91,631 results

  • Early endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography versus conservative management in acute biliary pancreatitis without cholangitis - A meta-analysis of randomized trials

    Petrov, Maxim; van Santvoort, Hialmar C; Besselink, Marc GH; van der Heijden, Geert JMG; van Erpecum, Karel J; Gooszen, Hein G (2008-02-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: Early endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) should be performed in all patients with acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP) and coexisting acute cholangitis. In patients without cholangitis and predicted mild ABP it is generally accepted that early ERCP should not be performed. Nevertheless, there is a controversy regarding the role of early ERCP in the treatment of patients with predicted severe ABP without cholangitis. We reviewed randomized trials on early ERCP versus conservative management in patients with ABP without acute cholangitis.Methods: Relevant publications in 3 electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) were systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed.Results: Seven randomized trials on ERCP in acute pancreatitis were found, of which 3 including a total of 450 patients (230 in the invasive arm and 220 in the control arm) qualified for a meta-analysis according to predefined criteria. In all patients with ABP (predicted mild and severe), early ERCP was associated with a nonsignificant reduction in overall complications [risk ratio (RR) 0.76; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41-1.04; P = 0.38] and a nonsignificant increase in mortality (RR 1.13; 95% CI 0.23-5.63; P = 0.88). Subgroup analysis based on predicted severity did not affect these outcomes (overall complications: predicted mild: RR 0.86; 95% CI 0.62-1.19; P = 0.36; predicted severe: RR 0.82; 95% CI 0.32-2.10; P = 0.68; mortality: predicted mild: RR 1.90; 95% CI 0.25-14.55; P = 0.53; predicted severe: RR 1.28; 95% CI 0.20-8.06; P = 0.80).Conclusion: In this meta-analysis, early ERCP in patients with predicted mild and predicted severe ABP without acute cholangitis did not lead to a significant reduction in the risk of overall complications and mortality.

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  • Effects of testosterone on muscle strength, physical function, body composition, and quality of life in intermediate-frail and frail elderly men: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Srinivas-Shankar, U; Roberts, SA; Connolly, Martin; O'Connell, MD; Adams, JE; Oldham, JA; Wu, FC (2010-02)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Context: Physical frailty is associated with reduced muscle strength, impaired physical function, and quality of life. Testosterone (T) increases muscle mass and strength in hypogonadal patients. It is unclear whether T has similar effects in intermediate-frail and frail elderly men with low to borderline-low T. Objective: Our objective was to determine the effects of 6 months T treatment in intermediate-frail and frail elderly men, on muscle mass and strength, physical function, and quality of life. Design and Setting: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, single-center study. Participants: Participants were community-dwelling intermediate-frail and frail elderly men at least 65 yr of age with a total T at or below 12 nmol/liter or free T at or below 250 pmol/liter. Methods: Two hundred seventy-four participants were randomized to transdermal T (50 mg/d) or placebo gel for 6 months. Outcome measures included muscle strength, lean and fat mass, physical function, and self-reported quality of life. Results: Isometric knee extension peak torque improved in the T group (vs. placebo at 6 months), adjusted difference was 8.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.3???16.0; P = 0.02) Newton-meters. Lean body mass increased and fat mass decreased significantly in the T group by 1.08 ?? 1.8 and 0.9 ?? 1.6 kg, respectively. Physical function improved among older and frailer men. Somatic and sexual symptom scores decreased with T treatment; adjusted difference was ???1.2 (???2.4 to ???0.04) and ???1.3 (???2.5 to ???0.2), respectively. Conclusions: T treatment in intermediate-frail and frail elderly men with low to borderline-low T for 6 months may prevent age-associated loss of lower limb muscle strength and improve body composition, quality of life, and physical function. Further investigations are warranted to extend these results.

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  • An object lesson: source determines the relations that trait anxiety, prostate cancer worry, and screening fear hold with prostate screening frequency.

    Consedine, Nathan; Adjei, BA; Ramirez, PM; McKiernan, JM (2008-07)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Fears regarding prostate cancer and the associated screening are widespread. However, the relations between anxiety, cancer worry, and screening fear and screening behavior are complex, because anxieties stemming from different sources have different effects on behavior. In differentiating among anxieties from different sources (trait anxiety, cancer worry, and screening fear), we expected that cancer worry would be associated with more frequent screening, whereas fear of screening would be associated with less frequent screening. Hypotheses were tested in a sample of 533 men (ages 45-70 years) recruited using a stratified cluster-sampling plan. Men provided information on demographic and structural variables (age, education, income, marital status, physician discussion of risk and screening, access, and insurance) and completed a set of anxiety measures (trait anxiety, cancer worry, and screening fear). As expected, two-step multiple regressions controlling for demographics, health insurance status, physician discussion, and health-care system barriers showed that prostate-specific antigen and digital rectal examination frequencies had unique associations with cancer worry and screening fear. Specifically, whereas cancer worry was associated with more frequent screening, fear of screening was associated with less frequent screening at least for digital rectal examination; trait anxiety was inconsistently related to screening. Data are discussed in terms of their implications for male screening and the understanding of how anxiety motivates health behaviors. It is suggested that understanding the source of anxiety and the manner in which health behaviors such as cancer screenings may enhance or reduce felt anxiety is a likely key to understanding the associations between anxiety and behavioral outcomes.

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  • Efficacy and safety assessment of a novel ultraviolet C device for treating corneal bacterial infections

    Dean, Simon; Petty, A; Swift, Simon; McGhee, Jennifer; Sharma, A; Shah, S; Craig, Jennifer (2011-03)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: A prototype solid-state Ultraviolet-C device may be useful in the treatment of corneal microbial infections, as Ultraviolet-C is commonly used for eradicating microbes in other settings. This study assessed the efficacy of a 265nm Ultraviolet-C device on four bacterial strains, and investigated the consequences of corresponding exposures on human corneal epithelial cells in vitro. Design: Prospective university-based in vitro interventional controlled study. Samples: Agar plate lawns of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pyogenes, and human corneal epithelial cells cultured on glass cover slips. Methods: Bacterial plates and human corneal epithelial cultures were exposed to a 4.5mm diameter 265nm beam at a fixed intensity and distance, for 30, 5, 4, 2 and 1 seconds, with four repeated measures at each exposure. Main Outcome Measures: Bacterial growth inhibition was assessed with a BioRad Gel imager, and the diameter of lucent areas recorded. Live/dead staining was quantified for exposed corneal epithelium. Results: There was 100% inhibition of growth for all bacteria tested, at all exposure times. Human corneal epithelium 30-second exposure versus no exposure (control), showed no difference in the ratio of live-to-dead cells (p = 0.877). Conclusions: The results confirmed that a 1-second exposure to germicidal Ultraviolet-C was sufficient to inhibit microbial proliferation in the four bacterial strains tested in vitro. Combined with the large safety margin established for human corneal epithelium exposed to Ultraviolet-C, the results suggest that low dose Ultraviolet-C could potentially be beneficial in treating corneal surface infections.

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  • Analysis of ryanodine receptor clusters in rat and human cardiac myocyte

    Soeller, Christian; Crossman, David; Gilbert, Raymond; Cannell, Mark (2007)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Single rat ventricular myocytes and human ventricle tissue sections were labeled with antibodies against the ryanodine receptor (RyR) and -actinin to examine the 3D distribution of RyRs with confocal microscopy. Image contrast was maximized by refractive index matching and deconvolution. The RyR label formed discrete puncta representing clusters of RyRs or ??????couplons?????? around the edges of the myo???laments with a nearest-neighbor spacing of 0.66 0.06 m in rat and 0.78 0.07 m in human. Each bundle of myo???brils was served by approximately six couplons, which supplied a cross-sectional area of 0.6 m2 in rat and 0.8 m2 in human. Although the couplons were in reasonable registration with zlines, there were discontinuities in the longitudinal position of sarcomeres so that dislocations in the order of RyR clusters occurred. There was 53% longitudinal registration of RyR clusters, suggesting a nonrandom placement of couplons around the sarcomere. These data can explain the spherical propagation of Ca 2 waves and provide quantitative 3D data sets needed for accurate modeling of cardiac Ca 2 -induced Ca 2 release. By quantifying labeling intensity in rat ventricular myocytes, a lower limit of 78 RyRs per cluster (on average) was obtained. By modeling the couplon as a disk wrapping around a t-tubule and ???tting cluster images, 95% of couplons contained between 120 and 260 RyRs (assuming that RyRs are tight packed with a spacing of 29 nm). Assuming similar labeling ef???ciency in human, from the ???uorescence intensity alone we estimate that human ventricular myocytes contain 30% fewer RyRs per couplon than rat.

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  • Is eczema really on the increase worldwide?

    Williams, H; Stewart, Alistair; von Mutius, E; Cookson, WO; Anderson, HR; and the ISAAC Phase One and Three Study Groups; Clayton, Tadd; Mitchell, Edwin; Asher, Monica Innes; Ellwood, Philippa (2008)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: It is unclear whether eczema prevalence is truly increasing worldwide. Objective: We sought to investigate worldwide secular trends in childhood eczema. Methods: Children (n 5 302,159) aged 13 to 14 years in 105 centers from 55 countries and children aged 6 to 7 years (n5187,943) in 64 centers from 35 countries were surveyed from the same study centers taking part in Phase One and Three of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood by using identical validated and translated questionnaires. Eczema was defined as an itchy, relapsing, flexural skin rash in the last 12 months, and it was termed severe eczema when it was associated with 1 or more disturbed nights per week. Results: Annual prevalence changes in relation to average prevalence across Phase One and Three were generally small and differed in direction according to the age of the participants and world region. For children 13 to 14 years old, eczema symptom prevalence decreased in some previously highprevalence centers from the developed world, such as the United Kingdom and New Zealand, whereas centers with previously high prevalence rates from developing countries continued to increase. In the children 6 to 7 years old, most centers showed an increase in current eczema symptoms. Similar patterns to these were present for severe eczema at both ages. Conclusion: The epidemic of eczema seems to be leveling or decreasing in some countries with previously high prevalence rates. The picture elsewhere is mixed, with many formerly low-prevalence developing countries experiencing substantial increases, especially in the younger age group.

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  • Action of SN 28049, a new DNA binding topoisomerase II-directed antitumour drug: comparison with doxorubicin and etoposide

    Drummond, CJ; Finlay, Graeme; Broome, L; Marshall, ES; Richardson, E; Baguley, Bruce (2011-10)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Aim: We have examined the cellular action of SN 28049 (N-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-2,6-dimethyl-1- oxo-1,2-dihydrobenzo[b]-1,6-naphthyridine-4-carboxamide), a DNA binding drug with curative activity against the Colon 38 transplantable murine carcinoma, on human tumour cells. Its action has been compared with that of two topoisomerase II-targetted drugs, etoposide and doxorubicin. Methods: The NZM3 melanoma and HCT116 colon carcinoma cell lines, each expressing wild-type p53, were cultured and responses were compared by flow cytometry, electrophoresis, microscopy, and growth of tumour xenografts. Results: Responses of NZM3 cells to all three drugs, as measured by histone H2AX ??-phosphorylation, induction of the p53 pathway and cell cycle arrest, were comparable and typical of those of topoisomerase II poisons. Xenografts of NZM3 cells responded to SN 28049 with a tumour growth delay of 16 days. In contrast, HCT116 cells had an attenuated DNA damage response to the drugs and SN 28049 had no in vivo activity, consistent with low topoisomerase II activity. However, SN 28049 inhibited HCT116 cell growth in vitro and activated the p53 pathway to induce a state with G2/M-phase DNA content, low mitotic index and a high proportion of binucleate cells. Treated cells expressed cyclin E and the senescence marker ??-galactosidase but showed low expression of cyclin B and survivin. In comparison, etoposide caused little p53 expression or cycle arrest, and doxorubicin had an intermediate effect. Conclusion: The action of SN 28049 in NZM3 cells is typical of a topoisomerase II poison, but the low topoisomerase II?? activity of HCT116 cells allowed the detection of a second antiproliferative action of SN 28049 in which cells undergo post-mitotic cycle arrest and induction of p53.

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  • State Preparation and Excited Electronic and Vibrational Behaviour in Hermes

    Challa, JR; Gunaratne, TC; Simpson, Miriam (2006)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The temporally overlapping, ultrafast electronic and vibrational dynamics of a model five-coordinate, highspin heme in a nominally isotropic solvent environment has been studied for the first time with three complementary ultrafast techniques: transient absorption, time-resolved resonance Raman Stokes, and timeresolved resonance Raman anti-Stokes spectroscopies. Vibrational dynamics associated with an evolving ground-state species dominate the observations. Excitation into the blue side of the Soret band led to very rapid S2 f S1 decay (sub-100 fs), followed by somewhat slower (800 fs) S1 f S0* nonradiative decay. The initial vibrationally excited, non-Boltzmann S0* state was modeled as shifted to lower energy by 300 cm-1 and broadened by 20%. On a 10 ps time scale, the S0* state evolved into its room-temperature, thermal distribution S0 profile largely through VER. Anti-Stokes signals disappear very rapidly, indicating that the vibrational energy redistributes internally in about 1-3 ps from the initial accepting modes associated with S1 f S0 internal conversion to the rest of the macrocycle. Comparisons of anti-Stokes mode intensities and lifetimes from TRARRS studies in which the initial excited state was prepared by ligand photolysis [Mizutani, T.; Kitagawa, T. Science 1997, 278, 443, and Chem. Rec. 2001, 1, 258] suggest that, while transient absorption studies appear to be relatively insensitive to initial preparation of the electronic excited state, the subsequent vibrational dynamics are not. Direct, time-resolved evaluation of vibrational lifetimes provides insight into fast internal conversion in hemes and the pathways of subsequent vibrational energy flow in the ground state. The overall similarity of the model heme electronic dynamics to those of biological systems may be a sign that the protein???s influence upon the dynamics of the heme active site is rather subtle.

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  • In vivo and in vitro assessment of the action of SN 28049, a benzonaphthyridine derivative targeting topoisomerase II, on the murine Colon 38 carcinoma

    Chen, Ying; Finlay, GJ; Kirker, JA; Marshall, ES; Richardson, E; Baguley, Bruce (2011)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Aim: SN 28049 (N-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-2, 6-dimethyl-1-oxo-1,2-dihydrobenzo[b]-1,6-naphthyridine-4- carboxamide) is a new DNA binding drug that targets topoisomerase II. SN 28049 is curative against the murine Colon 38 adenocarcinoma (CT38) while etoposide, another topoisomerase II-directed drug, shows minimal activity; we investigated the basis for this difference in vivo and in vitro. Methods: Colon 38 tumours were grown in C57Bl mice and in immunodeficient mice. Tumour sections were examined by staining and TUNEL assays. A new cell line (Co-38P) derived from the in vivo tumour was developed and responses were analysed using flow cytometry. Results: Both SN 28049 and etoposide induced similar tumour histological changes, reducing mitotic index and increasing apoptotic index 8 h after administration. At later times however, SN 28049-treated tumours showed further progressive morphological changes while etoposide-treated tumours reverted to their original growth characteristics. The effects of SN 28049 on tumour growth were delayed and attenuated when Colon 38 tumours were grown in immunodeficient mice. SN 28049 and etoposide both induced dose-dependent increases of ??-phosphorylation of histone H2AX and cell cycle perturbation of the Co- 38P cell line, indicative of DNA damage, although SN 28049 had 30-fold higher activity. Following 1-hour drug exposure of Co-38P cells, SN 28049 was more effective that etoposide in inducing persistent cycle arrest for the same degree of DNA damage. Conclusion: The superior antitumour activity of SN 28049 may result from its ability to induce long term cycle arrest. Host immune responses contribute to the curative activity of SN 28049 and this could result from the induction of cycle arrest.

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  • Relative importance of habitat and fishing in influencing reef fish communities across seventeen Pacific Island Countries and Territories

    Pinca, S; Kronen, M; Magron, F; McArdle, Brian; Vigliola, L; Kulbicki, M; Andr??fouet, S (2011)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Reef fish assessments were undertaken in 17 Pacific islands to describe the status of finfish resources in 63 villages where fishing is mainly artisanal. Surveys were performed by recording the number and size of edible fish species and benthic composition. Fishing impact was described through six proxies representing level of catch, alternative incomes, degree of commercial catch and country economic development derived from a simultaneous socioeconomic assessment. The relative importance of broadly defined habitat (geographical location, island and reef type, substrate composition) and fishing impact in controlling the distribution of fish trophic groups, families and species was measured through multivariate analysis. The extreme faunistic diversity was shown by the large variation in fish density (difference of up to an order of magnitude) and fish biomass (displaying a 20-fold difference across the region). Herbivores were dominant in the eastern part of the region, at what we classified as complex islands and at islands with small lagoon and at coastal reefs, while carnivores were dominant at oceanic islands and atolls and at outer reefs. Specific habitat associations were shown for Scaridae, Acanthuridae, Siganidae, Balistidae, Lethrinidae, Lutjanidae and Serranidae. Relative importance and size decrease of several fish families (Mullidae, Scaridae, Lutjanidae and Serranidae) were related to high fishing impact. Acanthuridae and Lethrinidae appeared to have a role as opportunistic groups in impacted sites. The relative impact from fishing and habitat on fishes accounted for, respectively, 20 and 30% of variance, demonstrating the effect of human impacts even at such large scale and taking into account only limited fishing impact variables.

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  • Investigation of the age and migration of reversing dunes in Antarctica using GPR and OSL, with implications for GPR on Mars

    Bristow, CS; Augustinus, Paul; Wallis, IC; Jol, HM; Rhodes, EJ (2010-01-15)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    GPR provides high resolution images of aeolian strata in frozen sand in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica. The results have positive implications for potential GPR surveys of aeolian strata on Mars. Within the Lower Victoria Valley, seasonal changes in climate and a topographically-constrained wind regime result in significant wind reversals. As a consequence, dunes show reversing crest-lines and flattened dune crests. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys of the dunes reveal sets of cross-strata and low-angle bounding surfaces produced by reversing winds. Summer sand transport appears to be dominant and this is attributed to the seasonal increase in solar radiation. Solar radiation which heats the valley floor melts ice cements making sand available for transport. At the same time, solar heating of the valley floor generates easterly winds that transport the sand, contributing to the resultant westward dune migration. The location of the dune field along the northern edge of the Lower Victoria Valley provides some shelter from the powerful foehn and katabatic winds that sweep down the valley. Topographic steering of the winds along the valley and drag against the valley wall has probably aided the formation, migration and preservation of the dune field. Optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages from dune deposits range from 0 to 1.3 kyr showing that the dune field has been present for at least 1000yr. The OSL ages are used to calculate end-point migration rates of 0.05 to 1.3 m/yr, which are lower than migration rates reported from recent surveys of the Packard dunes and lower than similar-sized dunes in low-latitude deserts. The relatively low rates of migration are attributed to a combination of dune crest reversal under a bimodal wind regime and ice cement that reduces dune deflation and restricts sand entrainment. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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  • Unbound or distant planetary mass population detected by gravitational microlensing

    Sumi, T; Kamiya, K; Bennett, DP; Bond, IA; Abe, F; Botzler, CS; Fukui, A; Furusawa, K; Hearnshaw, JB; Itow, Y; Kilmartin, PM; Korpela, A; Lin, W; Ling, CH; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Miyake, N; Motomura, M; Muraki, Y; Nagaya, M; Nakamura, S; Ohnishi, K; Okumura, T; Perrott, YC; Rattenbury, Nicholas; Saito, T; Sako, T; Sullivan, DJ; Sweatman, WL; Tristram, PJ; Yock, Philip; Udalski, A; Szyma??ski, MK; Kubiak, M; Pietrzy??ski, G; Poleski, R; SoszyA??ski, I; Wyrzykowski, ??; Ulaczyk, K (2011)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Since 1995, more than 500 exoplanets have been detected using different techniques1,2, of which 12 were detected with gravitational microlensing3,4. Most of these are gravitationally bound to their host stars. There is some evidence of free-floating planetarymass objects in young star-forming regions5???8, but these objects are limited to massive objects of 3 to 15 Jupiter masses with large uncertainties in photometric mass estimates and their abundance. Here, we report the discovery of a population of unbound or distant Jupiter-mass objects, which are almost twice (1:8z1:7 {0:8) as common as main-sequence stars, based on two years of gravitational microlensing survey observations towards the Galactic Bulge. These planetary-mass objects have no host stars that can be detected within about ten astronomical units by gravitational microlensing. However, a comparison with constraints from direct imaging9 suggests that most of these planetary-mass objects are not bound to any host star. An abrupt change in the mass function at about one Jupiter mass favours the idea that their formation process is different from that of stars and brown dwarfs. They may have formed in proto-planetary disks and subsequently scattered into unbound or very distant orbits.

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  • Hydrocarbon seep-carbonates of a Miocene forearc (East Coast Basin), North Island, New Zealand

    Campbell, Kathleen; Francis, DA; Collins, M; Gregory, MR; Nelson, CS; Greinert, J; Aharon, P (2008-02-20)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    An ancient hydrocarbon seep province of 14 isolated, authigenic carbonate deposits has been identified in fine-grained, deep-marine siliciclastic strata of the Miocene East Coast Basin, North Island, New Zealand. These forearc sediments have been uplifted and complexly deformed into accretionary ridges, adjacent to the still-active Hikurangi convergent margin. Older active and passive margin strata (mid-Cretaceous to Oligocene in age) underlie the Neogene sequence, and contain oil- and gas-prone source rocks. Older Mesozoic meta-sedimentary rocks constitute the backstop against which the current phase of subduction-related sedimentation has accumulated (similar to 24 Ma-present). The seep-carbonates (up to 10 in thick, 200 in across) archive methane signatures in their depleted carbon isotopes (to delta C-13 -51.7%. PDB), and contain chemosynthesis-based paleocommunities (e.g. worm tubes, bathymodioline mussels, and vesicomyid, lucinid and thyasirid bivalves) typical of other Cenozoic and modem seeps. Northern and southern sites are geographically separated, and exhibit distinct lithological and faunal differences. Structural settings are variable. Seep-associated lithologies also are varied, and suggest carbonate development in sub-seafloor, seafloor and physically reworked (diapiric expansion, gas explosion, gravity slide or debris flow) settings, similar to Italian Apennine seep deposits of overlapping ages.Peculiar attributes of the New Zealand Miocene seep deposits are several, including digitate thrombolites of clotted microbial micrite encased in thick, isopachous horizons and botryoids of aragonite. Seep plumbing features are also well-exposed at some sites, displaying probable gas-explosion breccias filled with aragonite, tubular concretions (fluid conduits), and carbonate-cemented, thin sandstone beds and burrows within otherwise impermeable mudstones. A few seeps were large enough to develop talus-debris piles on their flanks, which were populated by lucinid bivalves and terebratulid brachiopods. Firmgrounds and hardgrounds were common, as evidenced by trace fossil associations or caryophyllid coral thickets atop some seep-carbonate deposits. Thus, the New Zealand examples show strong evidence of formation in sediments at or just beneath the seafloor, but some were clearly exhumed by erosion to sustain later non-seep, epifaunal and boring paleocommunities. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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  • Pinnacle of life - Maori living to advanced age

    Dyall, Lorna; Kerse, Ngaire; Hayman, Karen; Keeling, S (2011)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Aim The purpose of this feasibility study was to investigate whether M??ori of advanced age would be interested in and able to take part in a quantitative study involving a comprehensive questionnaire, physical health assessment and blood analyses (a range of biological markers). The study also aimed to involve older M??ori in all stages: development of research questions, review of assessment techniques and interpretation of results. Method M??ori aged 75???79 years living in the Bay of Plenty and Lakes DHB areas were invited to participate in a feasibility study covering a wide range of quantitative health related questions. After informed consent interviews and physical assessments were conducted in participants??? homes or at a local clinic by M??ori health providers contracted as a research partner. For those who gave informed consent specifically for blood analyses, bloods were taken and analysed for defined biological markers of inflammation and ageing. All physical assessments and blood analyses were forwarded to each participant???s own general practitioner and relevant guidance was given by the research team. Results Collective results from 33 M??ori participants are presented and cover: Te Reo Maori me ona tikanga (M??ori language and cultural knowledge), tribal and wh??nau (extended family) links, cultural values and religion, wh??nau engagement and recreational activities, health status, healthy eating and discrimination. The Te Whare Tapa Wha model of health and the Poutama model of human development are utilised to provide an overall framework and context to present the results in respect of our participants and to celebrate their 'advanced' old age. Conclusion The feasibility study has been successful in engagement with older M??ori. It has paved the way to implement a subsequent longitudinal study which aims to enrol 600 M??ori aged 80 to 90 years and 600 non-Maori aged 85 years in the Bay of Plenty and Lakes District Health Board areas (Tauranga, Rotorua, Whakatane, Opotiki and Te Kaha). The longitudinal study, ???Life and Living in Advanced Age, the cohort study in New Zealand LILACS NZ ??? Te Puawaitanga o Nga Tapuwae Kia Ora Tonu???, will record and observe participants??? journeys to the end of their life. The LILACS Study NZ is at the stage of recruitment of participants and funding has been allocated for waves two and three and the next stage of the study will have an increased focus on dementia.

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  • Effect of Bronchoalveolar Lavage-Directed Therapy on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection and Structural Lung Injury in Children With Cystic Fibrosis A Randomized Trial

    Wainwright, CE; Vidmar, S; Armstrong, DS; Byrnes, Catherine; Carlin, JB; Cheney, J; Cooper, PJ; Grimwood, K; Moodie, M; Robertson, CF; Tiddens, HA (2011-07-13)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Context Early pulmonary infection in children with cystic fibrosis leads to increased morbidity and mortality. Despite wide use of oropharyngeal cultures to identify pulmonary infection, concerns remain over their diagnostic accuracy. While bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is an alternative diagnostic tool, evidence for its clinical benefit is lacking.Objective To determine if BAL-directed therapy for pulmonary exacerbations during the first 5 years of life provides better outcomes than current standard practice relying on clinical features and oropharyngeal cultures.Design, Setting, and Participants The Australasian Cystic Fibrosis Bronchoalveolar Lavage (ACFBAL) randomized controlled trial, recruiting infants diagnosed with cystic fibrosis through newborn screening programs in 8 Australasian cystic fibrosis centers. Recruitment occurred between June 1, 1999, and April 30, 2005, with the study ending on December 31, 2009.Interventions BAL-directed (n=84) or standard (n=86) therapy until age 5 years. The BAL-directed therapy group underwent BAL before age 6 months when well, when hospitalized for pulmonary exacerbations, if Pseudomonas aeruginosa was detected in oropharyngeal specimens, and after P aeruginosa eradication therapy. Treatment was prescribed according to BAL or oropharyngeal culture results.Main Outcome Measures Primary outcomes at age 5 years were prevalence of P aeruginosa on BAL cultures and total cystic fibrosis computed tomography (CF-CT) score (as a percentage of the maximum score) on high-resolution chest CT scan.Results Of 267 infants diagnosed with cystic fibrosis following newborn screening, 170 were enrolled and randomized, and 157 completed the study. At age 5 years, 8 of 79 children (10%) in the BAL-directed therapy group and 9 of 76 (12%) in the standard therapy group had P aeruginosa in final BAL cultures (risk difference, -1.7% [95% confidence interval, -11.6% to 8.1%]; P=.73). Mean total CF-CT scores for the BAL-directed therapy and standard therapy groups were 3.0% and 2.8%, respectively (mean difference, 0.19% [95% confidence interval, -0.94% to 1.33%]; P=.74).Conclusion Among infants diagnosed with cystic fibrosis, BAL-directed therapy did not result in a lower prevalence of P aeruginosa infection or lower total CF-CT score when compared with standard therapy at age 5 years.

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  • In vivo and in vitro assessment of the action of SN 28049, a benzonaphthyridine derivative targeting topoisomerase II, on the murine Colon 38 carcinoma

    Chen, YY; Finlay, Graeme; Kirker, JA; Marshall, ES; Richardson, E; Baguley, Bruce (2011)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Aim: SN 28049 (N-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-2,6-dimethyl-1-oxo-1,2-dihydrobenzo[b]-1,6-naphthyridine-4-carboxamide) is a new DNA binding drug that targets topoisomerase II. SN 28049 is curative against the murine Colon 38 adenocarcinoma (CT38) while etoposide, another topoisomerase II-directed drug, shows minimal activity; we investigated the basis for this difference in vivo and in vitro. Methods: Colon 38 tumours were grown in C57Bl mice and in immunodeficient mice. Tumour sections were examined by staining and TUNEL assays. A new cell line (Co-38P) derived from the in vivo tumour was developed and responses were analysed using flow cytometry. Results: Both SN 28049 and etoposide induced similar tumour histological changes, reducing mitotic index and increasing apoptotic index 8 h after administration. At later times however, SN 28049-treated tumours showed further progressive morphological changes while etoposide-treated tumours reverted to their original growth characteristics. The effects of SN 28049 on tumour growth were delayed and attenuated when Colon 38 tumours were grown in immunodeficient mice. SN 28049 and etoposide both induced dose-dependent increases of ??-phosphorylation of histone H2AX and cell cycle perturbation of the Co-38P cell line, indicative of DNA damage, although SN 28049 had 30-fold higher activity. Following 1-hour drug exposure of Co-38P cells, SN 28049 was more effective that etoposide in inducing persistent cycle arrest for the same degree of DNA damage. Conclusion: The superior antitumour activity of SN 28049 may result from its ability to induce long term cycle arrest. Host immune responses contribute to the curative activity of SN 28049 and this could result from the induction of cycle arrest.

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  • Refractive error and presbyopia in timor-leste: the impact of 5 years of a national spectacle program

    Ramke, Jacqueline; Brian, G; Naduvilath, T (2012-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    To characterize refractive error, presbyopia, and spectacle correction among adults aged ???40 years in Timor-Leste in 2010 and examine the impact of the National Spectacle Program by comparing results to those obtained 5 years earlier.

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  • Potential dissolution and photo-dissolution of ZnO thin films

    Han, Jie; Qiu, W; Gao, Wei (2010)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Potential dissolution and photo-dissolution are important concerns for zinc oxide (ZnO) photocatalysts due to the possible results of catalyst inactivation and secondary pollution from free Zn2+. In this study, magnetron-sputtered ZnO thin films were prepared and exposed under a series of corrosive conditions. ZnO films suffered rapid dissolution under: (a) extreme pH levels (= 11); (b) 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)solution; (c) UV (lambda = 254 nm). The dissolution rate of ZnO films was moderate at pH = 6 and decreased markedly as pH increased to 7. It continued to decrease as pH increased from 7 to 10, then the trend quickly reversed as pH increased further. The lowest dissolution rate was obtained at pH = 10, with only 1.2% ZnO dissolved after 24 h of exposure. Minimal dissolution was observed on ZnO films in alkalised 1 mM oxalate and acetate solutions. Pitting corrosion was observed on ZnO films after UV irradiation, which was ascribed to photo-generated holes on surface defect sites. The presence of hole scavengers (Na2SO3) caused significant suppression on ZnO photo-dissolution. This suppression effect remained in place until hole scavengers were completely consumed, from where the photo-dissolution rates accelerated. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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  • Has toll-like receptor 4 been prematurely dismissed as an inflammatory bowel disease gene? Association study combined with meta-analysis shows strong evidence for association.

    Browning, Brian; Huebner, C; Petermann, Ivonne; Gearry, RB; Barclay, ML; Shelling, Andrew; Ferguson, Lynnette (2007)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    OBJECTIVES: Published association studies of the TLR4 Asp299Gly polymorphism and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in caucasian populations have inconsistent results. We tested two TLR4 variants for association with IBD in the New Zealand caucasian population and assessed the cumulative evidence for association of TLR4 Asp299Gly and IBD. METHODS: The TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms were genotyped and tested for case-control frequency differences in a New Zealand white cohort of 389 Crohn's disease (CD) patients, 405 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, and 416 population controls. Meta-analysis using a random effects model was performed to test whether 299Gly carriage was associated with UC, CD, or phenotypes of CD patients. RESULTS: There were no significant allele or genotype frequency differences between cases and controls or between CD phenotypes in our New Zealand data. Meta-analysis did not identify any significant associations between CD phenotypes and 299Gly carriage. However, meta-analysis demonstrated significantly higher 299Gly carrier frequencies in CD patients (odds ratio 1.45, 95% CI 1.11???1.90) and in IBD patients (odds ratio 1.36, 95% CI 1.01???1.84) compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: The meta-analysis provides evidence that Asp299Gly is associated with CD and IBD in whites. Only the Asp299Gly polymorphism has been consistently genotyped in previous TLR4 studies with IBD patients, therefore other TLR4 variants with stronger associations with IBD may exist. Additional well-powered studies of Asp299Gly and other TLR4 variants are urgently needed.

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  • Teacher beliefs, Teacher characteristics and school contextual factors: What are the relationships?

    Rubie-Davies,C; Flint, Annaline; McDonald, Lynette (2012)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background. There is a plethora of research around student beliefs and their contribution to student outcomes. However, there is less research in relation to teacher beliefs. Teacher factors are important to consider since beliefs mould thoughts and resultant instructional behaviours that, in turn, can contribute to student outcomes. Aims. The purpose of this research was to explore relationships between the teacher characteristics of gender and teaching experience, school contextual variables (socio-economic level of school and class level), and three teacher socio-psychological variables: class level teacher expectations, teacher efficacy, and teacher goal orientation. Sample. The participants were 68 male and female teachers with varying experience, from schools in a variety of socio-economic areas and from rural and urban locations within New Zealand. Method. Teachers completed a questionnaire containing items related to teacher efficacy and goal orientation in reading. They also completed a teacher expectation survey. Reading achievement data were collected on students. Interrelationships were explored between teacher socio-psychological beliefs and the teacher and school factors included in the study. Results. Mastery-oriented beliefs predicted teacher efficacy for student engagement and classroom management. The socio-economic level of the school and teacher gender predicted teacher efficacy for engagement, classroom management, instructional strategies, and a mastery goal orientation. Being male predicted a performance goal orientation. Conclusions. Teacher beliefs, teacher characteristics, and school contextual variables can result in differences in teacher instructional practices and differing classroom climates. Further investigation of these variables is important since differences in teachers contribute to differences in student outcomes.

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