88,783 results

  • Regulating for "well-dressed thieves": Criminalisation as a regulatory response to price fixing cartels

    Taylor, Richard (2015)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The Commerce (Cartels and Other Matters) Amendment Bill will introduce criminal penalties for price fixing and other cartel offences. This law change has faced commentary and critique from several perspectives including competition law, economics, criminal law and its practical effect on business. My paper will examine the criminalisation of cartels through a regulatory lens, starting from the premise that criminal law can be subsumed under the regulatory paradigm. I will identify the regulatory problem that price fixing cartels pose, explore the Bill’s practical implications and then provide a flavour of the debate around whether such change is appropriate or desirable. Finally, I will draw my own conclusions regarding the Bill and its overall desirability, as well as criminalisation as a regulatory response.

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  • Believable Worlds: The Rules, Role and Function of Magic in Fantasy Novels

    Guethert, Karl Stephen Willy (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Contemporary fantasy fiction is a genre that has captured the minds of readers and authors for many decades. It places stories about fantastical events and peoples in the realms of an imaginary world that follows its own set of structural rules. Authors delve into different facets of writing to deliver an engaging and immersive story for the readers, with fantasy tropes and narrative working together to build a compelling story. The worlds that authors write about include new twists on fantasy elements and invariably include some rendition of magic within a hyper exaggerated reflection of the real world, or a completely imagined world altogether This thesis interrogates the role of magic in fantasy fiction. It argues that magic is fundamental to both the world-building of fantasy settings and the arc of fantasy narratives. At its best magic is fully integrated and explained, providing readers with a convincing immersive experience, although at times authors use magic more cavalierly as a convenient trope. By focusing on the fiction of the founding father of contemporary fantasy – J. R.R. Tolkien – and analysing the way in which more recent writers (in particular Brandon Sanderson, Terry Pratchett, and the creators of the Warhammer World) build on and at times challenge Tolkien’s legacy I aim to highlight the series of challenges confronting authors of fantasy fiction. They need to firstly have a full understanding of how magic works in their own created worlds. Magic intersects with every aspect of fantasy fiction — narrative, setting, character — and authors need to be able to communicate sufficient understanding of how these magical systems work without submerging their readers with dense descriptions and information overload. At its best, fantasy provides readers with a sense that the fictional worlds they enter are fully realised and, through suspension of disbelief, could possibly exist. Given that fantasy fiction is full of ever-recycling tropes (such as magical rings, magical beings, and seemingly impossible feats of courage and power), writers also have to navigate the tricky path of tapping into the tropes which readers expect and enjoy while attempting to create something new. Magic is such a fundamental building block of fantasy worlds that at times authors also draw parallels between this source of power and the hierarchies, constructs, and ideologies that dominate our own world. My argument throughout is that the best fantasy fiction achieves a deft balance between both action and explanation and entertainment and social critique. I am a creative writer as well as a literary scholar and throughout my investigation is informed by my desire to critically examine magic in contemporary fantasy in order to hone my skills as a writer. This thesis has a creative practice element and my analysis is interspersed with extracts from my own fantasy fiction which form a dialogue with the critical elements.

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  • Investigating Indonesian Teachers' Experience, Motivation, and Confidence in English-Medium Content Teaching through a Professional Development Blended Learning Environment

    Aritonang, Mangasa (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    A blended learning approach has been adopted in many English language learning environments in secondary and higher education because it is seen as having the potential to maximise the benefits of both face-to-face and online learning. This research investigated a blended learning approach for the professional development of teachers working at Indonesian vocational schools who learned English so they could teach their subject in that language. This research was prompted by the lack of preparedness and confidence among Indonesian teachers in vocational high schools to use English as a medium of instruction in the classroom, even though they had attended training courses in a face-to-face mode. The face-to-face training programme was a one-off brief course with limited capacity, able to accommodate only one teacher from one school. After the training programme was concluded, teachers returned to their home schools; were isolated from their peers in the training course; and consequently the learning interaction was not maintained. To understand the teachers’ learning and thinking in the blended learning programme, the conceptual framework for the research was developed based on social constructivist and adult learning theories that were applied in the blended learning course. The development of teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in an English-medium teaching environment, the quality principles of a blended learning approach, and the concepts of motivation and confidence were considered to better understand the complexities involved in the blended learning model. As this research sought to discover the subjective experiences and multiple perspectives perceived by the teacher participants undertaking a blended learning course, a qualitative case study approach was adopted. A case study method allowed me to work closely with the teacher participants to obtain their perspectives and was helpful to understand complex phenomena such as motivation and confidence. Sixteen teachers from three Indonesian vocational schools participated in an English language learning course using a blended learning approach. Data were collected through pre- and post-surveys, semi-structured interviews, teachers’ reflective journals, classroom observations, and documents, and analysed using thematic data analysis and an inductive approach. The findings of the research were categorized according to the research questions. Teacher participants reported that peer interaction and collaboration both in face-to-face and online sections of the blended learning course were the technology-mediated learning activities that contributed to the enhancement of their teaching skills in an English-medium content teaching environment. Teacher participants also reported that their motivation to learn and confidence to use English for content teaching increased. The teachers’ self-reports were consistent with observation data. Factors that contributed to the increased motivation and confidence were reported, including the learning experiences of the teacher participants, peers feedback, and positive responses from students subsequently taught by teachers who undertook the course. Online cohort-based interaction was reported as having contributed to the gradual increase of using English for content teaching. The learning experience in the blended learning course inspired the teachers to integrate social networking sites such as Facebook and Edmodo in their teaching practice. This discussion of blended learning practice is structured around several key themes and topics. The first looks at how mediated interaction occurred in the blended learning course, including social mediation, self-mediation, and artefact mediation. The second examines factors that made collaboration occur in the blended learning course. A third theme is that of the increased confidence of the teachers involved. The transformation of instrumental into integrative motivation through factors such as social interaction is a fourth topic of interest. The fifth is how teachers developed their PCK in an English-medium content teaching environment. How English language learning was sustained through online interaction, in relation to important issues of behavioural change and social presence, constituted the sixth topic. Lastly, the research will discuss the social constructivist perspectives involved in the blended learning course. The research suggests a blended learning design has the potential to enhance the teaching skills, motivation, and confidence of Indonesian teachers in an English-medium content teaching environment. The design of a blended learning course should promote peer interaction and collaboration and lead to meaning-making and knowledge co-construction.

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  • The Effects of ECT upon simple visual reaction time and serial anticipation learning

    Saunders, Steven Arthur (1970)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    A 2 x 3 analysis of variance design with repeated measures on the second factor (n = 10 in each group) was employed to assess the effects of ECT upon psychomotor speed and serial learning ability. The results revealed that ECT did not increase either simple reaction time or serial learning scores. These findings are interpreted to indicate: (a) that ECT does not reduce the psychomotor retardation found in psychiatric patients, and (b) that ECT alone does not facilitate learning

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  • Feminist theories and practices of lawyering: Legal representation for women who are survivors of domestic violence

    Seuffert, Nan Marie (1995)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The image of a spiral represents the relationship between theory, practices and the experiences of women in the continual project of developing feminist theories. Feminists create tentative theories to explain the experiences of women. These theories inform feminist practices. The practices then lead to new experiences and new interpretations of experiences, which may require new or revised theories. Feminist theories are therefore subject to constant testing in the light of the diverse experiences of women. Each turn on the spiral may require revisiting the same issues; each movement upward on the spiral also represents development of feminist theories towards the goal of more accurately reflecting the diverse experiences of women. The first goal of this project was to consider how feminists develop feminist theories from the experiences of women, considering the relationship between theory and practice in gathering the experiences of women, and in the interpretation and presentation of those experiences. The second goal was to develop feminist theories of lawyering in the area of domestic violence from the experiences of women who are survivors of domestic violence, thereby moving feminist theories of lawyering a full turn on the theory-practice spiral. The theoretical component of the first goal of the project required using feminist theories to inform the gathering and interpretation of the experiences of women with their legal representation. The theoretical component of the second goal required testing current feminist theories of lawyering in light of these experiences. The experiences of women are therefore central to the theoretical aspects of the project. They also provide a focus for the practical aspects of the project: recommendations for lawyers about representing women who are survivors of domestic violence. Perhaps the most significant finding of the research is the frequency with which the women felt that their lawyers did not believe them, especially with respect to the level of danger in which they lived and the severity of the abuse that they endured. Focusing on the disbelief of the lawyers with respect to these aspects of the women's experiences revealed the lawyers' lack of understanding of the dynamics of domestic violence. This finding alone virtually precludes the possibilities for truly ethical lawyer-client relationships in which power is shared and the twoway process of lawyer translation takes place in the context of mutual understanding, respect and a willingness to listen which are required for dialogue. These findings also provide a backdrop to the other issues raised by the research, especially the lack of involvement of the women in decision-making and the lack of advocacy provided to the women. Effective legal representation requires that lawyers be aware of the context in which women seek protection from the legal system, and that lawyers be prepared to assist the women in ensuring their safety by advocating for protection by the legal system throughout the legal process. Lawyers should also be prepared to confront and expose gender bias as it operates in particular cases in a manner that furthers the interests of their clients, and to assist in ensuring that women receive adequate support in using the legal process. The development of feminist theories builds on what we know about women's experiences by producing tentative theories which are tested in light of further experiences. In this project, feminist theories concerning the gathering and interpretation of women's experiences provided the basis for the development of the research methods. The experiences gathered were used to test the recent developments in feminist theories of lawyering. Attention to the situated aspects of experiences resulted in the development of situated theories of feminist lawyering: theories that are relevant to non-Maori women in New Zealand, and that provide a lens through which other women might consider their own theories, practices and experiences.

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  • Sedimentary structures, texture and paleoenvironment of the Hinuera Formation

    Sherwood, Alan M. (1972)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The Hinuera Formation is the extensive Upper Pleistocene terrestrial deposit of alluvial origin, underlying the plains of the Hamilton Basin and the Hauraki Lowland. The textures and sedimentary structures of ten stratigraphic sections are studied in detail, and indicate uniformity of the Hinuera Formation on a regional scale. Four dominant lithotypes occur: rhyolitic and pumiceous gravelly sands, quartz sands, pumice silt, and rhyolitic sandy gravels. A variety of primary and post-depositional structures is present, and four types of cross-stratification (Rho, Nu, Epsilon and Sigma) and three types of horizontal stratification are described. Textures indicate rapid deposition in an environment of flucuating high turbulat energy. Relative energies of the different sedimentary structures are suggested from the relations of structures to texture. Sedimentary structures are also related to flow regeime. Six facies are erected for the Hinuera Formation on the basis of lithology, texture, sedimentary structures, and flow reigeme, which indicate deposition by a braided river system. Deposition was contemporaneous with intense volcanic activity in the Central Volcanic Region, which combined with the cold, wet climate of a glacial period, led to the supply of large amounts of sediment to the river systems of the region, and aggradational fans were constructed in the Hauraki Lowloan and the Hamilton Basin. The six facies are incorperated into a suggested physiographic model of the Hinuera Formation.

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  • Delinquent hositility: The effect of Borstal Training, and it's relationship to authoritarian attitudes

    Simcock, Robert Malcolm (1972)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This study was based on the assumption that it is not psychologically useful to research all criminals whether detected or not, as one group. It is argued that the group usually referred to as delinquent, is made up of a relatively homogeneous collection of law breakers, and further, that the essential characteristic of this group is a high degree of hostility. Previous work has indicated that prison staff tend to be highly authoritarian, and the theory concerning authoritarian people suggests that they are highly hostile, although this has not been emperically verified. It was therefore decided to investigate the relationship between these factors in the present study. Because it is considered that hostility is central to delinquency, it is likely that any significant effect of Borstal Training would show itself in a change of hostility levels. Both the frustration and modelling based theories of hostility, seem to suggest that the Borstal is unlikely to reduce hostility, particularly if, as is argued , most staff are of the authoritarian personality type. The study used four measures, one verbal and one non-verbal measure of authoritarianism, and one verbal and one mainly non-verbal measure of hostility. As expected the non-verbal tests gave better results with the delinquent samples. The results of the analysis of authoritarianism and its relationship with hostility were at best inconclusive and no significant change in authoritarian attitudes occurred as the result of Borstal Training. The hypothesis that delinquency is related to hostility was supported by an analysis of hostility scores and their relationship to four indices of delinquency. It was found that Borstal Training was associated with a very significant increase in fantasy hostility. The verbal measure of hostility gave few significant results, but neither did it suggest any conclusions contrary to those suggested by the non-verbal measure. Overall the two tests correlated with one another significantly. The non-verbal measure, the Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration Study scored according to the method devised by Chorost, proved a very sensitive instrument showing good correlations with the indices of delinquency and a highly significant increase after Borstal Training. The staff sample was found to be highly authoritarian as expected, and there was no evidence that the level of authoritarianism was decreasing. It was concluded that hostility is a basic factor in delinquency and that Borstal Training as it now operates increases hostility. It was also concluded that the employment of less authoritarian staff will not be sufficient to bring a change, because such staff are unlikely to remain long in the job as presently defined.

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  • Joseph W. Kemp and the impact of American fundamentalism in New Zealand

    Simpson, Jane Mary Ramsay (1987)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The contemporary rise of within conservative Christianity observers puzzled. Although the group, the Coalition of Concerned with the American 'Moral Majority', politically-active fundamentalism in New Zealand has left many New Zealand fundamentalist action Citizens, has denied direct links it is clear that the contemporary fundamentalist resurgence in New Zealand owes much to politicoreligious movements i n the United States of America. Some Christians who see fundamentalism as a distortion of the Christian faith have been quick to point out this American connection. In so doing, they implicitly reject the movement as being alien to more recent developments and attempts to create a distinctly indigenous theology in New Zealand. Can fundamentalism be ejected thus as a foreign body?

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  • The Pacific infants performance scale: some preliminary and comparative New Zealand studies

    St George, Alison Margaret (1972)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The study and measurement of abilities in young children has been a field of early and continuing interest in psychology. Within this field it is possible to discern several major areas of inquiry. In attempting to draw up a schema of sorts it can be seen, first of all, that there have been many studies which broadly fall into the category of ' Developmental '. These studies have dealt with aspects of child development such as physical growth, motor development, perceptual development and so on (e.g. Birch & Lefford, 1967; Brozek, 1970; Gliner, Pick, Pick & Hales, 1969). Secondly, there have been what might be called 'Social Development ' studies, concerned with acquisition of various behaviours such as communication skills necessary for harmonious group behaviour, and the learning of appropriate roles (e.g. Baldwin, Baldwin, Hilton & Lambert, 1969; Selman, 1971). Many of these studies have been influenced by theories and investigations of ' personality development ' in children, particularly the ' child rearing ' studies (e.g. Ritchie & Ritchie, 1970; Sears, Maccoby & Levin, 1957; Whiting and Child, 1953). More recently there have been systematic observational studies of interaction patterns between children and significant others in their milieu.

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  • A Pilot investigation into the assessment of changes in the psycholinguistic abilities of new-entrant Māori school children using the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities

    St George, William Vivian Ross (1969)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The role of language as the principal medium of instruction within the New Zealand (N .Z.) educational system has recently received increasing attention both from researchers and those responsible for the formulation of our national educational policy. In particular, much attention has been directed toward the Maori pupil and the use of the English language as the medium for his instruction. The range of literature on this question includes controlled research studies on English usage by Maori children, educational policy statements concerning the - medium of instruction to be employed in New Zealand schools and writings of a more speculative, and potentially political nature, questioning educational policy and the role of language in "Maori education".

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  • The Ethics of Killing Invasive Animals in Ecological Restoration

    Specht, Mark (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    In many conservation decisions, there is disagreement over which animals should be managed through lethal control. These disagreements seemingly stem from different justifications for killing invasive animals. This study examines those justifications through the discipline of ethics, which provides a systematic way to analyse normative arguments. In this thesis, I introduce three ethical theories along with one philosopher’s set of ‘natural values,’ through which different justifications for killing invasive animals can be understood. I demonstrate that cultural input plays an important role in these justifications for killing invasive animals, and I conduct a case study to understand cultural input in one scenario. The case study research question I address is, “What is invasive predator eradication on Stewart Island for?” In the case study, I use Q methodology to analyse the viewpoints of stakeholders involved in the proposed eradication of invasive predators from Stewart Island, New Zealand. Through this analysis, I find four key viewpoints regarding the justification for eradicating invasive predators from the island. The Environmentalism Viewpoint values biodiversity and ecosystem health most highly; the Local Community Viewpoint places the most emphasis on the local community and its resources; the Restoration Viewpoint focuses on the duty to restore ecosystems; and the Scepticism Viewpoint is sceptical of the necessity to eradicate invasive predators. While analysing these viewpoints in the context of the ethical theories presented in this thesis, I demonstrate that none of these viewpoints align neatly with any one of the ethical theories – all of the viewpoints borrow components from multiple theories. In addition, I show that all four viewpoints found in this study agree that biodiversity and service are the most important considerations in invasive predator eradication. Ultimately, when answering, “What is invasive predator eradication on Stewart Island for?”, biodiversity and service provide an answer to my research question.

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  • Mediated Representations: Japanese New Religions and Social Media

    Giambra, Danilo (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Social Media significantly affect the way religion is presented and represented online, and allow a variety of religious actors to create a new type of charismatic authority for themselves, similar to that of celebrities. Drawing on examples derived from the use of the Internet by two established Japanese New Religions, Tenrikyō and Seichō no Ie, I argue that even where religious movements are resistant to using this medium at the organization level, new interactive digital spaces are changing the way religion is communicated online. This is because the agency of individuals and groups linked to the movement in these environments often overlaps with that of the organization itself, as a result of how meaning-making and public representation work on these platforms. For religious organizations which actively promote their use, Social Media provide ways to reinforce the authority of their current leadership despite the potential for harsh and undermining criticism opened up by these new spaces. That is, Social Media make available new tools and features that allow religious leaders to construct celebrity-like personae on these platforms, where the divide between their social roles of private persons and religious leaders is made thinner by the strategies of presentation, the effect of mediation, and the interactive nature of the Presentational Media. Communication is a fundamental element of religion. There would be no religion at all, if religious actors were not able to communicate their ideas and their beliefs, if they were not empowered to share their experiences and their interpretations of the world we live in. Communication is not just an effective tool for teaching doctrines and gaining new adherents; more often, it is evident that communication plays an active religious function, which can be justified from within the theology of the religious movement. It is therefore important to understand how Social Media are changing the way religious actors communicate through the Internet. Communicating religion through potentially interactive and collaborative channels does influence how religion is presented, represented, and transformed online, often despite the official policies of the religious movements involved. Unlike so-called traditional media, social spaces built in the Web 2.0 and beyond present characteristics of their own, which have altered how users get access to religious information, materials, and experiences, as well as what they can do with them. Because of their immediacy, Social Media have proven to be flexible digital environments, where religious information can be shared right here and right now. Moreover, the information is potentially subjected to the immediate and active attention of other users, who, in turn, are able to comment on it and re-share it in other platforms as well. That is, these environments also provide a space where religion can be enacted, and not just discussed. Japanese New Religions (shinshūkyō ) have been noticeably affected by this change. Whether these organizations seek to resist or to harness the use of Social Media at the organization level, Social Media have opened new spaces where religion can be discussed and enacted. In this thesis I draw on examples taken from Tenrikyō and Seichō no Ie, as these movements can be considered representative of the two general tendencies underlined above. In other words, Tenrikyō has been shown to be resistant to the use of Social Media, at least insofar as its central religious bureaucracy and its policies are concerned. By contrast, Seichō no Ie has been actively involved at the organization level in implementing new communication technologies, including new Internet-based platforms, where social interactivity is paramount. In both cases, new interactive digital spaces have been shown to have a noticeable effect on religious communication. That is to say, Social Media have empowered various religious actors of Tenrikyō with a voice and the possibility of creating multiple mediated representations of the group in these interactive digital environments, regardless of the general attitude (and policy) of the organization on the matter of using such media for communicating religion online. By comparison, Seichō no Ie’s President, Taniguchi Masanobu, was able to use these presentational platforms to his advantage, creating a religious persona online with characteristics similar to those of celebrities, alongside the active effort of his organization and staff to promote Social Media for communicating and practicing religion. The effect of Social Media on Japanese New Religions is also connected with how the movement is officially structured offline, how its leadership is organized and represented publicly, and its level of internationalization. Yet, the impact of Social Media on Japanese New Religions is significant and is likely to become even more so in years to come.

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  • WPA2 security-bandwith trade-off in 802.11n peer-peer WLAN for IPv4 and IPv6 using Windows XP and Windows 7 operating systems

    Kolahi, Samad; Li, Peng; Safdari, Mustafa; Argawe, Mulugeta (2012-07-01)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    In this paper, we present new results on the performance of IEEE 802.11n using open system (no security) and WPA2 security for Windows XP and Windows 7. Enabling WPA2 security results in approximately 4.4 Mbps less TCP throughput than open system for both IPv4 and IPv6 on Windows XP and up to 2.8 Mbps less TCP throughput for Windows 7. For both open system and WPA2 security, Windows 7 provides higher IPv4 and IPv6 bandwidth than Windows XP and IPv4 provides higher bandwidth than IPv6.

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  • Common law courts as regulators, an exposition: The Judiciary as a regulatory mechanism

    Meagher, Jacob Joseph (2015)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    An exposition on a new regulatory theory; Common law courts as regulators – the judiciary as a regulatory mechanism. In this paper the author ascribes to the judiciary/courts specific regulatory powers with regards to fundamental rights, the Bill of Rights and upholding and adjudicating constitutional norms. Via judicial regulation, courts can exercise power outside of the lis in disputes of distinction.

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  • Non-Governmental Organisations in international regulation: Lessons from certification schemes

    Milne, Eleanor (2015)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The decentralisation and globalisation of regulation has opened up new kinds of regulatory activities to new kinds of actors. Certification schemes as regulatory tools and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) as regulators are two such examples. NGOs have their own set of regulatory capabilities which can be utilised to address some of the difficulties that occur in regulating across nations. At the international level, there is a strong case to be made for collaborative regulation to exploit the regulatory capacities of NGOs and other non-state actors. Certification schemes are often collaborative, and they exploit market mechanisms to further social agendas. NGO regulation is not without its pitfalls, as there are issues with accountability and effectiveness. Certification schemes as a regulatory tool have their own problems, with questions about the effectiveness of the schemes, problems with supply and demand, and the negative impact of fragmentation. This paper illustrates the potential of certification schemes, but it also argues that that potential is not being realised.

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  • How to slice the pie: Regulating the distribution of copyright revenue in the music industry

    White, Nina (2015)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper argues that the different bargaining strengths between music creators and music companies results in inefficient and unfair copyright revenue distrribution. On that basis it suggests two forms of regulatory intervnetion. Fair Trade Music is a voluntary certification scheme which would set a satndard of ‘fair remuneration’. The second option is mandatory regulation of the distribution of copyright revenue to ensure a minimum proportion goes to the music creator. Both schemes are considered against the benefits and obstacles in their practical implementation, ability to achieve the regulatory goal, political reactions and international obligations. Ultimately, this paper does not recommend adoption of a mandatory regulation and advises a cautionary approach to Fair Trade Music. Ostensibly it is unlikely the government will pursue either regulatory response without some politcal impetus.

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  • Free reign over free range? The regulations of free range eggs in New Zealand

    Rodgers, Zoe (2015)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    New Zealanders are among the highest egg consumers per capita in the world. Approximately 3.4 million hens produce more than one billion eggs every year, the majority of which are produced in conventional cages. In recent years there has been a shift in consumer attitudes which has resulted in an increase in the demand for free range eggs. A trip to any supermarket reveals the premium consumers pay for free range eggs, compared with cage eggs. This paper analyses the regulation of free range eggs in New Zealand, focusing on how the regulation affects consumers. Most consumers choose to purchase free range eggs for ethical reasons believing that the hens enjoy a better standard of life. However unfortunately this is not always the case. The current regulation is fragmented and flawed which is allowing egg producers to deceive consumers. When it comes to free range eggs consumers are forced to rely on the honesty of producers as it is impossible to detect deception. This paper advocates for regulation reform through labelling. The introduction of an enforceable labelling standard is advocated for, which would hold producers accountable for their carton claims and ensure consumers are able to make informed product decisions.

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  • The regulation of hydraulic fracturing in New Zealand: Risky business?

    Olsen, Caitlin (2015)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    As resources of conventional oil and gas have dwindled, the international industry has responded through utilising a raft of techniques to access “unconventional” energy sources. The most controversial technique is hydraulic fracturing. This paper focuses on the regulation of hydraulic fracturing in New Zealand. Environmental concerns are outlined such as the high demand on water use, potential for groundwater contamination and deterrence of renewable energy investment. The current regulatory framework is found to devolve all responsibility for managing the environmental effects of hydraulic fracturing to local authorities. The relevance of the precautionary principle considered, finding that at present its utilisation is left to the discretion of the decision maker. This paper finds that lack of central government guidance has led to varying approaches to regulation across regions. The current regulation shows a lack of local government power and lack of appropriate remedies. Finally three options for reform are presented. Firstly, central government guidance through a National Policy Statement, National Environmental Standard or both. Secondly, transfer of consenting responsibility to a centralised body. Finally, declaration of a moratorium. New Zealand looks destined to experience a boom in hydraulic fracturing and this paper advocates for a tightening of regulation so that regulators stay ahead of the game.

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  • Vestibular Function in Vestibular Schwannoma

    Tranter-Entwistle, Isaac Brian (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Abstract Introduction: Traditionally vestibular function has been assessed using caloric irrigations; new methods have failed to reach the same level of accuracy. Vestibular nerve dysfunction occurs with ‘acoustic neuroma’ or ‘vestibular schwannoma. Quantitative testing of hearing by audiometry is much more widely available than quantitative vestibular testing, although consideration of vestibular dysfunction is part of clinical management. Validation of a new method of quantitative vestibular function testing could lead to more widespread integration into clinical practice and affect decision making (i.e. timing of surgery) Methods: A non-blind observational cohort study was undertaken in 31 participants. Study endpoints were either one or two separate participant measures in March/April 2013 the September/October 13. All participants underwent caloric and head impulse testing with video-oculography, while 10 underwent audiometric assessment. Repeat testing was performed for 10 subjects, including additional cognitive. The primary outcome was vestibular function test measures. Results: Video head impulse was strongly correlated with calorics (p=0.01) and showed good sensitivity (80%) and specificity (70%). Dizziness Handicap Inventory showed no correlation with other vestibular function measures. Participants showed reduced cognitive function tested using the CANTAB battery (p=0.01) Conclusion: Video head impulse testing is comparable to caloric testing to assess vestibular function. Vestibular lesions may lead to cognitive deficits. Further research is needed to better understand the role of video head impulse testing in vestibular schwannoma.

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  • Velcro babies: A Qualitative Study Exploring Maternal Motivations in the Night-time Care of Infants

    Clarke, Judith (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    New Zealand has one of the highest rates of sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) in the OECD, with most deaths occurring during sleep and at night. Whilst recommendations for safe infant sleep are promoted to parents, there is little understanding of how parents make decisions as they interpret these population level recommendations at the individual level. The objective of this qualitative study was to explore how mothers made decisions in the night-time care of infants, in one suburb of Christchurch, New Zealand. An inductive qualitative design was used to explore the topic. Thirteen semi-structured interviews were held with mothers of infants aged less than 6 months old, living in a more socio-economically deprived suburb. Thematic analysis was used to search for emerging themes and these were analysed in the context of existing literature and concepts from appropriate critical social theories. The study found that night-time infant care decision-making was complex. Mothers were dealing with competing tensions between keeping their babies safe from death, and meeting their immediate needs for food, comfort and sleep. Added to this were pressures from the dominant ‘intensive mothering’ ideology which holds mothers accountable for their infants’ psychological and emotional wellbeing. In attempting to live up to the myth of intensive mothering, women individualized and privatized risk behaviours in ways that aligned with neoliberal rationalities. Part of being a ‘good mother’ was being seen to follow ‘expert’ advice around safe infant sleep practices. When the baby was settled and healthy, mothers were more likely to trust ‘expert’ advice and follow recommendations. However, on occasion and in unplanned ways, the needs of the baby and/or the mother, led mothers to act in ways that differed from ‘expert’ advice. Mothers mitigated risks in their own ways, and used intuition to protect their infants from perceived danger. Nonetheless, anxiety levels were high for some mothers, due, in part, to the knowledge that a baby could die despite their efforts. Anxiety levels are not helped by recommendations that leave no room for negotiating the complexity of night-time infant care, nor by prosecuting mothers whose infants die in unsafe sleep environments. Greater recognition needs to be given to the complex realities within which decisions are made. The use of empathy in individualizing population level public health recommendations may relieve maternal guilt and anxiety, and empower mothers.

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