82,937 results

  • The furniture tourist : escaping the habitue : an exegesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a degree of Masters of Design at Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

    Apthorp, Jane Frances (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Kenneth Bayes describes two ways in which we move through space. The first as a ‘tourist’ and the second as the ‘habitué’. The tourist is an “exploratory through an unknown environment” (Porter, 1997, p. 44) - which is juxtaposed against the habitué, who is “the habitual through a known environment” (Porter, 1997, p. 44). Each concept is the other’s polar opposite. The habitué is bound by routine, while the tourist is active and engaging in their environment, discovering new possibilities and exciting alternatives. The tourist looks upon their environments with fresh eyes. They are open, receptive and able to imagine possibilities where forms in rooms bend, waver and swell. Imagining tells stories which provoke and expand our thoughts. It allows one to escape preconceptions about the nominal nature of objects and our relationship with them. This research explores these characters, the habitué and the tourist, in relation to furniture and its arrangement within the interior. It investigates how the habitué may over time become the tourist in their own familiar environment. I am the tourist within this research who activates drawing, making, writing and photography as productive processes of imagining exciting alternatives for furniture. Through my work I seek to trigger, for the habitué, their imagination by allowing them to enter into mine through photography, expanding what they originally perceived of furniture.

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  • Mapping the environmental footprint of the Central Plains Water irrigation scheme : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the Masters of Design at the Institute of Communication Design, Massey University, Wellington, NZ

    Ivamy, Dean (2009)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    In the statement Mayor Parker is referring to a complexity of issues that involves a plethora of hard-scientific and statistical information. The diversity of opinions regarding the scheme’s benefits and potential negative implications also create misunderstanding for the general public. This prompts the hypothesis of this design thesis, which suggests that statistical data when visually mapped and in the context of its physical environment can provide significant cognitive and ecological awareness for the viewer to understand the economic and environmental implications of the proposed irrigation scheme. Both the areas of cartographic mapping and the dairy industry contain controlled vocabularies, which present opportunity for graphic modeling and explanation through visible phenomena. The Canterbury Plains has a well-established historical and agricultural narrative. However, due to the recent dramatic and substantial transition of the region’s dairy industry between the periods 1995 – 2008, subsequent demand for freshwater now represents the real prospect of uncharted future environmental instability. The development of a visual language system capable of the interpretation and construction of the irrigation scheme’s benefits and potential negative implications, provide this thesis through graphic modeling the possibility to compare the proposed CPW scheme’s issues. While some industry groups consider public participation as arbitrary and unnecessary, recent surveys indicate water quality and fertiliser management as the most significant areas for environmental concern. The debate should not exclude the public, but rather include communication systems capable of reaching all communities.

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  • The role and impact of services sector on economic growth : an econometric investigation of tourism and air services in Fiji (1968-2006) : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Management in Economics at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Qasenivalu, Mosese Tavaga (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Empirical studies have established that tourism is a major determinant of economic growth and that international air services have a beneficial effect on the growth and development of an economy. It has also been argued that trade and public enterprise reforms in the service sectors, undertaken to a greater extent in high income countries, have had a positive impact on the sectors performances. This study analyses several hypotheses relating to Fiji’s tourism and air transport service industries. First the study examines the contribution of tourism exports to economic growth in the case of Fiji. Second, the study analyses whether the tourism reform adopted by Fiji in 1999 under the World Trade Organization’s General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) has impacted on total tourism export performance. Third, the aviation-service growth nexus is investigated. Lastly, the effect of the aviation public enterprise reform activities on the export performance of air services is evaluated. Using time series annual data from 1968 to 2006, the Auto Regressive Distributed Lag. methodology has been utilized to estimate the contribution of each service sector to Fiji’s total service output. The results show that the tourism is a major determinant of growth in Fiji and that the aviation service-growth hypothesis is also valid for Fiji. The empirical results show that both the trade reforms in tourism and the pro-competitive measures undertaken in the airline industry, amongst other determinants, have not significantly created an impact on the respective export performance of tourism and air services. These findings provide key policy implications in the light of capitalizing on services exports as a major source of growth, particularly in developing island countries such as Fiji and the need to facilitate the strengthening of the market to boost the export performance of tourism and air services.

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  • Over the Great Wall: A Qualitative Descriptive Study of the Experiences and Preferences of Chinese Immigrant Families when Receiving Hospice Services in New Zealand

    Hathaway, Joanna Clare (2009)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis discusses the background, processes, findings and recommendations of a qualitative descriptive study to explore and describe the experiences and preferences of Chinese immigrant families when receiving hospice services in New Zealand (NZ). The study arose from clinical practice questions about how hospice services were providing end-of-life care to the growing number of Chinese immigrants in NZ. With the assistance of a Cultural Advisor and a team of professional interpreters, eight bereaved Chinese immigrants living in the greater Auckland area who had cared for a terminally ill close family member with hospice service involvement were interviewed using a semi-structured approach. Participants were asked to describe their family support in NZ as well as their experiences of referral to a hospice, the types of care and treatment provided, communication processes between staff and the patient/family, care in the patient's last days of life, comparisons with care provided in their country of origin and suggestions for NZ hospice service improvements. Four key themes emerged: 1) Unfamiliar territory - participants were unfamiliar with the role or services of hospice and staff's lack of awareness of Chinese customs had led to distressing situations; 2) Service experiences and expectations - while some services were deemed useful others were not; participants had expected more medical treatments to manage the patient's symptoms; deaths in in-patient settings were less concerning to families and were preferred to deaths at home; 3) Support to cope - participants wanted more psychological support from hospice and regarded the maintenance of hope as a key component of a good death; 4) Uncovering sensitive information - families wanted to be consulted before sensitive information was discussed with patients and they preferred information to be uncovered slowly and gently to avoid causing the patient psychological harm. Recommendations for hospice service development included: improved access to information for families; greater provision of support services, especially for patients and families at home; education for hospice staff about Chinese culture and customs; options for in-patient admission in the last days of life; and the involvement of families in disclosure decisions. It is hoped that by responding to the experiences and preferences shared by participants, hospice services will be better equipped to address the end-of-life care needs of Chinese immigrant families.

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  • The Role of /Overlaps\ in Intercultural Workplace Interaction

    Lazzaro-Salazar, Mariana (2009)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The field of workplace communication continues to grow, and globalisation has encouraged researchers to focus on the phenomenon of intercultural interaction in multi-cultural workplaces. Usually, but not exclusively, framed within the constructs of Brown and Levinson's Politeness Theory, intercultural studies have typically concentrated on instances of miscommunication taking a partial, one-sided account of intercultural workplace interaction. Differing social norms for what constitutes politeness have been a major focus of debate into the merits of politeness theory. Overlapping speech, in particular, is one aspect of workplace interaction that has been long neglected in the field of intercultural workplace interaction research. Moving away from the traditional views in the field, the present study takes a positive stance on the study of the interplay of interactional norms of politeness in intercultural face-to-face workplace interaction and investigates how people from different ethnic backgrounds undertake relational work in naturally-occurring workplace exchanges. As the analytic framework, rapport management (developed by Spencer-Oatey) provides a useful reconceptualisation of linguistic politeness with a greater focus on negotiated interaction. The analysis focuses on the role of overlapping speech in this context of interaction guided by two research questions: 1) how does overlapping speech function in workplace interactions in New Zealand? and 2) how are these overlaps intended and 'perceived' by culturally different interactants? To this end, the data for the present study were drawn from two meetings in a large educational institution in New Zealand. In the first phase of data collection, two meetings were video and audio recorded, from which representative extracts containing overlaps were chosen for analysis. In the second phase, individual stimulated recall interviews were held with the participants with the purpose of eliciting participants' intentions and perceptions regarding the use of overlaps. The findings suggest that this group of instructors operate as a Community of Practice (CofP) rather than as ethnic individualities with shared assumptions and expectations regarding the appropriate use of overlaps to cooperatively construct meaning in interaction. This CofP, it was noted, is also strongly oriented towards the maintenance and enhancement of social harmony in their workplace interaction, which influences the use of overlapping speech as a communicative strategy employed to this end. Overall, the study demonstrates that considering intercultural communication from the perspective of rapport management can provide positive insights into how people from different ethnic backgrounds do relational work as they construct meaning in interaction.

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  • The Inside Story: Early Childhood Practitioners' Perceptions of Teaching Science

    Edwards, Kayte (2009)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis investigates early childhood teachers' perspectives of how they support children's scientific learning, and how they felt about the way they supported that learning, within one childcare centre setting. Using a qualitative case study approach the views of the six participants teaching at the research site were gathered during initial individual interviews. Participants were then asked to document situations where they noticed and recognised children engaged in scientific learning. In a second interview participants talked about the documentation they had gathered and what responses they had to what they had seen, if any. The interview data and participant documentation was then coded and collated into a matrix form in order to use the initial findings as the basis for a focus group discussion involving all participants. The transcript of the focus group discussion was then added to the initial findings and subsequently considered in light of Rogoff's (2003) three analytical foci (the personal, interpersonal and cultural-institutional). This enabled a broad spectrum of ideas to emerge and served to highlight several teaching strategies.Three key findings emerged from the data. The first, a unique contribution of this study, highlights specific teaching strategies relating to the interdependent nature of team teaching relationships. The dialogue that developed between participants during the research emerged as a significant teaching support. The way the participants drew on each other's expertise, knowledge, experiences, and physical support was noticeable and often contributed to an individual participant's learning and increased confidence. On an individual level, the second finding concerned how capable and competent the individual participants felt about their support of children's scientific learning was related to their view of what 'science' is, and the role they thought the teacher should play in science education. This emphasises the importance of teachers having subject knowledge and a solid understanding of the nature of science (NOS). Furthermore, in this study the complexity of increasing the effectiveness of the support that early childhood teachers provide for children's scientific learning was revealed as the third finding. The influence of participants' confidence in and attitudes toward supporting children's scientific learning is further complicated when considering them in relation to the role of the teacher's understanding of NOS. Both of these factors have implications for the difference in teachers' available knowledge, skills and resources, and their inclination to use them. This thesis argues that there is no one solution to encouraging teachers to engage in more effective scientific learning support. However, reflective practice can enable teachers to develop their understanding of what science is and a pedagogy that will support the children's scientific learning, as well as increasing their confidence in and willingness to expand their scientific subject knowledge base. In addition, it also contends that collective teaching strategies are a significant factor in early childhood teachers' abilities to notice, recognise and respond to children engaged in scientific learning and as such need further consideration in teacher education, policy making decisions, and future research.

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  • Ontological lockdown assessment : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Information Technology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Steele, Aaron (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    In order to keep shared access computers secure and stable system administrators resort to locking down the computing environment in order to prevent intentional and unintentional damage by users. Skilled attackers are often able to break out of locked down computing environments and intentionally misuse shared access computers. This misuse has resulted in cases of mass identity theft and fraud, some of which have had an estimated cost ranging in millions. In order to determine if it is possible to break out of locked down computing environments an assessment method is required. Although a number of vulnerability assessment techniques exist, none of the existing techniques are sufficient for assessing locked down shared access computers. This is due to the existing techniques focusing on traditional, application specific, software vulnerabilities. Break out path vulnerabilities (which are exploited by attackers in order to break out of locked down environments) differ substantially from traditional vulnerabilities, and as a consequence are not easily discovered using existing techniques. Ontologies can be thought of as a modelling technique that can be used to capture expert knowledge about a domain of interest. The method for discovering break out paths in locked down computers can be considered expert knowledge in the domain of shared access computer security. This research proposes an ontology based assessment process for discovering break out path vulnerabilities in locked down shared access computers. The proposed approach is called the ontological lockdown assessment process. The ontological lockdown assessment process is implemented against a real world system and successfully identifies numerous break out path vulnerabilities.

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  • RNAi-mediated knockdown of chromatin modifier proteins and their effect on long-term memory in Drosophila : a thesis presented to Massey University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Genetics

    Ellen, Charles (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Memory formation in Drosophila melanogaster is composed of two pathways that are genetically distinct, and functionally independent of each other. These are short-term and long-term memory. Short-term memory is a transient phenomenon, located in the cytoplasm of the neuronal cells, which requires no alteration of gene expression. The formation of long-term memory requires a change in gene expression, therefore chromatin-modifying complexes may play an integral part. The mushroom-bodies of Drosophila are a distinct bilateral brain structure and are essential for the formation and recollection of long-term memory. Therefore, an alteration in gene expression within the mushroom bodies is essential to the formation of long-term memory. Disruption of a gene within the mushroom-bodies that resulted in an alteration in the formation of long-term memory would indicate that the gene is involved in long-term memory. In order to investigate the role of the two chromatin-modifying proteins, HDACX and pr-Set7, whose role in memory function is unknown, RNA interference was used to knockdown expression of their respective mRNA. Published GAL4 lines were used to drive down expression in the mushroom bodies. The efficacy of the knockdown on levels of mRNA was measured by quantitative RT-PCR. The effect of these knockdowns on the formation of long-term memory was assayed using conditioned courtship. Additionally, the actual spatial and temporal expression of the GAL4 drivers was investigated using fluorescent proteins, and analysed using fluorescent microscopy. Both pr-set7 and HDACX appear to play a role in long-term memory function. The RNAi-induced knockdown of the individual mRNAs caused impairment in long-term memory formation, although the exact mode of action is still to be elucidated. The levels of mRNA from these knockdowns were reduced within the head, although not to the extent expected. The fluorescent microscopy analysis indicated that the expression of mushroom-body specific GAL4 drivers was more widespread than previously reported.

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  • Understanding Empathy in Children

    Chan, Kah Hoe (2009)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Health, particularly diet and everyday nutrition, as the ultimate causal factor in life is an important aspect of every child's education. Meanwhile, computer generated (CG) 3-dimensional (3-D) graphics is a medium often used by entertainment and advertising. Educational intervention to help children make appropriate dietary choices can be designed by employing similar methods used by entertainment and advertising, such as 3-D characters aimed at children. The question that this research asked is: can creating an empathic bond between 3-D characters and children communicate a healthy nutrition message effectively? This thesis is based on qualitative research founded on the constructionist theory that focuses on exploring the perspective of children via focus groups. Educational designs based on familiar computer-generated graphics will help equip children to deal with nutritional and dietary choices, ultimately initiating behavioural change as their relationship with food matures earlier. Empathy on the children's and adult's sides of the healthy nutrition conversation is important to establish this relationship in children's nutritional decisions. The main challenge for nutrition education is not in short-term diversions, but long-term changes in behavioural responses in media literacy. A constructionist approach of helping children work through advertising by improving their media vocabulary would be a more sustainable approach to enhancing their ability to decode advertising rhetoric and in turn forming their own informed opinion and responses. Industry referenced educational content intent on healthy lifestyles can balance the prevalent advertising messages leading to a more balanced overall media that children are exposed to.

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  • The Contribution of Complexity Theory to Understanding and Explaining Policy Processes: A Study of Tertiary Education Policy Processes in New Zealand

    Eppel, Elizabeth Anne (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The thesis examines how policy processes occur in practice over time, and advances a theory for understanding and explaining them using a complexity analytical lens. This lens provides a different way of 'seeing' policy processes holistically, in comparison with dominant alternative actor-focused, institutions-focused or idea-focused perspectives. The overall aims of the thesis are achieved through four phases. First, to construct the complexity lens, the thesis analyses the potential contribution of complexity theory, particularly as it relates to social systems and organisations. Second, existing theories of policy processes are scrutinised to identify areas where a complexity lens could provide new perspectives for their understanding, through a focus on: - 'wholes' of policy processes - policy problems and solutions - multiple participants - interactions within policy processes - dynamics within policy processes. Third, a study of New Zealand's tertiary education policy processes provides new empirical data. Data collected in unstructured interviews is represented in three differently-themed narratives, corresponding to three well-theorised analytical emphases: (1) participants; (2) institutions; and (3) ideas. The selection of three different perspectives takes into account the socially complex nature of policy processes. Fourth, the narrative data are examined through the complexity analytical lens and the results are compared with the views of policy processes obtained using the single lenses in the themed narratives. The four phases come together by demonstrating that viewing tertiary education policy processes through the complexity analytical lens provides a new perspective on policy processes which has implications for designing and intervening in policy processes. From this new perspective, policy processes are understood as complex social systems in interaction with other complex social systems. These systems consist of large numbers of interdependent and self-referencing participants, interacting with each other in ways that are nonlinear, influenced by prior experiences, and unpredictable in any precise sense.

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  • Nurse managers' ethical conflict with their health care organizations : a New Zealand perspective : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Management in Health Service Management at Management at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Chalmers, Linda Maree (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Immersed in a context of constrained health resources, nurse managers are at great risk of the experience and negative consequences of values clashes and ethical conflict, such as burnout and attrition. Replicating a qualitative descriptive study previously conducted in Canada (Gaudine & Beaton, 2002) this research is aimed at increasing knowledge of the experience of nurse managers’ ethical conflict with their health care organizations in New Zealand. Semi-structured interviews were used to gather data from eight nurse managers in New Zealand, which was analyzed using a general inductive approach to qualitative research. The experience of advocating for values that may be shared by both nursing and the health care organization, such as safety, teamwork and quality patient care, were revealed in the conceptual category of Nursing Management Advocacy. As with their Canadian study counterparts, Isolation was revealed as a key factor that made the experience of ethical conflict worse and involves the social experiences of silencing, employment barriers and invisibility. Support describes the factors that mitigated the experience of ethical conflict and involves personal, professional and organizational support, and are likewise similar to the experiences of Canadian nurse managers. The Bottom Line describes a focal point of the experience of ethical conflict where the health care organizations predominantly fiscal bottom line was confronted and challenged by nurse managers, and where the nurse manager might reach their own bottom line and choose to leave the organization. Being and Becoming Nursing Leaders describes the outcomes of ethical conflict for nurse managers who were not only transformed into nursing leaders, through learning, reflection, and growth but also counted the costs of nursing leadership. This study concludes that supportive colleagues, organizational structures and culture are essential to mitigating the experience of ethical conflict and isolation which nurse managers encounter. The study also concludes that reducing isolation and supporting nurse managers will ensure that nursing values are appropriately represented and articulated in the health care organization’s decision making systems and processes.

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  • Learner Autonomy and EFL Learning at the Tertiary Level in Vietnam

    Nguyen, Thi Cam Le (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    There has been a growing interest in the role of learner autonomy (LA) in language teaching and learning. Over the last twenty years, researchers have extensively explored LA in a range of settings and have developed various approaches to fostering it both as a means to language learning and as an end in itself. This study attempts to investigate LA in the Vietnamese EFL context, and to explore the relationship between LA and language learning results. In this study, LA was conceptualised and operationally defined as learner self-initiation and learner self-regulation. The research was composed of three phases. The pilot study looked at the range of activities, and the amount of time devoted to learning English by 388 Vietnamese English majors of different levels of academic achievement. It identified differences in LA among students of different year levels as well as LA at two types of tertiary institutions in Vietnam. In the first phase, an exploratory correlational study was conducted among 177 students to comprehend features of LA as demonstrated by these students, their preferred self-initiated activities both inside and outside the classroom, and the relationship between each aspect of LA and language proficiency. In the second phase, an intervention study was conducted with the participation of 37 students in an experimental group, and 54 students in two control groups. Phase two explored the efficacy of a learner-based approach to promoting LA with a focus on strategy-based instruction. The three phases revealed several important findings. The pilot study discovered that the level of autonomy was related to students' level of academic achievement but not to their year level. In addition, autonomy seemed to be affected by the social setting in which it was exercised. In Phase one, the findings revealed that Vietnamese learners' self-initiation efforts mainly concentrated on covert learning in class. Outside the classroom, these learners preferred to undertake receptive rather than productive activities, and tended to avoid social interaction. Moreover, most aspects of LA positively and significantly correlated with EFL proficiency measures. Lastly, the task-specific training of self-regulation in Phase two resulted not only in significantly improved writing scores but also in greater LA. However, these metacognitive skills in writing did not seem to transfer to other areas of language learning, although improvements in writing were maintained in a delayed test. Overall, the study suggests that LA appears to be linked positively to language proficiency. High achievers are more likely to be autonomous learners. Most importantly, training learners in metacognitive regulation improved learners' writing ability and their autonomy in learning.

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  • Better relationships for better learning : schools addressing Maori achievement through partnership : research thesis submitted as partial fulfillment of a Masters degree in Education at Te Uru Maraurau, Massey University College of Education, Palmerston North

    McLeod, Jen (2002)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis examines the policy document Better Relationships for Better Learning: Guidelines for Boards of Trustees and Schools on Engaging with Mäori Parents, Whanau, and Communities (Ministry of Education, 2000a). The thesis is concerned with an examination and analysis of the Ministry of Education’s policy Better Relationships for Better Learning document and its implementation as evidenced by a case study school. The thesis demonstrates that while Government policy may intend to benefit Maori, the outcomes do not necessarily do so. It is argued that neither Government nor schools, as agents of the state, are neutral bodies but in large part reflect the influence of the majority over the provision of education for Maori. The claim for school/Maori partnerships made in the policy Better Relationships for Better Learning ignores the founding partnership envisaged through the Treaty of Waitangi. Maori participation as partners in negotiating the terms of the relationship with the school is ignored. This thesis examines the function of those relationships in terms of ‘Better Learning’, investigating the developments and practices in schools for Maori children’s learning.

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  • Enhancing Performance-Based Regulation: Lessons from New Zealand's Building Control System

    Mumford, Peter John (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Performance-based regulation establishes mandatory goals rather than enforcing prescriptive standards. Performance-based regulation has become popular over the past two decades as an alternative to prescriptive regulation, as it holds out the promise of simultaneously achieving health, safety and environmental outcomes while facilitating innovation and reducing regulatory costs. In the early 1990s New Zealand adopted a performance-based building control regime. This demonstrably failed and was replaced in 2004 with a new regime, still performance-based but more conservative. Using legal determinations, adjudications and court cases, and reviews of the failures, contributing factors have been identified. An assessment has been made of the extent to which these factors can be attributed to the performance philosophy and features of the regime. Strategies to addresses the weaknesses of performance-based regulation have been explored. The change from a standards-based regulatory regime, where technology shifts are on the margin and occur through a process of incremental trial-and-error, to a performance-based regime, displaced traditional institutions for aggregating knowledge required for risk-based decision-making. At the same time, the new performance-based regime was permissive of greater technology shifts, which demands more of decision-makers who are operating in an environment of inevitable uncertainty. The significance of the regime change was not well understood and new institutions did not evolve. Reverting to traditional institutions is not an option as they are inherently conservative and therefore innovation as one of the normative benefits of performance-based regulation is likely to be constrained. New institutions are required to aggregate knowledge, but also permit decisions that enable the technology threshold to be pushed out in situations where it is not possible to measure accurately how a novel technology will perform in all of the circumstances of its use, and failure in the field is a possibility. This requires knowledge that is both technical and evaluative. Technical knowledge is more than science, but increasingly knowledge in other domains such as psychology, economics, and both domestic and international law. Evaluative knowledge is that which is required to assess risks and consequences. This study explores two strategies for resolving the challenges of decision-making in a permissive performance-based regulatory environment: improving the predicative capability of decision-making systems through the better application of the intuitive judgment associated with expertise and wisdom, and treating novel technologies as explicit experiments. Both strategies show promise, but may be difficult to implement. If the conditions for materially pushing out the thresholds of technology while managing the risks cannot be met, it may be necessary to revert to incremental trial-and-error in high-risk areas. This does not preclude innovation, but it will be at a slower rate.

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  • Haka and Hula Representations in Tourism

    O'Carroll, Acushla Deanne (2009)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Haka and hula performances tell stories that represent histories, traditions, protocols and customs of the Maori and Hawai'ian people and give insight into their lives and the way that they see the world. The way that haka and hula performances are represented is being tested, as the dynamics of the tourism industry impact upon and influence the art forms. If allowed, these impacts and influences can affect the performances and thus manipulate or change the way that haka and hula are represented. Through an understanding of the impacts and influences of tourism on haka and hula performances, as well as an exploration of the cultures' values, cultural representations effective existence within the tourism industry can be investigated. This thesis will incorporate the perspectives of haka and hula practitioners and discuss the impacts and influences on haka and hula performances in tourism. The research will also explore and discuss the ways in which cultural values and representations can effectively co-exist within tourism.

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  • Impact Evaluation of a 'Brief Intervention Program' for Clients who Deliberately Self-Harm

    Aquin, Edward Herman (2009)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Deliberate self harm (DSH) and suicide rates are recognised internationally, nationally and locally as an increasing trend. The financial and emotional cost to society highlights the need for providing services that aim to reduce the likelihood of further deliberate self harm. The emergency department (ED) is often the entry point for service provision to clients who deliberate self harm. A reduction in re-presentations for acts of DSH to the ED would greatly reduce the strain on this essential part of the public healthcare system. It is vital that the services developed to address DSH are evaluated to facilitate informed decisions regarding program sustainability or improvement. Study aim: This study aims to evaluate a 'brief intervention program' (BIP) designed to address the needs of clients who presented with or were at risk of engaging in act(s) of deliberate self harm. The intention of the program was to reduce repetitive acts of DSH and to assist the clients in developing better coping strategies. Study design: This study uses a pluralistic evaluation research design to conduct a program evaluation. The 'line of enquiry' is guided by the Impact Evaluation framework by Owen (2006).The seven steps of the framework were used to organise, categorise, analyse and discuss the program's outcomes in this study. The pluralistic or mixed design used pre-existing quantitative client file data and qualitative data collected from a staff questionnaire. A total number of 40 client files were examined for the data analysis. Six out of the ten staff members agreed to participate in a survey that sought information about the program's implementation. Findings: Results from the quantitative data analysis found that 82.1% of clients did not re-present to the ED with a repeated act of DSH for a period of six months following initial referral and treatment. The mean average of days to follow up was 5.54. Outcome measurements via pre and post PANSI scores found an improvement in the client's resiliency. Results from the repeated measures t-test: p< .05. Qualitative data analysis found that by expanding the referral base that stakeholders perceived it was more difficult for clients to be followed up within five days from their referral date. Other suggestions pertained to increasing the resources of the program for sustainability. Contribution: The use of program evaluation strategies compliments current trends in healthcare to employ pluralistic or mixed method designs. Broader lines of enquiry lead to more informed decisions regarding program sustainability or improvement.

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  • Passive Environmental Control: The Use of Insulated Archival Boxes to Control Fluctuations in Relative Humidity and Temperature

    Woods, Andrea Jane (2009)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Four archival boxes made from different materials, were tested to see how effective they were at stabilizing fluctuations in temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) and if this method of passive environmental control could meet the environmental requirements of the Archives New Zealand Storage Standard (ANZSS), instead of using heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC)systems. The boxes were placed in an un-insulated attic space in Auckland, New Zealand, during the winter for twelve weeks from June 7, to August 29, 2009. Twenty-four hour samples of T and RH of each box were taken by a Hobo LCD data-logger placed inside the boxes. Another Hobo LCD data-logger was placed in the ambient environment to determine the difference. The main results were; RH fluctuations inside all the boxes met part of Requirement 28, of the ANZSS, during the twelve weeks of the study, by not fluctuating more than 10% over a twenty-four hour period, even though the ambient RH fluctuated by as much 22%. However, although the T inside the boxes mostly fluctuated less than in the ambient environment it did not consistently reach the 4 degree centigrade or below fluctuation level of requirement, 29 of the ANZSS. The conclusion reached from the study is all the archival boxes used in study are effective in controlling fluctuations in RH and T; however, institutions needing to meet the ANZSS will require other methods to control environmental conditions.

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  • The development of a low-cost robotic visual tracking system : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Engineering, Mechatronics at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Chiang, Shun Fan (2009)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis describes a system which is able to track and imitate human motion. The system is divided into two major parts: computer vision system and robot arm motion control system. Through the use of two real-time video cameras, computer vision system identifies the moving object depending on the colour features, as the object colour is matched within the colour range in the current image frame, a method that employs two vectors is used to calculate the coordinates of the object. After the object is detected and tracked coordinates are saved to a pre-establish database in the purpose of further data processing, a mathematical algorithm is performed to the data in order to give a better robotic motion control. Robot arm manipulator responds with a move within its workspace which corresponds to a consequential human-type motion. Experimental outcomes have shown that the system is reliable and can successfully imitate a human hand motion in most cases.

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  • The Ecological Role of a Common Seastar (Patiriella spp.) Within Intertidal Cobble Fields

    Palmer, Shiree (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Intertidal cobble habitats are complex three-dimensional marine environments that are understudied despite having unique species assemblages and ecological patterns. New Zealand's common cushion star, Patiriella spp., is found in a wide range of coastal habitats, including intertidal cobble fields. This seastar is an omnivore that feeds predominantly on crustose coralline algae and micro-organisms, but also supplements its diet by scavenging on carrion. Study on the adult ecology of Patiriella spp. is limited and this thesis aims to expand on the knowledge of this species and its role in intertidal cobble communities. First, field surveys were conducted within intertidal cobble fields in Wellington Harbour and on the Wellington South Coast to determine density, size and feeding habits of Patiriella spp. and the density of associated organisms. Patiriella spp. were abundant at all sites, with no significant difference in density between Wellington Harbour and Wellington South Coast; however, feeding rates and sizes were significantly higher on the South Coast. Distribution of Patiriella spp. on cobbles was negatively correlated with the distribution of chitons, suggesting possible competition between these animals. Second, scavenging behaviour was examined in field and laboratory experiments. Patiriella spp. were readily attracted to mussel carrion bait in the field; however, whelks were the numerically dominant taxon attracted to bait and may therefore compete with Patiriella spp. for this resource. Laboratory results showed that movement towards carrion may be indicative of hunger and Patiriella spp. from Wellington Harbour and the Wellington South Coast reacted similarly to carrion, suggesting similar, limited levels, of carrion supply within these regions. The occurrence of interspecific feeding competition was tested in the laboratory by examining growth and mortality in response to varying densities of Patiriella spp. and a locally abundant chiton, and possible competitor, Chiton glaucus. Intraspecific competition was also tested in response to varying densities of Patiriella spp., with and without carrion supplementation and during spring and winter. No inter- or intraspecific competition was found for crustose coralline algae and micro-organisms and this food resource appears not to be limited. However, Patiriella spp. supplemented on mussel carrion had significantly higher growth rates than non-supplemented treatments and this was greater at lower densities, suggesting intraspecific competition for carrion. Increases in Patiriella spp. size and pyloric caeca weight were only observed for treatments supplemented with carrion. Therefore, carrion appears important for growth and reproduction and intraspecific competition for this resource may impact population sizes. Consequently, fluctuations in carrion supply have the potential to change the distribution and abundance of Patiriella spp., leading to changes in community dynamics. This study has provided baseline information on Patiriella spp. populations within intertidal cobble fields in Wellington Harbour and on the Wellington South Coast and also improved knowledge of the feeding behaviours and competitive interactions of this seastar; therefore, contributing to understanding of the ecological role of Patiriella spp. within intertidal cobble communities.

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  • The relationship between Māori cultural identity and health

    Stevenson, Brendan (2001)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    While the differences in health between cultures co-existing in the same country have been well researched, there has been insufficient attention paid to the definition of culture used in these studies. Typically the ethnicity of an individual has been determined along biological lines or by the country of origin. However, the culture with which an individual identifies may not be so clear: an individual may identify with a number of cultures, from the social group with whom they socialise, to the religion they follow. Measuring the degree to which an individual identifies with a particular culture (their cultural identity), would allow an assessment of how membership in that culture influences health outcomes. The present study investigated the relationship between the cultural identity (CI) of Māori and their health. The main hypothesis was that a higher CI would be positively correlated with better health. The relationships between demographic factors (e.g. age, gender, & socio-economic status (SES)), CI, and a number of health indicators (self rated health, smoking behaviour, alcohol consumption, & exercise/sporting behaviours) were also examined. The sample used in the present study (767 adult Māori) was a subset of the data collected the Te Hoe Nuku Roa Māori profiles project. The development of a CI measure incorporated seven cultural indicators: Whakapapa (ancestry), Marae Participation, Whanaū associations (extended family), Whenua Tipu (ancestral land), contact with Māori people, Use of te Reo (Māori language), and kai (food preferences). A series of hierarchical linear regressions found that CI was not directly related to health indicators in the present study. There were weak interactions between CI, age, and smoking behaviour; CI, home ownership, and involvement in sport; and age, Crowding and involvement in sport. Additional findings were that more Sporting Involvement/exercise was moderately correlated with improved health, and there was a weak relationship between CI and SES. It was speculated that the lack of significant findings may be due to a difference in the quality of participants’ CI: The CI measure did not distinguish between those who learn their culture and those who live their culture (each group tending to be in differing social and economic positions). Recommendations from the study were: Further validation of the CI measure, and assessment of the distribution of CI over urban/rural areas, SES and age; additional research into the relationship between young Māori smokers and their CI; assessing how the level of Sporting Involvement varies across the social and economic realities of Māori; and the development of appropriate measures utilising the whanaū/household as the unit of analysis.

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