82,967 results

  • Roles and impacts of accounting and auditing organization for Islamic financial institutions (AAOIFI) in dealing with the accounting and disclosure of Zakah and Interest (Riba)

    Ahmad Nadzri, Farah Aida (2009-10-26T20:41:22Z)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The issues of zakah and interest for IFIs have been highlighted for several years and attracted many arguments among Islamic scholars and public. The increasing public interest on the Islamic Banking since 1970s has been driven by the increasing sensitivity among Muslims to the relationship between religion and economic activities. With the emergence of IFIs, Muslims community has demanded for an establishment of an accounting body to develop a set of accounting standards that adhere to the Islamic tenets, hence AAOIFI was established. However, the journey of AAOFI in achieving such objective has not been smooth. This paper intended to study the effectiveness of AAOIFI in dealing with the issues of zakah and riba for IFIs by examining the disclosure practice of 25 IFIs worldwide. Based on the analysis conducted, it is concluded that the extents of disclosure by the IFIs are much lower than the AAOIFI requirements. The study also found that leverage and origin factors might contribute to the level disclosures of zakah and financial products. In addition, the test performed also revealed that the adopters of AAOIFI do provide more disclosure as compared to the non-adopters. However, the mean result is relatively low to suggest full compliance with the AAOIFI standards.

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  • How do tax incentives affect the composition of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in north-east Asia

    Zuo, Yanting (Kimberley) (2009-10-28T01:00:58Z)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The intense competitions among countries of using tax incentives to stimulate Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) suggest that an in-depth study of relationship between tax incentives and FDI is necessary. The early debates among tax incentives and FDI suggested that tax incentives did not have strong impact on FDI. However, those debates were far from over given the complexity of tax incentives and FDI. As a result of this, this study will focus on the relationship between tax incentives and FDI composition and analysis how tax incentives can affect the composition of FDI in different countries. The result indicates that tax incentives are only effective in affecting FDI composition in high-tech industries as well as capital-intensive sectors such as finance sector. Traditional industries such as agriculture industry are less sensitive to the availability of tax incentives. However, the limitation of this study is that data obtained from China and Indonesia government website was not comprehensive and reliable. In addition, a round-tripping activity was excluded to carry out this study.

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  • A 2012 survey of the Australasian clinical medical physics and biomedical engineering workforce

    Round, W. Howell (2013)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    A survey of the medical physics and biomedical engineering workforce in Australia and New Zealand was carried out in 2012 following on from similar surveys in 2009 and 2006. 761 positions (equivalent to 736 equivalent full time (EFT) positions) were captured by the survey. Of these, 428 EFT were in radiation oncology physics, 63 EFT were in radiology physics, 49 EFT were in nuclear medicine physics, 150 EFT were in biomedical engineering and 46 EFT were attributed to other activities. The survey reviewed the experience profile, the salary levels and the number of vacant positions in the workforce for the different disciplines in each Australian state and in New Zealand. Analysis of the data shows the changes to the workforce over the preceding 6 years and identifies shortfalls in the workforce.

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  • Teacher professional learning and development for a future-oriented education system – a “wicked problem”?

    Gilbert, J

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    In this presentation we present some initial findings from a research project designed to explore the kinds—and level—of support a group of teachers needed to experience the “step change” in thinking that (we argue) they need to become “future-oriented” educators. Background One strand of the educational futures literature argues that today’s schools are no longer “fit for purpose”. The context they were set up to serve has changed, but, as Richard Slaughter put it (25 years ago), schooling continues to “unthinkingly reproduce an obsolete world-view”. However, while there is now a great deal of talk about the needs of “21st century” learners, there is very little discussion of what 21st century teachers might look like, or how today’s teachers might become more “future-oriented”. This project was set up to explore this territory. The project Its starting point was that becoming a “future-oriented” teacher involves something more than accepting and implementing constructs developed by others: it involves major cognitive shift. The project’s aim was to investigate whether or not this kind of cognitive shift is possible for teachers enculturated in 20th century thinking, and, if it is, what helps it to occur? Drawing on the adult cognitive development and “transformational learning” literatures, we developed an “intervention”, which was made up of a university paper, a workshop on adult development, and cluster workshops. We then developed a research project that was designed to evaluate the effects of this intervention. Participants in the research project were interviewed three times, observed in the workshops, and asked to write monthly reflections on their thinking during and after the intervention. This paper reports on a snapshot of the findings from this project (which is ongoing) and our reflections on what these findings mean for the future of this kind of work. Our experience in this project has made us want to think beyond the individual-oriented methodologies we used in this work. Our ongoing work in this area is informed by complex adaptive systems theory. We are now treating the intervention as a “safe-to-fail” experiment, in the sense in which this term is used by Snowden et al. We are interested in discussing these ideas with other researchers using them in educational contexts. 1. Slaughter, R. (2988). Futures. In D. Hicks (Ed.). Education for peace: Issues, principles and practice in the classroom. (pp. 214-228). London: Routledge. 2. E.g. Kegan, R. (1994). In over our heads: The mental demands of modern life. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press; Mezirow, J. & associates (eds.) Learning as transformation: Critical perspectives on a theory in progress. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 3. E.g. Snowden, D. (2002). Complex acts of knowing: Paradox and descriptive self-awareness. Journal of Knowledge management 6(2), pp.100-111; Snowden, D. (2007). Safe-fail probes. http://cognitive-edge.com/blog/entry/4090/safe-fail-probes;Kurtz, C. & Snowden, D. (2003). The new dynamics of strategy: Sense-making in a complex and complicated world. IBM Systems Journal, 42(3), 462.

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  • New Zealand

    Moffat, Kirstine; Lavën, Helen (2011)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The New Zealand section of The Journal of Commonwealth Literature’s 2011 bibliographical issue.

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  • The measurement of the performance of New Zealand tertiary education institutions and the demand for their services

    Smart, Warren (2009-11-08T20:17:45Z)

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This thesis explored the measurement of performance of New Zealand tertiary education institutions (TEIs) and the demand for their services. This involved analysing the research performance of New Zealand universities, analysing the productive efficiency of New Zealand TEIs and examining the choice of provider by bachelor’s degree starters. Bibliometric data was used to measure the research productivity of New Zealand universities. This showed that following a fall during the early 2000s, the research productivity of New Zealand universities increased following the introduction of the Performance-Based Research Fund (PBRF). A multi-dimensional analysis of university research performance between 2000 and 2005 showed that no individual university was top in all four of the performance measures assessed. The overall performance of three universities, Massey University, Lincoln University and Auckland University of Technology, were noticeably below that of the other five universities. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was then applied to input and output data of New Zealand TEIs to analyse their productive efficiency. In 2006, polytechnics that had: low levels of bachelor’s degree provision, were not regionally based, had a high proportion of subcontracting and were larger institutions, achieved higher levels of pure technical efficiency. The analysis showed that several polytechnics could improve their technical efficiency by reducing their scale of operations. In polytechnics, higher technical efficiency was associated with better financial performance. A number of technically efficient polytechnics struggled financially, indicating that the overall efficiency of the polytechnic sector was not high, or the funding model they operate under is not appropriate. The analysis also showed that decreasing bachelor’s degree provision, poor financial performance in the previous year, an increase in provision of community education, was associated with higher growth in total factor productivity between 1996 and 2006. The application of DEA to Australasian university data between 1997 and 2005 showed that New Zealand universities performed relatively well in terms of relative pure technical efficiency, compared with their Australian counterparts. However, the total factor productivity of New Zealand universities increased at a lower rate, on average, than that of the Australian Group of Eight and newer Australian universities. The application of DEA to a dataset of the participating TEIs in the PBRF showed that polytechnics had lower technical efficiency, on average, than other TEIs. The choices of bachelor’s degree starters in 2006 were analysed for evidence of a lack of parity of esteem between university and polytechnic degrees. The results showed that a lack of parity of esteem between polytechnic and university degrees may be influencing student choices. Students from higher deciles schools, with higher secondary school qualifications, Asians, students who travel for study, were all more likely to enrol in a university to start a bachelor’s degree. There was less clear cut evidence of a lack of parity of esteem between selected groupings of New Zealand universities. However, there did appear to be a lack of parity of esteem between the four older metropolitan universities and the two newest universities, with signs the former were held in higher esteem.

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  • Phaze One: part one of a draft novel. Young adult fantasy/ adventure

    White, Jeanette (2009-11-17T00:59:31Z)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The exegesis will elaborate on the research process undertaken this year to write a fictional draft novel. The creative work is a young adult fantasy novel, and is part one of what will eventually be a three part series. At this stage, its working title is Phaze One. The introduction of the exegesis discusses what may possibly be the attraction of the fantasy genre to many writers; especially in light of what some critics refer to as the ‘light-weight genre’, and why fantasy has attracted me. There is an overview of Phaze One and why I have chosen to write part one of a three part series. The landscape of contemporary young adult fantasy, as well as, the categories of science fiction and fantasy literature and how they overlap will be discussed, with reference to academic literature. I will also discuss the relevance of mythic conventions and archetypes common in fantasy, and how these conventions have been adapted to the novel. Thus, positioning the creative work within its wider context. The exegesis includes reference to various writers who were relevant to the creative process; however, significant reference will be to the young adult fantasy writer Garth Nix and his ‘Keys to the Kingdom’ series. Various fantasy elements within the work will be discussed, as well as, the ideas for some settings, and the integration of Campbell’s ‘Heroes Journey’ in the novel.

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  • Book review: The adventure of the real: Jean Rouch and the craft of ethnographic cinema

    Nannicelli, Theodore (2012)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article reviews the book: “The adventure of the real: Jean Rouch and the craft of ethnographic cinema” by Paul Henley.

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  • Online group discussions with adolescent intercountry adoptees in New Zealand: a qualitative investigation into their experiences

    Lee, Hanhee (2013-05-20)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The current study investigated the experiences of intercountry adoption from the perspectives of adolescent intercountry adoptees in New Zealand. Many adoption studies have focused on specific developmental domains of younger adoptees, and collected data from secondary sources (e.g., adoptive parents). Additionally, adoption studies in New Zealand are scarce. For these reasons, the author decided to conduct a research project. This qualitative descriptive study recruited three adolescents aged between 16 and 18 years. They were adopted from Russia to New Zealand. They discussed their experiences and opinions about intercountry adoption in synchronous (i.e. real-time) online group discussions over eight sessions using Blackboard’s Elluminate online chat space. The discussion topics included early institutional life; transition to New Zealand; ethnic identity; attitudes toward adoption; disclosure of adoptive status; feeling different from others; school life; birth family and adoptive family. Content analysis was carried out and four themes were identified. The intercountry adoptees said that (1) they need love and a sense of security, (2) they have a desire to fully integrate into their adoptive country (3) they want to have positive relationships with their adoptive parents and peers, and (4) their origins are also an important aspect of their lives. In light of these findings, implications for intercountry teens, families, and professionals have been suggested. Strengths and limitations of the current research project and future research are also discussed.

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  • Awkward formalism: the role of objects in contemporary painting installation

    Kosovac, Ena (2009-11-30T21:25:53Z)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    I am a painter with a huge attachment to objects. In this painting project I aim to make objects whose objecthood is formed by the collision of the different languages of both painting and sculpture – objects that negotiate the boundary line between traditional genre divisions. These objects react to one another, where an aspect of one suggests the next, so that they develop like an epidemic. And therefore this project functions in an accumulative way, where each work or body of work acts as a stepping-stone for the next, so that the objects descend from a common ancestor and have a common origin. The project is primarily installational in nature – in the sense that, although emphasis is put on the individual objects, they are viewed together in installations, not as separate entities. I aim to consider installation in terms of the language of painting, which constitutes the formal underpinning of my practice.

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  • Botanica: the earthly divine

    Gannon, Eleanor (2009-12-16T21:55:44Z)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Drawing inspiration from Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy, this project seeks to incorporate the oxymetaphor, digital photography and photo manipulation into considerations of Heaven, Hell and Purgatory. By considering the potential of an earthly site of transition (the cemetery) in relation to Dante's divine spaces, these images consider certain contradictions existing between the cemetery as a manifestation of waiting, permanence, and decay, and its associations with temporality and transition. The cemetery is therefore an oxymoron. It suggests both a beginning and an end; growth and decay; a place of closure and a pace of transition. Although Heaven, Hell and Purgatory have distinct characteristics in these images, there are commonalities between their layered treatments and iconography that unify them as a whole.

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  • Exegesis and screenplay for a film entitled: White Magnolia

    Hong, Ki Myung (2009-11-25T04:00:10Z)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Most new migrants choose New Zealand as their second home country because New Zealand provides peaceful, safe and relaxed life style and also quality education compared to their homelands. However, for most migrants, settling down in New Zealand is one of the most dynamic and complex processes in their lives. Many migrants are struggling to adjust to New Zealand because the expression of cultural values is different in New Zealand than in their cultures. As migrants adjust to the new culture, their traditional cultural values are increasingly challenged by New Zealand cultural values leading to some degree of personal change. As a result, most immigrants encounter many unfamiliar cultural values in the initial stage of immigration to a New Zealand culture. This story is about the impact of culture-shock on an ordinary Korean migrant family and their struggle adjusting in a new society.

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  • Intelligent drill wear condition monitoring using self organising feature maps

    Ashar, Jesal (2009-11-25T22:21:06Z)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The rising demand for exacting performances from manufacturing systems has led to new challenges for the development of complex tool condition monitoring techniques. Although a wide range of monitoring methods have been investigated and developed, there has been very little migration of these innovations into industrial practice. The principal factor behind this phenomenon is the stochastic nature of the environment in which the system must function. A truly universal application has yet to be developed. The work presented here centres around the application of an unsupervised neural network model to the said problem. These networks learn without the aid of a human teacher or supervisor and learn to organise and re-organise themselves in accordance to the input data. This leads to the network structure reflecting the given input distribution more precisely than a predefined model, which generally follows a decay schedule. The dynamic nature of the process provides an evaluation of the underlying connectivity and topology in the original data space. This makes the network far more capable of capturing details in the target space. These networks have been successfully used in speech recognition applications and various pattern recognition tasks involving very noisy signals. Work is in progress on their application to robotics, process control and telecommunications. The procedure followed here has been to conduct experimental drilling trials using solid carbide drills on a Duplex Stainless Steel workpiece. Duplex Stainless Steel was chosen as a preferred metal for drilling experiments because of this high strength, good resistance to corrosion, low thermal expansion and good fatigue resistance. During the drilling trials, forces on the workpiece along the x, y and z axes were captured in real time and moments of the forces were calculated using these values. These three axial forces, along with their power spectral densities and moments were used as input parameters to the Artificial Neural Network model which followed the Self-Organising Map algorithm to classify this data. After the network was able to adapt itself to classify this real world data, the generated model was tested against a different set of data values captured during the drilling trials. The network was able to correctly identify a worn out drill from a new drill from this previously unseen set of data. This autonomous classification of the drill wear state by the neural network is a step towards creating a “universal” application that will eventually be able to predict tool wear in any machining operation without prior training.

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  • The Ogress, The Innocent, And The Madman: Narrative and Gender in Child Homicide Trials in New Zealand, 1870-1925

    Powell, Debra (2013)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    The murder of a child represents one of the most perplexing and unimaginable of crimes. This thesis, the first legal-historical investigation into child homicide in New Zealand, seeks to uncover some of the ways that people have ‘imagined’ and made sense of this complex crime in the past. The conclusions emerging from this study suggest that nineteenth and early twentieth-century observers of child homicide trials relied heavily on the interpretive power of familiar cultural narratives to convey meaning and achieve composure. Homicides involving children, though often disparate and deeply ambiguous events, were bounded by a narrow yet profoundly influential body of images, characters and representations. This repertoire of narrative conventions was not simply reflective of contemporary attitudes and understandings but worked actively to bolster and crystallise the meanings surrounding disturbing events. Utilising quantitative and qualitative methodologies, this study draws on a comprehensive dataset of reported child homicide incidents occurring in New Zealand between 1870 and 1925. Select cases from this database are considered as a set of narrative texts using gender as the primary category of analysis. The popular and legal discourses surrounding these incidents are analysed within a post-structuralist theoretical framework to examine the divergent representations of those who were implicated in the suspicious death of a child. The research includes an investigation of criminal data for evidence of quantitative patterning in criminal typologies and sentencing, as well as analysis of textual evidence such as trial transcripts, coronial inquest reports, parliamentary debates, and newspaper reporting and commentary. The findings of this study demonstrate that the discursive constructions of child homicide in nineteenth and early twentieth-century New Zealand were highly gendered. Ultimately, child murder was imagined as an offence perpetrated by mothers. However, the impact of gender on trial proceedings and outcomes was by no means straightforward or clear cut. Cultural understandings of race, class, morality, madness and criminality all fed into the narrative construction of murder events and were shaped and reformed in relation to each other. In unpacking the stories of child murder, this thesis exposes the highly constructed nature of criminal legal discourse within and beyond the courtroom, and provides a historical basis for a more nuanced critique of understandings of child homicide crime in the present.

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  • Holding the digital mirror up to nature - a practice-as-research project exploring digital media techniques in live theatre

    Brannigan, Ross (2009-11-25T23:56:08Z)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Is an actor performing live if that actor is out of sight in the wings and appears on stage as a computer-mediated representation? Is co-presence with such a mediated embodiment problematic for the performer? This project seeks to explore the use of digital media elements, from the perspective of the actor, in the collaborative process of devising, designing, rehearsing and performing a Shakespearian theatre production. It raises issues of the creative possibilities that applications of new technologies afford and of a changing perception of the nature of liveness. Can digital media techniques usefully enhance the liveness of performance and extend the audience’s experience of the production? Specifically, can it augment their perception of themselves, mirrored on stage? Exploring the usefulness of digital media techniques takes a theatre practitioner into the intermedial, liminal spaces where the two fields converge. These are spaces of possibility where new ways of working might emerge. This thesis is presented primarily as an experimental performance and is contextualised by this exegesis with its written and DVD components.

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  • Using satisfaction arguments and rich traceability in requirements prioritisation

    Motupally, Praveen Kumar (2009-11-26T00:53:21Z)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Requirement Engineering (RE) is a distinct subset activity of Systems Engineering. Eliciting and Specifying requirements are the sub processes of RE. Eliciting and Specifying correct requirements, that meet the customer’s needs contributes to the project’s Quality and Success. However, determining the “Candidate Requirements” is challenging for a number of reasons. Requirement Prioritisation helps to cope with this problem. A number of Requirement Prioritisation methods exist. This dissertation aims to investigate a better prioritisation technique by subjectively assessing the “effort” between prioritising requirements with the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and prioritising “Satisfaction Arguments” (SA) with AHP and subjectively assessing the “effort” again. The results of the experiment show a similar set of priorities produced by both attempts, however, the perceived effort of prioritising SAs is less compared with prioritising requirements with AHP due to “Propagation of Priorities”. The results of the experiment show that “Propagation of Priorities” is possible with both the approaches, however “Propagation of Priorities” was found to be bidirectional when prioritising SA with AHP and unidirectional when prioritising requirements with AHP.

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  • Oceania Football Confederation: the impact of affiliate disaffiliation on the inter-organizational dynamics of a federated network

    Waugh, Daniel (2009-11-26T03:51:53Z)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The purpose of this research is to examine the impact of member disaffiliation on the inter-organizational dynamics of a network. To date the impact of an environmental disturbance such as member disaffiliation on the inter-organizational dynamics of a network has had minor academic interest. On January 1, 2006, the governing body of football in Australia completed their quest for a greater and more lucrative market by affiliating to the Asian Football Confederation (AFC). For this movement to occur Australia first had to disaffiliate from the Oceania Football Confederation (OFC). In football, a Confederation is a continental specific coordinator of football activities which operate under the auspices of the Federation International de Football Association (FIFA). At a theoretical level, this is a unique context to explore the impact of disaffiliation on the inter-organizational dynamics of a network. The research is based on a single case study approach, and involved 12 semi-structured interviews that were conducted with informants from within the OFC network, with secondary data being organizational documents. The informants were either the President or General Secretary of the members affiliated to the OFC. Dynamics that were explored included the impact on the legitimacy of the network, financial implications, and how the distribution of power has changed. The findings of the research indicated that for now, the perception is that the organization is still legitimate. However, if the Confederation does not improve from both a playing and administrative perspective, it may well become illegitimate. The redistribution of power within the network has shifted strongly in favour of the two French speaking nations, New Caledonia and Tahiti, which were both previously considered minor players within the network. It is unclear if this is due to their connection with France. The key conclusion from this research is that disaffiliation provides a ‘wake-up call’ to the remaining members, and forces them to stand on their own two feet and take responsibility for their actions.

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  • A study of language use in secondary school classrooms in the Solomon Islands: Conceptions, practices and proficiencies

    Tanangada, Lanelle Olandrea (2013)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Multilingualism is a complex phenomenon in the Pacific, particularly in Melanesia, where there is more than one language being spoken by individuals. Therefore it is important for the education systems to consider learners’ needs in providing quality education that accommodates students’ first language in the English curriculum. This study set out to explore teachers’ and students’ beliefs, practices and proficiencies in two selected secondary schools regarding their use of language in English classrooms. Bilingual/multilingual educational research is a recent phenomenon in the South Pacific, including the Solomon Islands. This presents serious considerations for policy makers, educational authorities, teachers and students about the importance of accommodating students’ first language (L1) alongside the English-only curriculum. A qualitative research methodology approach was used, based on the interpretive paradigm, with individual and focus group interviews and classroom observations. Eight teachers and sixteen students from two schools, one rural and one urban, were interviewed on their conceptions of language use and the place of vernacular, Pijin and English in the English curriculum. Classroom observations carried out on two of the teacher participants focused on their language practices in English lessons and on capturing students’ code-switching practices. The findings of this study suggest that there is a mismatch between teachers’ beliefs and practices. While all the teachers acknowledged the English-only policy, and the importance of using English as the medium of instruction, their reported practices and observed lessons supported the use of students’ L1. The students also highlighted that the use of Pijin and/or vernacular supported their learning of English. This raises important points regarding bi/multilingual educational approaches to teachers’ pedagogical practices in accommodating students’ L1 for effective learning purposes. This study has unveiled teachers’ beliefs about language use in secondary school classrooms, reported practices and students’ patterns of language use and assumed language proficiencies. It therefore makes a contribution to the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development advocating for the importance of bi/multilingual education and teacher pedagogical practices and approaches to teaching English as a second language without impeding the students’ L1.

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  • Scientists talking to students through videos

    Chen, Junjun; Cowie, Bronwen (2013)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The benefits of connecting school students with scientists are well documented. This paper reports how New Zealand teachers brought scientists into the classrooms through the use of videos of New Zealand scientists talking about themselves and their research. Two researchers observed lessons in 9 different classrooms in which 23 educational videos were shown to students from years 2 to 11 (aged 6–17 years). Seven groups of primary students and 4 groups of secondary students participated in interviews after classroom observations. Eight additional secondary teachers participated in 7 focus group discussions; 4 additional primary teachers participated in 1 focus group discussion. Data were analysed thematically using an inductive approach. This analysis uncovered 4 major functions for the use of videos of scientists talking about their work: bringing scientists into the classroom, scientists talking about science with local relevance, scientists explaining concepts using a multitude of modes and scientists as authentic alternative authorities within the classroom. Taken together, the findings demonstrate that the use of video clips of scientists talking about their work can be an effective and efficient way of engaging students in learning about science and scientists.

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  • Development of model fermented fish sausage from New Zealand marine species

    Khem, Sarim (2010-01-04T22:49:57Z)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Three New Zealand marine species, hoki (Macruronus novaezealandiae), kahawai (Arripis trutta) and trevally (Pseudocaranx dentex) were used to develop model fermented fish sausage. The formulation comprised fish mince, carbohydrate, minced garlic and salt in a mass ratio of 1 (fish): 0.15: 0.05: 0.03, respectively. The carbohydrate source was cooked rice or glucose. (Endogenous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) failed to ferment rice). Folate was also added to the mixture as a factor. The mixtures were extruded into 50 mL plastic syringes, where the needle end of the barrel had been excised by lathe. The lubricated barrel was overfilled to 60 mL, capped with a layer of ParafilmTM and aluminium foil, sealed tightly by rubber band and incubated at 30°C. Over time the piston was progressively advanced to yield samples for microbiological, physical, and chemical analysis. Over 96 hours an increase in the LAB count was observed with a concomitant decrease in pH. After fermentation was complete, the samples contained around 8.77 log cfu LAB g-1 with the pH range from 4.38 to 5.08. The microbiological and pH behaviour of each species varied between preparations. Hardness, adhesiveness, springiness and cohesiveness of the treatments increased with fermentation, except for hoki. The treatments showed different colour characteristics with fermentation. The light reflectance (L* values) of the trevally and kahawai treatments increased, while the a* (redness) and b* (yellowness) values decreased. Hoki exhibited smaller colour changes except for yellowness, which increased markedly. Proteolysis, measured colorimetrically by soluble peptide bonds, was greatest for trevally. Lipid oxidation, measured by the thiobarbituric acid method, was least for hoki, notably the species with the lowest fat content. Biogenic amines, which are a general quality indicator of fermented products, increased during fermentation. The trevally treatment generated the highest concentration of amines, but these values were lower than those reported for fermented fish sausage in Southeast Asia. Notably there were no important difference between folate treatments and those without folate. The results point to commercial opportunities and further research with New Zealand marine species, especially trevally. To improve the product quality and to show geographical exclusivity, further research could be done by using starter culture, and a New Zealand staple carbohydrate source such as kumara and potato, and spices and herbs which are commonly used in New Zealand, such as rosemary, thyme and sage or specific to New Zealand, such as horopito. In addition, sensory studies should also be performed before the products could be tested in the market.

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