89,525 results

  • An Expert System for Loan Decisions

    Ang, L. (1987)

    Discussion / Working Papers
    University of Canterbury Library

    For more than 20 years, scientists working in the field of Artificial Intelligence have been developing computer programs that could solve problems in a way that would be considered intelligent if done by a human. At present, there are very few expert systems developed for financial applications. The purpose of this project is to investigate the problem domain of loan-processing within the context provided by the United Building Society, a financial institution in New Zealand, and to develop an appropriate prototype expert system to address that problem.

    View record details
  • A QUEL-to-SQL data manipulation language translator

    Webb, J. H. (1988)

    Discussion / Working Papers
    University of Canterbury Library

    View record details
  • A survey of a database design technique

    Neil, S. (1988)

    Discussion / Working Papers
    University of Canterbury Library

    This project is primarily concerned with the area of Database schema design methods. It is split into two main parts: the first is concerned with an academic investigation of the diagramming technique, and the second concerned with the performance of the technique when confronted with a real world problem.

    View record details
  • Ecstasy : An Object Oriented Graphics System

    Holling, K. (1983)

    Discussion / Working Papers
    University of Canterbury Library

    The purpose of this report is to describe the design and implementation of a simple two dimensional drawing system for use from within the Computer Science Department's DG SIMULA implementation. This includes a description of the capabilities provided by the system, its limitations and scope for future development.

    View record details
  • Pyroclastic density currents at Ruapehu volcano; New Zealand

    Cowlyn, James Daniel (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) are hazardous mixtures of volcanic particles and gas that travel along the flanks of a volcano due to a higher bulk density than the surrounding atmosphere. Understanding the frequencies, magnitudes, and different PDC generation and transport processes is essential for understanding the PDC hazard. At Mount Ruapehu, a much-visited active volcano in the North Island of New Zealand, future PDCs represent a significant threat to life and infrastructure. However no extensive historical PDCs and very few prehistoric deposits have been studied at this volcano. Here, we develop a new confidence-based system for identifying and distinguishing small-volume PDC deposits from other proximal volcaniclastic deposits in the field, and use this to identify 12 young (<11.6 ka, and 11-12, ~13.6-11.6 ka) are interpreted to result from smaller eruptions not dissimilar to Ruapehu’s historical activity. Detailed studies of (a) bulk and glass pyroclast chemistries, (b) pyroclast density distributions, (c) vesicle textures, and (d) rhyolite- MELTS modelled storage conditions provide further insight into the underlying magmatic processes that led to generation of these PDCs. These show that magma storage depths and temperatures, magma mingling between new and relict magmas, and open vs. closed systems strongly influenced the amounts of pre-eruptive degassing and bulk pyroclast densities. This in turn affected the buoyancy of the erupting mixture, and hence the tendency to generate PDCs. In most cases, heterogeneous storage and ascent pathways at Ruapehu appear to have favoured PDC generation, and this may be an important consid-eration when assessing the future PDC hazard. Furthermore, the deposit ages, textures, and distributions indicate that many of Ruapehu’s PDCs encountered glacial ice during transport, and this is interpreted to have affected the PDC dynamics and preservation of the deposits. By combining results from microphysical pyroclast-ice contact experiments with high-resolution mutiphase numerical simulations, we here model the large-scale effects of PDC transport over ice for the first time. Simulations based on interpreted prehistoric ice extents at Ruapehu suggest that transport over ~2km of ice strongly affects the PDC dynamics, increasing the runout distance of the hazardous high-particle concentration bedload and generating meltwater quantities equivalent to ~25% of the PDC bedload volume. This may then generate secondary debris flows which, following flow bulking, have volumes equivalent to at least 50% of the bedload volume of the primary PDC. These results have implications for assessing the PDC and associated hazards at Ruapehu and other glaciated volcanoes worldwide.

    View record details
  • The key components to creating effective collaborative teaching and learning environments

    O’Reilly, Neill (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Canterbury Earthquakes of 2010 and 2011 and subsequent re-organisation and rebuilding of schools in the region is initiating a rapid transitioning from traditional classrooms and individual teaching to flexible learning spaces (FLS’s) and co-teaching. This transition is driven by the Ministry of Education property division who have specific guidelines for designing new schools, re-builds and the five and ten year property plan requirements. Boards of Trustees, school leaders and teachers are faced with the challenge of reconceptualising teaching and learning from private autonomous learning environments to co-teaching in Flexible Learning Spaces provisioned for 50 to 180 children and two to six teachers in a single space. This process involves risks and opportunities especially for teachers and children. This research project investigates the key components necessary to create effective co-teaching relationships and environments. It explores the lessons learnt from the 1970’s open plan era and the views of 40 experienced practitioners and leaders with two or more years’ experience working in collaborative teaching and learning environments in sixteen New Zealand and Australian schools. The research also considers teacher collaboration and co-teaching as evidenced in literature. The findings lead to the identification of eight key components required to create effective collaborative teaching and learning environments which are discussed using three themes of student centeredness, effective pedagogy and collaboration. Six key recommendations are provided to support the effective co-teaching in a flexible learning space: 1. Situate learners at the centre 2. Develop shared understanding about effective pedagogy in a FLS 3. Develop skills of collaboration 4. Implement specific co-teaching strategies 5. Analyse the impact of co-teaching strategies 6. Strategically prepare for change and the future

    View record details
  • Embedding an Intelligent Tutor into existing Business Software to provide On-the-Job Training

    De Jong, Catherine Jill (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Traditional on-the-job training for software typically involves human tu- toring, training videos, manuals and open-ended exploration of the software. This Masters Thesis investigates embedding a constraint-based intelligent tutor into an existing business software system to enhance the training op- tions for new users. Chreos Tutor, developed using the ASPIRE authoring system, is embedded into Chreos business software. It provides opportunities for users to practice two di erent types of data input tasks in the actual soft- ware environment. The student interface in Chreos Tutor is the combination of a new tutoring screen and existing data input screens. The main learning tool of a constraint-based tutor is the feedback on performance errors. In order to evaluate the e ectiveness of the feedback provided by Chreos Tutor, the experimental group were given feedback pertaining to individual errors in the submitted solution, whereas the control group received no feedback while working on a task. Analysis of pre-test and post-test results indicated that participants who received feedback while working on a task achieved a higher learning gain than participants who were presented with the ideal solution after submitting their solution. This suggests that Chreos Tutor is e ective at teaching data input tasks to new users.

    View record details
  • Bandwidth-IPSec security trade-off in IPv4 and IPv6 in Windows 7 environment

    Kolahi, Samad; Cao, Yuqing (Rico); Chen, Hong (2013-11-12)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Due to overheads of security algorithms used in IPSec, transferring data using IPSec is known to be significantly slow compared with open system. In this paper, we present new results on performance of IPSec using 7 encryption systems for both IPv4 and IPv6 using Windows 7 and wireless network access. For the system studied, enabling IPSec results in approximately 60% (IPv4) and 48% (IPv6) less TCP throughput compared to open system. Among encryption mechanisms, 3DES-SHA provides the highest TCP bandwidth for IPv4, while 3DES-MD5 gives the best result for IPv6. We also provide the results for UDP.

    View record details
  • Evaluation of IPv6 with IPSec in IEEE 802.11n Wireless LAN using Fedora 15 Operating System

    Kolahi, Samad; Cao, Yuqing (Rico); Chen, Hong (2013-07-07)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    IPSec (IP Security) is a robust technique for securing communications over the Internet. Due to security algorithms used, transferring data using IPSec is known to be significantly slow. In this paper using a test bed environment for a site to site IPSec, we present new results on performance of IPSec for both IPv4 and IPv6 using Fedora 15 operating system and wireless network. Compared to open system, enabling IPSec results in approximately 50% and 40% less throughput for IPv4 and IPv6 networks respectively.

    View record details
  • Borders and Barriers: Knowledge Transfer and Management Challenges when making Visa Application Decisions

    Calder, Darren James (2015)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    As governments move to increase value, deliver efficiencies and provide transparent and consistent services, the ability to manage and transfer knowledge across the organisation is playing an increasingly important part given the volume of change currently underway. This case study looks at the operational area responsible for the processing of visa applications within Immigration NZ to understand the challenges associated with managing knowledge including barriers to knowledge transfer. Through using an online survey and semi-structured interviews, we find that three main barriers exist, namely the time available, the complexity of the system as a whole and the current systems that are available and that these barriers may change depending on an individual’s role within the organisation. A separate finding was that communication channels are misaligned between preferred and actual and are via one directional channels with little opportunity for feedback to enable better decision-making. Management can mitigate these barriers through putting in place a number of activities and initiatives, including dedicated time for knowledge transfer and aligning commination channels, including the use of feedback loops across processes and systems. Through the awareness of knowledge management activities, transfer barriers, and preferred communication channels, public sector organisations can become more effective and consistent in their decision-making, delivering a better outcome for their customers.

    View record details
  • New graduates' knowledge of Software development works: what they need and how they learn

    Ofoleta, Kelechi C. (2015)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The process of preparing the new graduate software developers (NGSDs) by organizations to become productive team members is challenging task on the parts of the organizations, likewise, starting job as a NGSDs is incredibly challenging time in the graduates‟ lives. This is because both the organizations and new graduates are challenged differently as both seek to bridge the gap between the skills taught in educational institutions, and the industry expected skill sets. These challenges coupled with high demand for software-development professionals in New Zealand, and this includes new graduates with a decline in the number of students enrolling in computer Science/Software Engineering in NZ meant that the old strategies, software companies were using to recruit and train staff had to change in order for them to stay competitive. Following the above preliminary knowledge, Jackstones is venturing on improving its new graduate's recruitment and preparation process and need to understand the proper ways to identify the knowledge needs of the new software-development graduates that it recruits and how to train them. This is aimed at positioning the new graduates into talented staff that the organization desires; capable of fitting its culture. Moreover, it is arduous to determine correctly the knowledge needs of the new graduates to work effectively in organizations without understanding this from the view of the organizations and the new graduates. This study hoped that understanding the knowledge needs of the new graduates and how they learn once hired by organizations will benefit future hiring organizations: • To recruit, train and retain new graduates that will serve as its intangible assets/increased its competitive advantage in the long term • To develop new graduates capable of delivering reliable software products • To guarantee that its employees know what they are doing • To increase the possibilities of obtaining more serious outcomes for itself and its clients • To understand/improve its recruitment/training programs for the new graduates • To lessen its cost and lessen the challenges that it encounters with new graduate recruitment/training. On the part of the new graduates, it is believed that this study will benefit them: • To understand/reduce complexities of software development • To understand the job they actually desire to do (career path) • To understand different ways to develop software • To understand specific knowledge to work environment • To work well within the team and with the customers • To cope with real/anticipated challenges • To develop better industry knowledge for future career progression The issue was investigated through conducting semi-structured interview involving 6 participants out of which 4 were new graduate software developers. The others were an expert software developer and a manager respectively. All interviews were conducted via Skype's call; each lasted between 30 minutes to 1 hour and was audio recorded/transcribed. The data were analysed through thematic content analysis supported by a literature review and taxonomy of the knowledge framework was applied to the data to categorise the types of knowledge found during the investigation. This case study was conducted on Jackstones, a New Zealand based software development/Information Technology Management Company. It is a large organisation that recruits and develops dozens of software developers annually, and this includes a big number of new graduates. It is an award-winning company whose products and services contribute greatly to the IT sector in NZ. On one hand, it was found that the organisation faced a set of challenges in enrolling and preparing new graduates each year. It too faced enormous challenges in finding talented graduates to recruit. These were as a result of the decline in the number of students who enrol in computer science and software engineering courses. Furthermore, there is an increase in the number of companies needing the graduates in NZ. On the other hand, the new graduates that it recruits also faced a lot of challenges such as challenges of understanding the project size and complexities, lack of project-related knowledge/uncertainties, pressure due to less time to learn and the need to do the actual work. It was moreover, found that the knowledge the new graduates brought with them were not explored properly by the organization. Further findings were that substantial knowledge gap exists between what the new graduates knew and what the organization needed. A common, example was the lack of soft skills, such as communication and people skills, which contributed to the challenges of training them, etc. The study concluded by recommending that the organisation places more emphasis on soft skills when recruiting and to recruit on core competencies rather than on knowledge. It should adopt the use of more interns to create rapport with the students and the universities to attract these students before they graduate, and so on.

    View record details
  • User adaptations to system implementation in a mining company in Laos - A case study of organisational change

    Singthilath, Aliyakone (2015)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The purpose of this case study was to assess post–project implementation acceptance by users of new IS/IT systems in a mining company in Laos. The report investigated how the new system changed organisational working cultures and what avoidance or acceptance factors appeared. Also, it looked at how the new implemented systems contributed to the changes in business process and working procedures within Lane Xang Mineral Limited Company (LXML), which is a Lao subsidiary of a mining company from Australia. The change implementation was a strategic business integration of MMG, a Chinese-owned global mining company, headquartered in Melbourne that operated several mining subsidiaries in Australia, Africa, Latin America, and in Laos. In 2013, LXML went through a big change implementation in terms of IS/IT systems consisting of the upgraded computing facilities, I.T. services outsourcing, communication systems, and the introduction of the new Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system. Those changes inevitably brought about change in the company’s business processes and working procedures. As a result, it shifted LXML’s way of working from the conventional paper-based system to a more systematic and electronic approach. Following the change, the organisation as well as its staff were faced with cultural issues and mismatch business processes. To gain an understanding of the factors that impacted on the IS/IT implementation within Lane Xang Mineral Limited, this paper applied two analytical frameworks to the study of user acceptance and organisational cultural differences. Data gathering was conducted by an online survey and semi-structure online interviews with staff at different levels from within the organisation. The findings were then divided into enablers and barriers to user’s adaptation to the new systems implementation on individual and organisational level. The findings were also used to compare deductively with the analytical frameworks to verify their influencing categories. This paper is organised in three main sections, the first section introduces the case background and description of the issues from the case study. The second section is a justification of the significance of issues identified, and of the selected conceptual frames that were applied in the study. The third section is the analysis section, which explains data collection methodologies and the analytical details. Findings on the study will also be found within this section. At the end of the paper, the study is concluded by giving recommendations as a guide to I.T. Managers at the MMG headquarters in Australia and the LXML office in Laos, on transnational I.T. implementation within MMG. The recommendations could be taken as a guide for any other organisation (not only limited to the mining industry) to explore in order to plan for an effective I.T. implementation within their firms in the future.

    View record details
  • Assessing Green Information Technology/ System capabilities and practices within a University context

    Robinson, Cheri (2015)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The IT industry has responded to the call for change, with the looming climate change agenda, through greening of technology (Green IT) and finding ways to green by technology (Green IS). The extant literature on Green IT/IS has also developed to recognise the role IT/IS can play in supporting organisation’s environmental sustainability objectives. There is a demand for research and case studies to inform the development of best practices and identification of innovative measures to combat climate change through IT/IS. Universities represent organisations that are large technology users. This this case study analyses the Green IT/IS practices of a University through two academic frameworks: G-readiness and Eco-goals. To support the demand for information in this area, this case study seeks to understand the Green IT/IS practices and capabilities of a University through the G-readiness goals and align these to eco-goals. Through this exploration a maturity benchmark is established and recommendations provided to enhance Green IT/IS activities.

    View record details
  • Business Benefit Realisation Process Analysis for a Telecommunications Organisation

    Martin, Sarah (2015)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    FMS: The rapid growth in New Zealand’s telecommunications industries allowed growth of supportive industries like Information Technology (IT) development companies. This case study is about a small IT company called Field Management Services (FMS) and their struggle in the current economic market. New Zealand’s telecommunications industry is regulated by the government and due to economic benefits of the internet the government invested $5billion in its growth and made changes to promote competition in the market. This allowed FMS to grow along with the market. FMS launched in 2003 and doubled in size every 2-3 years until 2013 when the market became unstable due to the government conducting a price review of regulated products. This stopped the Retail Service Providers (RSP’s) like 2degrees, Telecom and Vodafone from spending what they usually do with FMS for software and hardware services. FMS needed to be more careful with how they spend their capital expenditure, they needed to make sure it was being spent on the right IT initiatives to produce a certain level of benefits for the organisation. Key products for FMS are software applications development specifically for the telecommunications network and data centre management offering cloud solutions. The FMS organisational structure has a Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and four key executives that also sit on the Capital Control Council (CCC). The IT department sits under the Chief Information Officer (CIO) who also manages the Project Management Office (PMO) which runs all the IT project initiatives. The current issue facing FMS is the CIO cannot justify the current capital expenditure of his IT department. There does not seem to be an end to end process for benefit realisation. Everyone in the IT department agreed that the benefits are never measured. The benefits appear in the business case presented to the CCC but they are not tracked and even if they were most times projects cancelled out each other’s benefits. The CIO conducted research to find out if there was a business benefit realisation process and if it could be improved upon. With business on the decline FMS needed to become more efficient. Literature: The academic literature identified the lack of a business benefit programme as an issue in the IT sector. There have been advances in project management to track the time, scope and cost of IT projects but 30-40% of IS projects are still delivering no benefits at all (Bradley, 2010). Very few organisations engage benefit identification early enough and they also do not track the benefits through to completion, which could be 6 months to 2 years down the track. The literature also recommends what an organisation can adopt to increase the benefit realisation in their organisation. Fink (2003), suggests identifying and tracking tangible and non tangible benefits which are financial and non financial. Using a tracking register that regularly reports up to an executive level is beneficial, along with a clear plan of what , who and how it will be measured. The Stakeholder Identification Theory will be applied to the current validated benefit process at FMS to identify weaknesses and assist in making those weaknesses stronger. The theory analyses each stakeholder and assigns them a ranking. If the ranking is low it is a weakness in the process and recommendations will be made on how to increase the ranking of the weak stakeholders. Analysis: The method of research consists of qualitative research in the form of conversational style interviews. Some preliminary investigation produced a draft benefit realisation process that would be used as a hypothesis for the interviewees to validate and comment on. Validation of the process diagram showed: 1. No official process for benefit realisation, 2. Business Technology Manager (BTM) was missing, 3. No feedback loop to the CCC, 4. Only two people in the whole organisation knew about a benefit tracking register, 5. PMO successfully using the 3 ‘O’ model to outline benefits at the initiate gate phase, 6. Specialist Material Expert (SME) needed to be added. There were six trends that came out of the interview questions that gave deeper insight to the weaknesses in the benefit process for FMS: 1. CCC is only about funding and the report to executive committee on benefits is too highlevel. 2. Capital Performance Manager (CPM) has tracking register but is only tracking financial benefits from business cases. 3. BTM acts as Business Owner (BO) as well as a BTM on some projects, is the BTM appropriate to act in all the BO roles. 4. Benefits in business case are too vague and only financial (tangible) benefits officially reviewed. 5. BO is part-time and has disbanded so no one is responsible for measuring benefits. 6. Benefits in business case not always reviewed when scope of funding changes to the project. With these issues in mind the case study then applies the Stakeholder Identification Theory to the categorised stakeholders in the FMS benefit process and assigns a ranking number. Three stakeholders stood out with low ranking numbers, this pinpoints weaknesses in the process. Stakeholder: Part-time BO and Investment Manager = 2 Discretionary stakeholder, and the CPM = 3 Demanding stakeholder. Recommendation: Three recommendations came out of the analysis: 1. Part-time BO passes on accountability for benefit realisation to someone else once they leave, 2. IM incorporates the 3 ‘O’ model currently being used in the PMO to identify benefits clearly in the business case, 3. CPM, IM and BO develop a report specifically on benefits to close the loop with the CCC. The case study concludes by applying the theory to the benefit realisation process again once the recommendations have been incorporated. The results on the three weak rankings of the stakeholders improves to: Part-time BO moved up to a 7 Definitive stakeholder, the IM and the CPM improved to a 6 Dependant. The BO had continuity of accountability with the IM and the CPM having clear and official reporting tools. The IT division were now able to effectively and efficiently report on business benefit realisation and justify the value that they add to the organisation through capital funding initiatives.

    View record details
  • eGovernment Transformation: Understanding Customer Value at Marlborough District Council

    Young, Stacey (2014)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The drive continues around the world for eGovernment and the New Zealand public sector is no different. The public sector continue to develop and evolve their eGovernment solutions yet eGovernment maturity has not progressed significantly nor are eGovernment solutions evaluated, specifically not from a customer perspective. eGovernment has been defined as the process of delivering information and services electronically using technology to customers of the public sector. The transitional stages of maturity going from a basic digital presence to more complex interactive environments describes eGovernment transformation. eServices are a subset of the many functions that eGovernment can deliver and provides the online interactive information and customer service component. There have been many benefits and challenges to eGovernment and these are mainly targeting the customer with: increasing access to information; increasing access to public officials; new opportunities for customer collaboration. Internal benefits are enhancing efficiency; and reduced costs. Yet academic research in evaluating eServices is limited and mainly applied from an internal perspective not from the perspective of the customers who are using these eServices and where the majority of benefits are focused. The customer value is defined as what these services are worth to customers. The setting for the case study is a local government organisation, the Marlborough District Council (MDC), which undertakes district and regional council functions. Marlborough District Council plays a pivotal role in the community, providing essential services including core infrastructure, regulatory functions, public information, community facilities and services, environmental management and information management, with a diverse range of information to be made publically available electronically. Marlborough District Council is developing its eGovernment transformation and must understand the value of its eServices to its customers and how these eServices can be successfully evaluated for prioritisation and funding. It is difficult without understanding the value of these eServices to get organisational priority and budgets even though these are promoted throughout the world. The case study evaluated two specific eServices, Property Files Online and Smart Maps. Prior to the case study little was known of the success of these services other than usage growth and anecdotal feedback. The methodology consisted of interviews with internal and external customers using various professions and perspectives. Google analytical data was collected from these specific eServices and collated with the interview data to provide an objective perspective. The framework chosen for evaluating these eServices is the IS success model. The IS success model has been successfully applied academically to evaluate the success of IT systems and has been previously adapted for measuring eCommerce and static websites. The proposed model for evaluating these eServices was from academic literature to derive at an appropriate model with key attributes assigned to assist with evaluation. The IS success model constructs were: Trust in MDC; trust in technology; trust in eServices; information quality; system quality; service quality; usage/continued use; user satisfaction; and net benefit customer value. The data collected was applied to the constructs of the model and evaluated against the attributes and overall findings summarised. The findings were: The value in evaluating eServices; customer dependency on MDC; the value in engaging with customers; and the benefits to a knowledge society. The evaluation of these eServices validated the IS success model with a variation of the model produced based on the analysis. The new IS success constructs removed the trust in technology and included: Information quality; system quality; service quality; trust in eServices; usage/continued use; user satisfaction; net benefit – customer value and knowledge society; trust in MDC. The recommendations identified to address the findings for MDC to consider: Creating a digital strategy with supporting eServices roadmap; setting up a program to evaluate eServices – using the adapted IS SUCCESS model; set up an eServices risk management framework; establish an eService customer engagement programme; and to build a Community Smart Map.

    View record details
  • ICT Infrastructure Environment: Skill Source by Provisioning Type

    Critchlow, Sue (2015)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Local government organisations all over the world are moving to cloud and outsource providers. While there are many frameworks available to assist IT Managers with managing cloud and outsource providers, there are no guidelines for the workforce planning and organisational change involved in changing sourcing arrangements. This study partially fills this gap by profiling the changing requirements for skill sourcing across different provisioning scenarios – in-house, outsourced and cloud providing for an ‘apples to apples’ comparison and study of staffing levels and organisational change impacts. The general trend emerging is that the optimal source of: • Soft skills (relationship management and governance) is the organisation • Specialist skills such as network, database, technical, etc is the platform provider The services, roles and skills necessary for effective infrastructure management in small to medium sized local government organisations were defined and verified with a perceived move from ‘guru’ to ‘relationship manager’ as the platforms were moved to external provisioning. All skills rated highly to an organisation regardless of the platform provisioning type with methods of keeping the in-house skills current including training, certifications, forums, conferences, third party/vendor engagement. Skill currency guidelines, in the form of challenge mitigations, are provided.

    View record details
  • Ethics in the IT Profession: Does a Code of Ethics have an Effect on Professional Behaviour?

    Leicester, Nicola (2016)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In many professions, membership of a professional body is a requirement to practice that profession, and adherence to a code of ethics is an integral part of that membership. Information Technology is a relatively young profession, and does not require its workers to be a part of any association or adhere to any specific code of ethics, despite the fact that the ever-changing nature of technology enables ever greater opportunities for the undesirable consequences of computer misuse. Codes of ethics have been developed to attempt to guide professional behaviour, but there have been very few studies done showing whether or not a code of ethics has an effect on worker behaviour, with no recent studies available, and none from New Zealand. This study interviews IT professionals working in Wellington, half of whom are provided with a copy of the IITP Code of Ethics, to provide indicative findings on whether or not the presence of a code of ethics has an effect on their responses. Participants were asked to discuss three short case studies, and the responses from the two groups were compared with each other, and to a benchmark analysis of the case studies. The results showed remarkable similarities between the responses of the two groups, and both showed similarity to the benchmark, showing that the presence of a code of ethics has no impact on the responses of IT professionals to ethical situations. The results also showed that interviewees generally had a negative view of codes of ethics, seeing them as not necessary, not highly publicised, and less useful as an aid than organisational processes and guidelines, while finding that common sense and an internal moral code were more useful as guides to ethical behaviour. The small sample size means that these results are indicative only, and this research can be used as the basis for a larger study.

    View record details
  • Family factors associated with immunization uptake in children aged between 12-59 months: a household survey in Kakamega Central district, Western Kenya

    Luke, Joram Sunguti

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Immunization is regarded as one of the most important achievements of public health. Immunization coverage in children in Kenya is about 88%. Regional disparities however exist and these are mediated by provider, system and client related factors. The aim of this study was to assess complete immunization coverage and to identify family factors associated with immunization in children aged between 12 and 59 months in Kakamega Central, Western Kenya. A cross sectional study was conducted in 13 sub-locations between June and July, 2013. Stratified sampling was conducted followed by simple random sampling to identify households to be visited within each stratum. Data on 577 children were collected from their respective care givers by trained research assistants. Information collected included immunization status of the child, sociodemographic characteristics of the caregivers and their partners and the household’s socioeconomic status. Factors affecting immunization uptake were assessed through bivariable and multivariable logistic regression methods. The proportion of completely immunized children was 81.1% (95% CI 76.9%-85.3%). The immunization coverage rates for BCG, OPV3, DPT3 and measles were 99.4%, 85.3%, 96.0% and 92.4% respectively. At bivariable levels, the factors associated with immunization included caregiver’s age, education level of the caregiver and partner, the child’s birth order, maternal attendance of antenatal clinics, place of delivery of the child and socioeconomic status of the household. At multivariable levels, greater immunization uptake was predicted by high school level of the caregiver and partner, attendance of ANC clinics and delivery within a health facility. Immunization uptake in Kakamega central is still low compared to neighbouring regions. Various family sociodemographic characteristics are associated with immunization uptake. Further inquiry is required into this area to fully comprehend the inextricable linkage between factors affecting immunization.

    View record details
  • Modelling dairy biofilms for targeted control of thermophilic bacteria

    Li, Isabel Huizi

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Biofilms are the main source of bacterial contamination in dairy manufacturing plants. Strategies to mitigate biofilm development in dairy manufacture aim to improve the microbiological quality of the products manufactured and to maximize the run length of manufacturing plants, and thereby obtain substantial economic benefits. A simple strategy involves creating an unstable environment for microbial growth by manipulating conditions, such as temperature, on a sufficiently frequent basis to disrupt biofilm growth while maintaining the ability to manufacture high quality products. Thermophilic bacilli, Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Anoxybacillus flavithermus, are the main contaminants responsible for economic loss in milk powder production all over the world, colonising plant and persisting through cleaning. Because of the significant economic loss caused by thermophilic biofilms, there is an urgent need to study these bacteria. In my research I investigated the hypothesis that a mathematical model can represent the growth of these thermophilic bacteria as biofilms in milk powder plants and whether the model can be used to optimise methods to control these bacteria. A novel technology, called temperature cycling, was studied in depth in this research, involving creating an unstable environment for microbial growth by manipulating the temperature, on a sufficiently frequent basis to disrupt biofilm growth, while limiting the amount of dangerous chemicals used for cleaning and maintaining the ability to manufacture dairy products hygienically. Robust and practical models were designed based on the logistic growth equation for a laboratory scale milk heating plant. The models can be run without recourse to extensive computing power and can be used in the dairy industry as decision making tools, which can provide instantaneous prediction of the thermophile level of the product for a known level of incoming thermophilic bacteria.

    View record details
  • The acute physiological effects of strongman training

    Woulfe-Felix, Colm

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Strongman training has become an increasingly popular modality used by practitioners for athletic development and general strength and conditioning, but data on physiological responses is limited. This thesis sought to quantify and compare a range of physiological responses to a strongman training session compared to a typical general strength training session. Ten healthy males (23.6±7.5 years; 85.8±10.3 kg) with a minimum of two years of strength training experience, and a squat and deadlift strength of at least 1 and 1.2 times body mass respectively acted as their own control in a crossover design. Participants performed a strongman training session (ST), a strength/hypertrophy (RST) training session, and a resting session with seven days between each session. The ST consisted of sled drag, farmers walk, one arm dumbbell clean and press and tyre flip at loads eliciting approximately 30 seconds of effort per set. The RST consisted of squat, deadlift, bench press and power clean, performed with 75% of predicted one repetition maximum. Sessions were equated for approximate total and per set duration. Participants completed both sessions with a facemask on, attached to an oxygen analyser unit (Metalyzer 3BTM, CortexTM, Germany). Analyses were conducted to determine differences in physiological responses within and between the two different protocols with significance set at p ≤ 0.025 for lactate and testosterone and p ≤ 0.0125 for heart rate, caloric expenditure and substrate utilisation. Lactate and salivary testosterone were recorded immediately pre and post training sessions. Heart rate, caloric expenditure and substrate utilisation (fat and carbohydrate) were measured throughout the resting session, both training protocols and for 80 minutes post training sessions (STrecov and RSTrecov). No significant changes in testosterone occurred at any time point for either session. Lactate increased significantly immediately post both sessions (Pre ST 1.57 mmol/L, Post ST 7.53 mmol/L, Pre RST 2.01 mmol/L, Post RST 8.53 mmol/L). Heart rate, caloric expenditure and carbohydrate expenditure were all elevated significantly during ST and RST. Heart rate was significantly elevated compared to resting (67 bpm) in STrecov (96 bpm) and RSTrecov (99 bpm); calorie and carbohydrate expenditure were not. Fat was significantly elevated only during RSTrecov. These results indicate that when equated by training duration, ST represents an equivalent physiological stimulus on key parameters indicative of potential training induced adaptive responses to that produced by whole body RST. Such adaptations could conceivably include cardiovascular conditioning.  

    View record details