, M; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Trocino, D; Wood, D; Zhang, J; Anastassov, A; Kubik, A; Odell, N; Ofierzynski, RA; Pollack, B; Pozdnyakov, A; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Brinkerhoff, A; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, DJ; Kolb, J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Luo, W; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, DM; Pearson, T; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Valls, N; Wayne, M; Ziegler, J; Bylsma, B; Durkin, LS; Gu, J; Hill, C; Killewald, P; Kotov, K; Ling, TY; Rodenburg, M; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hebda, P; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Pegna, DL; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroue, P; Quan, X; Safdi, B; Saka, H; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, JS; Zuranski, A; Acosta, JG; Huang, XT; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Vargas, JER; Zatserklyaniy, A; Alagoz, E; Barnes, VE; Bolla, G; Borrello, L; Bortoletto, D; De Mattia, M; Everett, A; Garfinkel, AF; Gutay, L; Hu, Z; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Kress, M; Laasanen, AT; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, DH; Neumeister, N; Shipsey, I; Silvers, D; Svyatkovskiy, A; Yoo, HD; Zablocki, J; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Boulahouache, C; Ecklund, KM; Geurts, FJM; Padley, BP; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Zabel, J; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Chung, YS; Covarelli, R; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Eshaq, Y; Flacher, H; Garcia-Bellido, A; Goldenzweig, P; Gotra, Y; Han, J; Harel, A; Miner, DC; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Sakumoto, W; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Ciesielski, R; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Atramentov, O; Barker, A; Duggan, D; Gershtein, Y; Gray, R; Halkiadakis, E; Hidas, D; Hits, D; Lath, A; Panwalkar, S; Patel, R; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, ZC; York, A; Eusebi, R; Flanagan, W; Gilmore, J; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Khotilovich, V; Montalvo, R; Osipenkov, I; Pakhotin, Y; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Tatarinov, A; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Bardak, C; Damgov, J; Jeong, C; Kovitanggoon, K; Lee, SW; Libeiro, T; Mane, P; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Appelt, E; Brownson, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Gabella, W; Issah, M; Johns, W; Kurt, P; Maguire, C; Melo, A; Sheldon, P; Snook, B; Tuo, S; Velkovska, J; Arenton, MW; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Cox, B; Francis, B; Goodell, J; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Lin, C; Neu, C; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Harr, R; Karchin, PE; Lamichhane, P; Mattson, M; Ne, CM; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, JN; Carlsmith, D; Dasu, S; Efron, J; Gray, L; Grogg, KS; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Herndon, M; Herve, A; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Mohapatra, A; Palmonari, F; Reeder, D; Ross, I; Savin, A; Smith, WH; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M (2011-07-28)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    A comparison of the relative yields of Upsilon resonances in the mu(+)mu(-) decay channel in Pb-Pb and pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of 2.76 TeV is performed with data collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. Using muons of transverse momentum above 4 GeV/c and pseudorapidity below 2.4, the double ratio of the Upsilon(2S) and Upsilon(3S) excited states to the Upsilon(1S) ground state in Pb-Pb and pp collisions, [Upsilon(2S + 3S)/Upsilon(1S)](Pb-Pb) /[Upsilon 2S + 3S)/Upsilon(1S)](pp), is found to be 0.31(-0.15)(+0.19) (stat_ +/- 0.03(syst). The probability to obtain the measured value, or lower, if the true double ratio is unity, is calculated to be less than 1%.

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  • Refractive error and presbyopia in timor-leste: the impact of 5 years of a national spectacle program

    Ramke, Jacqueline; Brian, G; Naduvilath, T (2012-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    To characterize refractive error, presbyopia, and spectacle correction among adults aged ???40 years in Timor-Leste in 2010 and examine the impact of the National Spectacle Program by comparing results to those obtained 5 years earlier.

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  • Solid lipid nanoparticles for ocular drug delivery.

    Seyfoddin, Ali; Shaw, John; Al-Kassas, Raida (2010-09)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Ocular drug delivery remains challenging because of the complex nature and structure of the eye. Conventional systems, such as eye drops and ointments, are inefficient, whereas systemic administration requires high doses resulting in significant toxicity. There is a need to develop novel drug delivery carriers capable of increasing ocular bioavailability and decreasing both local and systemic cytotoxicity. Nanotechnology is expected to revolutionize ocular drug delivery. Many nano-structured systems have been employed for ocular drug delivery and yielded some promising results. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have been looked at as a potential drug carrier system since the 1990s. SLNs do not show biotoxicity as they are prepared from physiological lipids. SLNs are especially useful in ocular drug delivery as they can enhance the corneal absorption of drugs and improve the ocular bioavailability of both hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs. SLNs have another advantage of allowing autoclave sterilization, a necessary step towards formulation of ocular preparations. This review outlines in detail the various production, characterization, sterilization, and stabilization techniques for SLNs. In-vitro and in-vivo methods to study the drug release profile of SLNs have been explained. Special attention has been given to the nature of lipids and surfactants commonly used for SLN production. A summary of previous studies involving the use of SLNs in ocular drug delivery is provided, along with a critical evaluation of SLNs as a potential ocular delivery system.

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  • Whole heart APD restitution properties in cardiac patients: a combined clinical and modelling study

    Nash, Martyn; Bradley, CP; Sutton, PM; Clayton, RH; Kallis, P; Hayward, MP; Paterson, DJ; Taggart, P (2006)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Steep action potential duration (APD) restitution has been shown to facilitate wavebreak and ventricular ???brillation. The global APD restitution properties in cardiac patients are unknown. We report a combined clinical electrophysiology and computer modelling study to: (1) determine global APD restitution properties in cardiac patients; and (2) examine the interaction of the observed APD restitution with known arrhythmia mechanisms. In 14 patients aged 52???85 years undergoing routine cardiac surgery, 256 electrode epicardial mapping was performed. Activation???recovery intervals (ARI; a surrogate for APD) were recorded over the entire ventricular surface. Mono-exponential restitution curves were constructed for each electrode site using a standard S1???S2 pacing protocol. The median maximum restitution slope was 0.91, with 27% of all electrode sites with slopes < 0.5, 29% between 0.5 and 1.0, and 20% between 1.0 and 1.5. Eleven per cent of restitution curves maintained slope > 1 over a range of diastolic intervals of at least 30 ms; and 0.3% for at least 50 ms. Activation???recovery interval restitution was spatially heterogeneous, showing regional organization with multiple discrete areas of steep and shallow slope. We used a simpli???ed computer model of 2-D cardiac tissue to investigate how heterogeneous APD restitution can in???uence vulnerability to, and stability of re-entry. Our model showed that heterogeneity of restitution can act as a potent arrhythmogenic substrate,as wellas in???uencingthe stabilityof re-entrant arrhythmias.Globalepicardialmapping in humans showed that APD restitution slopes were organized into regions of shallow and steep slopes. This heterogeneous organization of restitution may provide a substrate for arrhythmia.

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  • Global and regional mortality from ischaemic heart disease and stroke attributable to higher-than-optimum blood glucose concentration: comparative risk assessment

    Danaei, G; Lawes, Carlene; Vander Hoorn, S; Murray, CJ; Ezzati, M (2006)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Summary Background Cardiovascular mortality risk increases continuously with blood glucose, from concentrations well below conventional thresholds used to de??? ne diabetes. We aimed to quantify population-level e??? ects of all higher-than-optimum concentrations of blood glucose on mortality from ischaemic heart disease and stroke worldwide. Methods We used population distribution of fasting plasma glucose to measure exposure to higher-than-optimum blood glucose. We collated exposure data in 52 countries from individual-level records in population health surveys, systematic reviews, and data provided by investigators. Relative risks for ischaemic heart disease and stroke mortality were from a meta-analysis of more than 200 000 participants in the Asia-Paci??? c region, with adjustment for other cardiovascular risk factors. Results In addition to 959 000 deaths directly assigned to diabetes, 1 490 000 deaths from ischaemic heart disease and 709 000 from stroke were attributable to high blood glucose, accounting for 21% and 13% of all deaths from these conditions. 1??8 million of these 2??2 million cardiovascular deaths (84%) were in low-and-middle-income countries (1 224 000 for ischaemic heart disease, 623 000 for stroke). 792 000 (53%) of deaths from ischaemic heart disease and 345 000 (49%) from stroke that were attributable to high blood glucose were in men. Largest numbers of deaths attributable to this risk factor from ischaemic heart disease were in low-and-middle-income countries of South Asia (548 000) and Europe and Central Asia (313 000), and from stroke in South Asia (215 000) and East Asia and Paci??? c (190 000). Interpretation Higher-than-optimum blood glucose is a leading cause of cardiovascular mortality in most world regions. Programmes for cardiovascular risk and diabetes management and control at the population level need to be more closely integrated.

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  • Mobile phone-based interventions for smoking cessation

    Whittaker, Robyn; Borland, R; Bullen, Christopher; Lin, Ruey; McRobbie, Hayden; Rodgers, Anthony (2009)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: Innovative effective smoking cessation interventions are required to appeal to those who are not accessing traditional cessation services. Mobile phones are widely used and are now well integrated into the daily lives of many, particularly young adults. Mobile phones are a potential medium for the delivery of health programmes such as smoking cessation. Objectives: To determine whether mobile phone-based interventions are effective at helping people who smoke, to quit. Search strategy: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cinahl, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Library, the National Research Register and the ClinicalTrials register, with no restrictions placed on language or publication date. Selection criteria: We included randomized or quasi-randomized trials. Participants were smokers of any age who wanted to quit. Studies were those examining any type of mobile phone-based intervention. This included any intervention aimed at mobile phone users, based around delivery via mobile phone, and using any functions or applications that can be used or sent via a mobile phone. Data collection and analysis: Information on the specified quality criteria and methodological details was extracted using a standardised form. Participants who dropped out of the trials or were lost to follow up were considered to be smoking. Meta-analysis of the included studies was undertaken using the Mantel-Haenszel Risk Ratio fixed-effect method provided that there was no evidence of substantial statistical heterogeneity as assessed by the I2 statistic. Where meta-analysis was not possible, summary and descriptive statistics are presented. Main results: Four studies were excluded as they were small non-randomized feasibility studies, and two studies were excluded because follow up was less than six months. Four trials (reported in five papers) are included: a text message programme in New Zealand; a text message programme in the UK; and an Internet and mobile phone programme involving two different groups in Norway. The different types of interventions are analysed separately. When combined by meta-analysis the text message programme trials showed a significant increase in short-term self-reported quitting (RR 2.18, 95% CI 1.80 to 2.65). However, there was considerable heterogeneity in long-term outcomes, with the much larger trial having problems with misclassification of outcomes; therefore these data were not combined. When the data from the Internet and mobile phone programmes were pooled we found statistically significant increases in both short and long-term self-reported quitting (RR 2.03, 95% CI 1.40 to 2.94). Authors' conclusions: The current evidence shows no effect of mobile phone-based smoking cessation interventions on long-term outcome. While short-term results are positive, more rigorous studies of the long-term effects of mobile phone-based smoking cessation interventions are needed.

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  • STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Person's Prescriptions) and START (Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment). Consensus validation

    Gallagher, P; Ryan, C; Byrne, S; Kennedy, Julia; O'Mahony, D (2008)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Objective: Older people experience more concurrent illnesses, are prescribed more medications and suffer more adverse drug events than younger people. Many drugs predispose older people to adverse events such as falls and cognitive impairment, thus increasing morbidity and health resource utilization. At the same time, older people are often denied potentially beneficial, clinically indicated medications without a valid reason. We aimed to validate a new screening tool of older persons??? prescriptions incorporating criteria for potentially inappropriate drugs called STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Persons??? Prescriptions) and criteria for potentially appropriate, indicated drugs called START (Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right, i.e. appropriate, indicated Treatment). Methods: A Delphi consensus technique was used to establish the content validity of STOPP/START. An 18-member expert panel from academic centers in Ireland and the United Kingdom completed two rounds of the Delphi process by mail survey. Inter-rater reliability was assessed by determining the kappa-statistic for measure of agreement on 100 data-sets. Results: STOPP is comprised of 65 clinically significant criteria for potentially inappropriate prescribing in older people. Each criterion is accompanied by a concise explanation as to why the prescribing practice is potentially inappropriate. START consists of 22 evidence-based prescribing indicators for commonly encountered diseases in older people. Inter-rater reliability is favorable with a kappa-coefficient of 0.75 for STOPP and 0.68 for START. Conclusion: STOPP/START is a valid, reliable and comprehensive screening tool that enables the prescribing physician to appraise an older patient???s prescription drugs in the context of his/her concurrent diagnoses.

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  • Origin and evolution of the Steamboat Springs siliceous sinter deposit, Nevada, USA

    Lynne, BY; Campbell, Kathleen; Moore, J; Browne, PRL (2008-10-15)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Siliceous hot spring deposits from Steamboat Springs, Nevada, U.S.A., record a complex interplay of multiple, changing, primary environmental conditions, fluid overprinting and diagenesis. Consequently these deposits reflect dynamic geologic and geothermal processes. Two surface sinters were examined-the high terrace, and the distal apron-slope, as well as 13.11 m (43 ft) of core material from drill hole SNLG 87-29. The high terrace sinter consists of vitreous and massive-mottled silica horizons, while the distal deposit and core comprise dominantly porous, indurated fragmental sinters. Collectively, the three sinter deposits archive a complete sequence of silica phase diagenetic minerals from opal-A to quartz. X-ray powder diffraction analyses and infrared spectroscopy of the sinters indicate that the distal apron-slope consists of opal-A and opal-A/CT mineralogy; the core yielded opal-A/CT and opal-CT with minor opal-A; and the high terrace constitutes opal-C, moganite, and quartz. Mineralogical maturation of the deposit produced alternating nano-micro-nano-sized silica particle changes. Based on filament diameters of microbial fossils preserved within the sinter, discharging thermal outflows fluctuated between low-temperatures (< 35 degrees C, coarse filaments) and mid-temperatures (similar to 35-60 degrees C, fine filaments). Despite transformation to quartz, primary coarse and fine filaments were preserved in the high terrace sinter. AMS C-14 dating of pollen from three horizons within core SNLG 87-29, from depths of 8.13 to 8.21 m (26'8 '' to 26'11 ''), 10.13 to 10.21 m (33'3 '' to 33'6 ''), and 14.81 to 14.88 m (48'7 '' to 48'10 ''), yielded dates of 8684 +/- 64 years, 11,493 +/- 70 years and 6283 +/- 60 years, respectively. In the upper section of the core, the stratigraphically out-of-sequence age likely reflects physical mixing of younger sinter with quartzose sinter fragments derived from the high terrace. Within single horizons, mineralogical and morphological components of the sinter matrix were spatially patchy. Overall, the deposit was modified by sub-surface flow of alkali-chloride thermal fluids depositing a second generation of silica, and periodically, by acidic steam condensate formed during periods when the water table was low. Local faulting produced considerable fracturing of the sinter. Hence, the Steamboat Springs sinter experienced a complex history of primary and secondary hydrothermal, geologic and diagenetic events, and their inter-relationships and effects are locked within the physical, chemical and biological signatures of the deposit. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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  • Bridging the ensemble Kalman filter and particle filters: the adaptive Gaussian mixture filter

    Stordal, AS; Karlsen, HA; Naevdal, G; Skaug, HJ; Valles, Brice (2011-03-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The nonlinear filtering problem occurs in many scientific areas. Sequential Monte Carlo solutions with the correct asymptotic behavior such as particle filters exist, but they are computationally too expensive when working with high-dimensional systems. The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a more robust method that has shown promising results with a small sample size, but the samples are not guaranteed to come from the true posterior distribution. By approximating the model error with a Gaussian distribution, one may represent the posterior distribution as a sum of Gaussian kernels. The resulting Gaussian mixture filter has the advantage of both a local Kalman type correction and the weighting/resampling step of a particle filter. The Gaussian mixture approximation relies on a bandwidth parameter which often has to be kept quite large in order to avoid a weight collapse in high dimensions. As a result, the Kalman correction is too large to capture highly non-Gaussian posterior distributions. In this paper, we have extended the Gaussian mixture filter (Hoteit et al., Mon Weather Rev 136:317-334, 2008) and also made the connection to particle filters more transparent. In particular, we introduce a tuning parameter for the importance weights. In the last part of the paper, we have performed a simulation experiment with the Lorenz40 model where our method has been compared to the EnKF and a full implementation of a particle filter. The results clearly indicate that the new method has advantages compared to the standard EnKF.

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  • Capturing magma intrusion and faulting processes during continental rupture: seismicity of the Dabbahu (Afar) rift

    Ebinger, CJ; Keir, D; Ayele, A; Calais, E; Wright, TJ; Belachew, M; Hammond, JOS; Campbell, Melanie; Buck, WR (2008)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Continental rupture models emphasize the role of faults in extensional strain accommodation; extension by dyke intrusion is commonly overlooked. A major rifting episode that began in 2005 September in the Afar depression of Ethiopia provides an opportunity to examine strain accommodation in a zone of incipient plate rupture. Earthquakes recorded on a temporary seismic array (2005 October to 2006 April), direct observation of fault patterns and geodetic data document ongoing strain and continued dyke intrusion along the ???60-km long Dabbahu rift segment defined in earlier remote sensing studies. Epicentral locations lie along a ???3 km wide, ???50 km long swath that curves into the SE flank of Dabbahu volcano; a second strand continues to the north toward Gab'ho volcano. Considering the ???8 m of opening in the September crisis, we interpret the depth distribution of microseismicity as the dyke intrusion zone; the dykes rise from ???10 km to the near-surface along the ???60-km long length of the tectono-magmatic segment. Focal mechanisms indicate slip along NNW-striking normal faults, perpendicular to the Arabia???Nubia plate opening vector. The seismicity, InSAR, continuous GPS and structural patterns all suggest that magma injection from lower or subcrustal magma reservoirs continued at least 3 months after the main episode. Persistent earthquake swarms at two sites on Dabbahu volcano coincide with areas of deformation identified in the InSAR data: (1) an elliptical, northwestward-dipping zone of seismicity and subsidence interpreted as a magma conduit, and (2) a more diffuse, 8-km radius zone of shallow seismicity (ho volcano. The patterns of seismicity provide a 3-D perspective of magma feeding systems maintaining the along-axis segmentation of this incipient seafloor spreading segment.

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  • Worldwide time trends in the prevalence of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema in childhood: ISAAC Phases One and Three repeat multicountry cross-sectional surveys

    Asher, Monica Innes; Montefort, S; Bjorksten, B; Lai, CKW; Strachan, DP; and the ISAAC Phase Three Study Group; Weiland, SK; Williams, H; Mitchell, Edwin; Stewart, Alistair; Clayton, Tadd; Ellwood, Philippa (2006-08)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background Data for trends in prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema over time are scarce. We repeated the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) at least 5 years after Phase One, to examine changes in the prevalence of symptoms of these disorders.Methods For the ISAAC Phase Three study, between 2002 and 2003, we did a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 193 404 children aged 6-7 years from 66 centres in 37 countries, and 304 679 children aged 13-14 years from 106 centres in 56 countries, chosen from a random sample of schools in a defined geographical area.Findings Phase Three was completed a mean of 7 years after Phase One. Most centres showed a change in prevalence of 1 or more SE for at least one disorder, with increases being twice as common as decreases, and increases being more common in the 6-7 year age-group than in the 13-14 year age-group, and at most levels of mean prevalence. An exception was asthma symptoms in the older age-group, in which decreases were more common at high prevalence. For both age-groups, more centres showed increases in all three disorders more often than showing decreases, but most centres had mixed changes.Interpretation The rise in prevalence of symptoms in many centres is concerning, but the absence of increases in prevalence of asthma symptoms for centres with existing high prevalence in the older age-group is reassuring. The divergent trends in prevalence of symptoms of allergic diseases form the basis for further research into the causes of such disorders.

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  • Association between paracetamol use in infancy and childhood, and risk of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema in children aged 6-7 years: analysis from Phase Three of the ISAAC programme

    Beasley, R; Clayton, Tadd; von Mutius, E; Lai, C; Montefort, S; and the ISAAC Phase Three Study Group; Stewart, AW; Mitchell, Edwin; Asher, Monica Innes; Ellwood, Philippa (2008-09)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Summary Background Exposure to paracetamol during intrauterine life, childhood, and adult life may increase the risk of developing asthma. We studied 6???7-year-old children from Phase Three of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) programme to investigate the association between paracetamol consumption and asthma. Methods As part of Phase Three of ISAAC, parents or guardians of children aged 6???7 years completed written questionnaires about symptoms of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema, and several risk factors, including the use of paracetamol for fever in the child???s fi rst year of life and the frequency of paracetamol use in the past 12 months. The primary outcome variable was the odds ratio (OR) of asthma symptoms in these children associated with the use of paracetamol for fever in the fi rst year of life, as calculated by logistic regression. Findings 205 487 children aged 6???7 years from 73 centres in 31 countries were included in the analysis. In the multivariate analyses, use of paracetamol for fever in the fi rst year of life was associated with an increased risk of asthma symptoms when aged 6???7 years (OR 1??46 [95% CI 1??36???1??56]). Current use of paracetamol was associated with a dose-dependent increased risk of asthma symptoms (1??61 [1??46???1??77] and 3??23 [2??91???3??60] for medium and high use vs no use, respectively). Use of paracetamol was similarly associated with the risk of severe asthma symptoms, with population-attributable risks between 22% and 38%. Paracetamol use, both in the fi rst year of life and in children aged 6???7 years, was also associated with an increased risk of symptoms of rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema. Interpretation Use of paracetamol in the fi rst year of life and in later childhood, is associated with risk of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema at age 6 to 7 years. We suggest that exposure to paracetamol might be a risk factor for the development of asthma in childhood. Funding The BUPA Foundation, the Health Research Council of New Zealand, the Asthma and Respiratory Foundation of New Zealand, the Hawke???s Bay Medical Research Foundation, the Waikato Medical Research Foundation, Glaxo Wellcome New Zealand, the New Zealand Lottery Board, Astra Zeneca New Zealand, and Glaxo Wellcome International Medical Affairs.

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  • Worldwide trends in the prevalence of asthma symptoms: phase III of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC)

    Pearce, N; Ait-Khaled, N; Beasley, R; Mallol, J; Keil, U; Mitchell, EA; Robertson, C; ISAAC Phase Three Study Group; Ellwood, Philippa; Clayton, Tadd; Stewart, AW; Asher, Monica Innes (2007-05)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: Phase I of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) was designed to allow worldwide comparisons of the prevalence of asthma symptoms. In phase III the phase I survey was repeated in order to assess changes over time. Methods: The phase I survey was repeated after an interval of 5???10 years in 106 centres in 56 countries in children aged 13???14 years (n = 304 679) and in 66 centres in 37 countries in children aged 6???7 years (n = 193 404). Results: The mean symptom prevalence of current wheeze in the last 12 months changed slightly from 13.2% to 13.7% in the 13???14 year age group (mean increase of 0.06% per year) and from 11.1% to 11.6% in the 6???7 year age group (mean increase of 0.13% per year). There was also little change in the mean symptom prevalence of severe asthma or the symptom prevalence measured with the asthma video questionnaire. However, the time trends in asthma symptom prevalence showed different regional patterns. In Western Europe, current wheeze decreased by 0.07% per year in children aged 13???14 years but increased by 0.20% per year in children aged 6???7 years. The corresponding findings per year for the other regions in children aged 13???14 years and 6???7 years, respectively, were: Oceania (???0.39% and ???0.21%); Latin America (+0.32% and +0.07%); Northern and Eastern Europe (+0.26% and +0.05%); Africa (+0.16% and +0.10%); North America (+0.12% and +0.32%); Eastern Mediterranean (???0.10% and +0.79%); Asia-Pacific (+0.07% and ???0.06%); and the Indian subcontinent (+0.02% and +0.06%). There was a particularly marked reduction in current asthma symptom prevalence in English language countries (???0.51% and ???0.09%). Similar patterns were observed for symptoms of severe asthma. However, the percentage of children reported to have had asthma at some time in their lives increased by 0.28% per year in the 13???14 year age group and by 0.18% per year in the 6???7 year age group. Conclusions: These findings indicate that international differences in asthma symptom prevalence have reduced, particularly in the 13???14 year age group, with decreases in prevalence in English speaking countries and Western Europe and increases in prevalence in regions where prevalence was previously low. Although there was little change in the overall prevalence of current wheeze, the percentage of children reported to have had asthma increased significantly, possibly reflecting greater awareness of this condition and/or changes in diagnostic practice. The increases in asthma symptom prevalence in Africa, Latin America and parts of Asia indicate that the global burden of asthma is continuing to rise, but the global prevalence differences are lessening.

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  • Knee muscle forces during walking and running in patellofemoral pain patients and pain-free controls.

    Besier, Thor; Fredericson, M; Gold, GE; Beaupr??, GS; Delp, SL (2009-05-11)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    One proposed mechanism of patellofemoral pain, increased stress in the joint, is dependent on forces generated by the quadriceps muscles. Describing causal relationships between muscle forces, tissue stresses, and pain is difficult due to the inability to directly measure these variables in vivo. The purpose of this study was to estimate quadriceps forces during walking and running in a group of male and female patients with patellofemoral pain (n = 27, 16 female; 11 male) and compare these to pain-free controls (n = 16, 8 female; 8 male). Subjects walked and ran at self-selected speeds in a gait laboratory. Lower limb kinematics and electromyography (EMG) data were input to an EMG-driven musculoskeletal model of the knee, which was scaled and calibrated to each individual to estimate forces in 10 muscles surrounding the joint. Compared to controls, the patellofemoral pain group had greater co-contraction of quadriceps and hamstrings (p = 0.025) and greater normalized muscle forces during walking, even though the net knee moment was similar between groups. Muscle forces during running were similar between groups, but the net knee extension moment was less in the patellofemoral pain group compared to controls. Females displayed 30-50% greater normalized hamstring and gastrocnemius muscle forces during both walking and running compared to males (p<0.05). These results suggest that some patellofemoral pain patients might experience greater joint contact forces and joint stresses than pain-free subjects. The muscle force data are available as supplementary material.

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  • Calcium supplements with or without vitamin D and risk of cardiovascular events: reanalysis of the Women's Health Initiative limited access dataset and meta-analysis

    Bolland, Mark; Grey, Andrew; Avenell, A; Gamble, Gregory; Reid, Ian (2011-04-19)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Objectives To investigate the effects of personal calcium supplement use on cardiovascular risk in the Women???s Health Initiative Calcium/Vitamin D Supplementation Study (WHI CaD Study), using the WHI dataset, and to update the recent meta-analysis of calcium supplements and cardiovascular risk. Design Reanalysis of WHI CaD Study limited access dataset and incorporation in meta-analysis with eight other studies. Data source WHI CaD Study, a seven year, randomised, placebo controlled trial of calcium and vitamin D (1g calcium and 400 IU vitamin D daily) in 36 282 community dwelling postmenopausal women. Main outcome measures Incidence of four cardiovascular events and their combinations (myocardial infarction, coronary revascularisation, death from coronary heart disease, and stroke) assessed with patient-level data and trial-level data. Results In the WHI CaD Study there was an interaction between personal use of calcium supplements and allocated calcium and vitamin D for cardiovascular events. In the 16 718 women (46%) who were not taking personal calcium supplements at randomisation the hazard ratios for cardiovascular events with calcium and vitamin D ranged from 1.13 to 1.22 (P=0.05 for clinical myocardial infarction or stroke, P=0.04 for clinical myocardial infarction or revascularisation), whereas in the women taking personal calcium supplements cardiovascular risk did not alter with allocation to calcium and vitamin D. In meta-analyses of three placebo controlled trials, calcium and vitamin D increased the risk of myocardial infarction (relative risk 1.21 (95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.44), P=0.04), stroke (1.20 (1.00 to 1.43), P=0.05), and the composite of myocardial infarction or stroke (1.16 (1.02 to 1.32), P=0.02). In metaanalyses of placebo controlled trials of calcium or calcium and vitamin D, complete trial-level data were available for 28 072 participants from eight trials of calcium supplements and the WHI CaD participants not taking personal calcium supplements. In total 1384 individuals had an incident myocardial infarction or stroke. Calcium or calcium and vitamin D increased the risk of myocardial infarction (relative risk 1.24 (1.07 to 1.45), P=0.004) and the composite of myocardial infarction or stroke (1.15 (1.03 to 1.27), P=0.009). Conclusions Calcium supplements with or without vitamin D modestly increase the risk of cardiovascular events, especially myocardial infarction, a finding obscured in the WHI CaD Study by the widespread use of personal calcium supplements. A reassessment of the role of calcium supplements in osteoporosis management is warranted.

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  • The effects of seasonal variation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and fat mass on diagnosis of vitamin D sufficiency

    Bolland, Mark; Grey, Andrew; Ames, Ruth; Mason, Barbara; Horne, Anne; Gamble, Gregory; Reid, Ian (2007)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: The effect of season on vitamin D status is often overlooked in studies of optimal vitamin D concentrations and in clinical practice. Objectives: We aimed to determine the effects of seasonal variation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] on a previously selected minimum concentration for vitamin D sufficiency (50 nmol/L) and to determine whether fat mass modifies these effects. Design: A cross-sectional study evaluated 1606 healthy postmenopausal women and 378 older men from Auckland, New Zealand, who were undergoing single measurements of 25(OH)D. Results: Concentrations of < 50 nmol/L, according to the demonstrated seasonal variation. The predicted duration of 25(OH)D concentrations < 50 nmol/L was 250 d/y in women and 165 d/y in men. Conclusion: Seasonal variation significantly affects the diagnosis of vitamin D sufficiency, which requires seasonally adjusted thresholds individualized for different locations. Clinicians should consider the month of sampling and the amount of body fat when interpreting 25(OH)D measurements.

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  • The role of tectonic damage and brittle rock fracture in the development of large rock slope failures

    Brideau, Marc-Andre; Yan, M; Stead, D (2009)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Rock slope failures are frequently controlled by a complex combination of discontinuities that facilitate kinematic release. These discontinuities are often associated with discrete folds, faults, and shear zones, and/or related tectonic damage. The authors, through detailed case studies, illustrate the importance of considering the influence of tectonic structures not only on three-dimensional kinematic release but also in the reduction of rock mass properties due to induced damage. The case studies selected reflect a wide range of rock mass conditions. In addition to active rock slope failures they include two major historic failures, the Hope Slide, which occurred in British Columbia in 1965 and the Randa rockslides which occurred in Switzerland in 1991. Detailed engineering geological mapping combined with rock testing, GIS data analysis and for selected case numerical modelling, have shown that specific rock slope failure mechanisms may be conveniently related to rock mass classifications such as the Geological Strength Index (GSI). The importance of brittle intact rock fracture in association with preexisting rock mass damage is emphasized though a consideration of the processes involved in the progressive-time dependent development not only of though-going failure surfaces but also lateral and rear-release mechanisms. Preliminary modelling data are presented to illustrate the importance of intact rock fracture and step-path failure mechanisms; and the results are discussed with reference to selected field observations. The authors emphasize the importance of considering all forms of pre-existing rock mass damage when assessing potential or operative failure mechanisms. It is suggested that a rock slope rock mass damage assessment can provide an improved understanding of the potential failure mode, the likely hazard presented, and appropriate methods of both analysis and remedial treatment.

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