82,967 results

  • An intimate spectacle : dispersing the theatre : an essay presented in partial fulfillment of the degree of Master of Design, Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

    Burrell, Sarah (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Sound files available with hard copy

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  • Combined Vertical Ozone Profile Database

    Bodeker, Greg; Hassler, Birgit; Young, Paul; Portmann, Robert (2011)

    Dataset
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Bodeker Scientific produces a combined monthly mean vertical ozone profile database spanning the period 1979 to 2007. The database is completely filled such that there are no missing data. A publication describing the construction of this database is currently in preparation. The raw individual ozone data are sourced from the BDBP database (see The BDBP). Monthly means are calculated from individual ozone measurements extracted from the BDBP in much the same way as in Hassler et al. (2009). These are referred to as Tier 0 data. A regression model is fitted to the Tier 0 data at each of 70 pressure/altitude levels. The regression model is of the form: Ozone(t,lat) = A(t,lat) + Offset and seasonal cycle B(t,lat) x t + Linear trend C(t,lat) x EESC(t,AoA) + Age-of-air dependent equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine D(t,lat) x QBO(t) + Quasi-biennial Oscillation E(t,lat) x QBOorthog(t) + Orthogonalized QBO F(t,lat) x ENSO(t) + El-Niño Southern Oscillation G(t,lat) x Solar(t) + Solar cycle H(t,lat) x Pinatubo(t) + Mt. Pinatubo volcanic eruption R(t) Residual Regression model fit coefficients are expanded in Fourier series to account for seasonality and in Legendre polynomials in latitude to account for meridional structure in the fit coefficients. Regression model output is then used to produce 4 gap free Tier 1 data sets, viz.: Tier 1.1 (Anthropogenic): This comprises the mean annual cycle plus contributions from the EESC and linear trend basis functions. Tier 1.2 (Natural): This comprises the mean annual cycle plus contributions from the QBO, solar cycle and El Niño basis functions. Tier 1.3 (Natural & volcanoes): Tier 1.2 but now also including contributions from volcano basis functions. Tier 1.4 (All): Constructed by summing the contributions from all basis functions. There are 20 files available named CCMVal2_REF-B1_BSOzone-XX-YYY_TierZZ_T2Mz_O3.nc where: CCMVal2 indicates that these data files have been formatted to allow easy use in the CCMVal2 project. REF-B1 indicates that the time period covered is similar to that for the REF-B1 simulations. XX is either 'MR' for mixing ratio or 'ND' for number density. YYY is either 'PRS' to denote that the data are on pressure levels or 'ALT' to denote that the data are on altitude levels. ZZ denotes the Tier: '0', '1_1', '1_2', '1_3' or '1_4'. T2Mz denotes that these are monthly means in two dimensions (latitude and altitude/pressure). At present Bodeker Scientific has no financial support to maintain this database and so if there is anyway that you can contribute towards the maintenance of this database, that would be much appreciated. That said, this database is made freely available to any not-for-profit organisation or individual. If you are going to be using this database in a publication, please let me know. At the very least please include the following acknowledgement: We would like to thank Greg Bodeker (Bodeker Scientific) and Birgit Hassler (NOAA) for providing the combined vertical ozone profile database.

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  • Design and parametric control of co-axes driven two-wheeled balancing robot : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Engineering in Mechatronics at Massey University, School of Engineering and Advanced Technology, Albany, New Zealand

    Memarbashi, Hamid Reza (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Nowadays robots can be seen in our daily life. Recently, robotic applications and their wide range of functionalities have drawn many engineers’ attentions. Two-wheeled balancing robots are typical example of unstable dynamic system. Understanding the classical theory of inverted pendulum and its dynamic system are initial steps for developing a two-wheeled balancing robot. A balancing robot’s structure has two different sections. The first section contains the moving parts or wheels and the second section contains the rigid parts or chassis. An initial physical structure was designed and built and robot’s specifications were measured for developing the mathematical model of two-wheeled balancing robot. Existing energies of dynamic model were observed separately and substituted into Lagrangian equation to generate the mathematical model of balancing robot. Mathematical model was generated to observe the behaviour of the model. State-space model of robot was developed and a controller was designed according to state-space model. Tilt sensor and gyroscope provide the feedbacks of closed-loop system. Two-wheeled balancing robot has some key parameters that are directly engaged with system’s performance and responses. Parametric studies were done and system responses were observed by variation of key parameters. Observed results from parametric studies were applied into physical model to improve the robot performance. Kalman filter was implemented for fusing the gyroscope angular rate and raw tilt angle. A proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller was designed to generate the required input for motor controllers to control the rotation of wheels based on the Kalman filter’s output.

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  • Work stress and well-being of hospital doctors : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University, Albany

    Singh, Racquel (2000)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The purpose of this study was to examine the work stress and well-being of hospital doctors and to determine whether underlying personality dispositions and stressful life events impacted on this relationship. The sample population consisted of 680 (full-time and part-time) medical practitioners from Auckland Hospital, Green Lane Hospital and Starship Hospital. The final sample was comprised of 173 medical practitioners (junior and senior) with a 25.4% response rate. The questionnaire method was utilized with the Physician Stress Inventory measuring work stress and the General Health Questionnaire 12 measuring well-being. The Social Readjustment Rating Scale was used to assess the number of stressful life events experienced by the doctors in a year and the Attributional Style Questionnaire was used to assess the role personality dispositions can play in the work stress-well-being relationship. The doctors indicated that perceived work productivity and idealistic traits were the most prevalent sources of work stress. Junior doctors experienced more stressful life events than senior doctors. Overall, 35% of the doctors were at risk to experiencing some degree of psychological morbidity, but the criteria for determining morbidity is questionable. An underlying personality disposition, attributional style of stability for good events was associated with positive well-being and acted as a mediator in the relationships of physicians' stress and life events to negative well-being. These findings however cannot be generalized due to the small sample size and future research in this domain will help unfold a more clear and definite association between work stress and well-being of hospital doctors.

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  • Ultra-cold bosons in one-dimensional single- and double-well potentials : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masterate of Science at Massey University

    Gulliksen, Jake Steven (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    A variationally optimised basis allows an accurate description of the quantum behaviour of ultra-cold atoms, even in the strongly correlated regime. A rescaling scheme corrects discrepancies caused by using a reduced Hilbert space. This approach also allows the modelling of experimentally realizable double-well potentials, which still reveals the maximally-entangled states seen in fixed basis models. Time dynamics of these double-well systems show macroscopic tunnelling between wells for bosons with a sufficient interaction strength. The many-body problem of interacting bosons in the highly-correlated regime is difficult. The number of basis states needed to describe this quantum system accurately quickly grows beyond computational reach. Rescaling the interaction strength proves a simple and effective method of calculating exact eigenvalues in a reduced Hilbert space. Bosonic systems in the double-well potential are investigated next. First, how different eigen-states depend on the interaction strength is examined. The variationally optimised method has advantages over a standard fixed basis method with the ability to model experimentally viable systems and explore more stronglycorrelated regimes. Secondly, tunnelling dynamics in the double well are studied, specifically for a system where all particles initially occupy a single well. Oscillations corresponding to collective tunnelling between wells are found in regimes where there are zero interactions or bosons lie in a maximally-entangled state. What governs the dynamics outside these two regimes is also considered.

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  • Food packaging and its influence on Thai' elderly consumer's [sic] food choices : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Packaging Technology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Ounsuvan, Pittiporn; Pittiporn Ounsuvan (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Advancing age is leading to changes in consumer needs, desires and aptitude. One need which is continuous, regardless of age, is the need for food. For some consumer’s [sic] age associated change can consequently limit their ability in grocery shopping and opening of food packages. Openability of food packaging for aged consumer is seen to be a major problem because some types of packages are difficult to open. As a consequence there is an actual need to provide elderly consumers with more supportive environment when grocery shopping and supportive instrument when using the packages by providing sufficient packaging functions. This research is in grocery shopping behaviour and attitude of older consumer (60 +) in different culture associated with various different types of food packaging and packaging utilisation. The aim of this research was to determine the different culture of consumers in grocery shopping behaviour and experience of elder consumers in Bangkok, Thailand with the aged from 60 years and over. Data collection involved quantitative (Questionnaire survey) and qualitative (Focus group) with elder consumers aged from 60 years. The quantitative findings are collected from a consumer questionnaire (n= 100), which mainly focused on consumer grocery shopping behaviour related to packaging utilisation and problems encountered. The result of questionnaire collections were then analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 15. Next, qualitative Focus groups defined in depth the grocery shopping experience as well as packaging utilisation. Each focus group consisted of six or seven adults and was carried out in a familiar social setting. Both the qualitative and quantitative results have identified shopping patterns and motivations for purchase decisions among this age group, and show that elderly consumer interface with both positive and negative experiences when accessing food products. The result shows that the majority of elder people in Bangkok normally go grocery shopping on a weekly basis in one of the multiple food retailers. Most of the participants had already retired from work and they are commonly living with their family member but they do their own house work. However, living situation did not have any affect [sic] in grocery shopping or packaging utilisation. Education and income could be factors that affect purchase decisions and packaging used. Packaging labels seems to be a major problem for aged consumers, as they find them difficult to read. In terms of packaging utilisation, most problems occurred with the packaging closure rather than packaging itself. Consumer health can affect packaging utilisation and openability of some type of packages which could lead to injury. The thesis discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various different types of food packaging.

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  • Isotope Exchange Kinetics in Clay-Water System

    Furkert, Roderick John (1962)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Knowledge of reactions at solid/liquid and solid/gas interfaces is of great importance in the study of all adsorption phenomena. Techniques that enable a study of molecules (liquid or gaseous) adsorbed onto a surface may be divided into two categories: (a) those that upset the equilibrium between molecules in the gaseous (or liquid) phase above the solid surface and molecules actually adsorbed onto it, and (b) those that do not. Those techniques that do not disturb this equilibrium will give results that would be expected to have greater reliability than those obtained from techniques that upset this equilibrium (for example by heating or by affecting one component of the equilibrium by titration, precipitation etc.) In an endeavour to study the properties of water adsorbed onto various substances such as clay, wool and textile fibres without affecting the equilibrium the technique of isotopic exchange has been developed. Essentially the procedure is to take a closed adsorber system in equilibrium with a gas (or liquid), part of which is in the sensitive region of a geiger counter, and to add a very small amount of radioactively labelled gas (or liquid) to the system. The adsorber is placed in the bottom of a geiger counter out of the sensitive volume and a known fraction of gas (or liquid) is in the sensitive volume. As the system is at equilibrium there is continuous exchange between the adsorbed molecules on the sample and the molecules in the gaseous (or liquid) state. Thus, when a very small amount, by weight, of the radioactively labelled gas (or liquid) is added to the system, exchange will take place with the non-radioactive molecules adsorbed on the surface of the material under study. Thus radioactivity will be removed from the sensitive volume of the geiger counter and adsorbed onto the surface of the material, and so the specific activity (count rate), as measured with the geiger counter, will drop. The advantage of this technique is that the equilibrium between the adsorbed molecules and the free gas (or liquid) is not disturbed. The actual amount of radioactive material added is so minute that there is no effective change in the concentration of the free gas (or liquid).

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  • A narrative inquiry into primary caregivers' understanding of their child's psychological assessment : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment for the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University, Albany, Auckland, New Zealand

    Niemand, Jessica (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study explores the ways in which primary caregivers experience the process of having their child psychologically assessed. The research uses a narrative methodology to explore the accounts of seven participants who have supported their child through a process of psychological assessment. Caregivers were interviewed and their interviews were transcribed and analysed by outlining the sequential order of events and the main themes of each of the participants’ narratives. Individual stories were then combined to present the overarching themes that emerged from the study. The main themes include the following: suspected “diagnosis” and own expertise, seeing “inside” the child, bittersweet labels, questions of guilt and blame, the “good parent”, the distant professionals, problems with communication, challenging the system, inadequate measures, over-assessed, caregiver as the defender and advocate and the helpful professional. This research contributes to the limited literature on client’s perspectives of psychological intervention and is intended to improve clinicians understanding of this area.

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  • Collaborative governance towards sustainability : empirical study comparing organisations' sustainability practices in New Zealand and in Brazil : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Management (M.Mgt.) in Management at Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand

    Laquimia, Marcelo Biagio (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The sustainable development debate comprises the economic, environmental, and social challenges of the 21st century. These are unavoidable issues for organisations of all sectors. Private, public, and civil society organisations are pursuing ways to address such challenges individually and through collaborations. This study investigates how organisations in New Zealand and in Brazil address sustainability concerns through collaborative governance efforts with strategic stakeholders. A comparative analysis of the central management practices adopted by organisations in both countries is presented, and the goals, benefits and limitations associated with collaborative initiatives are investigated. Ten organisations are interviewed, five from each country. Thematic analysis is used to analyse the interview data. The results revealed that organisations in both countries are employing similar management practices that focus on addressing sustainability concerns. Organisations perceive a number of value creation outcomes from sustainability practices. These include brand and reputational gains, improved supply chain management, and risk management attainments. Furthermore, organisations observe higher employee attractiveness and operational synergy gains between departments. In addition, companies observe that collaborative efforts with strategic stakeholders improve their ability to understand other management perspectives, and anticipate market pressures and opportunities. Thus, they can meet market demands and jointly develop innovative solutions toward sustainability goals by exchanging knowledge and enhancing their operational effectiveness. The results also revealed limitations of organisations concerning collaborative efforts. Organisations perceive lack of enough human resources to effectively collect, analyse and implement sustainability projects. Furthermore, there are internal limitations of organisations concerning how their executives and general staff incorporate sustainability issues into their organisations’ strategic planning and operational decisions. This study identifies implications for management and directions for future research. These are based on how organisations measure sustainability outcomes of management practices and collaborative alliances, and how organisations map upcoming sustainability demands of the market as the sustainable development debate continues to evolve.

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  • Understanding the Effectiveness of Cross-Cultural Video-Mediated Communication

    Nergui, Selenge (2012)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    People are increasingly using advanced communication technologies such as videoconferencing to collaborate across geographical boundaries and time zones. This presents problems because cultural values, attitudes, and behaviours influence how a given group of people perceives, understands, communicates and interprets information and knowledge. This study explores how various factors including technology and cultural differences of participants affect their perceptions of the effectiveness of cross-cultural communication in videoconferences. The study identifies factors that most influence the effectiveness of cross-cultural video-mediated communication. It will help practitioners to: 1) make efficient use of resources while designing and facilitating videoconferences; and 2) incorporate cultural factors in assessing the effectiveness of cross-cultural distance learning events. The study is situated in the Global Development Learning Network (GDLN) which spans the world with more than 120 distance learning centres and facilitates communication for development through videoconferencing technology. A multiple-case cross-cultural study has been carried out in GDLN affiliates located in four countries: Australia, Mongolia, New Zealand and Russia. Evidence for this case study comes from observations during videoconferences, semi-structured interviews with participants, documents and video recordings. This exploratory study contributes to the body of knowledge in three research domains: development communication through the videoconferencing channel; cross-cultural factors in video-mediated communication; and perceived effectiveness of videoconferencing.

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  • Re-energizing the fence : designing a desirable electric fence system : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Design at Massey University, Wellington

    McKinley, Matthew H (2009)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The intent of this Master of Design study is to utilise design-aided research to develop a desirable, conceptual livestock electric fencing system in conjunction with Gallagher animal management Ltd. Proudly known worldwide for their innovative agricultural products, Gallagher have identified an opportunity for a fence system to be marketed towards the comparatively niche industry of hobby/lifestyle farming, and provide hobby farmers with a fencing system that they can construct without requiring heavy machinery or fencing experience. This could provide a sound opportunity for Gallagher to maintain their industry status and provide a product that is really desirable to the market users. This investigation intends to develop an electric fence design proposal, primarily for the European hobby farming market, which obtains the sought after market differentiation and innovation by proposing a new livestock fence concept that is desirable to the customer; commencing from the point of purchase, through to its installation and operation. A new product that will give the customer the traditional satisfaction of constructing their fence themselves without machinery and with a system that the user finds intuitive and physically less arduous to install, simple to operate and visually pleasing within a lifestyle farm environment. The contemporary theory papers regarding Affective design (Warell, 2001) and ‘utilitarian’ and ‘hedonic’ design principles (Chitturi, et al. 2007) support the investigation’s research methods used; determining existing product experiences through market analysis, observation, user interviews and focus groups, followed by structured concept generation, prototypes and iterated design development. The unresolved issues and desirable aspects identified throughout the research methods were categorised into ‘performance’ and ‘experience’ criteria attributes which the methods stated that the design required to produce a ‘desirable’ design proposal, and accomplish the research aim. The final design was evaluated against the research criteria, based on the research knowledge. The testing method indicated that the fence design proposal had fulfilled most of the experience and performance design criteria, successfully achieving the research aim. The investigation not only fulfilled the aim stated to create a desirable electric fence system, but additionally highlights the advantages of applying ‘affective design’ theories to this particular fencing industry which itself is so wrought by utilitarian tradition.

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  • Alumni: Another Piece of the Puzzle - The Study of Alumni Service Quality in a New Zealand Academic Library

    Guo, Xiaolu (2012)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Alumni are recognized as one of the academic library user groups although traditionally alumni were only considered as donors. This paper briefly reviewed the background of alumni studies and library service quality studies. According to the previous research, there is an absence of studies about alumni’s expectation and perception toward library services. A better understanding of alumni library memberships’ service quality can help the library to develop more suitable services and programmes for alumni, which is beneficial to the library, the alumni office and the university. This research measured the service quality of library alumni service in three dimensions, reliability, library staff and library resources. The results indicated alumni are mostly comfortable with the library services. Reliability was the most important service quality dimension which received the highest rating from alumni. The result also suggested that alumni expect the library membership package to provide access to a bigger collection of e-journals and databases.

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  • Unholy Matrimony: Forced Marriage in New Zealand

    Radhakrishnan, Priyanca (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This study explores the issue of forced and underage marriage in Aotearoa New Zealand. It documents the stories of survivors of actual and threatened forced marriage. It also records the survivors‟ analyses of their experiences and their recommendations for changes that may deter the practice in New Zealand. This study postulates that forced marriage is not a cultural issue per se, but a form of violence against women, shaped by socio-political forces and practised by some. It examines notions of „honour‟ and „shame‟ which are often inextricably linked to the issue of forced marriage. The study goes on to provide an overview of genderbased violence in Asia, Africa and the Middle East as well as diaspora communities internationally and in New Zealand. This research study is heavily influenced by GAD thought and by various epistemologies including postcolonial feminism, subaltern studies and participatory action research. As such, it emphasises self-reflexivity and focuses on „gender relations‟ than „women‟ as the category of analysis. The views and potential contributions of eleven stakeholder agency participants in terms of addressing the issue of forced marriage are also included in this study. The study also examines relevant existing New Zealand legislation in light of the country‟s international obligations regarding marriage. Specific recommendations on both social and legislative reforms are provided in an attempt to promote a collaborative, multi-sector response to address the issue from the perspectives of both intervention and prevention. In conclusion, this study, which is the first of its kind in New Zealand, hopes to shed light on an issue that is a human rights violation. It aims to promote action to deter the practice and to progress the rights of ethnic minority women in New Zealand without fuelling an anti-minority discourse. Finally, it attempts to fill a number of knowledge gaps in academic, policy and legislative literatures.

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  • Teaching Midwifery Face-to-Face or Via the Screen: The Impact of Flexible Delivery of Teaching on Student Engagement

    Milne, Tania Dawn (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The aim of this research was to describe how undergraduate midwifery students’ engagement with learning is impacted when they have teaching delivered by different methods of instruction. It asks the question: does flexible delivery of teaching impact on their ability to engage in their learning? This research describes the impact of different modes of flexible delivery of teaching within a new curriculum on students in a pre-registration midwifery undergraduate programme at Waikato Institute of Technology (Wintec), New Zealand. This new curriculum commenced in 2010 as a response to legislative and industry driven changes to midwifery education in New Zealand. The research used an on-line survey to ask students enrolled in years one and two of the programme and those who had exited the programme during the same timeframe, A range of questions about their learning experiences. Surveys were sent to 104 enrolled students and 15 students that had exited the BMid programme. Fifty two (50%) responses were received from the enrolled students and three (20%) from those that had exited the programme. There were three key findings of this research. Firstly the participants identified differences with their sense of belonging amongst their peers, tutors and the administration team outside of their regional learning hubs. The second key and unsurprising finding was that respondents across the board preferred face-to-face sessions to video conferencing sessions and thirdly that the demographic profile of the respondents from the regional learning hubs was different to those attending from the Hamilton city hub. The implications of these key findings are; · For tertiary institutions to acknowledge and consider the links between high quality learning, student engagement and outcomes. · To support the need for continuing training and education for both faculty and students with regards to flexible delivery of teaching and to provide professional development and relevant technology to support more interactive forms of learning if delivered via video conferencing or by online activities. · To further research the needs of Māori students and those who have exited the programme in order to discover what would need to change in order for them to continue with their studies.

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  • A Post-Environmental Discourse: Rhetoric, Science and Legitimacy in Environmental News Coverage of Lake Winnipeg, Canada

    Hill, Garrity (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In post-environmental news discourse, environmentalism is reduced to a rhetorical motif that is relayed by all sides of the political debate, including the environmental opposition. The phase of post-environmentalism in environmental discourse is indicated by the absorption of environmental messages into mainstream discourse so that they are no longer 'owned' by subversive environmentalists, but by anyone claiming to represent the cause. The result is that a counter-discourse is no longer present in the discussion to challenge dominant assumptions about unlimited economic growth. Using critical discourse analysis, this thesis examines the news coverage of governmental regulations aimed at reducing toxic algae in Lake Winnipeg, Canada. The thesis describes how the science is used in the narratives, and compares patterns of doubting science in the coverage with similar patterns found in news discourse historically. The analysis shows that the pro-lake cause is recruited throughout the coverage to boost legitimacy for the Manitoba hog industry and the City of Winnipeg, who leveraged public campaigns opposing the regulations. Rather than contributing to a public understanding of the tension between environmental and economic paradigms, the simplistic cost-benefit analysis of the regulations in the coverage decontextualises the problem from its complex political-economic origins. Furthermore, rather than presenting environmental science in a way that aids public understanding, science is either credited or discredited to reinforce the industry and governmental positions. The need for transparent communication of environmental problems and their causes is thus hindered by the legitimacy claims-making that dominates the discourse. The repeated and shared voicing of environmental messages in the media further embeds the discourse into a post-environmental phase by excluding a counter-discourse from the discussion – environmentalism becomes talked about by everyone, and yet discussed by no one.

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  • Contesting Representations of Refugee‑Background Women (and Men) as ‘Needy’ and ‘Problematic’ in Healthcare Literature in Aotearoa New Zealand: Advancing the Case for a Capability‑Driven Model

    Ford, Kristine Mary (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This research analyses how power operates discursively within the western biomedical model as it pertains to the representations and treatment of refugee‑background women (and men) in Aotearoa New Zealand. It carefully investigates the tendency of current biomedical discourse to typecast women (and men) with refugee backgrounds as having considerable health needs, which predicates the (over‑) representation of them as exclusively ‘problematic’ and ‘needy’ throughout refugee and healthcare related literature. It also considers other ways in which the western biomedical model may be inappropriate and inadequate for refugee‑background communities. This thesis takes its starting position from some of the concerns regarding health outcomes raised in a meeting with three representatives of various refugee‑background communities in Wellington in 2011, and by the recent ChangeMakers Refugee Forum (CRF) (2011) report, “barriers to achieving good health outcomes in refugee‑background communities”. In light of these concerns (and subsequent recommendations), this research aims to introduce alternative narratives in the effort to improve health outcomes, as well as constitute a more fair and just discourse. The mentation of the thesis is heavily inspired by postdevelopment theory and its potential for more enabling and effective ways of ‘doing’ development. I draw on this theoretical frame to explore how an asset‑based approach to maternal healthcare services in Aotearoa New Zealand for refugee‑background women may be a vehicle to help us negotiate the politics of representation and generate better health outcomes for refugee‑background communitiescomes for refugee‑background communities.

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  • Coral Bleaching Resistance vs Susceptibility: The Role of Antioxidant Activity in Symbiotic Dinoflagellates

    Wietheger, Anne (2012)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Coral bleaching, the loss of symbiotic dinoflagellate algae (genus Symbiodinium) and/or photosynthetic algal pigments from their coral host has become a regular occurrence in the last few decades due to increasing seawater temperatures. A key consideration in bleaching susceptibility is the symbiotic alga‘s physiology and its capacity to deal with abiotic stress; oxidative stress is of particular interest given that this can arise from thermally induced photosynthetic dysfunction. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of thermal and oxidative stress on the photosynthetic performance of a range of Symbiodinium clades and types (i.e. sub-clades) in different states of symbiosis (in hospite, freshly isolated and in culture). Whether the responses to these two stressors are related was investigated; in particular, it was hypothesised that more thermally sensitive types would be more sensitive to oxidative stress. Furthermore, the study aimed to elucidate the role of antioxidants in the observed stress responses. The specific objectives were 1) to establish whether different types of cultured Symbiodinium have dissimilar sensitivities to oxidative stress, induced by hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), and whether these are related to their thermal sensitivities; 2) measure the activity and relative amounts of specific reactive oxygen species (ROS) in different types of cultured Symbiodinium in response to thermal and oxidative stress induced by H₂O₂; 3) measure total antioxidant activity in different cultured Symbiodinium types when under oxidative stress; and 4) compare and contrast the responses of different Symbiodinium types to thermal and oxidative stress when in hospite (i.e. in corals) and freshly isolated. In this study, I showed that different Symbiodinium clades and types can differ widely in their responses to both thermal and oxidative stress. This was indicated by photosynthetic performance measured by chlorophyll fluorescence, and differences in the quantity of specific ROS measured via fluorescent probes and flow cytometry. For instance, when adding H₂O₂ to Symbiodinium F1, originally from Hawaii, a decrease of > 99% in maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm) was displayed, while there was no change in Fv/Fm in the temperate Symbiodinium A1, freshly isolated from the anemone Anthopleura aureoradiata from New Zealand. When comparing the difference in ROS production between the control (26 °C) and a thermal stress treatment (35 °C), type E1 from Okinawa showed no difference in any of the measured ROS. In contrast, a different A1 type from the Gulf of Aqaba displayed an increase in the overall production of ROS, and more specifically in the production of superoxide. Symbiodinium types also displayed differential oxidative stress resistance, which was apparent from their antioxidant activities; in particular, total antioxidant capacity was measured by the ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. For example, the aforementioned Symbiodinium types, A1 from the Gulf of Aqaba and F1, increased their antioxidant activities with increasing H₂O₂ concentrations. Meanwhile, type E1 displayed higher baseline levels of antioxidants in comparison to the other two types (A1, F1), which then decreased with increasing H₂O₂. Specific activities of superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase were also measured. Stress susceptibility appears to be related both to Symbiodinium type and geographic origin, but greater sensitivity to thermal stress did not necessarily correlate with greater susceptibility to oxidative stress. The exact relationship between thermal and oxidative sensitivities in Symbiodinium spp. remains elusive, but it is suggested that different types might follow different strategies for dealing with stress. I propose that some Symbiodinium types rely more on photo-protection when exposed to thermal stress (and hence cope less with oxidative stress), while other types depend more on antioxidants and oxidative stress resistance. The latter might be the better strategy for types from more variable environments, such as higher latitude reefs or intertidal regions, where potentially stressful conditions may be encountered more frequently. This study gives new insights into the variability of stress responses in the genus Symbiodinium, and the complex relationship between thermal and oxidative stress. The implications of these findings for coral bleaching susceptibility and the biogeographic distribution of different Symbiodinium types are discussed.

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  • Culture cross : foreign students intercultural interactions on a New Zealand university campus : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Social Anthropology at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Bragg, Alaric Bernard Marshall (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This MA Thesis examines foreign students on-campus intercultural interactions at a New Zealand university – namely, the Massey University Turitea campus in Palmerston North. Prior research has shown that many foreign students in New Zealand universities have tended to spend their on-campus activities with other international students, usually from their own countries, rather than New Zealand ones, while other foreign students are largely interested in and open to intercultural interaction with New Zealanders when on campus. The purpose of my research was to examine and assess the nature, degree and reasons that foreign students engage in intercultural interactions when on-campus, and determine what my findings indicated towards the greater international student community in New Zealand. One of two methods that I used during my fieldwork consisted of interviewing seven research participants, who I contacted through personal friendships and Massey University clubs and organizations associated with foreign students, about their on-campus intercultural interactions. The second method was a level of participant observation, in which I participated in and observed my research participants during their academic and social university activities to assess their on-campus intercultural interactions. Major findings include the significant role of social and sports organizations in helping foreign students establish intercultural interactions, which are also promoted for many foreign students new to Massey via orientation programs, and the importance of campus accommodation facilitating foreign students intercultural interactions. Major conclusions include the need for more emphasis on internationalization at the Massey campus and the necessity of increased opportunities for intercultural interaction in and out of class.

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  • Investigation of carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotube cytotoxicity in vitro : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Science in Physiology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Gilmour, Aaron David (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Carbon nanotubes have been idealised as carrier vehicles for cell targeted drug and gene delivery. The physiochemical properties of the carbon nanotube also promote its function as a „thermal antennae‟ for non-invasive cancer destruction. Covalent modification of carbon nanotubes is a result of acidic purification resulting in carboxylated carbon nanotubes. Additionally this covalent modification allows for the attachment of biological moieties for cell targeting. Conversely, carboxylated carbon nanotubes are suggested to be cytotoxic to mammalian cells. The current study investigates the potential cytotoxicity of short, carboxylated, multi-walled carbon nanotubes in vitro, in a primary fibroblast cell culture model. Cytotoxicity is assessed with vital staining using propidium iodide, and secondly with a lactate dehydrogenase colorimetric assay. Results indicate that there is a dose dependent cytotoxic relationship between the carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes tested and the fibroblast cell culture model.

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  • Reformer tube internal diameter measuring system : a thesis in the partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Engineering in Mechatronics at Massey University, Turitea Campus, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Fukuoka, Morio (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    A Reformer Tube is a device used in chemical engineering, commonly in the fuel cell technology, used to perform chemical reactions to produce chemicals products. Commonly the process involves heating the introduced chemicals in the tube to ultra-high temperatures at pressures around 20 bars encouraging rapid reactions. Reformer tube construction is described within which both the desired endothermic catalysed chemical reaction and heat transfer from the reaction products to the incoming reactants are accomplished [10]. The service life of these devices is primary ended when Creeps Shear damage is detected. Due to the complex combination of multiple factors between temperature, stress and aggressive environment during service influencing the generation of Creep damage, it is of significant benefit for process companies using condition-based assessment rather than time-based estimation to judge the retirement of reformer tubes. The aim of this research is to investigate a low-cost, mechatronic reformer tube inspection system that can replace the conventional expensive laser based system employed by New Zealand Methanex Ltd. The system must be a non-destructive examination (NDT) instrument capable of making a full inspection of a vertically standing, 110mm bore, 14m reformer tube within 5 minutes duration. Specification requirements set by the company state that the new system must be able to make measurement of at least 2 diametrical axes at axial increments of 25mm. The measurements are to be of 0.5mm accuracy or better. The nature of the tube stands to handle processing of Methanol stored at temperature of 500 degrees Celsius, gathering internal pressure of up to 20 bars. Due the cyclic repetition of these thermal and pressure changes, the tube will overtime result in internal cavity adaption causing tube failure through Creeping Shear. The device will be used to inspect the internal diameter change caused by creep damage and thus forecast the remaining service life of the tubes to help schedule the retirement of the reformer tubes at the most efficient timing.The project commended with a research investigating the variety of reformer tube inspection techniques available for modern furnaces and reviewed the application methodologies and limitations. Based on the findings, the project proceeded to develop a low cost, mechanical reformer tube inspection system. The new system is branded Reformer Tube Internal Diameter Measuring (RTIDM) system. In the final part of this research, field testing was conducted at the Methanex Ltd furnace to examine the RTIDM systems performance. Analysis performed on the collected data from the field test revealed that the RTIDM system is a working system capable of making diametrical measurement at the precision of +/-0.1668mm. Documented in this thesis is an in-depth discussion on the development of the Reformer Tube Internal Diameter Measuring (FTIDM) system. Conclusively, the RTIDM system developed in this research provided new method for reformer tube inspection. With the cost of the prototype is under $2000 NZD, the design is a much cost friendly instrument compared with its rival devices while capable of making diametrical inspection at competitive precision and accuracy.

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