88,549 results

  • World Internet Project Trends in NZ

    Smith, P

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    No abstract.

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  • Carving a niche for minority language media studies not so easy. Book Review of ‘Social Media and Minority Languages: Convergence and the Creative Industries’, edited by E. Gruffydd Jones and E Uribe-Jongbloed

    Smith, P

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Whenever a new field of research emerges a lot of shuffling and sorting of knowledge is required to establish a niche, to define its boundaries, to encourage acknowledgement of the area and to stimulate debate concerning the application of various methodologies and theoretical frameworks. This is the case with Social Media and Minority Languages: Convergence and the Creative Industries. The catalyst for the book’s production, as implied by the title, is the technological advancement of social media, the resulting convergence of media in the digital age, and perhaps most importantly the positive and negative effects these have on minority or minoritised languages. Yet in reviewing its 17 chapters by more than 30 authors, it is clear the overall objective appears to be strongly focused on the reinforcement of Minority Language Media (MLM) as a field of study distinct from mainstream media studies because of its specific concern with ‘how media can be used to help languages’ (p. 255).

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  • An evaluation of seasonal variations in footwear worn by adults with inflammatory arthritis: a cross-sectional observational study using a web-based survey

    Brenton-Rule, A; Hendry, GJ; Barr, G; Rome, K

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Background: Foot problems are common in adults with inflammatory arthritis and therapeutic footwear can be effective in managing arthritic foot problems. Accessing appropriate footwear has been identified as a major barrier, resulting in poor adherence to treatment plans involving footwear. Indeed, previous New Zealand based studies found that many people with rheumatoid arthritis and gout wore inappropriate footwear. However, these studies were conducted in a single teaching hospital during the New Zealand summer therefore the findings may not be representative of footwear styles worn elsewhere in New Zealand, or reflect the potential influence of seasonal climate changes. The aim of the study was to evaluate seasonal variations in footwear habits of people with inflammatory arthritic conditions in New Zealand. Methods: A cross-sectional study design using a web-based survey. The survey questions were designed to elicit demographic and clinical information, features of importance when choosing footwear and seasonal footwear habits, including questions related to the provision of therapeutic footwear/orthoses and footwear experiences. Results: One-hundred and ninety-seven participants responded who were predominantly women of European descent, aged between 46–65 years old, from the North Island of New Zealand. The majority of participants identified with having either rheumatoid arthritis (35%) and/or osteoarthritis (57%) and 68% reported established disease (>5 years duration). 18% of participants had been issued with therapeutic footwear. Walking and athletic shoes were the most frequently reported footwear type worn regardless of the time of year. In the summer, 42% reported wearing sandals most often. Comfort, fit and support were reported most frequently as the footwear features of greatest importance. Many participants reported difficulties with footwear (63%), getting hot feet in the summer (63%) and the need for a sandal which could accommodate a supportive insole (73%). Conclusions: Athletic and walking shoes were the most popular style of footwear reported regardless of seasonal variation. During the summer season people with inflammatory arthritis may wear sandals more frequently in order to accommodate disease-related foot deformity. Healthcare professionals and researchers should consider seasonal variation when recommending appropriate footwear, or conducting footwear studies in people with inflammatory arthritis, to reduce non-adherence to prescribed footwear.

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  • Theories of Urban Land Use and their Application to the Christchurch Property Market

    McDonagh, J.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    Contrary to popular opinion, our cities are not primarily formed by the actions of local body politicians or town planners, but rather it is the aggregate activity of property developers of all types, that ultimately determine the form a city will take. Multiple, and often conflicting factors influence developers decisions and therefore ultimately influence the land use distribution within a city. These factors can generally be categorised as: demographic, economic, sociological, legal and political. Of these demographic, economic and sociological factors tend to drive demand. Economic factors again are employed as the decision making tools choosing between various alternatives. Whereas the legal and political factors will establish the framework within which the development takes place and will attempt to influence, for the benefit of society in general, the direction of that development. The interrelationship of factors under the previous five headings is extremely complex and one factor cannot be adequately viewed in isolation from the others. One "holistic" technique that can be used to analyse this interaction, is to study historic urban land use throughout the world in an attempt to see if any consistent patterns of development have occurred. If such urban land use patterns can be determined, and by deduction, their causes identified, this will help in predicting the future shape of cities in a similar set of circumstances. In this essay the main theories that seek to explain city land use patterns will be analysed and critiqued followed by an attempt to relate these theories to the existing situation in Christchurch. From this, predictions will be made regarding where future growth will occur in Christchurch for the different types of real estate usage.

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  • Heritage interpretation in New Zealand: Research informing practice in changing times

    Espiner, S. R.

    Conference Contribution - Unpublished
    Lincoln University

    A range of challenges confront the heritage management sector in New Zealand, the result of changes experienced at various scales (global and local) and at different velocities (sudden and gradual). Key among these changes are declining bio-diversity; a growing social ‘disconnect’ with nature; a risk-averse culture; ubiquitous digital technologies; environmental change; and natural disasters. Such ‘changing times’ represent both challenge and opportunity for those working in heritage interpretation, and underscore the need for collaboration between researchers and practitioners to produce meaningful responses to these phenomena and to provide empirical evidence to support the value of the heritage management sector. This paper traverses these themes, drawing on examples of research informing practice in the New Zealand heritage interpretation context.

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  • The collectors : Naval, Army and Air Intelligence in the New Zealand Armed Forces during the Second World War

    Tonkin-Covell, John (2000)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis examines the performance of the intelligence collection organisations of the armed services of New Zealand during the Second World War. It considers the intelligence bodies of the Navy, the Army and the Air Force and looks at their growth, development and demise, and assesses their effectiveness as intelligence organisations. The question of how much New Zealand could be expected to achieve in the field of intelligence arises, not least because New Zealand was demographically small, had a long coastline and was geographically relatively remote. How much could New Zealand contribute to the Allied cause in intelligence terms is another issue, and what forms did any participation take? Were there lessons to be learned from the wartime experience (there were, but they went for the most part largely unheeded)? New Zealand, like other countries, had a fragmented approach to intelligence collection, making for a degree of complexity over a range of activity, despite the intelligence organisations being of modest size. The examination of the organisations in this thesis includes multi-service and multi-departmental dimensions along with the production of useful intelligence. Whether good use was made of intelligence collected is another matter. There was a substantial amount of liaison, contact and practice between departments of state as to various aspects of intelligence, the Organization for National Security and coastwatching being two notable areas. The overarching role and limitations of the Organization for National Security with regard to intelligence is explored, and the development of a combined intelligence centre examined. The participation of New Zealand signals intelligence organisations in the great Allied interception offensive is detailed, along with the mundane but fundamental task of coastal surveillance. The establishment and spectacular decline of the first local independent security service is traced. Both the intelligence and security aspects of the Army's operationally deployed units are covered, along with the growth of RNZAF air intelligence. The effectiveness of all of these organisations could hardly be expected to be uniform, and indeed it was not. Some bodies succeeded in their collection roles beyond expectations, others were reasonably effective, and two organisations failed dismally in different ways, for a number of reasons. If a pattern emerges at all, it is that small single service component-type intelligence sections collecting operational intelligence were the most effective New Zealand intelligence organisations. Operational focus and. operational requirements underlay the drive for successful collection. Most significant within the Allied context were the signals intelligence bodies. At the other end of the scale, larger co-operative interdepartmental New Zealand intelligence ventures failed to deliver projected results. New Zealand's armed forces had an interesting variety of intelligence contributions during the Second World War. Of these, the most effective organisations collected intelligence to meet directed operational requirements.

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  • Therapeutic Approaches in the Attenuation of Seizure-Induced Cardiomyopathy

    Andreianova, Anastasia Alexeevna (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Single subcutaneous administration of Kainic acid (KA) in the rat produces significant levels of seizure activity, including head tremors, salivation and tonic-clonic convulsions. Using electrophysiological quantitative techniques which measure electroencephalographic (EEG) as well as electrocardiographic (ECG) trace activity following KA administration, the effects of seizure activity on the function of the heart were assessed over a 48 hour period. In addition, histopathological analysis was carried out in order to determine whether the ongoing seizure activity produced significant changes in ventricular myocardium indicative of irreversible cardiomyopathy. In order to determine the potential mechanism of action of KA-induced cardiac damage, a further two animal groups were examined. The groups consisted of animals pretreated with either atenolol or clonidine. The two different drugs were used in order to isolate systems involved in cardiac damage, where atenolol acts specifically in the periphery, while clonidine is known to act in the central nervous system. Analysis of EEG and concomitant ECG traces, during and following seizure activity demonstrated significant changes in heart rate (HR) as well as associated HR parameters compared to baseline. Upon further histological observations it was apparent that at 48 hours following KA administration, ischaemia was present as well as evidence of inflammatory cell infiltration, tissue tearing and oedema compared to saline treated animals. Further assessment of pretreated animal groups lead to the conclusion that atenolol was not protective against KA-induced cardiac damage in the rat while clonidine was. These findings propose that the mechanism by which KA-induced seizure activity results in cardiomyopathy is through modulation of brain centres associated with cardiac control, as opposed to KA binding to peripheral cardiac receptors as previously suggested.

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  • GREEN Grid Choice Modelling preliminary report

    Williams, John Richard (2014)

    Conference item
    University of Otago

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  • El camino se hace caminando: Using Participatory Action Research to evaluate and develop Peace Education practice in a Secondary School in Northern Nicaragua

    Kertyzia, Heather (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Peace education (PE) is included in the cross-curricular themes of the Nicaraguan curriculum, yet in the Secondary School in Northern Nicaragua (SSINN) where this research was conducted there was varied implementation by teachers. The SSINN was selected for this research due to particular problems with violence. Based on a critical and post-development theory perspective and using participatory action research (PAR) methodology, teachers, school psychologists and administrators were led through a facilitated process of reflection upon the culture of peace/violence in the SSINN and teacher practice. This was guided by the concepts of education about (content), for (skills and behaviours) and by peace (pedagogy). PAR is guided by a series of principles that allow for flexibility and response to participant needs. In this case SSINN educators and I engaged in a process of building trust, gathering reconnaissance data, developing action plans and taking action. This was guided by our unofficial motto ‘the path is made by walking’ (el camino se hace caminando), implying that we were learning as we worked together and the process had to be adaptable to new circumstances. Through workshops and coffee chats we evaluated staff definitions of a culture of peace, priorities in relation to peace values, behaviours and content, and teacher practice in regards to peace principles. As part of the reciprocal process, educators gave feedback and directed the research, which was designed to emphasize educator voice and minimize the neo-colonial imposition of values from outside actors. In this way I sought to balance critical theory’s need to take action for positive change with post-development theory’s prioritizing of local educator voice. The primary goals of the research were to develop an understanding of how PE was practised in the SSINN and, if the educators requested it, to provide support in taking positive action for change, while assessing the effectiveness of the PAR methodology. In the beginning the educators had differing definitions of a culture of peace, but they were very consistent in their ideas of what content, skills and values should be included in PE. Although they regularly mentioned problems that were directly relevant to students’ lives that should be addressed in the classroom, not all of the teachers were actively doing this. Due to a lack of resources, time, teacher stress and overcrowding, many teachers were unable to translate those ideas into action. Also due to those factors, many teachers fell into habits of traditional teaching practice that were inconsistent with peace pedagogy. Recognizing these issues, the teachers requested workshops on non-violent communication and conflict transformation in the hope that that knowledge would aid them to more positively manage behaviour. They also created and implemented an action plan. Although positive steps were taken, this was the first stage of a long-term process of change. Partnering with local non-governmental organizations (NGOs) has provided the possibility of the continuation of the process; nevertheless those NGOs have stated that they need continued external support. This flexible PAR methodology was effective at exploring and developing PE practice in the SSINN, and has the potential, if continued, to lead to fundamental positive change.

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  • A multi-modal device for application in microsleep detection

    Knopp, Simon James (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Microsleeps and other lapses of responsiveness can have severe, or even fatal, consequences for people who must maintain high levels of attention on monotonous tasks for long periods of time, e.g., commercial vehicle drivers, pilots, and air-traffic controllers. This thesis describes a head-mounted system which is the first prototype in the process of creating a system that can detect (and possibly predict) these lapses in real time. The system consists of a wearable device which captures multiple physiological signals from the wearer and an extensible software framework for imple- menting signal processing algorithms. Proof-of-concept algorithms are implemented and used to demonstrate that the system can detect simulated microsleeps in real time. The device has three sensing modalities in order to get a better estimate of the user's cognitive state than by any one alone. Firstly, it has 16 channels of EEG (8 currently in use) captured by 24-bit ADCs sampling at 250 Hz. The EEG is acquired by custom-built dry electrodes consisting of spring-loaded, gold-plated pins. Secondly, the device has a miniature video camera mounted below one eye, providing 320 x 240 px greyscale video of the eye at 60 fps. The camera module includes infrared illumination so that it can operate in the dark. Thirdly, the device has a six-axis IMU to measure the orientation and movement of the head. These sensors are connected to a Gumstix computer-on-module which transmits the captured data to a remote computer via Wi-Fi. The device has a battery life of about 7.4 h. In addition to this hardware, software to receive and analyse data from the head-mounted device was developed. The software is built around a signal processing pipeline that has been designed to encapsulate a wide variety of signal processing algorithms; feature extractors calculate salient properties of the input data and a classifier fuses these features to determine the user's cognitive state. A plug-in system is provided which allows users to write their own signal processing algorithms and to experiment with different combinations of feature extractors and classifiers. Because of this flexible modular design, the system could also be used for applications other than lapse detection‒any application which monitors EEG, eye video, and head movement can be implemented by writing appropriate signal processing plug-ins, e.g., augmented cognition or passive BCIs. The software also provides the ability to configure the device's hardware, to save data to disk, and to monitor the system in real time. Plug-ins can be implemented in C++ or Python. A series of validation tests were carried out to confirm that the system operates as intended. Most of the measured parameters were within the expected ranges: EEG amplifier noise = 0.14 μVRMS input-referred, EEG pass band = DC to 47 Hz, camera focus = 2.4 lp/mm at 40 mm, and total latency < 100 ms. Some parameters were worse than expected but still sufficient for effective operation: EEG amplifier CMRR ≥ 82 dB, EEG cross-talk = -17.4 dB, and IMU sampling rate = 10 Hz. The contact impedance of the dry electrodes, measured to be several hundred kilohms, was too high to obtain clean EEG. Three small-scale experiments were done to test the performance of the device in operation on people. The first two demonstrated that the pupil localization algorithm produces PERCLOS values close to those from a manually-rated gold standard and is robust to changes in ambient light levels, iris colour, and the presence of glasses. The final experiment demonstrated that the system is capable of capturing all three physiological signals, transmitting them to the remote computer in real time, extracting features from each signal, and classifying simulated microsleeps from the extracted features. However, this test was successful only when using conventional wet EEG electrodes instead of the dry electrodes built into the device; it will be necessary to find replacement dry electrodes for the device to be useful. The device and associated software form a platform which other researchers can use to develop algorithms for lapse detection. This platform provides data capture hardware and abstracts away the low-level software details so that other researchers are free to focus solely on developing signal processing techniques. In this way, we hope to enable progress towards a practical real-time, real-world lapse detection system.

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  • Descriptions of coping with commonly occurring events by highly self-regulated boys living in earthquake-affected Christchurch

    Gillman, Solfrid Hessellund (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Children are often overlooked in the aftermath of a natural disaster, and children’s use of coping strategies plays an important part in their post-disaster adaptation (Vernberg, La Greca, Silverman, & Prinstein, 1996). The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the coping strategies of children with adequate self-regulation skills and minimal behaviour problems, living in Christchurch following the major 2010 and 2011 earthquakes. This aim was achieved through the use of semi-structured interviews with five seven-year-old children, their parents, and their teachers. These interviews were analysed using Directed Content Analysis and results showed that children most often reported using active and adaptive coping strategies, followed by avoidant strategies. Results in the current literature regarding children’s coping suggest that children exposed to natural disasters are able to utilise strategies that involve some personal control over their environment and emotions, through the use of active and adaptive coping strategies. Findings from this study contribute to the current understanding of children’s use of coping strategies when faced with commonly occurring childhood upsets. Further research is required regarding the outcomes associated with the use of effective coping strategies following traumatic events.

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  • Geochemical variations in glauconitic minerals : application as a potassium fertiliser resource.

    Smaill, Joshua Ballantyne (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Nutrients for plant growth are often limited in soil systems and additions are required in the form of fertiliser. Potassium is an essential macro-nutrient for plants and demands for K are expected to increase in the future. Glaucony is an abundant marine mineral which may provide an alternative K-rich fertiliser resource. The South Island of New Zealand contains deposits of glaucony-rich rocks which were deposited in the Early- to Mid-Cenozoic during periods of low sedimentation to the seafloor. Here, the geochemistry of glaucony from the Waitaki Basin (Otago), the Waipara Greensand (North Canterbury) and the Stoney Creek Limestone (Karamea) was examined using spatially resolved geochemical analysis and dissolution experiments. Grain-by-grain analysis using Laser Ablation Induction Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrscopy (LA-ICP-MS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM + EDS) revealed that glaucony from all deposits were of the mature type and were enriched in K. Glaucony derived from growth inside faecal pellets was found to contain elevated K and Fe concentrations compared to bioclast hosted glaucony. These variations can be explained by the physical properties of host grains and sea-floor redox conditions at the time of precipitation, both of which increased ionic mobility into the zone of glauconitisation. Solubility analysis showed that K^{+} was released from glaucony more rapidly than any other element. Additionally, decreasing the pH and introducing an oxidising agent (i.e, birnessite which is ubiquitous in soil environments) accelerated K^{+} release 13-fold. Trace metals including Cr, Zn, Cu and Ni were present in the solid phase analysis, however further investigation revealed that these elements were released into solution in low concentrations and may present a source of micro-nutrients, not a soil contaminant. These results suggest that glaucony may offer a source of slow releasing K fertiliser, and the South Island of New Zealand is ideally situated as a place to consider using glaucony as a locally sourced, environmentally sustainable K resource for agriculture.

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  • How (Not?) to Adapt Chekhov: Adventures in Dramaturgy

    Ridley, Nathaniel (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Despite rapid growth of adaptation theory in the last two decades, there is a gap in the field. Books like Linda Hutcheon’s A Theory of Adaptation (2006) and Julie Sanders’ Adaptation and Appropriation (2006) approach adaptations from an audience’s perspective, describing the effects of the adaptation process and providing a robust taxonomy, identifying all of different forms that adaptation might take. They do not, however, describe the details of the process of adaptation itself, even though they often refer to the need for a process-oriented account of adaptation. Existing adaptation manuals focus on screen-writing, leaving someone with an interest in the specifics of adapting a play nowhere to turn. This paper begins to address this gap in the available knowledge by documenting the adaptation process involved in the creation of four new adaptations of Anton Chekhov's Uncle Vanya, targeted at a New Zealand audience. The experiments presented here confirm what is suggested by a survey of the reception of English-language adaptations of Chekhov: there is no single correct method for adapting a play. An adapter's greatest challenge can be identifying which strategy is appropriate for the conditions they face. This project experiments with different adaptive methods and strategies, developed by looking at other English-language Chekhov adaptations, including techniques of approximating the setting, language and themes to a target audience. I attempt to identify which methodologies will achieve the desired results, revealing a variety of different challenges, advantages and weaknesses inherent to each approach. Moreover, both the research and the experiments suggest how the success or failure of an adaptation depends on a variety of contextual factors, including the target audience's relationship with the adapted work, the dramaturgical characteristics of that work, and the abilities of the adapter.

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  • Electronic Conduction in Disordered Carbon Materials

    Cheah, Chun Yee (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Graphene, consisting of a single layer of carbon atoms, is being widely studied for its interesting fundamental physics and potential applications. The presence and extent of disorder play important roles in determining the electronic conduction mechanism of a conducting material. This thesis presents work on data analysis and modelling of electronic transport mechanisms in disordered carbon materials such as graphene. Based on experimental data of conductance of partially disordered graphene as measured by Gómez-Navarro et al., we propose a model of variable-range hopping (VRH) – defined as quantum tunnelling of charge carriers between localized states – consisting of a crossover from the two-dimensional (2D) electric field-assisted, temperature-driven (Pollak-Riess) VRH to 2D electric field-driven (Skhlovskii) VRH. The novelty of our model is that the temperature-dependent and field-dependent regimes of VRH are unified by a smooth crossover where the slopes of the curves equal at a given temperature. We then derive an analytical expression which allows exact numerical calculation of the crossover fields or voltages. We further extend our crossover model to apply to disordered carbon materials of dimensionalities other than two, namely to the 3D self-assembled carbon networks by Govor et al. and quasi-1D highly-doped conducting polymers by Wang et al. Thus we illustrate the wide applicability of our crossover model to disordered carbon materials of various dimensionalities. We further predict, in analogy to the work of Pollak and Riess, a temperature-assisted, field-driven VRH which aims to extend the field-driven expression of Shklovskii to cases wherein the temperatures are increased. We discover that such an expression gives a good fit to the data until certain limits wherein the temperatures are too high or the applied field too low. In such cases the electronic transport mechanism crosses over to Mott VRH, as expected and analogous to our crossover model described in the previous paragraph. The second part of this thesis details a systematic data analysis and modelling of experimental data of conductance of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) networks prepared by several different chemical-vapour deposition (CVD) methods by Ansaldo et al. and Lima et al. Based on our analysis, we identify and categorize the SWNT networks based on their electronic conduction mechanisms, using various theoretical models which are temperature-dependent and field-dependent. The electronic transport mechanisms of the SWNT networks can be classed into either VRH in one- and two-dimensions or fluctuation-assisted tunnelling (FAT, i.e. interrupted metallic conduction), some with additional resistance from scattering by lattice vibrations. Most notably, for a selected network, we find further evidence for our novel VRH crossover model previously described. We further correlate the electronic transport mechanisms with the morphology of each network based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. We find that SWNT networks which consist of very dense tubes show conduction behaviour consistent with the FAT model, in that they retain a finite and significant fraction of room-temperature conductance as temperatures tend toward absolute zero. On the other hand, SWNT networks which are relatively sparser show conduction behaviour consistent with the VRH model, in that conductance tends to zero as temperatures tend toward absolute zero. We complete our analysis by estimating the average hopping distance for SWNT networks exhibiting VRH conduction, and estimate an indication of the strength of barrier energies and quantum tunnelling for SWNT networks exhibiting FAT conduction.

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  • Protection Against Slavery in New Zealand

    Heesterman, Katja (2014)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The European Court of Human Rights decision in CN v The United Kingdom highlighted that slavery remains a modern problem. It may no longer resemble the traditional picture of slavery dramatically presented by Hollywood but it is no less on an issue. Modern slavery is less visible; it is hidden away within homes, normal workplaces or in overseas factories. This paper argues that New Zealand’s current treatment of slavery is inadequate exemplified by the absence of prosecutions. Thorough protection of slavery requires clear definitions that courts can easily apply. This paper explores how the Bill of Rights could be used to remedy this situation. This paper argues for the application of the Drittwirkung concept to give a horizontal effect to a right against slavery. Furthermore it is argued that New Zealand is under positive obligations to actively prevent rights violations, not merely avoid them. These positive obligations are a key component of modern human rights jurisprudence and can be read into the New Zealand Bill of Rights Act 1990. This paper speculates that one action courts could take is to undertake the development of a tort action against slavery.

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  • Investigating the mode of action of tuberculosis drugs using hypersensitive mutants of Mycobacterium smegmatis

    Campen, Richard Laurence (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB), is the leading cause of death and disease by a bacterial pathogen worldwide. The growing incidence of drug resistant TB, especially multi-drug resistant TB highlights the need for new drugs with novel modes of action. Current treatment of TB involves a multi-drug regimen of four drugs including isoniazid and rifampicin, both of which were discovered over 40 years ago. Bedaquiline is one of the first novel TB drugs to enter clinical trials since the discovery of rifampicin, and has shown excellent activity against drug resistant TB. Although isoniazid and rifampicin are well established anti-TB drugs, significant gaps in knowledge regarding their modes of action exist. Furthermore, little information on the mode of action of the novel drug bedaquiline is known beyond its primary target. Characterisation of drug mode of action facilitates rational modifications of drugs to improve the treatment of TB. The aim of this study was to identify novel aspects of the modes of action of isoniazid, rifampicin, and bedaquiline by characterising drug hypersensitive mutants of M. smegmatis mc²155. A sub-saturated M. smegmatis mc²155 transposon mutant collection with 1.1-fold genome coverage (7680 mutants) was constructed, with this collection estimated to contain mutations in 73.2% of all genes capable of maintaining a transposon insertion (non-essential genes). A high-throughput assay was developed for screening the collection, and mutants related to known drug mode of action were identified for isoniazid (ahpC and eccCa₁) and bedaquiline (atpB). Additionally, known mechanisms of drug inactivation were identified for isoniazid (nudC), rifampicin (arr and lspA), and bedaquiline (mmpL5). The finding that transposon mutants of nudC are hypersensitive to isoniazid independently validated the recent discovery of the role of NudC in basal isoniazid resistance by Wang et al. (2011). The remaining genes identified in this thesis represent potentially novel aspects of the modes of action or resistance mechanisms of these drugs. Cross-sensitivity to other drugs indicated that the mechanism of sensitivity was drug specific for the mutants examined. Differential-sensitivity testing against drug analogues revealed that Arr is involved in resistance to the rifampicin analogue rifapentine as well, indicating that Arr can detoxify rifapentine similar to rifampicin. The nudC mutant showed increased sensitivity to a range of isoniazid analogues, indicating that it can detoxify these analogues similar to the parent compound. Interestingly six analogues were found to be less active against the nudC mutant than expected. A number of overexpression strains were tested against these six analogues; a nudC overexpression strain, and a strain overexpressing inhA, the primary target for isoniazid. Overexpression of nudC as well inhA increased the resistance of WT to isoniazid, but failed to increase resistance to three of the analogues, NSC27607, NSC33759, and NSC40350. Isoniazid is a prodrug and is activated by the peroxidase/catalase enzyme KatG. Overexpression of katG resulted in increased isoniazid sensitivity, as well as increased sensitivity to NSC27607, NSC33759, and NSC40350. Together these results suggest that NSC27607, NSC33759, and NSC40350 are activated by KatG, but that InhA is not the primary target. Additionally the inability of NudC overexpression to confer resistance suggests these analogues are not acting via a NAD adduct, the mechanism by which isoniazid inhibits InhA. These results suggest that there are other toxic metabolites being produced by KatG activation of these three analogues. In conclusion, characterisation of mutants identified in a high-throughput assay for drug hypersensitivity identified genes involved in the modes of action or resistance mechanisms for isoniazid, rifampicin, and bedaquiline. Additionally, a number of novel genes were identified that have no known connections to the known modes of action or resistance mechanisms for these drugs. Further testing of a nudC mutant revealed three isoniazid analogues that appear to inhibit growth of M. smegmatis mc²155 independent of InhA, the primary target of isoniazid. This study has successfully demonstrated that screening for drug hypersensitivity can generate novel information on drug mode of action and resistance mechanisms. This information can ultimately be used to help drive the development of new drugs, and improve treatment of TB.

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  • Exploiting the crowd: The New Zealand response to equity crowd funding

    Hillind, Henry William (2014)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The crowd funding exclusion in the Financial Markets Conduct Act 2013 allows issuers, often innovative start-up businesses, to raise up to $2,000,000 in a 12 month period from retail investors through an internet platform provided by a licensed intermediary service, without the need for the product disclosure statement and on-line disclosures usually required under Part 3 of the Act. In order to protect the interests of investors in a market with a high risk of negligible return, other protections need to be provided. International jurisdictions have imposed investor caps, but New Zealand has failed to do so. This essay argues that, particularly in light of shortcomings with other aspects of crowd funding investor protections, a mandatory investor cap of five per cent of the amount being raised should be imposed, to protect investors both from the high risks of venture capital investing and from their own inexperience in this new and rapidly developing market.

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  • Modelling of a falling film evaporator for dairy processes

    Munir, MT; Zhang, Y; Wilson, DI; Yu, W; Young, BR

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    The modelling of dairy processing using commercial process simulator lags behind chemical and petrochemical process simulation. This is due to fact that most commercial process simulators do not contain food (e.g. milk) components in their component libraries, required for dairy process simulation. Recently, a “pseudo” milk containing hypothetical components (e.g. milk fat) was developed in a commercial process simulator for milk process simulation (Zhang et al. 2014). In this work, “pseudo” milk was used to model a falling film evaporator used in a milk powder production plant. It shows that commercial process simulators have capability to simulate dairy processes. The model results were validated using both literature and industry data. The model results showed around 0.1 – 9.4% differences between simulated and actual results. This work extends the capabilities of commercial process simulators and can also help practicing engineers to understand potential process improvements.

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  • Intercultural competence: encouraging learner reflection

    Richards, H; Conway, C

    Seminar presentations
    Auckland University of Technology

    Presentation of research findings from a wider study on the development of intercultural communicative language teaching, with recommendations for current language teachers in New Zealand schools. The focus is on the role of learner reflection in the language teaching classroom with key features synthesised from current literature.

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  • The effect of paramedic position on external chest compression quality: a simulation study

    Davey, Paul

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a globally important public health issue that continues to be a significant cause of premature death. The incidence of OHCA treated by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) is around 50 to 55/100,000 per person-years across the US, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. There is significant disparity in the rates of survival to hospital discharge from OHCA. For OHCA treated by EMS this rate can vary as much as 1% to 31%. In order to improve outcomes for cardiac arrests the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) aims to integrate resuscitation science with real world clinical practice. ILCOR states there is a need to develop a culture of high quality resuscitation using a quality improvement approach. Survival from cardiac arrest is a complex issue with many stakeholders that form the basis of a system of care. ILCOR proposes that individual performance needs to be evaluated so that participants within the system of care are informed and can therefore effectively intervene to improve care Paramedics are the primary treatment providers for OHCA. Recently the resuscitation guidelines, which paramedics use in their practice, have emphasised the performance of quality chest compressions. With this in mind this thesis sought to investigate whether the position of the paramedic performing chest compressions, either from-the-side (FTS) or over-the-head (OTH), influenced the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). A review literature identified only a few small studies in which OTH CPR was investigated over short durations. There was heterogeneity in the study design, types of participants and quality metrics measured with inconsistencies in the results across the studies. All of the studies identified in the review were manikin studies that used manikin-based technology, such as the Laerdal Skill Reporter (LSR), to measure the quality of CPR. Subsequent to these studies defibrillator technology has evolved and now devices that can measure CPR quality have been integrated into the defibrillator, an example of which is Q-CPR associated with the MRx defibrillator. Such devices enable measurement of CPR quality in both manikin and human studies. The first study (Chapter 3) investigated if the new defibrillator technology could be used to measure CPR quality in a manikin study. This study compared the measurement of CPR quality metrics simultaneously using LSR and Q-CPR, for chest compression performed OTH and FTS. The principle finding of this study was that there is no significant difference in the majority of chest compression quality metrics measured between the LSR and the Q-CPR devices. However, there were significant differences in the measurement of duty cycle and also the depth of compressions between the two devices. The mean difference in the depth of compression was observed to increase with an increasing incidence of leaning. The conclusion was that Q-CPR is a suitable alternative to LSR for measurement of the CPR quality and thus it was used in the main study. The main study compared OTH and FTS CPR quality (performed by 30 paramedics) during two simulated cardiac arrest scenarios, each of approximately 25 minutes duration. There was no significant difference in mean CPR quality between compressions performed OTH or FTS for all metrics measured. We concluded that for two rescuer CPR the composite technique, where the paramedic that is positioned at the head of the manikin performs OTH CPR, is an effective alternative to the traditional method of only performing CPR FTS.

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