82,967 results

  • The Barricades Commission

    Douglas, C (2011-10-19)

    Creative work
    Auckland University of Technology

    The initial drawing in this series was a response to the Auckland Architecture Association Urban Gaze 2006 competition, which invited spatial speculations on the city themed around the concept of the 'gift'. The work suggested, in line with Jacques Derrida's writing on gifts, that the truest gift was something without expectation of repayment, and that giving may overlap in strange ways with claiming. The drawing was awarded second prize. Along with two subsequent drawings, it became part of my research into barricading as a "redistribution of the sensible" (Rancière). The series won a contest on the high-profile website BLDGBLOG, and was published in Block, the newsletter of the Auckland Branch of the New Zealand Institute of Architects.

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  • Influences on consumers’ KiwiSaver investment fund choices

    Lee, Allan Blake (2012-03-06)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    When it launched KiwiSaver in 2007, New Zealand joined a growing international trend towards second-tier personal pension schemes. The uptake of KiwiSaver has exceeded expectations, with 1.75 million people joining by June 2011, thanks to an auto-enrolment provision and financial incentives from the government and employers. New recruits to the scheme can choose a KiwiSaver provider and an investment fund for their savings. Funds range from low-risk conservative, to balanced, to higher-risk growth. New members who decline to choose a provider or a fund are automatically allocated to conservative schemes run by government-appointed default providers. The default schemes have been popular, as have conservative funds in general. By June 2011, 57 percent of total funds under management in KiwiSaver were invested in broadly conservative (including default) funds. Concerns have been raised that too many KiwiSavers, particularly younger members, are in conservative funds that do not match their age and risk profile. The aim of this thesis is to identify the main factors that influence KiwiSaver members when they make – or opt out of making – the fund choice decision. A qualitative approach was adopted for this exploratory study in the belief that in-depth discussion provided by focus group interviews would tease out the factors influencing fund choice. Three focus group meetings were supplemented by a stimulus card exercise and questionnaire. Focus group transcripts were analyzed and interpreted using thematic analysis and from there a tentative theory was developed in the form of a model of potential influencing factors. Research into retirement financial planning is often framed in a context of two competing theoretical schools: first, the neoclassical theorists who would expect KiwiSaver recruits to be rational, informed decision makers who have the cognitive ability to maximize their long-term wealth; and second, the behavioural theorists who would expect KiwiSavers to be naïve, short on cognitive ability and willpower, nervous of risks, and prone to following their friends and the scheme defaults. Previous studies have found pension scheme members were influenced by the incentives on offer, by the enrolment regime, by the scheme’s default rules, and by financial education programmes, the latter two being important factors in scheme members’ fund choice. This study found the most prevalent factors influencing KiwiSaver members are their attitude to financial risk, their age and perceived time to reaching retirement, and advice coming from family, friends and colleagues. The study also found that while people trust the media as a source of information on KiwiSaver, there is some dissatisfaction with the quality of information and performance reporting coming from their providers.

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  • From Austen to social Darwinism: changing ethics

    Hooper, KC; Xu, G (2011-10-13)

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    In 1927, the New Zealand Society of Accountants adopted its first guide on professional ethics. The short document was so full of gentlemanly notions that it could have been written by Jane Austen and came at a time when the accounting bodies in the Dominions were lobbying for the privileged title of “chartered”. The term was then held officially only by the English and Scottish branches of the profession. Since then there has been a major shift in ethical emphasis. The 2003 Code of Ethics (COE) can be viewed as a shift from Kant to social Darwinism via utilitarianism, but also a shift from a focus on the character of an accountant to the character of accounting. The first paragraph in Professional Ethics 1927 reads: “Every member of the Society in the practice of his profession or in the course of his service to his employer should give such service with absolute fidelity and should be actuated by a spirit of fairness to client and employer, considerate to the fellow practitioners, loyalty to his country, and devotion to high ideals of courtesy and honour.”

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  • Beyond Words: an investigation into aspects of meaning articulated through the material forms of 'old' media as expressed in a polysemous narrative

    Williams, Lisa Ann (2012-01-17)

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This work is a creative production PhD project that consists of a designed creative text and an exegesis. The creative text, a novel, is made up of of seven artefacts: a novella, a photograph, a series of newspaper clippings, a photocopied news clipping, a VHS tape, an audiocassette, and a personal letter. Produced in old media (media that pre-dates the Internet and is not disseminated digitally) each artefact tells an individual story. When considered together, they form the larger, polysemous narrative. ‘Polysemous narrative’ refers to the ability of a sign to express multiple meanings in story form. In this context, it refers to specific ways in which the designer has purposefully constructed divergent articulations of the text as well as to the ways in which the artefacts, as material objects, contribute to divergent interpretations of meaning.

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  • Evolving connectionist system versus algebraic formulas for prediction of renal function from serum creatinine

    Marshall, MR; Song, Q; Ma, TM; MacDonell, SG; Kasabov, NK (2011-11-29)

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Background In clinical trials, equation 7 from the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study is the most accurate formula for the prediction of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from serum creatinine. An alternative approach has been developed using evolving connectionist systems (ECOS), which are novel computing structures that can be trained to generate accurate output from a given set of input variables. This study aims to compare the prediction errors associated with each method, using data that reproduce routine clinical practice as opposed to the artificial setting of clinical trials. Methods The methods were compared using 441 radioisotope measurements of GFR in 178 chronic kidney disease patients from 12 centers in Australia and New Zealand. All clinical and laboratory measurements were obtained from the patients' center rather than central laboratories, as would be the case in routine clinical practice. Both the MDRD formula and ECOS used the same predictive variables, and both were optimized to the study cohort by stepwise regression and training, respectively. Results Mean measured GFR in the cohort was 22.6 mL/min/1.73 m2. The bias and precision of the MDRD formula were -3.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 and 34.5%, respectively, improving to -1.2 mL/min/1.73 m2 and 31.1% after maximal optimization of the formula to study data. The bias and precision of the ECOS were 0.7 mL/min/1.73 m2 and 32.6%, respectively, improving to -0.1 mL/min/1.73 m2 and 16.6% after maximal optimization of the system to study data. The prediction of GFR using ECOS was improved by accounting for the center from where clinical and laboratory measurements originated within the connectionist model. Conclusion Algebraic formulas will be associated with greater prediction error in routine clinical practice than in the original trials, and machine intelligence is more likely to predict GFR accurately in this setting.

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  • Weak continuity properties of topologized groups

    Cao, J (2012-03-29)

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    A topologized group is simply a group (G, ·) equipped with a topology t. The question as to when a topologized group (G, ·, t) is a topological group has been studied by many authors in the literature. In the recent work of A. V. Arhangel'skii and E. A. Reznichenko in 2005, and S. Ferri, S. Hernandez and T. S. Wu in 2006, certain types of weak continuity properties are employed either implicitly or explicitly. In this talk, I shall analyze various types of weak continuity properties of group operations. As an application, it is shown that if (G, ·, t) is a right (resp. left) semitopological group with a regular topology such that dev(G) < Nov(G) and all left (resp. right) translations are feebly continuous, then (G, ·, t) is a topological group.

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  • Impact of elevated levels of CO2 on animal mediated ecosystem function: The modification of sediment nutrient fluxes by burrowing urchins

    Widdicombe, S.; Beesley, A.; Berge, J.A.; Dashfield, S.L.; McNeill, C.L.; Needham, Hazel Rosemary; Øxnevad, S. (2012)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    A mesocosm experiment was conducted to quantify the relationships between the presence and body size of two burrowing heart urchins (Brissopsis lyrifera and Echinocardium cordatum) and rates of sediment nutrient flux. Furthermore, the impact of seawater acidification on these relationships was determined during this 40-day exposure experiment. Using carbon dioxide (CO ₂) gas, seawater was acidified to pH NBS 7.6, 7.2 or 6.8. Control treatments were maintained in natural seawater (pH ≈ 8.0). Under normocapnic conditions, burrowing urchins were seen to reduce the sediment uptake of nitrite or nitrate whilst enhancing the release of silicate and phosphate. In acidified (hypercapnic) treatments, the biological control of biogeochemical cycles by urchins was significantly affected, probably through the combined impacts of high CO ₂ on nitrifying bacteria, benthic algae and urchin behaviour. This study highlights the importance of considering biological interactions when predicting the consequences of seawater acidification on ecosystem function.

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  • An automatic architecture reconstruction and refactoring framework

    Schmidt, F; MacDonell, SG; Connor, AM (2012-03-14)

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    A variety of sources have noted that a substantial proportion of non trivial software systems fail due to unhindered architectural erosion. This design deterioration leads to low maintainability, poor testability and reduced development speed. The erosion of software systems is often caused by inadequate understanding, documentation and maintenance of the desired implementation architecture. If the desired architecture is lost or the deterioration is advanced, the reconstruction of the desired architecture and the realignment of this desired architecture with the physical architecture both require substantial manual analysis and implementation effort. This paper describes the initial development of a framework for automatic software architecture reconstruction and source code migration. This framework offers the potential to reconstruct the conceptual architecture of software systems and to automatically migrate the physical architecture of a software system toward a conceptual architecture model. The approach is implemented within a proof of concept prototype which is able to analyze java system and reconstruct a conceptual architecture for these systems as well as to refactor the system towards a conceptual architecture.

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  • Method of calculating the resistance force upon an impact on a composite target

    Babakov, V (2012-03-12)

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    A kinematically possible velocity field allowing calculation of all the necessary integrals in quadratures and obtaining an analytical solution for the resistance force induced by impactor penetration into the target is constructed. The Saint-Venant model of a rigid-plastic body and the theorem on the upper bound of the limit load are used in solving the problem. The essence of the method applied is using the equilibrium equation in the form of the Lagrange equation. The kinematically possible velocity field allows obtaining an upper bound of the limit load, i.e., estimating the resistance force to impactor penetration.

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  • Reliability of the TekScan MatScan® system for the measurement of postural stability in older people with rheumatoid arthritis

    Brenton-Rule, A; Mattock, J; Carroll, M; Dalbeth, N; Bassett, S; Menz, HB; Rome, K

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    Postural stability can be measured in clinical and research settings using portable plantar pressure systems. People with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have decreased postural stability compared to non-RA populations and impaired postural stability is associated with falls in people with RA. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the reliability of the TekScan MatScan® system in assessing postural stability in people with RA.

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  • Comparison of earthworm and chemical assays of the bioavailability of aged 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane, and heavy metals in orchard soils

    Gaw, Sally K.; Northcott, Grant; Kim, Nicholas D.; Wilkins, Alistair L.; Jensen, J (2012)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Orchard soils can contain elevated concentrations of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p′-DDE), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p′-DDT), and heavy metals as a result of historical agrichemical applications. The bioavailability of p,p′-DDE, p,p′-DDT, As, Cd, Cu, and Pb from five field-aged New Zealand orchards and three grazing soils was assessed by using a 28-d bioassay with Aporrectodea caliginosa and chemical assays. Significant relationships were found between total soil and earthworm tissue concentrations for p,p′-DDE (p < 0.001) between the total soil and earthworm tissue concentrations for p,p′-DDE and p,p′-DDT, suggesting that total soil concentrations alone were sufficient to predict uptake by A. caliginosa. These results demonstrate that the aged agrichemical residues in orchard soils, and particularly p,p′-DDE and p,p′-DDT, remain highly bioavailable to A. caliginosa despite decades of weathering and continue to present an environmental risk

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  • System innovation for sustainability at product development level: a scenario method and a workshop process

    Gaziulusoy, I; Boyle, C; McDowall, R (2012-04-11)

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    It is now commonly accepted that, in order to achieve sustainability, we need societal transformation, which requires institutional, social/cultural, organisational as well as technological change. This type of massive societal transformation in which all aspects of society are expected to co-evolve towards and align with sustainability goals is defined as sustainability transition or system innovation for sustainability. One of the major actors in system innovation is industry. Nevertheless, neither the theory nor the operational approaches currently based on this emerging theory address how to link macro-level innovation (i.e. institutional and social-cultural innovation) to the micro-level innovation (i.e. product/service and technology innovation). This paper presents the results of a recently completed Ph.D. study. The overall objective of this study was to effectively link the activities/decisions at product development (micro-innovation) level in companies with the transformation which needs to take place at the societal (macro-innovation) level to achieve sustainability. The research took place in three distinguishable phases. In the first phase a broad literature review was carried out covering areas of sustainability science, futures studies and system innovation theory. In the second phase, a theory of system innovation at product development level was developed based on the findings and insights gathered from the review of the literature. This theory was used to develop a scenario method to help product development teams in planning for system innovation for sustainability. During this phase a workshop tool was also developed as the operational component of the scenario method. The third phase consisted of a field work carried out to test, improve and evaluate the scenario method using an action research methodology. The detailed evaluation of the effectiveness of the scenario method as a futures work and the potential of it to aid in system innovation for sustainability provided supportive evidence for the claim that the scenario method is a valuable and a viable method.

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  • Organisational Citizenship Behaviour and Turnover Intention: The Role of Organisational Justice, Commitment and Perceived Support

    Esop, Michael (2013)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Attracting and retaining committed teachers who are willing to perform extra-role activities that go above and beyond their prescribed jobs can be a key asset to an academic institution. Turnover intentions and organisational citizenship behaviours are important considerations for managers of organisations, including universities. The main aim of this study was to investigate a model of organisational citizenship behaviour that included turnover intention as a mediator variable, five predictor variables of distributive justice, procedural justice, affective commitment, continuance commitment and perceived organisational support (POS), and organisational citizenship behaviour directed at organisations (OCBO). A questionnaire was completed by 107 academic participants from five schools at the University of Papua New Guinea. Distributive justice, procedural justice, affective commitment, continuance commitment and POS were significant predictors of turnover intention but not OCBO. However, turnover intention did not mediate the relationships between the predictors and OCBO. The nonsignificant results were mainly due to the participants’ high ratings of 6 or 7 on the 7-point OCBO scale, which inflated the overall score. This may have been affected by several factors such as the participants’ social desirability response, which is common in self-reports. It could also denote that the employees’ performed higher levels of OCBOs despite their intention to leave the university. Supplementary analyses showed age, gender and organisational tenure were correlates of turnover intention. The major implications from this research are that managers of universities need to foster organisational justice, organisational commitment and organisational support to reduce turnover intentions and to enhance OCBOs.

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  • Planning for system innovation in product development teams of manufacturing companies: criteria development for a scenario method

    Gaziulusoy, I; Boyle, C; McDowall, R (2012-04-11)

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    Due to the complexity embedded in the socio-technical system and associated long planning periods, system innovation has become a research topic to remain mainly in the science and technology policies area and not much effort has been put into investigating the means of involving companies and product development teams in planning for system innovation. This paper presents results of ongoing research which proposes to develop a scenario method to help companies and product development teams in planning for system innovation. This paper presents the criteria which need to be met by the scenario method. Firstly, a brief overview of the theory around system innovation is given. This is followed by a critical analysis of dynamics and levels of innovation to set a background for criteria development. Then, a discussion clarifying the relevance of companies and product development teams to system innovation is provided prior to criteria development. Following this discussion, five criteria which must be met by the scenario method being developed are identified.

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  • Book review: Critical dispositions: Evidence and expertise in education

    Delamont, Sara; Thrupp, Martin; Reynolds, David (2013)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article reviews the book “Critical dispositions: Evidence and expertise in education” edited by Greg Dimitriadis.

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  • Effort estimation for the development of spatial information systems

    MacDonell, SG; Benwell, GL (2012-04-19)

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    The management and control of software processes has assumed increasing importance in recent times. The ability to obtain accurate and consistent indications of, for example, system quality, developer productivity and schedule projections is an essential component of effective project management. This paper focuses on these ‘traditional’ software engineering issues in relation to the development of spatial systems. In particular, techniques for development effort estimation are considered and a case study illustrating the application of one specific estimation method (Mark II function point analysis) is presented. Given its original basis in business information systems, the method is adjusted in order to account for (some of) the differentiating characteristics of spatial systems. The method is then retrospectively applied to a recently developed hazards analysis system. The effort estimate obtained is sufficiently close to the actual effort used in development to illustrate the potential of such a technique for project management in the spatial systems domain.

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  • Pool Complex, in Making Worlds.

    Cullen, P (2012-04-12)

    Creative work
    Auckland University of Technology

    Pool complex was made in 1994-1995 and was never exhibited before going into the collection of the Auckland Art Gallery. In common with many works I've made since the early 1990's it employed found furniture and dexion.

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  • Street health: Practitioner service provision for Maori homeless people in Auckland

    Nikora, Linda Waimarie; Hodgetts, Darrin; Groot, Shiloh Ann Maree; Stolte, Ottilie Emma Elisabeth; Chamberlain, Kerry (2012-09)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    Drawing insights from interviews with Maori homeless people, health professionals, and relevant local and international literatures, this chapter focuses on the provision of medical care to homeless people. In particular, we propose that health services orientate to accommodate the worldviews and circumstances of Maori homeless people. Below we consider colonialism and societal developments that have led to homelessness among Maori today. We then present a case study of ‘Grant’, which was compiled from common aspects of various Maori homeless people who access health services at the Auckland City Mission (ACM); an organisation with a long history of catering to the needs and hopes of dispossessed groups, providing food, clothing, advocacy, social and health services. The relational orientation of healthcare at the ACM is discussed, and leads to an exploration of ‘judgement-free service space’ for meeting client needs (cf., Trussell & Mair, 2010). Lastly, we focus on how health professionals can respond to the multiple healthcare needs of Maori homeless people, in partnership with social services.

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  • Breathing sediments: microbes, waves, and hidden animal pumps

    Funnell, G; Vopel, K (2011-07-14)

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Kay Vopel and Greig Funnell look into the mechanisms and creatures that help maintain the seabed’s life-support system. Aquatic sediment provides an important ecosystem service: the decomposition of organic matter and the associated regeneration of nutrients for algae and plants. In coastal marine ecosystems, more than half of the nutrients available for primary production in the water column and at the sediment surface can be supplied by the sedimentary processes of aerobic and anerobic decomposition. The most important (and abundant) players in this service are aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, which transform organic into inorganic matter using oxidants such as oxygen and nitrate. 49710 Fluid-dynamic animal pumps on the sediment surface of Mahurangi Harbour. (Click for enlargement and details)(Photos: K. Vopel) 49711 Kay Vopel uses a microelectrode mounted onto a micromanipulator to measure oxygen concentrations in the sediment immediately surrounding a buried echinoderm. (Photo: G. Funnell) To supply the bacteria with oxidants, the sediment breathes, just like we do to supply our cells. When we breathe, we transport oxygen into our lungs and from there into the bloodstream by air flow and molecular diffusion. We draw our diaphragm down to inhale air and up to exhale. This maintains an oxygen concentration in the alveoli of our lungs that is sufficiently high to let oxygen molecules diffuse from the alveoli into our blood. A similar principle applies to aquatic sediment.

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  • Adult dyslexia in New Zealand: The professional development needs of adult literacy educators

    van Lamoen, Annette (2013)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The needs of New Zealand adults with dyslexia are typically not sufficiently catered for in the tertiary education system (Rowan, 2010a; Tunmer & Greaney, 2010). In recent years efforts have been made to increase training opportunities for adult learners with literacy needs and to enhance the quality of teaching (Tertiary Education Commission, 2010b). This challenge can only be met if New Zealand adult literacy educators are adequately prepared in teaching learners with dyslexia. Research suggests they are not (Benseman, Sutton & Lander, 2005b; Dymock & Nicholson, 2012; Leach, Zepke & Haworth; 2010). The purposes of the study were (a) to investigate the need among adult literacy educators in New Zealand to engage in training or professional development (PD) in order to improve their capability to cater for the needs of adult dyslexic learners; (b) to measure their perceived confidence as well as their perceived and actual knowledge levels in three areas: language, reading development, and dyslexia; and (c) to measure the effectiveness of targeted training and professional development. An online survey was conducted with 137 staff at tertiary organisations, including PTEs, ITPs and Wānanga. Post-survey, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 4 adult literacy educators. The online survey included a questionnaire and a knowledge assessment. The questionnaire measured educators’ confidence levels in meeting the needs of dyslexic learners, their perceived training need, and their perceived levels of knowledge in the areas of language, reading development and dyslexia. The knowledge assessment measured the actual levels of knowledge in these three areas. The results suggested that there is a high need among New Zealand adult literacy educators to engage in training or professional development in dyslexia, that they feel less than confident in meeting the needs of dyslexic learners, and have insufficient knowledge in areas relevant to the teaching of dyslexic learners. Perceived knowledge levels exceeded actual knowledge levels, indicating unrealistic self-evaluations of knowledge. A comparison of the test results of educators who had and those who had not engaged in dyslexia training indicated that targeted training and professional development is effective in raising educators’ awareness and understanding of dyslexia. Implications support the development and reform of training and PD opportunities in dyslexia to better prepare, inform and educate New Zealand adult literacy educators.  

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