88,600 results

  • Forensic Analysis of Expirated blood

    Donaldson, Andrea (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    In forensic investigations the distinction between expirated bloodstains (blood from the mouth, nose or lungs) and impact spatter (blood from gunshots, explosives, blunt force trauma and/or machinery accidents) is often important but difficult to determine due to their high degree of size similarity, which may result in the patterns being incorrectly classified. Expirated bloodstains on an accused person’s clothing occur when assisting an injured person, a finding which would tend to exonerate that individual. Impact spatter stains on clothing tend to occur due to the proximity of the person to the bloodshedding event, implying guilt. Therefore this project determined the characteristics inherent in each bloodstain type by using high speed digital video analysis and developed a test using PCR analysis to distinguish between the two types of bloodstain patterns to allow for proper bloodstain classification. The current study developed a test involving PCR analysis using DNA from human-specific oral microbes as a biomarker for the presence of saliva and hence oral expirated bloodstains. This PCR method is very specific to human oral Streptococci, with no PCR product being made from human DNA or DNA from soil or other microbes that were tested. It is also very sensitive, detecting as little as 60 fg of target DNA. The PCR was not inhibited by the presence of blood and could detect target DNA in expirated blood for at least 92 days after deposit on cardboard or cotton fabric. In a blind trial, the PCR method was able to distinguish three mock forensic samples that contained expirated blood from four that did not. These data show that bacteria present in the oral cavity can be detected in bloodstains that contain saliva, and therefore can potentially be used as a marker in forensic work to distinguish mouth-expirated bloodstains from other types of bloodstains. High speed digital video analysis was used to examine the physical characteristics, droplet sizes and distance travelled of expirated bloodstain patterns generated by breathing, spitting and coughing. This analysis showed that some physical characteristics (beaded stains) are unique to expirated bloodstains and can be used to determine that the stain is expirated in origin. However, the video images also showed that these physical characteristics are not always present and that the type of expelling mechanism i.e. coughing, spitting or breathing, the distance the bloodstains travel, and the type of surface the bloodstains are deposited on all influence the presence of these physical characteristics.

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  • In pursuit of victory : British-New Zealand relations during the First World War

    Kay, Richard (2001)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xi, 357 leaves :ill., ports. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 315-357). Typescript (photocopy).

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  • Regulation of the human adiponutrin promoter, PNPLA3

    Rae-Whitcombe, Sharleen Margaret (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    The adiponutrin gene (Adpn) and its human homologue PNPLA3 code for a protein which is highly expressed in adipose tissue and liver, and appears to be involved in regulation of energy homeostasis. The nutritional regulation and patterns of tissue expression exhibited by Adpn/PNPLA3 are reminiscent of lipogenic genes (Baulande et al., 2001, Polson and Thompson, 2004), yet regions of the gene sequence are homologous to those of functional significance in lipolytic proteins such as adipocyte triaclyglycerol lipase (ATGL) (Lake et al., 2005). Experimental evidence has been provided in vitro that Adpn/PNPLA3 can catalyse both lipogenic and lipolytic reactions (Jenkins et al., 2004; Lake et al., 2005), but its precise biological function remains unclear. Previously, 3.1 kb of the 5´ upstream region (USR) of the human adiponutrin gene PNPLA3 was cloned into a pGL4.10 luc2 reporter vector (Dr. Mary Thompson, University of Otago), and transfected into Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells (Kennedy, 2007). This was demonstrated to significantly upregulate luc2 expression over the basic pGL4.10 vector. The current project aimed to investigate whether the PNPLA3 5´ USR is regulated in response to glucose and/or insulin, or the chemical compounds forskolin, rosiglitazone, or α-lipoic acid. Possible involvement of the regulatory protein upstream stimulatory factor 2 (USF2) in stimulating PNPLA3 transcription was also investigated, as this factor is known to be involved in glucose-dependent upregulation of other genes. The pADPN reporter plasmid was transiently transfected into three mammalian cell lines; Huh-7, HepG2 and CHO-IR. Cells were then subjected to various experimental treatments, and the activity of the promoter was assayed by measurement of luciferase activity in harvested cell lysates. Endogenous levels of PNPLA3 mRNA in the human hepatoma cell line Huh-7 were also assayed for mRNA levels in response to these treatments, using reverse transcription qPCR. The 3.1 kb PNPLA3 5´ USR upregulated baseline transcription of the luc2 reporter gene in low glucose media up to 46 fold in Huh-7 cells, 16 fold in CHO-IR cells and 6 fold in HepG2 cells, demonstrating cell-line specific regulation of the promoter. High glucose (12.5- 25 mM) upregulated PNPLA3 promoter activity in HepG2 (up to 3.5 fold) and Huh-7 (up to 2 fold), but upregulation was not clearly demonstrated in CHO-IR cells. Insulin upregulated PNPLA3 promoter activity up to 2 fold in CHO-IR cells in the presence of glucose, but this was not observed in Huh7 or HepG2 cells. The regulatory factor USF2 also upregulated PNPLA3 promoter activity in CHO-IR cells up to 1.6 fold, and appeared to be operating independently of insulin. Rosiglitazone produced a 1.3 fold increase in PNPLA3 promoter activity in Huh-7 cells, and the endogenous PNPLA3 mRNA in Huh-7 cells was also observed to be upregulated 1.4 fold by rosiglitazone. Forskolin was observed to downregulate the endogenous PNPLA3 mRNA in Huh-7 cells by 30%. Alpha lipoic acid maintained endogenous PNPLA3 mRNA at low levels compared to controls although, in contrast, it caused upregulation of the promoter in a dose dependent manner. In conclusion, the PNPLA3 3.1 kb 5´ region contains elements which have been demonstrated to upregulate the transcription of the luc2 reporter gene in a cell-line specific manner. This upregulation is further enhanced by glucose, insulin, rosiglitazone, α-lipoic acid and USF2 in some, but not all cell culture types. In the liver carcinoma cell line Huh-7, endogenous mRNA was downregulated by forskolin and α-lipoic acid and upregulated slightly by rosiglitazone, but no effect of insulin or glucose was observed.

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  • Raffaello Squarise (1856-1945): The Colonial Career of an Italian Maestro

    Murray, David Russell (2005)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This work examines the life of Raffaello Squarise (1856-1945), an Italian maestro who was a leading musician in the city of Dunedin, New Zealand, from 1889 until his retirement in 1933. Squarise worked as a professional in a predominantly amateur musical environment, and this thesis demonstrates his widely-felt presence and discernible influence in Dunedin’s cultural life, through his activities as a violinist, teacher, conductor, and composer. Furthermore, it illustrates the nature of the active musical culture in Dunedin, through Squarise’s participation in established local practices and the contrast provided by the ‘otherness’ of his Italian ethnicity. The thesis shows that a two-way adaptive process took place between Squarise and the Dunedin community, as each engaged with the unfamiliar culture of the other. The success of Squarise’s musical career in the antipodes, it is argued, was based upon his willingness to adapt to the cultural, intellectual, and musical environment of his adopted home. The method used in this study is that of interpretative biography: it conveys the experience of the individual while emphasizing context through the subject’s interaction with his environment. The sources of the research are mainly archival, and include Squarise’s personal papers, newspapers, the archives of local music organizations, and music ephemera. These are augmented by interviews undertaken with some of the few people (nearly sixty years since his death) who knew Squarise. The thesis is a study of the public more than the private man, but the sources are extensive enough to provide a thorough representation of Squarise’s professional activities.

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  • Quality of life after injury: an Individual Patient Data (IPD) meta-analysis

    Black, James Alexander (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    There is a need for information on the Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) of injury populations. HRQoL measures, like the EQ-5D, have seen a dramatic increase in use over the last ten years. Despite this, general information on HRQoL pathways to recovery are missing from the literature, as many injury studies focus on specific injury types within exclusive populations. This study: (1) identified studies using the EQ-5D in injury populations, (2) collected individual level patient data, and (3) produced population level predictions of HRQoL, as defined by the EQ-5D, across injury subtypes. A systematic search of literature concerning injury outcome, published between January 1990 and November 2008 (inclusive), was completed. Studies were excluded if the EQ-5D was not used, a degenerative disease was required for study inclusion or injury was a secondary outcome not required for the study. Researchers were invited to contribute Individual Patient Data (IPD) to the meta-analysis. Injuries collected were grouped into 39 categories based on the Eurocost injury classifications. Multilevel mixed effects models were used to produce predictions across both the dimensions and the Visual Analogue Score (VAS) of the EQ-5D measure. From a potential pool of 13,785 persons across 39 study datasets, IPD from 10,496 injured persons was sourced from 18 discrete datasets. Predictions were fitted to 25 of the 39 injury categories, covering a wide spectrum of injury types. Point predictions were produced for the dimensions and VAS at 3, 30, 120 and 360 days after injury. Figures were also produced of recovery pathways within the EQ-5D dimensions, where relationships with the facet of the EQ-5D and time were statistically significant. Across the majority of injuries pain and discomfort (PD) was the most severely impaired dimension at both 30 and 360 days post injury. Recovery for PD was gradual, with fractures of the femur, lower leg and pelvis showing marked improvements in mobility and usual activities at 360 days but not PD. Regardless of anatomical location of injury a similar pattern was seen between fractures, with high initial impairment and rapid recoveries, and strains, where impairment at 30 days was significantly less but recovery was gradual. VAS scores showed a great variation in subjective assessments of general health states after an injury. The dimensions of cognitive function and anxiety and depression showed a limited relationship with most injury categories. The HRQoL predictions produced here will aid clinical researchers in comparing their populations to norm values, as well as aiding policy makers in obtaining a greater understanding of the burden of injury types. This will aid in both justifying prevention measures, as well as identifying areas for prioritisation of resources.

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  • Scientific responsibility for the dissemination and interpretation of genetic research: Lessons from the ‘Warrior Gene’ controversy

    King, M.R.; Wensley, D. (2008)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    This paper discusses the announcement by a team of researchers that they identified a genetic influence for a range of ‘antisocial’ behaviours in the New Zealand Māori population (dubbed the ‘Warrior Gene’). The behaviours included criminality, violence, gambling, and alcoholism. The reported link between genetics and behaviour met with much controversy. The scientists were described as hiding behind a veneer of supposedly ‘objective’ western science, using it to perpetuate ‘racist and oppressive discourses’. In this paper we examine what went wrong in the dissemination of the research. We chose as our framework the debate around the ‘internal / external’ responsibilities of scientists. Using this discourse we argue that when the researchers ventured to explain their research in terms of social phenomena, they assumed a duty to ensure that their findings were placed ‘in context’. By ‘in context’, we argue that evidence of any genetic influence on behavioural characteristics should not be reported in isolation, but instead presented alongside other environmental, cultural, and socio-economic influences that may also contribute to the studied behaviour. Rather than imposing a new obligation on scientists, we find this duty to contextualise results is in keeping with the spirit of codes of ethics already in place. Lessons from the ‘Warrior Gene’ controversy may assist researchers elsewhere to identify potential areas of conflict before they jeopardise research relationships, or disseminate findings in a manner that fuels misleading and / or potentially discriminatory attitudes in society.

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  • Noeline Baker : a life in two worlds

    Taylor, Leah (1992)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Noeline Baker was an interesting and unusual woman whose life spanned one of the most dramatic phases of women's history - two world wars, the campaigns for peace they brought into being, the women's suffrage and the changing role of women in society. Her life was one of extraordinary contrast. She was born into an upper middle class family and enjoyed a cosseted, urban girlhood in New Zealand but experienced discomfort, even danger on riding tours with her father. After the Bakers went to live in England, Noeline became a suffragist. Although she herself was removed from the experience of poverty and physical deprivation, she became concerned with the plight of women workers. She enjoyed independence (she never married) but for ten years was a "dutiful daughter", the companion of her elderly father. After his death, she left England and her position in a family network of influence and charm for a life of comparative isolation on Stewart Island, New Zealand. There she applied her energy and enthusiasm to creating a botanical garden. She never severed her links with Britain. She was deeply bonded to the two countries, travelled regularly between them and always missed the one she was away from. Unfortunately, there are many gaps in this account because the information about Noeline Baker is limited and fragmentary. There is a lack of her own words because her diaries have disappeared and few personal letters were found. In spite of these limitations, the sources are enough to recreate the life of a woman who was in danger of disappearing from history and who is well worth remembering.

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  • Old identities and new iniquities : the Taieri Plain in Otago Province, 1770-1870

    Davis, George Frederick (1973)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Today, the Taieri Plain is primarily agricultural in function; but the nature of the landscape is changing more swiftly than at any time in the past. Soon, because of modernised farming, substantial building programmes and new patterns of communication, it will in no way resemble that which was present in the past. The advance of progress has been steady for almost a century on the Taieri. All indications of the century 1770-1870 are rapidly becoming a matter of conjecture. Some works have been written which involve study of the Taieri Plain - in particular, Shaw and Farrant's excellent volume "The Taieri Plain - Tales of Years that are Gone" written for the Otago 1948 Centennial. As well, J.A. Thomson's "The Taieri Allans" (Dunedin 1929) and Mrs Daphne Lemon's "Taieri Buildings" (Dunedin 1970) and "More Taieri Buildings" (Dunedin 1972) provide sources of information relating to particular families. Only Shaw and Farrant's book comes close to being a definitive study but it glosses over the important early years. The only analytical study of the general area which includes the Taieri Plain is A.H. McLintock's "History of Otago" (Dunedin 1949). This significant work deals with the whole province and because of its wide scope, examination of the Taieri Plain specifically is limited. Because of its importance there will be sections of the thesis which will compare or contrast with ideas in McLintock's "History of Otago". No major work has yet been attempted which links European settlement in this local area with effects on the resident native population; or any comparison made between types of settlement before 1844, or any contrast of ideas about the development of the Taieri Plain held in the 1840s with the later realities, or any analysis of the effects of gold discoveries on the nature of a local settlement. These are significant facets of changes in the character of the early Taieri Plain. These ideas will be examined in this thesis.

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  • Different ways of knowing? Understanding disabled students’ and teacher aides’ school experiences within a context of relational social justice

    Rutherford, Gill (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Disabled students’ experiences of working with teacher aides constitute a recent focus of international inquiry. To date in New Zealand, there has been no specific investigation of this aspect of education, despite the widespread reliance on teacher aide support as the primary means of responding to disabled students’ presence in schools. Similarly, there are very few New Zealand studies in which teacher aides are the primary participants. This thesis seeks to address this absence in New Zealand educational research by exploring students’ and teacher aides’ experiences of working together, in order to understand the impact of assigning responsibility for students who have complex learning support requirements to teacher aides who require no qualification, training, or experience to work in this role. This interpretive qualitative study is positioned in a multi-dimensional framework of current disability, social justice, and sociology of childhood theorising. A series of semi-structured meetings were held with ten students, aged eight to seventeen years, who attended schools in the South Island of New Zealand. As well, semi-structured interviews were conducted with eighteen teacher aides who worked in a range of primary, intermediate, and secondary schools in the same geographic area as the student participants. Data were interpreted utilizing both inductive and deductive means of analysis. Students’ participation in the research and their contributions to the findings demonstrated their competence, agency, and heterogeneity. Students conveyed a sense of the importance and value of the teacher aide’s role, if clearly defined and carried out in a positive, professional manner within the context of supportive schools. The findings relating to teacher aides’ experiences highlighted the diverse, ambiguous nature of their roles, conceptualised as a continuum of support ranging from aiding teachers in inclusive contexts, to aiding students in assimilationist circumstances, to assuming the role of teacher or babysitter for students in exclusive educational environments. Analysis of teacher aides’ experiences revealed the fundamental importance of relationships in coming to know students in terms of their humanness and competence, and in underpinning teacher aides’ efforts to do the right thing by students. Participants also identified the need for all adults involved in the policy and practice of education to develop shared understandings of respectful, socially just ways of thinking about disability and childhood as the foundation of a common commitment to teach all students well. The insight generated by participants, who represent perhaps the least powerful of students and employees in New Zealand schools, illuminates some of the most significant changes that need to occur in the thinking and practices of people involved in educational policy-making, teacher and teacher aide education, and schools. Addressing these educational deficits may contribute to the development of a socially just education system that is respectful of and responsive to human difference while recognising and respecting our mutual humanness.

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  • The epidemiology of stomach cancer in Oman

    Al-Mahrouqi, Haitham (2010)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Background: Stomach cancer is the fourth most common cancer in the world, but the second most frequent cause of cancer deaths. In Oman, stomach cancer is the most common cancer among males and existing data suggest that the age-standardised incidence rate of stomach cancer in Oman for both sexes is higher than the rates in many neighbouring Arab and Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Possible reasons for this have not been explored. Population-based cancer research has only recently become possible in Oman, with the introduction of mandatory cancer registration and the establishment of a national death registration system (The Directorate General of Civil Status, DGCS). Aims: The main aims of the research described in this thesis were: - To describe the incidence of stomach cancer in Oman and to compare it to the incidence in surrounding GCC countries. - To compare the prevalences of known risk factors for stomach cancer in Oman and other GCC countries. - To provide population-based estimates of mortality, and median and relative survival of stomach cancer patients in Oman. - To assess the feasibility of routinely undertaking linkage between the NCR and DGCS to monitor cancer survival. Methods: Incidence data in Oman and the GCC countries were obtained from NCR and the Gulf Centre for Cancer Registration reports. The health literature and key websites were searched for information about the prevalence of risk factors in the GCC countries. To identify deaths, NCR records were linked with the DGCS and a parallel mortality database (PMD). Results: The incidence of stomach cancer in Oman differed by sex, age and region, and showed a decline over time. The age-standardised incidence rate in Oman was higher than in most of the GCC countries, with some variation by age and sex. However, bias from incomplete registration was possible. Smoking, BMI and fruit and vegetable intake were unlikely to explain the apparent between-country differences in stomach cancer incidence, but the lower socioeconomic status in Oman might contribute. Information regarding the prevalence of H. pylori infection and salt intake was lacking. Because a unique identifier was missing from most NCR records, name, sex, address, and year of birth were used to search for death records in the DGCS and PMD. Matches were classified either as definite or possible. For definite matches, the median survival for males and females combined was 30 months (95% CI 16.3–.) and the one- and three-year relative survival rates were 0.70 (95% CI 0.62–0.78) and 0.58 (95% CI 0.49–0.67) respectively. When possible matches were included, the corresponding results were 14.7 months (95% CI 9.9–23.9), 0.60 (95% CI 0.52–0.68) and 0.44 (95% CI 0.36–0.53). There was evidence of incomplete death registration in both the DGCS and PMD. Mortality rates could not be estimated because of missing cause-of-death data. Conclusions: The unavailability of comparable data on the prevalence of risk factors hinders the ability to identify possible reasons for the apparently higher risk of stomach cancer in Oman. Survival of stomach cancer patients in Oman seems to be poor. To better characterise the problem, the NCR and DGCS should continue improving the quality and completeness of their data, and ongoing monitoring of the burden of the disease seems desirable.

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  • "An indolent and chilly folk" : the development of the idea of the "Moriori myth"

    Clayworth, Peter (2001)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Throughout the nineteenth century probably the majority of Pakeha held the view that the East Polynesian ancestors of the Maori were the first people to settle in New Zealand. Over the same period there were always considerable numbers of Pakeha who held the alternative view that an earlier people were already living in New Zealand when the first East Polynesian immigrants arrived. Among Maori each hapu and iwi had their own origin traditions. Some held that their ancestors arrived to an empty land, while others believed there were other groups already here when their own ancestors arrived. The traditions of the Chatham Island Moriori indicated that they were also East Polynesian migrants, but some Pakeha speculated that the Moriori were a distinct people from the Maori. By the early twentieth century one set of ideas on early settlement had become the orthodox view of the past among Pakeha. This view, which held sway from the 1910s until at least the 1960s, maintained that the original people of New Zealand were the 'Moriori', a people only distantly related, if at all, to the Maori. This primitive early people were supposed to have been displaced by the arrival of the more advanced East Polynesian Maori. Some of the more fortunate Moriori were absorbed into the Maori tribes, while the majority were either killed or driven into exile on the Chatham Islands. This idea of the past, sometimes called the 'Moriori Myth', has now been largely rejected by scholars, but still holds some currency in popular circles. The current thesis examines the question of how the 'Moriori Myth' developed and eventually became the orthodox view of the past. This question is investigated in the contexts of British imperial expansion, of the development of scientific ideas on race and evolution, and of the study of language and folklore as a way to decipher racial history. The current thesis is largely based on the writings of Pakeha and Maori scholars of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Letters and manuscripts, in both English and Maori, have been used, along with published books and papers. The major focus of the work is the idea that the Moriori Myth largely developed out of the Pakeha study of Maori oral history. This study of oral history led to a considerable degree of interaction between Pakeha scholars and Maori experts. A major focus in the early part of the work is on Pakeha attempts to determine the racial identity and history of the Chatham Island Moriori. In this part of the work considerable attention has been paid to the collaborative work of the Pakeha scholar Alexander Shand and the Moriori expert Hirawanu Tapu, who worked together to record the surviving Moriori traditions. The focus of the latter part of this thesis is on the creation by Pakeha scholars of theoretical models of the early migrations to New Zealand, based on their understandings of Maori oral traditions. It will be argued that the 'Moriori Myth' was largely based on the writings of Stephenson Percy Smith, as promoted by himself and Elsdon Best, through the medium of the knowledge network formed by the Polynesian Society. Smith's writings on the 'Moriori Myth' will be shown to have been largely based on his interpretations of the writings of the Ngati Kahungunu scholar Hoani Turei Whatahoro. It will be argued that the 'Moriori Myth' was in fact the creation of interactions between Pakeha scholars and Maori experts rather than the invention of any one person or group.

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  • Effects of cold and clothing on metabolism in female cyclists

    Parr, Evelyn Bridget (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Research investigating substrate metabolism during exercise with female participants is limited, especially regarding effects of cold stress. The aims of this study were to determine whether exercising in cold ambient temperature affects substrate metabolism in females and whether the addition of a thermal layer alters the metabolic response in the cold. Trained female cyclists (n = 11, age 26 ± 7 y, height 1.69 ± 0.08 m, body mass 63.9 ± 7.2 kg, ∑8 skinfolds 111.6 ± 22.5 mm, body fat 20 ± 3%, O2 max 48 ± 8 ml.kg-1·min-1, mean ± SD) performed three trials in pseudo-random order; two at 5 ºC (Cold and Clothing (C5 °C)) and one at 15 ºC (Temperate), 93 and 79% relative humidity (RH), resp. Exercise comprised warm-up (30 min ~30% VO2 max) in 17.8 °C (43% RH), 75 min cycling at ~74% VO2 max, and a 4 km time trial in the test environment. The same attire was worn in each trial, with the addition of an extra thermal layer in the second 5 °C trial (Clothing; C5 °C), all with a fan at 3.9 m·s-1. Total carbohydrate (CHO) and fat oxidation (indirect calorimetry every 15 min) were calculated and corrected for protein oxidation (from sweat and urine urea). CHO oxidation was partitioned using [13C6]glucose tracer methodology, measuring enrichment in breath (CO2) and blood (glucose). Heart rate (HR), skin temperature (Tsk) (nine sites), core temperature (Tc) (rectal), and subjective measures of thermal sensation, discomfort and rating of percieved exertion (RPE) were recorded every 15 min. Protein oxidation was not different between conditions (p < 0.05). Neither total CHO, fat oxidation, muscle glycogen or liver-derived glucose oxidation were different (p > 0.05) between Cold and Temperate. Reduced fat oxidation in Clothing versus Cold (5 °C: 0.33 ± 0.15 g·min-1; C5 °C: 0.25 ± 0.21 g·min-1, mean ± SD) was observed (p = .031), and a trend of incresed CHO oxidation in Cold (5 °C: 1.96 ± 0.44 g·min-1; C5 °C: 2.19 ± 0.48 g·min-1; p = .058). Tc increased across exercise (p < .001) but was not different between Cold and either Temperate or Clothing. sk was ~6 °C and ~1 °C lower in Cold compared to Temperate (p < .001) and Clothing (p < .05). Thermal sensation was lower and discomfort was higher in Cold than Temperate (both p < .001). Only thermal sensation was modified by Clothing (p < .001). There were no differences in time trial performance between Cold and Temperate (p = .23), and Cold and Clothing (p = .60). In conclusion, there is no large difference in metabolism between moderately intensive cycling at 5 °C vs. 15 °C (with substantial facing air velocity) in women. The women in this study may be resilient to temperature variation possibly due to body composition and or sex hormone influences. Interestingly, the addition of clothing tends to stimulate CHO metabolism in the cold, decreases fat metabolism, and may reflect heat stress rather than a lack of cooling.

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  • Heat Losses and Gains in Residential Housing in Southern New Zealand

    Bishop, Timothy Wyman (2009)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    The majority (70%) of houses in New Zealand were originally built before energy efficiency regulation came into force. Since the first standard was introduced in 1977, methods for controlling heat loss in new builds have gradually improved; these requirements have focused on insulation and the control of air insulation. In recent years, many local programs have focused on “easy” upgrades to existing housing, which typically involve insulating the floor and ceiling. Recent studies have questioned the efficacy of floor and ceiling insulation, showing minimal increase in indoor ambient temperature along with minimal decrease in energy use for space heating. These findings are more pronounced in cooler parts of the country, such as in Dunedin. This thesis investigates heat loss control retrofit options for New Zealand homes. The study examines two houses, which were retrofitted in stages, as a range of improvements were made to the building envelope. Heat loss was measured at each stage, and heat loss from infiltration was estimated by measuring the air ingress. The experimental technique used was a novel total house calorimetric method known as co-heating. With the exception of ceiling insulation, the observed upgrade performance matched predictions calculated using lumped thermal resistances. After the addition of wall, floor, and ceiling insulation, overall construction (lumped) thermal resistance increased from 0.8 m2KW-1 to 1.6 m2KW-1. After the upgrades, costing from around $123/m2 the heat loss was reduced by 32% for the entire house retrofit and 54% in the case of the living area-only retrofit. The study also found that the addition of insulation alone would not allow a house to achieve adequate indoor temperatures at a space heating cost (using electric resistive heating) that might be affordable. Choice of heating systems must also be considered when renovating houses. In addition the aspect of consumer preferences for energy efficient housing was investigated using a survey of Dunedin house insulation levels and heating practices.

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  • Works of Gold and Jade -Cao Zhi (192-232 CE): The Man and His Poetry

    Cook, Johannah (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    This thesis is an analysis of the life and poetry of Cao Zhi 曹植. It will seek to prove that Cao Zhi was a transitional poet during a transitional era. It will demonstrate how he revived the poetic traditions of the past, but at the same time, transformed literary traditions so that they embodied a new kind of individualism which revolutionised the Chinese poetic tradition. The seeds of this new poetic movement began during the Jian’an period 建安 (196-220 CE) and Cao Zhi’s life and poetry reflect this new individualist movement that would later be embraced by Chinese intellectuals during the Wei-Jin 魏晉 (220-420 CE) dynasties which is often referred to as the “literary awakening period.” This thesis will demonstrate how Cao Zhi remained grounded in Confucian values throughout his life, mainly manifested by his love for, and loyalty to his family. However, it was this same loyalty that would create contradictions within him that were vividly revealed through his poetry. This thesis will not only explore the complex relationship he had with his family members, but also the rich and rewarding friendships he cultivated with his contemporaries and how their praise and encouragement enriched his poetic expression and led to his determination to redefine the traditional parameters of literary competence. This thesis will also explore how Cao Zhi’s forthright personality led him to become alienated from the court. It will explore how his feelings of despair and rejection contributed to a new kind of awakening of the human spirit through the medium of poetry and this thesis will demonstrate that such a spirit emerges not from those who remain ensconced within the comfortable environment of the court but springs from a rebellious individual like Cao Zhi who forges ahead in an environment of oppression, by holding steadfast to his ideals and distancing himself, on an emotional level, from the petty affairs of the world. This thesis will demonstrate that Cao Zhi forged a new path in poetry, in terms of his original imagery and rich imagination that surpassed that of his contemporaries. Cao Zhi longed to be remembered for his heroic deeds but this thesis will demonstrate that it was during his quiet moments away from the court, that he would produce his finest works which would become his legacy to the world, due to the fact that he revealed his heartfelt compassion for the downtrodden and his quest for freedom and justice for all. This thesis will reveal how the life and works of Cao Zhi embodied the highest ideals of the Jian’an period which contributed to a new trend of individualism. It will explore how Cao Zhi questioned the past, while at the same time broadening his horizons by encompassing new themes into his poetry which showed his deep reverence for human life and his inherent belief that one individual can make a difference.

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  • The Verrines: Cicero’s Masterful Prosecution, Hortensius’ Hypothetical Defence, and the False Conclusions of Grain Production Models

    Sibley, Matthew John (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    This thesis addresses issues concerning Cicero’s prosecution of Verres over the course of three chapters. The first chapter examines the case and clarifies what actually happened at the trial, what form of defence Hortensius raised, and why Cicero was so successful at overcoming his opposition’s ploys. As Cicero had modified the trial’s format, and Verres had fled from Rome before it had concluded, modern scholarship has not established the details of the trial clearly. The second chapter analyses the case from the perspective of the defence, putting forward the most likely arguments Hortensius would have considered. These are formed from anecdotes in the Verrines, Cicero’s defence speeches, and the recommendations of the rhetorical handbooks. By taking each probable argument in turn, Cicero’s prosecution is shown to negate their effectiveness in advance. Although this chapter can extend no further than the hypothetical realm, it illustrates that Cicero carefully crafted his prosecution to counteract any defence. This implies that rhetorical brilliance was at work in his performance, a proposition at odds to scholarship’s tendency to attribute his success solely to his overwhelming evidentiary advantage. The final chapter utilises the scepticism in Cicero’s reliability that the first two chapters have developed, and focuses on the analyses of economic scholars. The De Frumento is a central source in studies of Roman grain production, yet has received little critical analysis from rhetorical scholars. Economic scholars therefore utilise its figures literally, which has resulted in a slight miscalculation as Cicero manipulated the statistics he presented in court.

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  • Energy Management Techniques in Wireless Sensor Networks: Protocol Design and Evaluation

    Aderohunmu, Femi A (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    While wireless sensor networks (WSN) are increasingly equipped to handle more complex functions, in-network processing still requires the battery powered sensors to judiciously use their constrained energy so as to prolong the efective network life time. There are a few protocols using sensor clusters to coordinate the energy consumption in a WSN. To cope with energy heterogeneity among sensor nodes, a modified clustering algorithm is proposed with a three-tier sensor nodes setting. This approach is an improvement to the original SEP protocol that used two-tier node setting. The result showed a better management of energy resource than both LEACH and SEP. In addition, two forms of extensions to LEACH algorithm, multi-hop and dual-hop LEACH algorithms using a concentric circle around the BS, are presented. The goal of these methods is to analyze the adaptation of different communication modes to the original LEACH protocol that used a single-hop communication mode among its sensor nodes. This thesis further carried out a spatial distribution of energy-based comparative study of homogeneous and heterogeneous clustered WSN. The study revealed a new approach for analyzing the performance of wireless sensor network protocol designs. Simulation has been conducted to evaluate these new approaches and favorable results are obtained in both homogeneous and heterogeneous energy settings.

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  • Tourism and Seismic Risk: perceptions, preparedness and resilience in the zone of the Alpine Fault, Southern Alps, New Zealand.

    Orchiston, Caroline Hamilton (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The islands of New Zealand lie astride two actively deforming tectonic plates, creating a diverse physical landscape with high scenic value, but one which is prone to a range of natural hazards. The Alpine Fault is a 450 km-long fault which defines the position of the plate boundary as it runs the length of the Southern Alps in the South Island. Paleoseismic evidence suggests it is overdue for a significant earthquake of magnitude ~ 7.8 - 8. Coincident with this area of high seismic potential is a burgeoning tourism industry, which, over the past two decades has shown remarkable growth, capitilising on the region’s international reputation for unique nature-based tourism experiences. Visitor activities occur, at times, in relatively remote and hazardous settings, such as National Parks, alpine or coastal areas. Many tourism destinations in the Southern Alps can only be accessed via alpine passes or road ends. This research project adopted three methodological approaches to satisfy two objectives. The first objective of the study investigated the physical outcomes of a large Alpine Fault earthquake on the tourism industry. Modelled isoseismal data for a number of earthquake magnitude scenarios were combined with map overlays illustrating tourist destinations, transport infrastructure, activity settings and travel flows, using ArcView GIS software. The second objective used a quantitative methodology involving a postal survey to gain insights into the total population of tourism operators around the Southern Alps, which generated a 51% response rate. It investigated operator perceptions of regional seismic risk, their perceived level of preparedness, and the factors that influence the resilience of tourism businesses. A third methodological tool involved semi-structured interviews with key tourism stakeholders and tourism business operators to add greater depth and support to the interpretation of the quantitative results. Results from objective one showed that a magnitude 8 earthquake is likely to produce severe damage to infrastructure, buildings and roads, and cause lengthy interruption to human activities throughout the Southern Alps. Widespread landsliding will cause an immediate drop in visitation due to road closures, with long-term repair work (> 6 months) required to restore access. Visitors in many small, remote, tourism-based communities will be left stranded for a period of days until emergency authorities begin evacuating those most in need, adding to the immediate burden on communities. Medium to long-term recovery outcomes may be hampered by on-going aggradation of sediment in fluvial systems, particularly on the western side of the Alps. Post-disaster recovery in terms of visitation is predicted to take approximately 12-18 months, depending on the timing of the earthquake. Objective 2 results suggested tourism operators understand the likelihood of an earthquake on the Alpine Fault, but lack awareness of the potential consequences for their business. Business owners consider themselves to be poorly prepared for a large earthquake, although they see the benefit in taking steps to become more prepared. Emergency managers should make efforts to convert tourism operator motivations into improved business preparedness, primarily by making business preparedness information more readily available to the tourism sector. Demographic variables were found to have only weak correlation with business preparedness. Business characteristics, such as business longevity, size and turnover, had varying degrees of influence on the uptake of key resilience ‘tools’, including continuity insurance, induction, staff training and disaster planning. Levels of continuity insurance and disaster planning were found to be inadequate and in need of significant improvement in light of the expected outcomes of a future Alpine Fault earthquake on business function. To date, there has been a significant gap in our understanding about earthquakes and their potential effects on the tourism industry in New Zealand. This doctoral research project built upon the crisis management and risk perception literature by providing critical insights into the seismic risk perceptions and preparedness of business managers in a sector of the New Zealand economy growing in prominence. In addition, it brought together the study of tourism with the science of earthquakes to develop a clear illustration of the physical outcomes of a future Alpine Fault earthquake around the Southern Alps. A magnitude 8 event will cause considerable disruption to tourism activities for a prolonged period. Improvements in business preparedness and resilience are urgently needed, which could be achieved using innovative business and community-driven initiatives, with improved communication and support from government agencies.

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  • Temptation, Fall, Decline and Death: The Representation of the Fallen Woman in Adam Bede and David Copperfield

    Crawford, Maria Joy (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    In the nineteenth century a specifically Victorian narrative of fallenness was constructed which reflected many of the anxieties of the age; consequently the fallen woman became a Victorian obsession. The narrative was utilised in David Copperfield, by Charles Dickens (1849-50), and in George Eliot’s Adam Bede (1859), with different aims and outcomes. Both authors had personal experience of Victorian society’s attitude to fallenness: Dickens, through his association with Urania Cottage and Eliot through her unconventional domestic life. This thesis investigates how contemporary discourse influenced the construction of fictional narratives of fallenness to variously confirm and challenge existing ideas about the nature of women and men, and their role and place in Victorian society. It explores the methods used to provoke understanding and sympathy for the plight of fallen women in each novel and speculates about the possible influence of the author’s gender on the representation of fallenness. The fallen women in David Copperfield were purposefully created in an attempt to change social opinion and authorise a programme of rescue through emigration and in Adam Bede the fallenness narrative was used by Eliot to facilitate and explore the development and expansion of sympathy. However, in both David Copperfield and Adam Bede the fallen woman narrative was primarily used to emphasise the agency and nobility of the male titular characters who achieved heroic status and social advancement through their association with the fallen women.

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  • The influence of skill and low back pain on peak and cumulative spine loads during wool harvesting

    Pal, Poonam (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Sheep shearing is a physically demanding occupation, with high energy expenditure, spinal loads and risk of back injury. The cost of injury compensation and rehabilitation for this workforce is considerable. Although research shows the use of a commercially available trunk harness will significantly reduce spinal loads, there has been no investigation of worker skill on spinal loads and risk of injury. A higher skill level is accepted by the wool harvesting industry as improving quality of work and productivity. Others within the industry consider that increased skill lowers risk of injury by improving animal control and working in less demanding postures. Some research has shown a positive effect of skill within other occupations and tasks; such as a reduction in energy expenditure, spinal cumulative loads and asymmetric movements while others have shown no such effect. The aims of this research are to quantify lumbo-sacral cumulative and peak forces experienced by workers in the wool harvesting industry, and to determine how skill and a history of low back pain requiring clinical intervention (LBP-Clin) impact on these loads. Following ethical approval a total of 140 participants (80 shearers and 60 wool handlers) were recruited and surveyed during formal shearing and wool handling competitions in Southern New Zealand. Each subject was then video-taped while executing 3 to 5 consecutive trials (dependent on skill level and competition requirements) of their normal task cycle. These video clips were analysed by using posture binning and load analysis software (3D Match) that incorporated 3D kinematics, external hand forces and anthropometric data to calculate the peak and cumulative loads on the L4/L5 segment. Cumulative loads were then extrapolated to an 8-hour work day. Correlation analysis was performed to determine collinearity between e xplanatory (independent) variables. Univariate linear regression models were initially used to determine the individual influence of skill and LBP-Clin on cumulative and peak spinal forces while multivariate linear regression models were used to determine the combined influence of skill and LBP-Clin on cumulative and peak spinal forces. For shearers mean peak lumbo-sacral compression, joint anterior shear, joint anterior reaction shear, and extensor moments for shearers were 3828.7N, 230N, 458.3N, and 185.1Nm respectively. For wool handlers these peak lumbo-sacral loads were 3194.2 N, 189.2 N, 391.4 N and 165.1 Nm. Mean cumulative compression, force weighted compression, joint anterior shear, joint anterior reaction shear, and extensor moments for shearers were 82.6 MN.s, 84.8 MN.s, 5.4 MN.s, 11.8 MN.s and 4.2MNm.s while these mean cumulative scores were considerably less for wool handlers at 48.7 MN.s, 48.9 N.s, 2.53 MN.s, 5.7 MN.s and 0.023 Nm.s. Skill was associated with decreased peak catch and drag compressive force for junior, intermediate and senior shearers and also decreased cumulative extensor moments for junior and senior wool handlers. LBP-Clin was only associated with an increased peak extensor moment during the catch and drag for shearers while LBP-Clin had no significant influence on any peak or cumulative force for wool handlers. The interaction variable for skill and LBP-Clin also showed no significant influence on peak or cumulative forces for either shearers or wool handlers. Although this study demonstrates minimal influence for skill or LBP-Clin (or their interaction) on cumulative and peak cumulative and anterior shear forces, the prevalence of LBP-Clin within each skill level increases considerably (particularly for shearers). Interestingly increased skill is also strongly predictive of a considerable increase in productivity (or tally). Thus increased skill appears to be primarily beneficial in terms of increased wool production and task efficiency. Further research with a larger within-skill sample size and prospective design is needed to confirm these results. Other biomechanical factors such as body position within working postures, time spent in different postures, harvesting techniques, and non-sagittal postures and forces (medio- lateral shear and reaction forces) may also be linked to skill and LBP-Clin. Exploring the effect of these other biomechanical factors continues within the occupational biomechanics research team at the University of Otago. Similarly personal and psychosocial factors are recognised as being linked to injury and injury risk within the overlapping fields of ergonomics and occupational health. The part they play in injury risk within the wool harvesting occupations is unknown and is also under exploration. A recommendation for the wool harvesting industry is to continue with formal skill training as it does not appear to expose the worker to increased cumulative or peak spinal loading and it is strongly associated with productivity. However the marked increase in working lifetime prevalence of LBP-Clin in this physically demanding occupation is clearly a problem and it may be that exposure to such high compressive and shear forces (independent of skill) exceeds yet to be determined cumulative loading thresholds that lead to risk of low back injury. While postural demands and non-sagittal forces during traditional shearing also need to be investigated, development of alternative upright posture wool harvesting strategies is an industry identified direction for reduction of injury risk that is biomechanically sound and now under investigation.

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  • Birds as indicators of sustainable management practices on New Zealand kiwifruit orchards.

    Coleman, Guinevere Jane (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    New Zealand relies heavily on its agricultural industry, and with 60% of land area utilised for production, over 40% of the countries export earnings come from the land. Dominated by Zespri International Ltd., kiwifruit production is New Zealand’s largest horticultural export. Concerns over the impact of production on environmental and consumer health led to the introduction of ‘Kiwigreen’, an Integrated Management (IM) scheme that aims to reduce the amount of sprays being applied to the orchard. The industry took little time to take up the Kiwigreen policy and now all non-organic growers are part of the Kiwigreen system. While in theory the industry is now more environmentally friendly, little research has been conducted to confirm this. Additionally, little research has been done to compare the environmental impacts of IM orchards compared to organic orchards, which are assumed to be more environmentally benign. This study is part of the Agriculture Research Group on Sustainability (ARGOS) which was started in 2003 with the aim of investigating the environmental, social, and economic sustainability of production landscapes in New Zealand. The kiwifruit component is dedicated to helping growers produce fruit in a healthy orchard environment. By researching the environmental, social, and economic aspects of the industry, it is hoped that a greater understanding of the way these factors influence each other and the industry as a whole can be found. The aim of this research is to look at birds in their role as important environmental indicators, and the factors affecting their survival. Birds are widely considered to be good indicators of environmental health, as they are often directly influenced by land use through predation, habitat quality, and food supply. To this end, this study looked at the density estimates of common orchard bird species, and at the possibility of using the fantail as an indicator of orchard environmental health, in relation to orchard management type (IM green (Hayward), IM gold (hort16A), and organic green (Hayward)) and season. In addition, this study looked at the attitude of growers towards birds and their potential as an indicator of environmental health being directed towards consumers. ARGOS study orchards are arranged in clusters, each containing an IM green orchard, IM gold orchard, and an organic green orchard. Distance sampling was conducted on three clusters (nine orchards in total) in the Bay of Plenty region. Sampling was repeated over seven circuits, with three in the summer (bird breeding/fruit growing) months, one in the autumn (orchard fruit picking), and two in the winter (orchard pruning) months. Transect lines were walked along the length of the orchard, fifty metres apart. Birds were counted and detection distances, behaviour and habitat data, and several field parameters were recorded. Organic and gold orchards had significantly higher species richness compared to green orchards, but there were no differences between orchards for overall species abundance. Densities for key bird species, blackbirds (Turdus merula), song thrushes (Turdus philomelos), house sparrows (Passer domesticus), silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis), and fantails (Rhipidura fuliginosa) were estimated using DISTANCE™ 6.0, release 2. Detection functions were found for both summer and winter seasons, and these were used to estimate densities for season, and for circuit. Blackbirds had the highest total counts, followed by sparrows, silvereyes, and song thrushes. However, density estimates for silvereyes were up to three times higher than blackbirds, with estimates of up to 59/ha on gold orchards. All five species showed some seasonal variation in estimated densities, suggesting previous studies looking at bird populations in the breeding/summer season only cannot infer that results reflect year-long trends. Green orchards appear to support higher numbers of sparrows. Organic orchards appear to support higher numbers of song thrushes in the winter, and higher numbers of fantails in the summer. Findings were comparable to available estimates in previous studies, with differences in conspicuousness and effects of behaviour and habitat variables accounting for differences between seasons and orchard type. This study has highlighted the importance of seasonal variation when investigating the impacts of land management practices. Fantail encounters and feeding effort were recorded on six clusters (eighteen orchards). Circuits and transect lines followed the same method as in Chapter one. Behavioural time budgets and feeding rate were used to determine feeding effort, and encounters were used to estimate relative abundance. Fantails were found to be in higher numbers on organic orchards through the breeding season, and had strong seasonal changes, with higher numbers present in all orchards in the winter months. Feeding effort, in both proportion of time spent feeding and attempted captures per second, was significantly higher in the winter months, but no difference between orchard types was found. The effect of orchard spray regimes may account for lower numbers in IM orchards compared to organic orchards, affecting prey availability. Population numbers may be affected by local migrations, the effects of flocking in the winter months, meta-population fluxes, and/or changes in feed resources. Based on this study, it is concluded that further research is needed to determine whether the fantail can be used as a reliable indicator of orchard health, as populations of fantails are not high enough, nor are factors affecting abundance well enough understood. The development of an eco-label for New Zealand kiwifruit, for demonstrating an aspect of the eco-friendly nature of production, is expected to have a market benefit for exported fruit. Twenty seven ARGOS growers were interviewed to gain a perspective on their opinions regarding the introduction of an eco-label for exported fruit; their perceptions on bird populations; and their management actions towards birds on their orchards, as well as mammalian predation. Growers were positive about the introduction of an ‘eco-friendly’ label but were wary about the consumer’s potential response towards a specific ‘birdfriendly’ label. Growers had limited knowledge of specific bird population numbers, and the majority neither encouraged nor discouraged birds on their property, but did remove empty nests from the vines. Some actively encouraged native species, and others actively removed ‘pest’ species such as sparrows and pukekos. Control of mammalian pests was common, including the removal of rabbits, rats, and possums. Results found here were compared to selected results of the 2008 National Farm Survey, conducted by ARGOS. This survey not only canvassed opinions from ARGOS growers, but also a random sample of kiwifruit growers from the wider industry. This wider selection of growers indicated low support for the introduction of an eco-label. This growers survey, together with results from a 2008 National Farm Survey suggest that ARGOS growers are more aware of environmental issues and more supportive of a proposed eco-label, compared to the random sample of growers who indicated environmental initiatives were not a priority. The attitude of consumers towards environmental issues surrounding kiwifruit production needs to be gauged in order to give growers an incentive to improve their orchards for bird populations. This study was a part of the wider research pool of the ARGOS project, complementing previous and ongoing research on kiwifruit orchards as well as in the dairy, sheep/beef, and highcountry sectors within the ARGOS framework. The results found in this study highlighted a number of future research areas that would further complement this study including: • The effect of the size of neighbouring bush patches, as well as the distance between patches and orchard habitats, on bird distribution patterns on the orchard. • The influence of other habitats within the orchard property (e.g. shelterbelts, gardens, and other crops) on bird distribution patterns. • Multi-year seasonal fluxes of fantail numbers, and whether strong seasonal patterns of summer/winter abundance is a typical pattern. • Local migration patterns of fantails on and off the orchard. • Survival rates of fantails over-winter, and breeding success of fantails within the orchard environment. • Investigation into the use of additional or alternative bird indicator species on kiwifruit orchards, for example non-native insectivorous birds, or other native birds such as the tui.

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