88,783 results

  • Sustainability Efforts in New Zealand's Cheese Industry

    Kullmann, F. (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The recent scandals of New Zealand’s dairy industry have implications for the cheese industry. As consumer awareness about the sustainability of food production is on the rise, businesses have an obligation to respond. Sustainability is a holistic concept that combines environmental protection, social responsibility but also the economic success, and does not only concern a single company but the whole supply chain. Therefore, the cheese supply chain of New Zealand is the focus of this research as a growing industry that contributes significantly to New Zealand’s economy. A holistic consideration of the sustainability efforts of this particular supply chain has not yet been researched. This exploratory case study aims to identify the sustainability efforts within the cheese supply chain and compare practices with Elkington’s triple bottom line (1997), with consideration of sustainable supply chain management theories. The research approach integrated seven companies that were milk suppliers, cheese manufactures and distributors in New Zealand to provide a holistic summary of the practices and circumstances. Overall various practices for the enhancement of sustainability were identified and matched with the named theories, which demonstrated a lack of practicality through unrealistic assumptions. The case study allows practitioners in the cheese supply chain to compare their practices, while the findings aim to enhance the sustainability of their business. In addition, differences between the practical and academic world are acknowledged, which can be used to further improve the research about sustainability.

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  • Strategic survey of sound levels in operating theatres and the ICU at Christchurch Hospital and assessment of their effects on personnel and patients

    Downes, Bradi (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Hospitals are intended to be quiet spaces to enhance tranquility and patient recovery. Studies conducted overseas suggest hospitals are excessively noisy in comparison with World Health Organization recommendations. This affects both patients and staff in terms of recovery time and exposure to occupational noise respectively. This study determined noise levels and sources in the intensive care units over both day and night periods. Occupational noise may also affect the hearing and concentration levels of staff, therefore noise levels were also measured in orthopaedic and cardiac surgery units and compared with International Standards Organization guidelines. Surveys were also completed to determine subjective impacts of noise. The aim of this study was to assess where the noise levels in Christchurch Hospital were in relation to similar hospitals overseas, if ICU noise exceeded WHO (Berglund, et al, 1999) noise recommendations and if surgery noise breached the Health and Safety in Employment Regulations (Department of Labour, 1995). Noise levels in the ICU had an LAeq of 55-60dB(A) during the day and 45-50dB(A) at night, with peaks elevated above 100dB(C), all exceeding WHO (Berglund, et al, 1999) recommended levels. Noise levels in surgeries showed LAeq levels between 60-75dB(A) and peak levels above 100dB(C), not breaching the Health and Safety in Employment Regulations (Department of Labour, 1995). Staff surveys indicated a negative attitude towards noise, with over half of participants stating they would feel better if their workplace was less noisy and reporting they sometimes cannot concentrate because of the level of noise. Noise levels in the Christchurch Hospital should be reduced for patient tranquility and staff concentration.

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  • Tenability in stairwell of highrise office buildings.

    Pau, Daniel (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The commonly adopted fire evacuation strategy for office buildings is total evacuation which involves simultaneous evacuation of all building occupants upon fire alarm activation. Total evacuation for building with high occupancy load will cause congestion within stairwell which often results in long queuing time at the stairwell door. Long queuing time on the fire floor causes the stairwell door to remain open for extensive period, and the smoke from the fire floor will enter the stairwell resulting in untenable conditions within the stairwell. This can have devastating effects on egressing occupants. This research utilises the state-of-the-art modelling tools such as FDS and FDS+Evac to study high-rise office building with two means of escape. The aim was to demonstrate that for certain building parameters, phased evacuation should be adopted instead of total evacuation to ensure an acceptable tenability level within the stairwells which permits safe evacuation of the occupants. A total of 48 unique simulations were identified based on varying building parameters such as floor area, building height, fire protection system, evacuation strategy and ceiling height. Relevant New Zealand Building Code (NZBC) Compliance Documents such as C/AS5, C/VM2 and D1/AS1 were used as guidelines to define the various modelling parameters such as fire growth and combustion characteristics, fire safety systems, modelling rules, evacuation parameters and geometries to ensure the modelled building achieves the minimum NZBC requirements. The use of FDS+Evac for simulating evacuation timings without the effect of smoke was validated to some extent against hydraulic models and relevant trial evacuation experiments found in the literature. The results demonstrate that for high-rise office buildings up to 20 storeys with floor area not exceeding 510 m² served by either conventional or scissor stairwell, the tenability within the stairwell can be maintained during total evacuation by having at least a Type 6 automatic fire sprinkler system. For high-rise office buildings between 10 to 20 storeys with floor area of 5000 m² or 2450 m² served by either conventional or scissor stairwell, those buildings are required be protected by Type 7 automatic fire sprinkler system with smoke detection and phased evacuation are also required to maintain tenability within the stairwell. The effect of stair arrangement on the tenability in the stairwell is more evident in highrise office buildings with high occupancy load where scissor stairwell is found to be worse than conventional stairwell. This is due to the nature of scissor stair arrangement which forces smoke to flow up the stairwell in a corkscrew manner, concentrating smoke along a specific path. This phenomenon is found to be detrimental to the tenability conditions in the stairwell.

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  • Reef fish survey methods and application to population dynamics of parrotfish within the Kingdom Tonga

    Vanderhaven, Beth (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    With environmental and anthropogenic impacts coral reef communities worldwide are predicted to decline. This is of particular concern for the Pacific Island nations’ such as the Kingdom of Tonga. This thesis aimed to identify a method that could be applied to the collection of baseline data for shallow water coral reef fish communities, in particular to parrotfish. Parrotfish have been identified as a key ecosystem species on inshore coral reefs, and potentially indicators of reef health. A comparison of stationary and swim video Underwater Visual Census methods revealed similar results, but for both methods the stationary method overall had greater benefits. This method was then applied to the second aim of this thesis, investigating the population dynamics of parrotfish within the semi-enclosed lagoon of Tongatapu. All parrotfish were counted, and their behaviour and the size of the harem they were seen in were recorded. Terminal phase and, when possible, initial phase individuals were identified to species level for species richness. This identified 14 parrotfish species and one key species, Chlorurus spilurus (identified previously in the Pacific as Chlorurus sordidus). Very few harems contained a male, instead comprosing mainly of juveniles and initial phase individuals. Factors influencing these dynamics were identified, such as site factors; coral reef health, distance from mainland, anthropogenic and environmental influences. Through providing temporal baseline and understanding of population dynamics these results will assist in future management of inshore reef fisheries of parrotfish, with potential influence on the resilience of the coral reef health within the semi enclosed lagoon of Tongatapu.

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  • In sickness and in health : social support and inflammatory bowel disease.

    Hayde, Siobhan G. (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis, known collectively as Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), are highly debilitating conditions which affect approximately 15,000 New Zealanders. The aim of the current study was to investigate factors which potentially influence the disease course of IBD such as life stress, depressive symptoms and social support. 60 participants (46 with CD and 14 with UC) completed an online questionnaire on measures of disease severity, stress, mental health, quality of life and social support. Participants with lower perceived social support (r = -.398, p < .01), higher stress (r = .292, p < .05), higher depressive symptoms (r = .287, r = .330, p < .05), higher anxiety symptoms (r = .289, p < .05) and lower quality of life (r = -.302, p < .05) had higher disease severity. Results failed to support a moderation relationship between social support and either stress and illness severity or depressive symptoms and illness severity. Results suggest perceived social support, stress and mental health are important treatment considerations, in addition moderate rates of mental health symptoms were reported by the sample highlighting the importance managing IBD in a biopsychosocial context.

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  • Antecedents of attachment to a sports team and the Rugby World Cup 2015 : the case of the All Blacks.

    Mills, Hamish (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis investigates the relationships between team identification, five discrete emotions (anger, sadness, love, happiness and pride), satisfaction, team attachment and event attachment in the context of the All Blacks and the Rugby World Cup. A conceptual model is developed to test these relationships where team identification, emotion and satisfaction are antecedent to concepts of team and event attachment. To empirically test the model, an online survey was created to sample the responses of All Blacks fans during the 2015 Rugby World Cup towards the constructs previously mentioned. A total of 343 responses were gathered after being recruited through social media and direct emailing methods. The hypotheses were then tested by using two step structural equation modelling to analyse the data. This analysis revealed that team identification was predictive of feelings of love, happiness and pride towards a team but showed no significant relationship to anger and sadness. The relationships between the discrete emotions and satisfaction were mixed, with love and pride showing no significant relationship, anger having a negative relationship and happiness having a positive relationship. Surprisingly, feelings of sadness towards the All Blacks also had a positive relationship with satisfaction. The satisfaction construct itself was not a significant predictor of team or event attachment. Team identification was found to have a strong direct link with team attachment, which was a predictor of event attachment. The implications of these findings and the limitations of the research are then discussed.

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  • Agonistic interactions in female New Zealand fur seals: the functions of conspecific aggression and its implications in spatial population dynamics

    Kim, Juliet N. (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Female conspecific aggression is widespread in the order Pinnipedia, which include phocids (true seals), otariids (fur seals and sea lions) and odobenid (walruses). Although the functions of female aggression have been explored in a number of pinniped species, the proposed functions vary greatly between species. The aim of this research was to investigate the functions of female aggression in the New Zealand fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri), and to assess the vast differences in the social interactions and reproductive ecology that may explain the disparity between species. As a common social behaviour, aggression between the individuals of a group and the resulting competition for resources can have a considerable influence on the spatial population dynamics by regulating the degree of emigration and immigration. Therefore, this research also explored the effects of female aggression of the New Zealand fur seal on the dispersion of females within the rookery to quantify its effects on the spatial population dynamics, and to estimate the carrying capacity of the rookery area studied. This study focused on a subset population of the Ohau Point seal colony, north of Kaikoura, New Zealand. A non-invasive method was used to make 184 observations of unmarked focal females over the 2014 – 2015 breeding season and the first three months of the pup rearing season. This research employed methods of quantifying aggression, such as aggression distance and the proportion of aggression, which were not commonly used in past studies of pinniped behaviour, to study its effects on the spatial population dynamics. Conspecific aggression in females was found to be prevalent in this species; however, the rate of inter-female aggression was significantly lower than other species of otariids. The results of this study showed that thermoregulation, offspring defence and resource defence were the primary functions of aggression in this species, although female aggression was found to have no influence on the dispersion of females, and subsequently, the spatial population dynamics of this species. Therefore, the nearest-neighbour distance was employed to measure the degree of female dispersion, and to predict the carrying capacity of the study area. In analysing the result of this prediction, a conclusion was reached that the nearest-neighbour distance was insufficient to represent the dispersion of females of the terrestrially-breeding colonial mammal, due to its minimal inclusion of space required between resting females for movement. This led to the proposal of a new method of measuring the individual dispersion in this species using the distance from all direct neighbours of the focal animal, and a recommendation for further research.

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  • Sea cucumber fisheries in the Kingdom of Tonga: regeneration biology, ecology, and environmental chemistry

    Charan-Dixon, Hannah (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The goals of this thesis were to address the environmental and anthropogenic factors which may be influencing sea cucumber decline in the nearshore environment around Tongatapu. Physiology, regeneration biology, ecology, biochemistry and environmental chemistry techniques were used to contribute biologically-meaningful data to the Tonga Fisheries Division, to assist in informing management decisions of this important resource. The regeneration study was undertaken to determine the energetic costs of a traditional fishing method on the fishery species Stichopus horrens, and the sustainability of traditional fishing practices. The findings of this research component indicate that S. horrens can survive and regenerate organs following their harvest, but that this process comes at an energetic cost. The second component of this research involved the quantification of sea cucumber species and their length-distribution in the nearshore environment of Tongatapu. The results of the ecological surveys indicate that sea cucumber stocks are low in some areas, and that this is relatively unrelated to habitat variables. Finally, trace metal concentrations of sediment and holothuroid tissue samples from Tongatapu Island group were determined and used to conduct ecological and human health risk assessments. Sediments were low in all trace metals except Hg, which exceeded the ‘low’ trigger values but were lower than the ‘high’ trigger values. The human health risk assessment identified that consumption of holothuroids from this region may result in exposure to Ni, As, and Zn above regulatory limits.

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  • Psychological ownership in brand communities: the case of the Volkswagen diesel emissions scandal

    Dayal, Natasha (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis aims to understand the presence of psychological ownership within an online brand community. Psychological ownership is becoming increasingly relevant in marketing, being able to provide benefits to both consumers and firms. Firms should therefore attempt to facilitate and capitalise on psychological ownership in their consumers. Brand communities are becoming a more and more common platform for consumers of a brand to use for information and interaction with the brand and other enthusiasts. Due to the strong feelings that brand community members generally have towards the focal brand, it is likely that psychological ownership feelings may also develop towards the brand. Therefore it is important to understand how psychological ownership can develop in a brand community context, and also how it can manifest in the attitudes and behaviours of members. To achieve this aim, the present study used a grounded theory approach to guide the use of a single-case study. This enabled the gathering of comprehensive, qualitative data to discover new theory about the phenomena. The case study used was the online Volkswagen brand community, and members’ responses to the diesel emissions crisis of 2015/16. Data was collected in the form of Facebook comments in the Volkswagen online brand community. A total of 355 responses were thematically analysed before theoretical saturation was reached. The results of the study found evidence of existing psychological ownership elements. Two of the routes to psychological ownership were identified within the brand community; coming to intimately know, and investing the self into the target of ownership. Additionally the outcomes of organisational commitment, citizenship behaviour, sense of loss, and escalation of commitment were proven to exist in the brand community. The study also presented new findings in relation to the little-studied collective psychological ownership and blame-shifting as a potential form of escalation of commitment. The major conclusions that can be drawn from the present study are of significance to the marketing literature. Psychological ownership can occur towards a brand, and within the context of a brand community, thus opening the door for further research within these constructs. Based on the present study, it is recommended that managers attempt to facilitate psychological ownership within their own brand’s communities. Actions by firms such as facilitating interaction between members, asking members for help and ensuring favourable change processes is important in order to create and maintain consumer psychological ownership, while providing a positive workplace can ensure psychological ownership of their employees.

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  • Performance evaluation of virtual private network protocols in Windows 2003 environment

    Narayan, Shaneel; Kolahi, Samad; Brooking, Kris; de Vere, Simon (2008-12-20)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Virtual Private Network (VPN) is a technology that provides secure communication for data as it transits through insecure regions of information technology infrastructure. With prolific development of the Internet, businesses nowadays implement VPN tunnels using different protocols that guarantee data authenticity and security between multiple sites connected using public telecommunication infrastructure. VPN provides a low-cost alternative to leasing a line to establish communication between sites. In this research we empirically evaluate performance difference between three commonly used VPN protocols, namely Internet Protocol Security (IPSec), Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) and Secure Socket Layer (SSL). We compare performance differences in these protocols by implementing each using different algorithms in a Windows Server 2003 environment. Results obtained indicate that throughput in a VPN tunnel can range from approximately 40 to 90Mbps depending on the choice of protocol, algorithm and window size. These three attributes also govern CPU utilization of VPN servers.

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  • Impact assessment of a far-field tsunami scenario for building damage and habitability in Christchurch, New Zealand

    Scheele, Finn (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Tsunami are powerful natural events which become hazardous if coastal communities are exposed to the effects. The potential impacts include damage to buildings, infrastructure, human casualties, and displacement of residents. The Canterbury coastline is exposed to far-field tsunamis originating from locations distant to New Zealand. Understanding the potential impacts of a major tsunami to a coastal region enables better planning and preparedness initiatives to take place. Although inundation modelling of a major far-field tsunami affecting Christchurch was available, a detailed impact assessment had not been undertaken previously. The objectives of this thesis are to assess the post-arrival impacts of specific far-field tsunami scenarios on Christchurch communities, focusing on damage to buildings, habitability of residential dwellings and the displacement of residents within the first week following the tsunami arrival. The research contributes to the RiskScape programme, and provides resources for emergency management planning and scenario exercising. The risk assessment framework is used in this thesis as a conceptual basis for tsunami impact assessment. A literature review of the tsunami hazard to Christchurch, tsunami impacts, impact assessment methodologies, and factors contributing to residential habitability and human displacement was conducted. The impact assessment process for estimating building damage related the inundation modelling with an asset database of exposed buildings, and used fragility functions to assess the probability of reaching certain damage states. The building asset database was created using GIS and field surveying data of building attributes. The residential habitability and human displacement was assessed spatially and temporally for the first week following the tsunami wave arrival. The literature review and interviews were used to inform the relative influence of factors contributing to habitability and displacement. Modelling using GIS was performed to assess the habitability and displacement within the inundation zone by considering the factors of building damage, access, and functionality of utilities (electricity, water, and wastewater). For the primary scenario modelled, approximately 950 buildings are collapsed or washed away, 2,150 suffer moderate to complete damage, and 1,600 experience minor or no damage. On the first day of the tsunami wave arrival, approximately 5,000 residential dwellings are uninhabitable 11,000 residents displaced, representing all housing and population within the inundation zone. At one week after the event, there are approximately 2,850 uninhabitable residences and 6,250 people still displaced. The results of this project may be used for enhanced emergency management planning and scenario exercising. The methodologies developed may be applied to other scenarios, locations, and different natural hazards.

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  • Ontogenetic shift in plant-related cognitive specialization by the mosquito-eating jumping spider, Evarcha culicivora

    Carvell, Georgina (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The East African jumping spider, Evarcha culicivora, preferentially feeds on Anopheles mosquitoes. This spider carries out apparently complex cognitive processes, namely, cross-modal selective attention, to detect and locate this specific prey. Juvenile E. culicivora supplement their diet with nectar, primarily from Lantana camara, and the sugar from these nectar meals makes them more proficient at capturing their preferred prey. Both the adult and the juvenile spiders are attracted to the odour of L.camara among other plants. Here, I test the effects of plant odours on adult and juvenile spiders’ response to visual stimuli, in order to elucidate the function of E. culicivora’s response to plant odours across the spider’s lifetime. I found that, for juveniles, plant odours elicit selective attention to a visual stimulus consisting of L.camara flowers, consistent with previous research showing plants are important to juveniles in the context of nectar feeding. For adults, I found that plant odours elicit selective attention to a visual mate stimulus, in much the same way that mate odour did. Specifically, adult spiders responded strongly to a visual stimulus consisting of mates in conjunction with plants after exposure to plant odour. I discuss the implications of these findings with regards to the representation of the plant stimulus in the spider’s miniature brain. I propose a model in which the cognitive process triggered by the plant odour stimulus changes between the juvenile and adult life stages. I conclude with the suggestion that spiders use highly specialized representations of salient stimuli to perform apparently complex cognitive tasks. Moreover, my results show that these representations change between these life stages.

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  • Flipping research : a model for future focused research making learning visible in health and physical education

    McKay, Anne; Bowes, Margot; Thompson, Kylie (2015-04)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    This paper reports on a future-focused model for practitioner-led inquiry (PLI) in secondary Health and Physical Education (HPE). As a future-focused model this paper draws the notion of the Flipped Classroom (Tucker, 2012), where teacher’s front end the development of their inquiry questions with the support of tertiary academics who review the literature and suggest appropriate methodology to support the teachers’ research, while simultaneously addressing the tension for teacher educators to conduct research as a significant output of academic work. The purpose of the study is to make student learning more visible to students, their families (whānau) and to make this learning as explicit to both of these groups as it was to their teachers. The paper describes concerns raised by teachers that students found it difficult to identify their learning in Health and Physical Education (HPE) and consequently the students could not recognise next steps for future learning. This concern became the focus of the inquiry approach in two large metropolitan city schools; a traditional subject specific HPE delivery school and a school with a future-focused integrated subject curriculum. The study used a collaborative action model where both students and their whānau were asked what students actually learn in HPE, how they learn and how they know they are learning? As co-researchers with teachers, the authors believe that if students and their whānau are able to recognise what they are learning and how they are learning it becomes a more realistic goal for them to jointly consider, where are the next steps in their learning are. This puts students more on the path to being self-regulating and lifelong learners. As the co- researchers we argue that by making the metacognitive process of learning visible in HPE contexts, beyond teachers to students and their whānau, the Vision of the New Zealand Curriculum (NZC) (Ministry of Education, (MOE), 2007) of Twenty First Century (21C) learners as highly confident, connected, actively involved, lifelong learners, may be better actualised.

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  • Product personality: an investigation into how congruent personalities identified in a target market can intentionally be assigned to a wireless speaker

    Maunsell-Wybrants, Hayden

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Consumer’s show a preference for products that communicate a personality congruent to their own. When a user perceives a product to share similar personality attributes to their own, they respond through ‘approach’ behaviour. Using an action research methodology, the project investigated how product semantic knowledge and cognitive response to form can be used to intentionally assign personality attributes to a wireless speaker. Through an assessment of existing products for specific personality attributes, and by identifying the visual dimensions that define these products, a list of visual parameters was generated for the wireless speaker design. The results from the existing product analysis, supported by knowledge gained from literature on embodiment in design and user perception of implicit design cues, were used to guide a design research process through testing and making of an artisanal nature. The results from the project support the concept that product aesthetics can be designed to intentionally express specific personality attributes guided by a designer’s intuition.

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  • Impact of foreign ownership on the firm-level stock return volatility in emerging countries: evidence from Vietnam

    Nguyen, Linh Hai

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This study investigates the impact of foreign institutional ownership on firm-level stock return volatility in Vietnam, using a panel data of 298 firms listed on the Vietnam stock market for the period from 2007 to 2014. Vietnam is known as the third largest recipient that received investments from foreign investors in 2004 (Hafiz & Giroud, 2004). In addition, the change from a planned economy to a market economy has successfully increased the attraction of foreign investment in Vietnam. It is argued that ownership by foreign investors increases return volatility in emerging countries that significantly cause a downtrend in market returns or even financial crises (Stiglitz, 1999, 2000). Existing empirical evidence, however, is mixed. Bae et al. (2004) show that foreign investors reduce stock return volatility while Li et al. (2001) document an opposite effect. Empirical findings of this study suggest that foreign ownership decreases firm-level stock return volatility in Vietnam’s stock markets. Furthermore, I document a reduction in volatility between foreign shareholding and stock return volatility during the global financial crisis, suggesting the important role that foreign ownership plays in stabilizing stock return volatility in the Vietnam stock market.

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  • Ngā Tikanga o Te Uhunga i Te Nehenehenui: E pēwhea ana te āhua o ētehi o ngā tikanga o te uhunga i Te Nehenehenui?

    Kelly, James

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Ka whai haere te raupapa o tēnei tuhinga i ngā mahi o ngā rā o te uhunga - tīmata mai ana i te matenga o te tūpāpaku, tae noa ki te rā e tanumia ai te tūpāpaku. Ka āta tirohia i tēnei tuhinga te āhua o ngā tikanga e here ana i ngā mahi o aua rā o te uhunga. Ko te pātai, e pēwhea ana te āhua o ēnei tikanga o te uhunga i Te Nehenehenui? E ora ana, e mate ana, e pēwhea kē ana rānei? E rua ngā huarahi rangahau i whāia hei whakautu i tēnei pātai, i te tuatahi i ketuketuhia ngā mātātuhi, tuarua i uiuitia ētehi tāngata matatau ki te kaupapa mō ngā tikanga i kitea e rātou i ngā tau o mua me ērā e kitea atu ana e rātou i ēnei rā nei.

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  • Identification and genotyping of Campylobacter spp. strains isolated from a captive wildlife population in New Zealand

    Sowerby, Niki

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The Auckland Zoological Park holds 120 species and over 850 animals within a 17-hectare park in central Auckland. Species include non-primate mammals, avians, primates and reptiles, including a mixture of exotic and native species. Little is known about the epidemiology of Campylobacter in wildlife populations, as previous and current studies focus on domestic and food producing animals, as well as Campylobacter in medical settings. This study set out to determine and identify Campylobacter in a healthy captive wildlife population and present the isolated organisms virulence potential by investigating the presence of putative virulence genes (flaA, cadF, cdtA, cdtB, cdtC and gyrA). The genes investigated are commonly associated with multifactorial processes that are involved with Campylobacter infection. Based on sequencing profiles of the virulence genes investigated, phylogenetic relationships were demonstrated between the different Campylobacter strains isolated from such a wide variety of animals. Over a 9-month period (December 2013 to August 2014) 202 faecal samples were collected from a variety of animal species of the Auckland Zoo’s captive population, for evaluation of the presence of Campylobacter. From the 202 samples collected, Campylobacter was isolated from 17 (8.9%), where Campylobacter jejuni was the most frequently isolated Campylobacter species, with a recovery rate of 52.9% in the present study. Upon isolation, isolates were then investigated for the presence of specific genes that are commonly associated with pathogenesis of Campylobacter infection. The genes were selected on the basis of their involvement in motility, adhesion, invasion and toxin production, which are all associated with the multifactorial bacterial pathogenic mechanisms. The absence of one of these virulence factors can limit and reduce the organism’s pathogenicity and virulence potential. Of the 6 genes investigated, flagella A (flaA) genes were found in 100%, Campylobacter adhesion factor (cadF) was found in 58.8%, gyrase A (gyrA) in 70.6%, and cytotoxin A, B and C (cdtA, cdtB and cdtC) in 70.6%, 47.1% and 35.3% respectively. Sequencing of these genes revealed both homology and heterogeneity of gene sequences between the different Campylobacter species, demonstrating both genetic conservation and variation respectively.

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  • An exploratory study on how workplace bullying is conceptualised in the Australasian media

    Osborne, Nicholas

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Workplace bullying continues to be a prominent issue in both New Zealand and Australian workplaces. Victims of workplace bullying suffer a multitude of grievances on a personal and working level, reducing their job satisfaction and job performance, whilst increasing levels of absenteeism and likelihood of quitting the organisation. An organisation which enables workplace bullying to remain unresolved is breaching legal statutes in Australasia, which require that employers provide a safe environment for their workers. This paper reports on an analysis of some 200 media articles from Australasia regarding the issue of workplace bullying, with a view to understanding how bullying is represented in the media. From a work-environment hypothesis view, the analysis sought to determine whether bullying was portrayed as predominantly a product of the work environment, or as a largely interpersonal concern. The findings of this paper suggest that although reports of the words “culture” and “environment” are present, particularly in New Zealand articles, there is little evidence from media accounts to indicate that Australasian sources perceive the issue of workplace bullying as one that is derivative from an organisation’s workplace environment. The implications of this finding indicate that Australasian media sources are placing the blame of bullying behaviours on the actions of employees, rather than holding organisations responsible for creating an environment that enables workplace bullying behaviours to occur.

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  • The academic journeys of returning postgraduate students: perceptions of appropriate educational provision for their web-based learning

    Angove, Nancy Christine

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This thesis makes an original contribution to research into the challenges facing mature postgraduate students returning to web-based study. The distinct challenges this cohort faces distinguish it from other student groups, but little research has been conducted on the transition process these students undergo in adapting to the online environment. In particular, the thesis focuses on the academic literacy needs of these students. It seeks to capture both the challenges this cohort encounters and also the enabling strategies that facilitate their studies. Using a grounded theory approach, the study explores tutor, support staff and student perspectives regarding these challenges and strategies. In this way the thesis addresses a gap in the existing literature. Data collection involved focus groups, semi-structured interviews, and a document and records review. Three parallel streams - tutors, support staff and students from five New Zealand universities - participated. Findings revealed continuing tension between the traditional view of academic literacy practices as autonomous and transparent and the contemporary perspective of writing as socially situated practice. The findings, which are in agreement with the literature, confirm that there is a distinct gap between undergraduate and postgraduate studies, and particularly in the area of web-based studies. The students need to find ways to manage this gap. The thesis identifies four main areas of challenge faced by students in adjusting to the academic environment: managing the gap though induction, developing self-management, developing critical reading, and developing critical writing. Student experiences demonstrated that face to face induction was an enabling strategy which established expectations, began socialisation processes, and familiarised students with the web-based mode. Self- management, along with induction, established the foundation for student learning. Students spoke of creating a study environment, being a self- starter, and employing time management strategies from course commencement. Support, both in their home environment and from the institution, was important, along with the confidence to proactively seek assistance. Reading was often perceived in terms of reading to write, with a focus on required readings. Some students described their initial experiences as being at the level of reading for understanding, rather than reading critically; consequently strategies which encouraged reading for a purpose, combined with interaction on discussion forums (DFs), were valued. Writing for assessment included both traditional and applied genres and digital text formats, which differed according to context. Writing was often framed by an emphasis on structure, having a sequenced argument, demonstrating an acceptable tone, integrating readings, and staying within the ideas expressed in the literature. When writing, some students felt that new viewpoints, even if supported by the literature, were not encouraged. Recommendations arising from the findings include making the detail and purpose of course activities explicit, providing specific links to institutional web-based support, ensuring the availability of targeted assistance, and responding to individual needs at induction. Further research into the perspectives of other non-mainstream cohorts in the web-based environment would add to knowledge in the area. Research that focuses on the challenges of the online environment from course coordinators’ perspectives would also inform teaching and learning. This study has indicated that there is insufficient cooperation between various support services and postgraduate academic staff at New Zealand universities, and this area requires further investigation. These are issues of great concern in a rapidly changing educational environment. .

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  • Physical outputs of match play in international hockey

    Logan, Scott

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Introduction Quantification of physical match outputs has become a routine practice in most team sports with such data extensively reported in the literature. However, the match to match variability of key physical output metrics in some team sports is poorly understood. Hockey is a popular fast-paced intermittent team sport for which limited data exists with respect to longitudinal analysis of match to match variability and analysis of the influences of situational factors on match outputs and within player variability of physical outputs. Therefore the aims of this thesis were to 1) determine the variability in match outputs in international hockey and 2) if variability exists; determine causes of the variability and the implications for applying physical output data from matches into a training setting for international hockey teams. Methods Twenty-one male international hockey players were monitored using 10Hz GPS units over the duration of an entire international season, resulting in 339 data sets from 29 international matches. Mean physical outputs were determined for key metrics including absolute and relative measures (m/min) of total distance covered, low (19.01km/h) speed distance covered across the whole team and by position (strikers, midfielders and defenders). The within and between player coefficient of variations (CV), smallest worthwhile change (SWC) and likely worthwhile change (LWC) (study 1) and the effect of rank of opposition, result and score margin of matches on physical output and variability of outputs (study 2) were determined and compared. Results Significant difference in mean physical output values were observed between strikers, midfielders and defenders for many metrics with strikers reporting the highest relative distance of 139m/min. There were high amounts of within and between player variability (CV: 27.8-42.5%) observed across all positions for high speed running (>19.01km/h). Relative distance covered typically displayed the lowest variability across all positions (CV: 5.5-10.9%). Smallest worthwhile change and likely worthwhile change values were also lower for relative distance (1.1-2.8% and 9.3-11.3%) than for high speed distance (7.2-8.5% and 34.6-49.4%) respectively. When analysed by situational variables there were typically non-significant changes to mean outputs with the exception of relative distance and high speed relative distance for midfielders which was increased by 5.9% and 22.9% respectively when playing high ranked teams over low ranked teams. High speed relative distance for defenders increased for highly ranked vs low ranked teams (30.6%), decreased for a win vs a draw (38.3%) or loss (36.6%) and decreased for a big loss vs a close game (34.5%) or big win (43.1%). Within player variability remained relatively unchanged by situational variance across all positions when compared to overall within player variability. Conclusion At moderate and high velocities a large degree of match to match variability exists, whilst for relative distances and low speed distances variability of match to match physical outputs is reduced. There appears to be minimal influence of situational variables on within player variability suggesting that the rank of opposition, result or score line of the match does not consistently have a similar influence over the GPS-derived physical outputs from match to match. Significant differences are evident in physical outputs between positions in hockey, suggesting the need to train each position in relation to the demands of their respective position. However within positions significant differences are not as common when analysed by situational variables. The use of likely worthwhile change values based off a ~10% change in relative distance across all positions may be an appropriate method of observing changes in mean outputs that are ‘likely’ substantial in matches and training.

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