82,937 results

  • An Investigation of Cultural Influence on Academic Library Usage and Experience of International Medical Students from Asian Countries: a Case Study of Students at the Christchurch School of Medicine, University of Otago, Christchurch

    Pibulsilp, Thanawadee (2010)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This research uses a qualitative methodology to analyse the academic library usage and experiences of International Medical (IM) students from an Asian cultural background studying medicine at the Christchurch School of Medicine, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand. There has been little research done investigating the library experiences of students from other cultures, despite international evidence that usage habits and experiences of these cohorts can differ greatly from those of local students. With increasing numbers of students from other cultures studying in New Zealand, it seemed that data should be gathered to inform the development of library services. Fifteen 4th and 5th year students from culturally Asian backgrounds participated in focus groups using semi-structured interviews, and transcripts of these interviews were analysed using narrative and discourse analysis. The findings support the work of Hofstede and indicate that an Asian cultural background has a significant impact on students' knowledge of, and ability to utilise, academic library services; however, it is also evident that such knowledge and ability is eventually acquired by students through their friendship groups, but this is often in an ad-hoc manner. It is recommended that academic libraries develop greater awareness of the impact that cultural background can have on the library usage and experience of the increasing numbers of students from foreign cultural backgrounds in New Zealand medical settings in particular, and academic settings in general.

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  • Information Seeking Needs of Mothers Who Bottle-Feed Their Young Infants: How the Information Seeking Process Affects Them and What Libraries Can Do to Help Them

    Smith, Shiobhan Alice (2010)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Aim: The aim of the study is to examine the information seeking experiences of mothers who bottle feed young infants. What are their information needs and how do they seek to fill them? What emotional impact does the information seeking process have on this group? What role can Libraries play in helping this group find information? Methodology: This research utilises Dervin's sense-making methodology. At the heart of sensemaking is the situation-gap-outcome triangle. Kuhlthau's uncertainty principle is also used to help analyse the results and understand the connection between emotion and information seeking. Other research is also used to understand the experiences of the interviewees and place them in a wider context. Results: Mothers who bottle-feed young infants often feel guilt and anger. They are often unprepared for bottle-feeding, especially if they planned to breast-feed, and access to information on bottle-feeding is limited. Health professionals are sometimes reluctant to provide information on bottle-feeding. Informal information sources, such as family, friends and other mothers, are very important. There is little awareness that Libraries are able to provide information on bottle-feeding even among mothers who are frequent Library users. Libraries can best support bottle-feeding mothers by becoming inclusive community spaces for mothers to meet and share information.

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  • Online Discussion Forum Influence on Professional Sport Fan Support: an Exploratory Study

    Natelli, Alexander (2008)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    With professional sports continually attracting new supporters and these supporters increasingly using Internet technologies, questions arise about the relationship between sport fan online activities and actual fan support for a professional sport team. This paper explores the behaviours and perceptions exhibited by Yellow Fever (online fan site) members as they interact within their online discussion forum. It also studies how these interactions may influence support for the A-League franchise, the Wellington Phoenix football club. To explore and describe member interactions and opinions, the paper uses a qualitative research approach and data collected from both the forum archives as well as an online questionnaire. The research appears to show that Yellow Fever members do affect fan support for the Wellington Phoenix. It also suggests several ways in which the members can influence fan support. Despite some limitations, there are implications for sporting clubs and technology research. The study also provides a basis for further research both with sport support groups as well as other types of membership dependent organisations such as community projects, local schools and political organisations.

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  • CISG Through the Willem C Vis Moot casebook: Seventeen Years of the CISG Evolution Explored Through Annual Global Discussion

    Baide, Ana Barbara (2009)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper explores the evolution of the United Nations Convention on the International Sale of Goods (referred to throughout the text as the "CISG" or the "Convention") jurisprudence through the Willem C Vis Moot ("Vis Moot") casebook. It analyses the CISG issues raised and explored in the seventeen years of the Willem C Vis Moot and draws out notable trends and key themes. Upon the analysis of the trends and themes which have arisen over the past seventeen years, the dissertation discusses how the Vis Moot problems, as well as the winning memoranda, reflect and encapsulate the evolution and developments in the worldwide application and interpretation of the CISG in those areas. The analysis of the Vis Moot problems is thus used as a tool to consider the worldwide jurisprudential developments on the CISG over the past two decades, and identify both those aspects of the Convention that have benefited from considerable analysis, and where comprehensive jurisprudence has already developed, as well as the "gap" areas where further work is required in order to ensure the CISG evolves alongside technological, social, political and legal developments affecting international sale of goods contracts. The dissertation concludes by drawing out the notable trends illustrated by, and set against the backdrop of, the Vis Moot casebook, and the consequent implications of such trends on the current state ofCISG jurisprudence. In particular, these trends and outcomes are assessed as against the overall spirit of the Convention and its goal of achieving, or seeking to achieve, uniform application of rules on international sale of goods contracts. This assessment seeks to capture how this goal of uniformity has been achieved to-date, and where the upcoming challenges may lie in the coming years. Finally, the paper considers the overall importance and impact of the Vis Moot, as an annual global event with manifold benefits, on the interpretation, promotion and development of the CISG.

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  • An Alternative to Existing Library Websites : Evaluation of Nine Start Pages using Criteria Extracted from Library Literature

    Piggott, Christopher (2009)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This research evaluates nine internet start pages to determine whether they would be suitable for use in a library context. The methodology involved extracting ninety-six evaluation criteria from library literature and measuring each start page against those criteria. A quantitative measurement method was used, with a single researcher awarding marks of 1.0, 0.5 or 0.0 for each of the tested criteria. Results are displayed in statistical and chart form, and then discussed in narrative form. It is found that there is scope for using some of the tested start pages in a library setting. Sites that provided public pages, consistent speed, rich display and a wide range of library applicable content tested most effectively. However, no single start page met all the criteria. Some, such as iGoogle, lacked a public page, while others had problems loading consistently or provided limited content. Netvibes was the highest testing site. User testing should be conducted as an extension of this research.

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  • He ara ki te ao mārama : a pathway to understanding the facilitation of taha wairua in mental health services : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for a Masters of Arts, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Ihimaera, Louise (2004)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This research is about the facilitation of taha wairua (spirituality) in mental health services. This research has been guided by kaupapa Maori frameworks and aimed to answer three questions: · Whether taha wairua, supported by matauranga Maori can be verified as a valid concept for use in mental health services · How Maori cultural and clinical workers facilitate taha wairua within a kaupapa Maori approach, and, · How the use and influence of taha wairua facilitates the inclusion of matauranga Maori. The increasing acceptability of alternative and holistic approaches to healing often with a spiritual component deserves serious consideration, especially within the area of mental health services. The literature shows that indigenous views of health and healing are valid and deserve recognition and acceptance in mental health services. The Treaty of Waitangi, the founding document of New Zealand, underpins Maori rights to the facilitation of taha wairua practices in Western health systems. Current New Zealand mental health policy and legislation provide strategies to progress the facilitation of Maori healing interventions in mental health services. It is noticeable, however, that these strategies are not built on the Treaty of Waitangi but are built on health disparities. The literature also supports the concept that there is a place in the recovery process for both spirituality and religious beliefs, and Western and cultural interventions. The data illustrate how tikanga Maori either practised solely in its natural form or within the framework of Maori models of health is beneficial to health outcomes for tangata whai ora and whanau when supported by the facilitation of taha wairua. The research data provided the foundation for components that can produce a framework for the facilitation of the concept of taha wairua within the scopes of practice of kaimahi Maori in mental health services. Some standards for best practice in supporting taha wairua within the cultural component of all Maori working in mental health have also been proposed. Maori do not have the critical mass to achieve all that has been raised in this research, and the principle of collective responsibility needs to be applied to provide the necessary resources and support to achieve implementation of Maori healing frameworks to facilitate taha wairua in mental health services. It is hoped the knowledge gained from this research will be useful to policy makers and managers in gaining insight into the benefits of healing for tangata whaiora, whanau and kaimahi Maori through the provision of appropriate cultural interventions and in providing an appropriate environment to enable physical and spiritual healing to take place. It is also hoped Maori too will find this research of benefit, particularly to inform scopes of practice, thereby providing potential for new ways to achieve best practice cultural and clinical practice.

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  • Telling the Truth about People's China

    Shaw, Alistair (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This work is a discussion of the history of the construction and propagation over time (1949- 2002), by New Zealanders, of positive images of the People's Republic of China (PRC). This was done primarily through the New Zealand China Friendship Society. The thesis also looks at China-aligned communist parties, students who went on New Zealand University Students' Association study tours in the 1970s, and key interlocutors such as Rewi Alley. These other groups had cross-membership with the NZCFS but differing engagements with China. The images propagated by the New Zealanders altered over time in response to changes in the PRC, developments in New Zealand, and shifting characteristics amongst the people who were engaged in the practice of producing images of the PRC. The thesis looks at how these observers of the PRC, and the organisations which they are combined, are themselves created, and see themselves, in relation to their process of viewing the PRC. This idea of a shifting sense of China and the changing sense of self is explored using a range of ideas. These include ideology, subjectivity, concepts of truth and practices of truth-telling. The thesis is an attempt to provide a sympathetic reading of a wide range of material and trying to understand what the PRC has meant at different times, in different circumstances and to different people. Accounts of the PRC are examined contextually. This involves the re-reading of a range of texts that have 'written' the PRC for those New Zealanders who, in different circumstances, have themselves been sympathetic to projections of successes taking place in the PRC.

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  • Childishness, Primitivism and the Primitive as Child in the Anti-Imperialist Works of Robert Louis Stevenson

    Bogle Petterson, Thomas (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    My thesis examines the connection between childishness and primitivism in four key works by Robert Louis Stevenson: Kidnapped, "The Beach of Falesa", The Ebb-Tide and A Footnote to History: Eight Years of Trouble in Samoa. In particular, I discuss Stevenson's depiction of "primitive" peoples - the Scottish Highlanders of Kidnapped and the Pacific Islanders in the other works - as childish or childlike. While this is a trope that was typically used to justify imperial domination by "adult" Europeans (by writers such as H. Rider Haggard and Rudyard Kipling, for instance), for Stevenson the case is somewhat different because of the extent to which he valorises childishness. The "Introduction" places Stevenson's anti-imperialist deployment of the primitive-as-child trope in the context of romanticism and primitivism more generally, trends which idealised children and primitives in response to the degrading forces of industrial capitalist development in Europe. The first chapter shows how Stevenson's idealised notion of childish Highlanders in Kidnapped is used to valorise them at the expense of the sedentary and conformist "adult" world of the Lowlands. In the second chapter, I show how Stevenson similarly valorises the childish native characters in "The Beach of Falesa" and The Ebb-Tide, while at the same time he dismantles the notion that European colonisers of the Pacific possess any "adult" authority whatsoever by depicting the latter as being in the grip of infantile delusions. In these late fictional works, the idealised childishness of the natives, characterised by growth and vitality, is contrasted with European infantilism, which signifies the cultural regression and insularity that Stevenson saw as closely connected with imperial activity. My final chapter shows how these two opposed notions of childishness-as-growth and childishness-as-decay/insularity inform Stevenson's non-fiction anti-imperialist work, A Footnote to History. My thesis aims to show that Stevenson was not so constrained by imperialist cliches and rhetoric as some critics have argued; rather, I suggest that his sympathy for the victims of colonisation allowed him to dramatically undermine this rhetoric.

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  • Utilising Practice Development and the PARIHS Framework to Implement the Liverpool Care Pathway

    MacKenzie, Theresa Mary (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The LCP is an evidence-based integrated care pathway that provides guidance to generic health care professionals to deliver best practice end-of-life care. My role as the LCP Project Coordinator in a District Health Board in New Zealand is central to the exploration of this process of implementing practice change. Working with clinicians to advance effective care and management of patients during the process of dying in an acute hospital setting requires not only knowledge and understanding of the clinical pathway and evidence supporting best practice, but also careful working with cultural and contextual change. This paper descriptively addresses the bases of both components, and provides a case example of the development. Working with health care professionals to bring about practice change is complex and challenging. Successful implementation of evidence in practice is dependant not only on the strength and nature of the evidence, but also the context and models of facilitation. Practice development (PD) methodology informs the realities and complexities of practice change and of achieving sustainable development. The 'Promoting Action in Research Implementation in Health Services' (PARIHS) framework identifies the interplay and interdependence of factors that resonate with the reality of the complexity of practice change in relation to the evidence and best practice for particular clinical contexts. Highlighting PD processes and the relevance of the PARIHS framework alongside real-time practice change will continue to stimulate recognition of change and development complexities and bring consideration of these as robust methods for working between the theory and implementation of evidence in practice.

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  • Rungs on a Ladder to Empowerment: Transforming End-user Computing Training in Port Vila, Vanuatu

    Vetter, Gayna (2009)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    End-user training in ICT is a question that currently lurks on the outskirts of development activity. The focus of ICT in development is on implementation of the 'machinery' but lacks specific attention in the building of human capacity to drive and maintain this 'machinery'. The question of training end-users in computing in Port Vila, Vanuatu, was a driving force of this research. In pursuing the question, however, the participatory process, using focus groups to research local industry needs for training, led to the discovery of links between the participation used in researching this question to its use as pedagogy for end-user training. Using participatory action, we are more likely to encourage initiative in pursuing questions and achieving a more localised approach to endeavours such as training, research and development. This participatory approach is also seen as a method more widely applicable in education as well as development. The process lead to empowerment of the individuals involved in the research through raising critical consciousness and providing a form of agency. It raises the question of how to sustain this empowerment in order to lead to transformation. Actual transformation is seen as a quality that takes more than one attempt at empowerment and a temporary taste of agency. The thesis draws on the analogy of a group of people building a ladder together. They have rough building materials to work with but an abundance of their own ideas and their own ability. The ladder construction is participation, its frame exists but the rungs have yet to be attached. It is the process of interaction, exploration and communication in building the ladder together that becomes important. Transformation is in the process of building of the ladder as well as the finished product. It takes a continual construction effort, building on rungs put in place previously.

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  • The Nuremberg Justice Trial 1947: Vengeance of the Victors?

    Schnitzer, Jan (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Nuremberg became famous for the 13 Nuremberg Trials against the leading German officials after World War II. Following the first trial against the remaining Nazi leaders before the Allied International Military Tribunal in 1945-1946, the United States initiated 12 subsequent proceedings against leading members of all areas of Germany's society. The Justice Trial against 16 representatives of Nazi Germany's judicial system was the third of these trials and held before US Military Tribunal III in 1947. Organised and held under the aegis of the United States as one of the war's victors, the trials were seen by many as simple acts of vengeance, hidden behind a smokescreen of legality. Therefore, especially in post-war Germany, the trials were often described as victor's justice. Yet, besides investigations relating to specific aspects of this allegation, a profound analysis of this issue has not been done for the Justice Trial. This study aims to help in closing this gap. Focussing on the issue of victor's justice, the work analyses and evaluates all stages of the Justice Trial, from its legal basis, to the planning and preparation, to the proceedings and judgments, to the enforcement of the sentences after the trial. In the end, it is concluded that only two aspects, the violation of the principle of separation of powers and the restriction to initiate trials only against German nationals, can be seen as examples of victor's justice. All other aspects cannot be proved as examples of victor's justice; whether Germany's state sovereignty was violated, whether the judges were impartial, whether the ex post facto principle was violated, whether the defendants could be held individually responsible, whether the defendants received a fair trial, whether the trial was justified from a moral point of view, whether the defendants were selected for appropriate reasons, whether the Tribunal analysed and evaluated the Nazi legal system and the defendant's role therein reasonably, whether the US judges and prosecutors were qualified enough, and whether the early release of the convicted defendants in the 1950s was arbitrary. The Justice Trial and all other Nuremberg Trials, in many ways, set unique precedents for international criminal law. The legacy, therefore, is primarily a positive one. Thus, overall, it is concluded that the limited examples of victor's justice within the Justice Trial do not ultimately undermine these achievements.

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  • Exploring the Relationship Between Tourism and Concern for the Global Natural Environment: a Case Study of Wellington Residents

    Tiller, Tina Ronhovde (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Climate change has been a concern for well over thirty years, but there has been limited research within the field of tourism with respect to climate change. In the last few years, there have been changes in the public perception of climate change, and an increasing awareness of the importance of addressing the problems that the world may face as a result of climate change. At current, the GHG emissions attributable to tourism are in the range of 4-6% of total global emissions, and rising. People are travelling ever more frequent, and to destinations far away from their residence. The world cannot sustain these trends, and thus research is needed to identify means to change tourism behaviours and reduce the impact of tourism on the global natural environment. This study aimed to explore the relationship between concern for the environment and tourism by taking recent holiday behaviours of Wellington residents into account. 308 residents returned useable questionnaires from the household surveys which were distributed to Wellington dwellings in July and August 2009. The study took the following steps to reach its aim: Firstly, recent holiday behaviours among Wellington residents were accounted for, including participation in leisure travel, distances travelled, and transport modes and accommodation used. Minimum emissions of CO2-E emissions caused by transportation to and from the main destination on the two most recent holidays taken by the respondents were estimated. Also, factors influencing choice of destination, transportation and accommodation were explored in relation to concern for the environment. Secondly, residents' perception of the significance of impact that climate change will have on their lives was explored. It was established that most people in the sample think that climate change will affect their lives to some extent. Thirdly, frequency of participation in carbon offsetting schemes and purchase of ecolabeled tourism products was explored to contribute to the knowledge about consumer awareness and attitudes towards tourism ecolabels and carbon offsetting schemes. Awareness and consumption was found to be low among the respondents. Fourthly, the study explored people's level of concern for the global natural environment, by investigating opinions held by the respondents about tourism and climate change and the impact of their holiday behaviours. Concern was established among the respondents. Concern for the environment was then explored in relation to holiday behaviours to establish whether environmental concern had an influence on the behaviours displayed by the respondents. No such relationship was found, and it was concluded that concern for the environment does not have an influence on people's behaviours. Lastly, preferred policy options were investigated. The people in the sample preferred voluntary policy measures, however very few are currently making use of the voluntary initiatives that are available to the public. The study concludes by highlighting the fact that more strict measures are needed in order to change current behaviours, seeing as concern for the environment does not affect the tourism behaviours of the people included in the sample.

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  • Trading volume and information asymmetry surrounding scheduled and unscheduled announcements : a thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Finance, Massey University, Februrary 2009

    Chi, Wei (2009)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis investigates abnormal trading volume around scheduled and unscheduled announcements. The research is an extension of Chae (2005), Journal of Finance, Vol 60, which tests corporate announcements in the US stock market. In this thesis, Australian stocks are used to establish whether market characteristics affect trading behaviour around announcements. In addition, I extend the traditional methodology to overcome possible shortcomings in the previous studies. This thesis also discusses how information asymmetry affects the abnormal trading volume on the announcement day. In contrast to earlier studies, I nd abnormal trading volume does not change before either scheduled or unscheduled announcements, but, as expected, increases on and after the scheduled and unscheduled announcements. Information asymmetry increases trading volumes when unscheduled announcements are made, but has no effect for scheduled announcements. I show that the failure to adjust for the correlation between corporate events, results in abnormal trading volumes being detected prior to announcements. Differences between the Australian and US results can not all be explained by methodological differences. It appears that the underlying dynamics of the Australian market are different; casting doubts on the ability to generalize market characteristics from US based studies on abnormal trading volumes.

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  • Students' Learning Experiences with the Web 2.0 Tool MyPortfolio: a Case Study of One High School Classroom

    Duke, Rochelle Alison (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Portfolio learning has been utilised in education for many years and a natural development in today's digital environment has been the move from paper to electronic portfolios (e-portfolios). The development of e-portfolios in New Zealand has also been driven by two forces- the emerging view that e-portfolios can be an effective way to support constructivist approaches to learning and help develop students into 'lifelong learners' ; and the beliefs about today's digital environment and the way in which students should and do operate within this. In many ways, e-portfolio research is a relatively young field of study and much of the research that has been conducted has occurred in the tertiary environment and related to the perceptions of the instructor or technologist. In an attempt to add depth to current e-portfolio research, this study made use of a mixed-methods, descriptive case study approach in order to focus on the perceptions of a group of high school students and the way in which they experienced using the e-portfolio application MyPortfolio for the first time. Key findings of this study focus on the way in which students experienced using MyPortfolio and the fact that although it is often claimed that e-portfolio tools can be effective in helping developing reflective thinking in students, overall, the students in this study predominately saw MyPortfolio as a tool to organise and process knowledge rather than something that could help them to engage in 'deep learning'. The experiences and perceptions of the students in this study also challenged ideas about how much students want to use ICT within the school environment and this study suggests that increased use of ICT can lead to students missing the social interaction that usually occurs within the classroom. In a similar vein, the students in this study also challenged the idea of the 'digital native' and their experiences suggest that, as with any area of learning, students' skills with using ICT varied greatly. The way that the students in this study made use of MyPortfolio also demonstrates the fact that although e-portfolio tools such as MyPortfolio offer students the opportunity to engage in reflective learning, they do not necessarily undertake this naturally. Finally, the findings of this study highlight the role of the teacher in supporting effective use of ICT for learning.

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  • Reflections on Perceived Online Service Quality: Structure, Antecedents, Ontology, Theory and Measurement

    Tate, Mary (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Online services are becoming increasingly ubiquitous, and this growth has been accompanied by increased business interest in measuring and managing online service quality. This interest is also reflected in a large number of academic studies. Despite this, there is very little consensus about the dimensions and antecedents of perceived online service quality (POLSQ). We consider two possible reasons for this: first that the phenomenon of online service quality is changing as new technology affordances arise, so instability in the dimensionality would be a result of changes in the underlying phenomenon. Second, the theoretical approach and assumptions that studies of online service quality are usually founded on is flawed. My research questions are: 1) what is the structure of perceived online service quality? 2) What are the antecedents of perceived online service quality? 3) What is the ontology of perceived online service quality? 4) What are the most appropriate modelling and measurement methods for measuring online service quality quantitatively, and what insights can be gained from psychometrics?5) What insights does this offer IS researchers for the measurement of user attitudes and perceptions towards technologies? We find that leading models and instruments tend to be based on exploratory factor analysis and have not been informed by advances in measurement theory, particularly co-variance-based structural equation models, and a sub-set of those models known as multi-indicator structural models. We apply recent advances in measurement theory to a dataset. We apply and compare four different modelling methods, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, formative models, and multi-indicator structural models, and discuss the theoretical foundations of each method. We conclude that POLSQ may not have a separate ontology as a multi-dimensional construct, but overall affect towards the service quality of a website is likely to be the result of the perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and perceived trust towards the service. This finding supports the explanatory power of information systems theories over marketing and consumer behaviour theories when studying this phenomenon. We find that user's perceptions of detailed affordances of the service, such as the relevance and timeliness of the information are antecedent to overall affect towards the service, rather than being additional dimensions of POLSQ. We find that widely used techniques such as exploratory factor analysis have serious drawbacks. We find that multi-indicator structural models provide an accurate and nuanced method for modelling the formation of attitudes and perceptions towards technology, which is also well-grounded in theory from social psychology. Finally, we suggest that the approach we take to measuring POLSQ is has potential value for other research which aims to measure customer attitudes and perceptions towards technologies.

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  • Ocean Acidification: Comparative Impacts on the Photophysiology of a Temperate Symbiotic Sea Anemone and a Tropical Coral

    Doherty, Michael (2009)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Ocean acidification has the potential to drastically alter the coral reef ecosystem by reducing the calcification rate of corals and other reef-builders, and hence a considerable amount of research is now focused on this issue. It also is conceivable that acidification may affect other physiological processes of corals. In particular, acidification may alter photosynthetic physiology and hence the productivity of the coraldinoflagellate symbiosis that is pivotal to the reef's survival and growth. However, very little is known about the impacts of acidification on the photophysiology of corals or, indeed, other invertebrate-algal symbioses. This gap in our knowledge was addressed here by measuring the impacts of acidification (pH 7.6 versus pH 8.1) on the photophysiology and health of the tropical coral Stylophora pistillata and its isolated dinoflagellate symbionts ('zooxanthellae'), and the temperate sea anemone Anthopleura aureoradiata. The comparative nature of this study allowed for any differences between tropical and temperate symbioses, and zooxanthellae in a symbiotic or free-living state, to be assessed. Corals, anemones and cultured zooxanthellae were maintained in flowthrough seawater systems, and treated either with non-acidified (control) seawater at pH 8.1, or seawater acidified with CO2 or HCl to pH 7.6. A variety of parameters, including zooxanthellar density, chlorophyll content, photosynthetic health (Yi), and the ratio of gross photosynthetic production to respiration (P:R) were measured via cell counts, spectrophotometry, respirometry and PAM fluorometry, at a series of time-points up to a maximum of 42 days. Acidification generated by the addition of CO2 had no discernible effect on Yi of either the corals or anemones. However, in the coral, chlorophyll content per zooxanthella cell increased by 25%, which was countered by a near-significant decline (22%) in the rate of gross photosynthesis per unit chlorophyll; as zooxanthellar density remained unchanged, this led to a constant P:R ratio. When acidified via CO2, the isolated zooxanthellae exhibited no impacts in recorded Yi or chlorophyll levels. The response of the anemone to acidification via CO2 was different to that observed in the coral, as the density of zooxanthellae increased, rather than the chlorophyll content per cell, leading to an increased rate of gross photosynthesis. However P:R again remained constant as the increased photosynthesis was matched by an increased rate of respiration. In contrast to the impacts of CO2, HCl adversely impacted the chlorophyll content per cell in both the isolated zooxanthellae and sea anemone, and Yi, gross photosynthesis per cell, and overall gross photosynthesis in the sea anemone; however, despite the decline in gross photosynthesis, P:R remained constant due to the concurrent decline in respiration. Unfortunately, the corals in the HCl experiment died due to technical issues. There are two plausible reasons for this difference between CO2 and HCl. Firstly, HCl may have caused intracellular acidosis which damaged chloroplast structure and photosynthetic function. Secondly, the increased levels of aqueous CO2 stimulated photosynthetic function and hence mitigated for the effects of lowered pH. In addition, evidence is presented for a pH threshold for A. aureoradiata of between pH 6 and pH 6.75 (acidified with HCl), at which point photosynthesis 'shuts-down'. This suggests that, even without the potentially beneficial effects from increased CO2 levels, it is likely that oceanic pH would need to decrease to less than pH 6.75 for any acidosis effects to compromise the productivity of this particular symbiosis. Since acidification will have the benefits of increased CO2 and will reach nowhere near such low pH levels as those extremes tested here, it is proposed that ocean acidification via increased dissolution of CO2 into our oceans will have no impact on the photosynthetic production of symbiotic cnidarians. Indeed, it is entirely likely that increased CO2 will add some benefit to the usually carbon-limited symbiotic zooxanthellae. Ocean acidification is not likely to benefit corals however, with compromised calcification rates likely to undermine the viability of the coral. Symbiotic sea anemones, which do not bio-mineralise CaCO3, are better placed to take advantage of the increased CO2 as we move toward more acidic oceans.

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  • Camera and image : mediator and interface : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Master of Fine Arts at Massey University, Wellington, Aotearoa New Zealand

    Samsell, Molly (2009)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    How can art, specifically photography, illustrate the limitations of vision? What do those limits reveal about perception and knowing? To explore these questions two distinct mechanisms need to be discussed in relation to creative practice, Paul Virilio’s augmenting lens that forever changes the photographer’s perception and the image acting as an object for both Maurice Merleau-Ponty’s embodied experience and Jean Baudrillard’s simulacrum. The photographic image becomes an index by exposing the relationship between photographer and image. The camera is a tool, to Virilio a prosthetic eye, which immediately affects the photographer’s perception of her environment. The phenomenal world is the one that is photographed, a subjective experience. The tension between surface and reality, image and object, removes the photographic experience from an experience of the real. The making of the image closely parallels the act of viewing the image. A dual experience emerges from the photograph, the creation of the image and the viewer’s act of reading, inferring. An image, as an index, is open to multiple interpretations, placing equal weight on each participant, viewer, and creator, so that there is no hierarchy of interpretation, experience, or meaning. In this thesis these questions are explored in relation to a creative practice embedding theory with process and outcome.

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  • Plagiarism and fabrication: dishonesty in the newsroom : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of Master of Management (Communication) at Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

    Samson, Alan Michael (2009)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This first comprehensive study of New Zealand news media plagiarism proceeds from the observation that plagiarism, if not demonstrably increasing, is more common than many practitioners would care to believe. It affirms that, contrary to conventional opinion, plagiarism cannot be understood or dismissed simply or entirely as the product of dishonest or lazy journalists. The study findings support indications of an underlying culture of copying within news media organisations—a professional ideology encouraging, if not overtly justifying, copying, and discouraging clear authorship attribution. The findings emanate from responses to a survey distributed to all New Zealand’s journalists, followed by in-depth interviews with five journalists identified as having personal experience with aspects of the practice identified in the survey, and a sixth with a journalist against whom a complaint of plagiarism was upheld by watchdog body, the NZ Press Council. The research analysed the just four complaints related to plagiarism brought before the Press Council since its 1972 inception, as well as another five much-publicised examples of the practice written about in the news media, to the present day. Of the nine cases examined, three reflected the most serious type of dishonesty associated with Jayson Blair of the New York Times—calculated theft of words as well as outright interview fabrication. The others can be categorised in a perceived less blameworthy variety of plagiarism, bedevilled by confusion of terms and newsroom pressures. But because much run-of-the-mill plagiarism is likely to have gone unrecorded and unnoticed beyond the newsroom involved, the true extent of any sort of plagiarism here could not be judged. What was possible in this research, was to gauge a sense of prevalence by asking working journalists not of their own sins, but of their experience of being plagiarised by others. Suddenly the numbers of plagiarism cases rocketed, not in a usefully quantifiable way, but clearly demonstrative of an extent sufficient to warrant analysis of nature and origin. These experiences were set against an American model that identified four antecedents of plagiarism behaviour, two individual—journalistic rationalising of dishonesty and problematic techniques—and two situational—definitional ambiguity and reporter aversion to attribution. What became clear in these analyses was that, though all news media organisations view plagiarism very seriously, few if any acknowledge their own role in perpetrating the practice, that journalism is an industry that proceeds from an ideology of matching and copying.

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  • Simulation modelling and visualisation: toolkits for building artificial worlds

    Playne, D.P.; Gerdelan, A.P.; Leist, A.; Scogings, C.J.; Hawick, K.A. (2008)

    Journal article
    Massey University

    Simulations users at all levels make heavy use of compute resources to drive computational simulations for greatly varying applications areas of research using different simulation paradigms. Simulations are implemented in many software forms, ranging from highly standardised and general models that run in proprietary software packages to ad hoc hand-crafted simulations codes for very specific applications. Visualisation of the workings or results of a simulation is another highly valuable capability for simulation developers and practitioners. There are many different software libraries and methods available for creating a visualisation layer for simulations, and it is often a difficult and time-consuming process to assemble a toolkit of these libraries and other resources that best suits a particular simulation model. We present here a break-down of the main simulation paradigms, and discuss differing toolkits and approaches that different researchers have taken to tackle coupled simulation and visualisation in each paradigm.

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  • Haere Mai Me Tuhituhi He Pukapuka: Muri Iho Ka Whawhai Ai Tatou: Reading Te Rangikaheke

    Loader, Arini May (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis reads Te Rangikaheke's texts through the editorial, Te Arawa and biographic dimensions of the writer and the texts. Te Rangikaheke was a prolific nineteenth century writer who produced over 800 pages of manuscript material. 1 Although he has enjoyed a moderate amount of scholarly attention, this has tended to focus on attribution, cataloguing and tracing publication, transcription and translating, commentary on authenticity and literary quality and his account of history. Specifically, the first core chapter explores issues concerning the editing of Te Rangikaheke's manuscripts by Governor George Grey and the effects of Grey's editing decisions on the texts. This chapter explores the nature of the relationship between Grey and Te Rangikaheke, the effects of this relationship on Te Rangikaheke's texts, and what the dualities of Pakeha/Maori and Governor/Native might mean in terms of the texts. Responding to the calls of American Indian Literary Criticism for studies of Indigenous topics to engage deeply with the contexts of iwi and place, the second core chapter looks at Te Rangikaheke as an Arawa writer and explores issues around identity and articulating an Arawa literary history. Finally, a biography of Te Rangikaheke elaborated from previously known and new biographic details combined with a close reading of his name and three of Te Rangikaheke's letters. Ultimately, it is anticipated that this thesis will forge new pathways into in the study of Wiremu Maihi Te Rangikaheke and his writing, and that these new pathways will clear some much needed space in which a deeper analysis of Te Rangikaheke's writing can be articulated. Furthermore, beyond its focus on a single writer, this thesis extends the scholarship on nineteenth century Maori writing, Maori historical studies, and Maori intellectual history and in this way speaks to a contemporary Indigenous intellectual agenda.

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