89,479 results

  • Race, racism in everyday communication in Aotearoa / New Zealand

    Revell, Elisabeth; Papoutsaki, Evangelia; Kolesova, Elena (2014-12-22)

    Unclassified
    Unitec

    This essay is based on theories of ‘new racism’, which explain how race and racism continue to play an integral role in our lives, but in subtle and often hidden ways. This approach informs the discussion in this essay that focuses on some of the issues that emerged from a critical collaborative autoethnographic project that explored how race is manifested in everyday communication interactions in New Zealand. The discussion, more specifically, draws on what we call here ‘conversational tact’ and its three sub-themes of ‘everyday racialised ethnic terms’, ‘the everyday racialised use of ethnic stereotypes’, and ‘everyday censorship and silence around race in conversation’. These themes have been chosen as the focus of this essay because they sit together under a larger theme that looks at the way in which people communicate race through their everyday patterns of speech and vocabulary in New Zealand and help us unmask ‘racial micro aggressions’ (DeAngelis, 2009; Sue et al, 2007).

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  • Restricted Verb Phrase Collocations in Standard and Learner Malaysian English

    Abd Halim, Hasliza (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The English used in Malaysia is one of the varieties of New Englishes and this variety has emerged due to the spread of English around the world (Platt, et al., 1983; Pillai, 2006). In the case of Malaysia, Malay is the national language and standard English exists to be the language of an elite (Bao, 2006), also as a language of interaction. Over years of playing its various roles as a language of interaction, there has emerged a variety of English that is distinctively Malaysian (Asmah, 1992). Baskaran (2002) points out that English is now adopted and adapted in the linguistic ecology of Malaysia, and all Malaysians should be proud of it with all its local ‘nuances and innuendos’. Malaysian English today is ‘a rich tapestry of a typical transplanted variety of English’. Malaysian English (ME) is one of the new varieties of English, with some distinct features include the localized vocabulary, pronunciation, grammar as well as pragmatic features (Pillai, 2006; Pillai and Fauziah, 2006, p.39). The present study has embarked on a specialised study of vocabulary. In particular, it examined the English collocations produced by non-native speaker English users in Malaysia. The study provided insight into the nature of the internal norms of English used in Malaysia to see how these English restricted collocations being used by this group of learners. The investigation focused on the learners’ productive knowledge of Verb-Noun collocations of their written English with the impact of exposure and frequency. Nesselhauf (2003) has the opinion that verb-noun combinations are the most frequently mistaken so they should perceive particular attention of learners. Investigating collocation in English language learning is paramount as such study may inform us on the use of restricted collocations in English language teaching and learning in Malaysian context. The findings in Chapter 4 and 5 suggest that the frequency of the cloze verb does have an effect as predicted by Kuiper, Columbus and Schmitt (2009). This is so because frequency is a measure of likely exposure. The more frequent an item is in corpora, the more likely a learner is to be exposed to it. What is needed is a much more nuanced notion of exposure. The findings in Chapter 6 proves that the malformed collocations make sense could be a way of making the World English perspective relevant after all. A new testing approach is proposed; semantic plausibility metric, which is used as a tool for this study, can be useful used as a measure of vocabulary acquisition as well as looking at learners’ test taking strategies. The findings of the present research on Malaysian English collocations contribute new knowledge to the existing understanding and literature on the acquisition of collocations.

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  • “Cool” Asia in a local context : East Asian popular culture in a New Zealand classroom

    Kolesova, Elena (2014-12-22)

    Unclassified
    Unitec

    The central issue is not only what can every discipline learn from popular culture, but also how can popular culture become a successful tool of learning for different disciplines. The fact that it is such an attractive tool of learning for students does not make it easier to answer the question of what we, as teachers of popular culture, want our students to learn and understand when we use this powerful tool in our classroom. The course East Meets West was introduced in 2003 as a part of a suite of ‘global electives’ for all students enrolled in degree level programmes, e.g. Marketing, Business Management, Sports Management, Communication Studies etc at Unitec Institute of Technology, New Zealand. However, the majority taking the course were Bachelor of Arts [BA] students majoring in Japanese, Chinese or European languages. Some students were choosing to study Asian languages and, first of all, Japanese language to satisfy their obsession with East Asian popular culture. Japanese popular culture certainly played a key role, but interest in popular culture from other East Asian countries was equally present. Since 2010 the majority of students enrolled in this course were students enrolled in Communication Studies. Similarly to the BA students, their interest in this course was equally determined by their previous engagement with East Asian popular culture. The aim of the course has been to explore the influence of East Asian popular culture on the Western popular culture. The main emphasis was on visual popular culture, e.g. anime, film, advertising or street fashion. However, other genres or types of popular culture were also considered.

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  • The effects of a combined conflict resolution-mindfulness intervention on the positive peer interactions of primary school aged children

    Mueller, Tara (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Research suggests that pro-social skills and self-regulatory abilities are necessary for healthy child development and are prerequisites for interacting in the school classroom in ways that avoid disruption and distress. Children without pro-social skills struggle to engage in positive social interaction with peers and may respond disruptively to classroom challenges. Increasing concerns in schools regarding problem behaviour displayed by students such as kicking, hitting and talking out of turn have been reported in the research. These behaviours often lead to a disruptive classroom environment, negative peer interaction and, according to teachers, remain the most challenging aspect of classroom management. Schools typically deal with problem behaviour by implementing rules and expectations for desired student behaviour. While these expectation-focused approaches have shown some positive effects, they do not directly teach skills for positive interaction and effective self-management of emotions. Conflict resolution education and mindfulness programmes have shown positive effects for improved pro-social skills and self-regulatory abilities in children. This thesis describes a combined conflict resolution-mindfulness group intervention that was implemented in one primary school classroom with children aged between six and seven years. The intervention involved teaching children four skills for effective conflict resolution and self-regulation over a period of four weeks. Repeated measures and teacher ratings of positive and negative peer interaction were used to assess programme effects. A single case AB replication design was used. The repeated measures findings indicated no change in positive or negative peer interactions for all nine focus children. Teacher reports of behaviour related to positive and negative peer interaction for all children in the classroom showed good effects. Possible reasons for the lack of change in the repeated measures findings include the young age of the children and an insufficient number of sessions and skill practice opportunities.

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  • The state and income redistribution: a study of the social wage and taxation in New Zealand 1949-1975

    Reveley, J. W. C. (1990)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis examines the role of the state in redistributing income between social classes in New Zealand during the years 1949-1975. It applies an innovative methodology, developed by E. Ahmet Tonak, to a set of data drawn from New Zealand's national accounts and estimates a quantity labelled 'net-tax', defined as the taxes that the working class cede to the state less the expenditure that the working class receives from the state in the form of a social wage. A detailed theoretical discussion precedes the empirical analysis. Insofar as Tonak's method requires that the social wage (the portion of state expenditure consumed by the working class) be identified as an empirical quantity, the argument that all taxes, and hence all state expenditures, originate from surplus value is confronted. The views of the main representatives of this contemporary school of thought are subjected to detailed scrutiny. They are rejected in favour of the views of a school which considers the portion of taxes funding the state expenditure that constitutes the social wage to originate in 'wages'. A model which theoretically 'grounds' the comparison of taxes paid to state expenditure received, effected in the remaining chapters of this study, is then formulated. In the empirical analysis, the empirical referent of the 'net-tax' concept is calculated for the years 1949-1975. The net-tax data set is then used to construct a transference ratio, which indicates the degree and direction of income redistribution effected by the state. The main finding to emerge is that, in all but one of the twenty-seven years surveyed in this study, the working class has surrendered more wealth in taxes to the state than it has received back from the state as a social wage. In light of these results, it can be concluded that the welfare state has not materially benefitted the working class in New Zealand. Moreover, insofar as income has consistently been redistributed from the working class to 'non-labour' (the capitalist class and the state itself), the state can be considered to owe the working class a debt in the amount of 3671.26 million (constant 1975) dollars.

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  • Shift happens? exploring the exception question in solution-focused therapy.

    Henson, Kay Jennifer (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Solution-focused therapy is appropriate for students in secondary schools as it works to revive children’s problem solving abilities. A key technique in solution-focused therapy involves asking the client the Exception Question, that is, inviting them to consider and talk about a time when their problem is or was less severe and dealt with in a satisfactory way. There is a scarcity of research exploring this technique from the client’s perspective. The aim of my study was to tell the stories of how students in a high school setting experience creative uses of the solution-focused, Exception Question. During the study, however, I found that this could not be researched without also including the way(s) that the use of Exception Questions influenced my counselling and ongoing learning as a counsellor. Solution-focused therapy was used in the counselling sessions and my research brought together students’ personal stories of their counselling experience and

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  • The migrant and the media : maintaining cultural identity through ethnic media

    Noronha, Sandra; Papoutsaki, Evangelia (2014-12-22)

    Unclassified
    Unitec

    Evidence shows that mainstream media in New Zealand does not fully address the communication needs of these ethnic groups nor does it represent them in a balanced way (Robie, 2009). This is where ethnic, migrant, diaspora media play an important and supporting role by providing an alternative to an increasingly homogenised mainstream media. For ethnic communities, access to such media gives them an avenue to understand more clearly issues affecting their community, a stronger sense of identity and social cohesion and a connection to a perceived transnational community. While there is an increasing concern that mainstream media fails to reflect migrant issues and concerns, a plethora of migrant media exists in parallel that helps fill this gap (Williamson and DeSouza, 2006). Auckland alone has a vibrant ethnic media scene with media spread across print, radio, and web. Its strong Pacific Islands population, for instance, has created a lively media scene with a strong radio and online media presence contributing to the creation of a distinctive cultural diasporic identity (Papoutsaki and Strickland, 2008). With this background, this essay explores the function of different migrant media in New Zealand drawing examples from across the board with a particular focus on Indian media. This includes traditional media (i.e. print, TV, magazine, and radio), and online media. In this, the traditional communication networks of ethnic community and religious associations and their use of web, films and events is also taken into consideration. By exploring the role, challenges and potential of ethnic media, this essay seeks to understand how these media represent the diverse voices of migrant groups, in addition to providing content relevant to their needs as migrants (i.e. content that counterbalances the mainstream host culture as it is represented in the mainstream media).

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  • Communication issues in Aotearoa New Zealand : a collection of research essays

    Dodson, Giles; Papoutsaki, Evangelia (2014-12-22)

    Unclassified
    Unitec

    This edited volume introduces highlights of the academic interests and research activities of a number of staff at Unitec’s Department of Communication Studies, demonstrating the breadth and scope of the engagement of this academic collective with contemporary communication issues. Edited by Giles Dodson and Evangelia Papoutsaki, it is clear from the work that communication in Aotearoa New Zealand remains complex and continually under negotiation, as this country continues to be formed and reformed by processes of cultural encounter, by political and institutional change and by voices seeking to assert, to contest and to claim their presence – to represent and to be represented within contemporary New Zealand.

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  • Symbols of recovery : the impact of earthquake images on vigilance

    Hancock, Nicola Jane (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This study explores the impact post-earthquake images from Christchurch, New Zealand inserted into a task requiring sustained attention or vigilance have on performance, selfreports of task-focus, and cerebra activity using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The images represent the current state of Christchurch; a city struggling to recover from devastating earthquakes that peaked in February, 2011, killing 185 people, injuring hundreds more and causing widespread and massive damage to infrastructure, land and building in the region. Crowdsourcing was used to gather a series of positive and negative photos from greater Christchurch to be employed in the subsequent experiment. Seventy-one Christchurch resident participants (51 women, 20 men) then took part in a vigilance task with the sourced images embedded to assess possible cognitive disruptions. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: embedded positive pictures, embedded negative pictures, or embedded scrambled image controls. Task performance was assessed with signal detection theory metrics of sensitivity A’ and β’’. Individuals viewing the positive images, relating to progress, rebuild, or aesthetic aspects within the city, were overall more conservative or less willing to respond than those in the other conditions. In addition, positive condition individuals reported lower task focus, when compared to those in the control condition. However, indicators of cerebral activity (fNIRS) did not differ significantly between the experimental groups. These results combined, suggest that mind wandering events may be being generated when exposed to positive post-earthquake images. This finding fits with recent research which indicates that mind-wandering or day dreaming tends to be positive and future oriented. While positive recovery images may initiate internal thoughts, this could actually prove problematic in contexts in which external attention is required. While the actual environment, of course, needs to recover, support agencies may want to be careful with employing positive recovery imagery in contexts where people actually should be paying attention to something else, like operating a vehicle or machinery.

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  • The impact of the Internet on small firms

    Martin, Ross A. (1998)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Several researchers have designed frameworks to model and analyse impacts of the Internet on firms. This research takes one such framework aimed at small firms (Lymer et al., 1997b) and attempts to validate its usefulness by comparing it to similar and conflicting models, and by applying it to impacts collected from both the literature and from four case studies of small firms. The findings suggest that several changes to Lymer et al.'s (1997b) framework are necessary to make the model more effective and more practical for researchers and practitioners. A revised Internet impacts model is proposed that incorporates these changes. Preliminary evaluation has been performed on the revised model, resulting in the conclusion that the study makes a valuable contribution to the area of Internet research by significantly enhancing the usability and analytical usefulness of Lymer et al.'s (1997b) Internet impacts model.

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  • Spatial patterns in excess winter morbidity among the elderly in New Zealand

    Brunsdon, Nicholas David (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    It has been established in New Zealand and internationally that morbidity and mortality tends to rise during colder winter months, with a typical 10-20% excess compared to the rest of the year. This study sought to investigate the spatial, temporal, climatic and demographic patterns and interactions of excess winter morbidity (EWMb) among the elderly in New Zealand. This was achieved through analysis of acute hospital admissions in New Zealand between 1996 and 2013 for all patients over the age of 60 with an element of circulatory or respiratory disease (N=1,704,317) including a primary diagnosis of circulatory (N=166,938) or respiratory (N=62,495) disease. A quantitative approach included ordinary least squares and negative binomial regression, graphical analysis and age standardisation processes. Admission rates and durations were regressed against a set of 16 cold spell indicators at a national and regional scale, finding significant spatial variation in the magnitude of EWMb. EWMb was ubiquitous across New Zealand despite climatic variation between regions, with an average winter excess of 15%, and an excess of 51% for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Statistically significant relationships were found between hospital admission durations and cold spells up to 28 days prior; however the magnitude would not be expected to have a significant impact on hospital resources. Nonetheless, there is potential for preventative public health strategies to mitigate less severe morbidity associated with cold spells. Patients over the age of 80 were particularly vulnerable to EWMb; however socioeconomic deprivation and ethnicity did not affect vulnerability. Patients residing in areas of high socioeconomic deprivation or identifying with Maori or Pacific Island ethnicity experienced significantly shorter admissions than other groups, and this warrants further investigation. Further investigation into winter COPD exacerbations and non-climatic factors associated with the EWMb are recommended. A comprehensive understanding of EWMb will enable preventative measures that can improve quality of life, particularly for the elderly population.

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  • Kopi, Cooperatives, and Compliance: A Case Study of Fair Trade in Aceh, Indonesia

    Walker, Heather (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    A development initiative at its core, fair trade endeavors to provide better trading conditions for disadvantaged producers in the world market system, such as smallholder coffee farmers, who face a volatile market and prices that have yet to recover from a deep price crisis in the early 2000s. With the onset of labeling and certification, fair trade entered the mainstream by the late 1990s, and has continued to demonstrate strong growth in sales. Moreover, new producer organizations are becoming certified in an expanding number of countries, and fair trade coffee is expanding beyond its traditionally dominant productive center in Latin America. To explore how fair trade is established, and interacts with, new producer contexts, a case study was performed with five fair trade certified coffee cooperatives in Aceh, Indonesia, all of whom have gained certification within the last 10 years, was performed. This thesis sought to understand the particularities behind how fair trade reached Aceh, what factors influenced its implementation, and how coffee producers experience their participation in the fair trade movement. Further, particular attention was paid to the practice and formation of the cooperatives’ structures and policies; fair trade requires that coffee farmers are organized into democratically owned and governed cooperatives, an institution relatively unpracticed in Indonesia.

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  • Imprimōtype: A new experience of analogue photography through tactility, tangibility and sacrifice

    Kong, Sarah Rhonda (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis began as a critical response to digital photography. It takes an in depth look at the transition of photography from analogue to digital, and the impact of this transition on the culture of photography. This design-led research features a series of experiments that cross and merge the boundaries between digital and analogue photographic processes to offer an alternate experience of photography by tangibly re-evaluating the relationship between the camera and the photograph. Finally, this thesis leads to the creation of the ‘Imprimōtype,’ (Literally ‘print type’) a sacrificial camera that provides an alternate experience of photography rich in physical tangibility, tactility, anticipation, reward and emotional connection to the resulting photograph that comes only with temporal investment and connection in the photographic process.

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  • Influences of fisher attitudes and behaviour on regulation non-compliance: A case study from the Marlborough Sounds, New Zealand recreational blue cod fishery

    Thomas, Alyssa S. (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Although it has been noted that fisheries is 90% managing people, most management regimes focus solely on the other 10%; the biological aspect. Furthermore, despite the growing popularity of recreational fishing and increased awareness of its biological effects, there exists even less literature on the human dimensions in this domain than in commercial fisheries. In New Zealand, the Marlborough Sounds recreational blue cod fishery is strictly regulated, due to its popularity and a top-down management regime, with limited fisher involvement. Despite substantial biological information on the fishery, there is only one piece of human dimensions research, carried out before the current management regime came into force. This thesis responds to calls for greater integration of human behaviour into fisheries analyses and management. Specifically, the aim is to explore fisher attitudes towards and compliance with the fishery regulations. The research presented here is a combination of intercept and online surveys of over 500 fishers and is interdisciplinary in nature. Four related studies, aimed towards publication, provide important insights for a more inclusive management style in the future. The first chapter examines fisher attitudes and the factors shaping them, a poorly understood area. Responses reveal that although overall, fishers were dissatisfied with the current regulations, inexperienced and non-locally-resident fishers display more positive attitudes towards the regulations. The second core chapter examines regulation non-compliance, a worldwide fisheries problem that can undermine the effectiveness of a management regime. As rule-breaking behaviour is often a sensitive behaviour, two indirect methods (Randomized Response and Item Count) are tested against direct questioning in estimating violations of three recreational blue cod fishing regulations. Results show mixed effectiveness for the indirect methods, with a significantly higher estimate of non-compliance estimate obtained for only one of the three regulations. The third core chapter uses structural equation modeling to examine the drivers of non-compliance with the size and daily limits for blue cod. Knowledge of these drivers is essential to increasing voluntary compliance with the regulations and these results demonstrate that social norms are the largest influence for both the regulations. Finally, the fourth core chapter examines the potential effects of the maximum size limit on the number of blue cod discarded as well as fisher satisfaction and compliance. A scenario approach reveals that either increasing or eliminating the maximum size limit could offer significant gains compared with the control scenario. The four chapters contribute to the global literature on subjects including fisher attitudes, estimating sensitive behaviours, drivers of non-compliance, discards in recreational fisheries and natural resource management. Taken together, the results reaffirm the benefits of including the human dimensions in fisheries management regimes. For the Marlborough Sounds recreational blue cod fishery, a shift away from the current, top-down and biologically focused management regime is suggested. I also argue that a more inclusive management strategy may be the best chance for success and allow the fishery to be saved for future generations; a goal shared by both fishers and management.

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  • Diverse Education for Diverse Economies: The relevance of Rural Training Centres in the Solomon Islands

    Fleming, Kathryn (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Education is considered the cornerstone of development, essential to achieving economic and social goals. Under the powerful global education agenda, the western model of formal education has been implemented hegemonically in developing countries. This model largely prepares young people for a role in the formal economy in an urban environment, overlooking fundamental questions of purpose and relevance for local context. In the Solomon Islands, where 85% of the population reside rurally, such opportunities often do not exist or reflect local livelihoods. Rural Training Centres (RTCs) are informal vocational institutions that sit outside of the dominant education paradigm by aiming to prepare young people for local livelihoods. Through informal and vocational learning, they offer an alternative to urbanisation, supporting self derived and locally based livelihoods. Paradoxically, for this very reasons they are often disregarded at the government and donor level. From a postdevelopment perspective, this thesis considers the roles and relevance of RTCs under a wider conceptualisation of economy and knowledge than is applied in mainstream development practice. Using qualitative and ethnographical methodologies, this research investigates local understandings of RTCs as an education alternative through the voices of young people, women and the wider community. The inter-related aspects: economy, education, and development, are considered in two case study communities, Gizo and Vatu, providing a semi-urban/rural comparison. Using a Diverse Economies Framework (Gibson-Graham, 2005), this thesis reveals a more realistic picture of the myriad of activities that support local livelihoods exists. The formal economy is found to play a secondary role to informal and direct economic practices. Similarly, under a pluralistic view of education that accepts the legitimacy of traditional, cultural and indigenous knowledge, the aspirations of young people are found to be deeply rooted ‘at home’. Yet, this research argues that they do not conform to a simplistic modern-traditional dichotomy. Rather they reflect cultural hybridity, a third space ‘in between’ where different knowledges are transformed and negotiated. Despite criticisms, RTCs were positively viewed at a community level. They were considered to fill a vital gap left by the formal education system, support local livelihoods and help stem the flow of urban migration. They also offer an opportunity to support women in existing gender roles, as well as expand existing cultural educational boundaries. However, RTCs are facing pressure to standardise and formalise in order to attract greater government and donor funding. This reflects wider tensions in development policy and practice that favour the universal and the global over the local, and brings to light the inherent power disparity in the aid relationship.

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  • Assessing the motivations of New Zealand’s International Interventions: From Practice to Theory

    Mitchell, Matthew (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Since the end of the Cold War New Zealand has participated in numerous international interventions, both within the Asia-Pacific region and further afield. As a small state with limited resources and influence what have been the primary motivating factors that have influenced New Zealand’s decisions to intervene? Can the decisions to intervene be best explained by realism, liberalism, constructivism, or a combination of these theories? This essay will assess the motivating factors for New Zealand’s involvement in international interventions by analysing four case studies where New Zealand participated in an intervention – Bosnia, East Timor, Afghanistan, and the Solomon Islands. This essay will also assess whether the motivating factors for intervening within New Zealand’s geographic region differ from those outside its region, and whether there is a difference in approach taken by the two main political parties in New Zealand – Labour and National. The essay concludes that while there were elements of realism and constructivism in the decisions to intervene, liberalism provides that best explanation for the decision to intervene in three of the four case studies. The fourth case study, the Solomon Islands, is best explained by the realist factors of regional security and upholding New Zealand’s relationship with Australia. The essay finds that while the motivations for intervening in three of the four case studies were similar, the motivations for intervening within the Asia-Pacific region were slightly more realist. The motivations to intervene were similar regardless if National or Labour were in government.

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  • Interpersonal conflict between employees and managers: The Chinese immigrants experiences of acculturation in New Zealand public sector workplaces

    Wang, Yi (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    With the increase in globalisation and migration, the future workplace will become more culturally diverse. Significant literature points out that culturally diverse workplaces can create organisational conflict because of the workers’ differences in cultural values, attitudes, and work styles. New Zealand, like other countries, has also faced the challenge of an increasingly diverse workforce. Although the associations between cultural diversity and conflict management styles in different countries have been widely discussed, the existing literature focuses more on comparison studies with participants who are from different countries. There is a lack of research investigating Chinese employees who live overseas and work in overseas organisations. Research on how young Chinese migrants cope with conflict in New Zealand organisations is scarce. The purpose of this study is to explore Chinese migrant employees’ preferences for styles of conflict management and the reasons they perceive these styles, as well as the influence of acculturation and ethnic identity orientation. The study argues that acculturation, the process of cultural change, is one of the factors that relates to the use and perceptions of different conflict management styles. This study explores how immigrants who have acculturated, learned and adopted their host society’s cultural characteristics, perceived and faced conflict issues in the workplace. More particularly, this study investigates how the role of ethnic identity influences different conflict management styles. A qualitative phenomenological method is employed in this study to obtain a deeper picture of conflict phenomena among Chinese migrant employees who have been through the process of acculturation. This method is useful for describing the lived experiences of conflict and acculturation. The data consisted of twenty one in-depth interviews with Chinese migrant employees from mainland China who work in twenty different New Zealand public sector organisations. The findings of this study reveal that due to their acculturation experiences, interviewees have developed an integrated bicultural identity that is rooted in good feelings about being New Zealanders, accompanied by a positive sense of Chinese ethnic identity. They view their own identity as a combination of both New Zealand and Chinese identities. Depending on the situation and the nature of their interpersonal relationships, interviewees can switch between these two identities without a problematic struggle. Based on the influence of this integrated bicultural identity, the study finds that young Chinese migrant employees prefer to use a combination of integrating and compromising conflict management styles. The tendency to use integrating conflict management is highly influenced by their adaptation to New Zealand cultural values and attitudes. Being New Zealanders gives these bicultural Chinese migrant employees confidence to confront and integrate conflict directly, and solve it in cooperative manner. The findings also show that Chinese beliefs and values continue to be maintained. The principles of Confucianism are deeply rooted and included showing mutual respect, avoiding embarrassment to other parties, controlling emotions or psychological impulses. Under the influence of being Chinese, young Chinese migrant employees incline towards compromising style depending on the circumstances. However, if integrating and compromising styles fail to resolve the conflict because the other party refuses harmony and escalates the conflict, young Chinese migrant employees would change their strategies by asking for third-party interventions and seeking for a sense of justice and fairness.

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  • Autonomously Learning About Meaningful Actions from Exploratory Behaviour

    Newton, Heidi (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The thesis addresses the problem of creating an autonomous agent that is able to learn about and use meaningful hand motor actions in a simulated world with realistic physics, in a similar way to human infants learning to control their hand. A recent thesis by Mugan presented one approach to this problem using qualitative representations, but suffered from several important limitations. This thesis presents an alternative design that breaks the learning problem down into several distinct learning tasks. It presents a new method for learning rules about actions based on the Apriori algorithm. It also presents a planner inspired by infants that can use these rules to solve a range of tasks. Experiments showed that the agent was able to learn meaningful rules and was then able to successfully use them to achieve a range of simple planning tasks.

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  • Public perceptions of the state of the NZ environment - how do peoples' realities stack up to the scientific realities?

    Hughey, K.

    Extension Activity
    Lincoln University

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  • Biodiversity and the Hanmer connection - opportunities for multiple win-wins!

    Hughey, K.

    Extension Activity
    Lincoln University

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