90,065 results

  • Gap junction processing and redistribution revealed by quantitative optical measurements of connexin46 epitopes in the lens

    Jacobs, MD; Soeller, Christian; Sisley, Aran; Cannell, Mark; Donaldson, Paul (2004)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    PURPOSE. To map changes in the structure and function of fiber cell gap junctions that occur with lens differentiation. METHODS. Equatorial lens sections were fluorescently labeled with antibodies to the gap junction protein connexin (Cx)46, the memb

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  • Aortic valve stenotic area calculation from phase contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance: the importance of short echo time

    O'Brien, Kieran; Gabriel, R; Greiser, A; Cowan, Brett; Young, Alistair; Kerr, A (2009)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) can potentially quantify aortic valve area (AVA) in aortic stenosis (AS) using a single-slice phase contrast (PC) acquisition at valve level: AVA = aortic flow/aortic velocity-time integral (VTI). However, CMR has been shown to underestimate aortic flow in turbulent high velocity jets, due to intra-voxel dephasing. This study investigated the effect of decreasing intra-voxel dephasing by reducing the echo time (TE) on AVA estimates in patients with AS. Method 15 patients with moderate or severe AS, were studied with three different TEs (2.8 ms/2.0 ms/1.5 ms), in the main pulmonary artery (MPA), left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) and 0 cm/1 cm/2.5 cm above the aortic valve (AoV). PC estimates of stroke volume (SV) were compared with CMR left ventricular SV measurements and PC peak velocity, VTI and AVA were compared with Doppler echocardiography. CMR estimates of AVA obtained by direct planimetry from cine acquisitions were also compared with the echoAVA. Results With a TE of 2.8 ms, the mean PC SV was similar to the ventricular SV at the MPA, LVOT and AoV0 cm (by Bland-Altman analysis bias ?? 1.96 SD, 1.3 ?? 20.2 mL/-6.8 ?? 21.9 mL/6.5 ?? 50.7 mL respectively), but was significantly lower at AoV1 and AoV2.5 (-29.3 ?? 31.2 mL/-21.1 ?? 35.7 mL). PC peak velocity and VTI underestimated Doppler echo estimates by approximately 10% with only moderate agreement. Shortening the TE from 2.8 to 1.5 msec improved the agreement between ventricular SV and PC SV at AoV0 cm (6.5 ?? 50.7 mL vs 1.5 ?? 37.9 mL respectively) but did not satisfactorily improve the PC SV estimate at AoV1 cm and AoV2.5 cm. Agreement of CMR AVA with echoAVA was improved at TE 1.5 ms (0.00 ?? 0.39 cm2) versus TE 2.8 (0.11 ?? 0.81 cm2). The CMR method which agreed best with echoAVA was direct planimetry (-0.03 cm2 ?? 0.24 cm2). Conclusion Agreement of CMR AVA at the aortic valve level with echo AVA improves with a reduced TE of 1.5 ms. However, flow measurements in the aorta (AoV 1 and 2.5) are underestimated and 95% limits of agreement remain large. Further improvements or novel, more robust techniques are needed in the CMR PC technique in the assessment of AS severity in patients with moderate to severe aortic stenosis.

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  • Impaired subendocardial contractile myofiber function in asymptomatic aged humans, as detected with MRI

    Lumens, J; Delhaas, T; Arts, T; Cowan, Brett; Young, Alistair (2006)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    With aging, structural and functional changes occur in the myocardium without obvious impairment of systolic left ventricular (LV) function. Transmural differences in myocardial vulnerability for these changes may result in increase of transmural inhomogeneity in contractile myofiber function. Subendocardial fibrosis and impairment of subendocardial perfusion due to hypertension might change the transmural distribution of contractile myofiber function. The ratio of LV torsion to endocardial circumferential shortening (torsion-to-shortening ratio; TSR) during systole reflects the transmural distribution of contractile myofiber function. We investigated whether the transmural distribution of systolic contractile myofiber function changes with age. Magnetic resonance tissue tagging was performed to derive LV torsion and endocardial circumferential shortening. TSR was quantified in asymptomatic young [age 23.2 (SD 2.6) yr, n = 15] and aged volunteers [age 68.8 (SD 4.4) yr, n = 16]. TSR and its standard deviation were significantly elevated in the aged group [0.47 (SD 0.12) aged vs. 0.34 (SD 0.05) young; P = 0.0004]. In the aged group, blood pressure and the ratio of LV wall mass to end-diastolic volume were mildly elevated but could not be correlated to the increase in TSR. There were no significant differences in other indexes of systolic LV function such as end-systolic volume and ejection fraction. The elevated systolic TSR in the asymptomatic aged subjects suggests that aging is associated with local loss of contractile myofiber function in the subendocardium relative to the subepicardium potentially caused by subclinical pathological incidents.

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  • Multi-parameter in vivo cardiac magnetic resonance imaging demonstrates normal perfusion reserve despite severely attenuated beta-adrenergic functional response in neuronal nitric oxide synthase knockout mice

    Vandsburger, MH; French, BA; Helm, PA; Roy, RJ; Kramer, CM; Young, Alistair; Epstein, FH (2007-11)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Aims The role of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in regulating contractile function remains controversial, and in regulating myocardial perfusion is uninvestigated. We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to phenotype nNOS???/??? and wild-type (WT) mice regarding left ventricular (LV) structure, baseline function, ??-adrenergic responsiveness, and perfusion reserve. Methods and results Cine MRI showed higher LV mass to end-diastolic volume ratio (2.3 ?? 0.2 mg/??L nNOS???/??? vs. 1.7 ?? 0.1 mg/??L WT; P=0.032) and LV ejection fraction (64.9 ?? 2.1% nNOS???/??? vs. 55.8 ?? 1.1% WT; P = 0.003) in nNOS???/???. Myocardial tagging demonstrated similar baseline systolic circumferential strain (Ecc) in nNOS???/??? and WT. With dobutamine, the normal change in Ecc was nearly absent in nNOS???/??? (???0.5 ?? 0.3% nNOS???/??? vs. ???2.2 ?? 0.3% WT; P = 0.001), and the systolic strain rate (dEcc/dt) response to dobutamine seen in WT was reduced in nNOS???/??? (???29 ?? 13%/s nNOS???/??? vs. ???106??16%/s WT; P = 0.001). Diastolic strain rate increased significantly with dobutamine only in WT. Arterial spin labelling showed that baseline perfusion and perfusion reserve with either dobutamine or an adenosine receptor agonist are normal in nNOS???/???. Conclusion MRI provides non-invasive in vivo evidence that nNOS does not play a role in basal contractile function or myocardial perfusion, but is required for increasing cardiac inotropy and lusitropy upon ??-adrenergic stimulation.

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  • Regional heterogeneity of function in nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy

    Young, Alistair; Dokos, Socrates; Powell, KA; Sturm, B; McCulloch, AD; Starling, RC; McCarthy, PM; White, RD (2001)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Objective: To quantify regional three-dimensional (3D) motion and myocardial strain using magnetic resonance (MR) tissue tagging in patients with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Methods: MR grid tagged images were obtained in multiple shor

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  • The cardiac MRI substudy to ongoing telmisartan alone and in combination with ramipril global endpoint trial/ telmisartan randomized assessment study in ACE-intolerant subjects with cardiovascular disease: analysis protocol

    Cowan, Brett; Young, Alistair; Anderson, C; Doughty, Robert; Krittayaphong, R; Lonn, E; Marwick, Thomas; Reid, CM; Sanderson, JE; Schmieder, RE; Teo, K; Wadham, Angela; Worthley, SG; Yu, CM; Yusuf, S; Jennings, GL (2009)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    BACKGROUND: The ONTARGET and TRANSCEND clinical trials were designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of telmisartan 80 mg and ramipril 10 mg, alone and in combination, in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Cardiac MRI enables investigation of mechanistic effects of these agents on cardiac structural and functional variables. Here, we report the design, analysis protocol, reproducibility and relevant quality control procedures, and baseline patient characteristics of the ONTARGET/TRANSCEND cardiac MRI substudy. MRI was undertaken in 330 subjects enrolled in ONTARGET, and 38 subjects in TRANSCEND, across eight centers in six countries. Analyses were performed by two independent analysts using guide-point modeling. Cases with discrepancies in LV mass (LVM) of >5% were independently reanalyzed. Cases with discrepancies in end-diastolic volume (EDV) of >5%, or end-systolic volume (ESV) of >12%, were then reconciled by consensus. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were broadly similar to the main ONTARGET/TRANSCEND trials, except for a higher frequency of coronary artery disease and Asian ethnicity in the substudy. Reproducibility of MRI analyses (mean +/- SD) were 2.8 +/- 3.7 ml in EDV, -0.3 +/- 3.6 ml in ESV, 3.1 +/- 3.3 ml in SV, 1.1 +/- 1.8% in EF, and 0.4 +/- 4.5 g in LVM. Subgroup analyses revealed increased ESV and LVM, and reduced EF, in subjects with a history of either coronary artery disease or myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS: The ONTARGET/TRANSCEND cardiac MRI substudy protocol provides for a reliable assessment of the effects of telmisartan and ramipril, alone and in combination, on cardiac structural and functional parameters over a 2-year follow-up period.

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  • Three-dimensional changes in left and right ventricular geometry in chronic mitral regurgitation

    Young, Alistair; Orr, R; Smaill, Bruce; DellItalia, LJ (1996)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Regional three-dimensional (3-D) right (RV) and left ventricular (LV) geometry was studied in eight dogs before and 5-6 mo after induction of mitral regurgitation (MR). Ventricular shape changes were quantified with a 3-D finite-element model fitted

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  • Activation heat in rabbit cardiac muscle

    Gibbs, CL; Loiselle, Denis; Wendt, IR (1988)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    1. Activation heat was estimated myothermically in right ventricular papillary muscles of rabbits using several different methods. 2. Gradual pre-shortening of muscles to a length (lmin) where no active force development took place upon stimulation led to relatively low estimates of activation heat (1.59 +/- 0.26-2.06 +/- 0.57 mJ g-1 blotted wet weight, mean +/- S.E.M., n = 10). 3. Quick releases applied during the latency period, before force development, from lmax to various muscle lengths allowed a heat-stress relation to be established. The zero-stress intercept of this relation estimated the activation heat to be 3.27 +/- 0.40 mJ g-1; this was close to the experimentally measured value of 3.46 +/- 0.39 mJ g-1 (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 23) found by quick release from lmax to lmin. 4. The magnitude of the activation heat measured by the quick-release technique is dependent upon the extracellular Ca2+ concentration and there is good correlation between activation heat magnitude and peak developed stress. 5. In agreement with expectations based on the aequorin data of Allen & Kurihara (1982) a prolonged period of time spent at a short length is shown to depress the subsequently determined activation heat. 6. Hyperosmotic solutions (2.5 x normal) only abolished active stress development at low stimulus rates (0.2 Hz) and the activation heat measured at lmax under these conditions was 2.03 +/- 0.12 mJ g-1 (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 6). This value was significantly lower than the latency release estimate of activation heat in the same preparations (2.93 +/- 0.39 mJ g-1). 7. The latency release method of estimating activation heat results in activation heat values that account for approximately 30% of total active energy flux per contraction; a fraction comparable to that found in skeletal muscle. Calculations based on the data suggest that, under our experimental conditions, total Ca2+ release per beat lies between 50 and 100 nmol g-1 wet weight which would produce less than half-maximal myofibrillar ATPase activity when allowance is made for the passive Ca2+-buffering capacity of the myocardial cell.

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  • A CFD code comparison of wind turbine wakes

    van der Laan, MP; Storey, Rupert; S??rensen, NN; Norris, Stuart; Cater, John (2014-06-10)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    A comparison is made between the EllipSys3D and SnS CFD codes. Both codes are used to perform Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) of single wind turbine wakes, using the actuator disk method. The comparison shows that both LES models predict similar velocity deficits and stream-wise Reynolds-stresses for four test cases. A grid resolution study, performed in EllipSys3D and SnS, shows that a minimal uniform cell spacing of 1/30 of the rotor diameter is necessary to resolve the wind turbine wake. In addition, the LES-predicted velocity deficits are also compared with Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes simulations using EllipSys3D for a test case that is based on field measurements. In these simulations, two eddy viscosity turbulence models are employed: the k-epsilon model and the k-epsilon-fp model. Where the k-epsilon model fails to predict the velocity deficit, the results of the k-epsilon-fP model show good agreement with both LES models and measurements.

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  • Ecospatial outcomes of neoliberal planning: habitat management in Auckland Region, New Zealand

    Coombes, BL (2003)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    In line with the paradigmatic shift towards spatial ecology, it is generally accepted that the conservation value of a habitat remnant cannot be determined in isolation from its wider landscape. Sensitivity to the spatial context of forest patches should, therefore, characterise habitat management. Conversely, neoliberal planning disregards ecospatial configuration because it abandons resource decisionmaking to the spatially ad hoc outcomes of market processes. Analysis of bush-lot subdivision -- the foremost protection mechanism for indigenous habitat on private land in the Auckland Region -- demonstrates that the neoliberal agenda for planning contradicts fundamental tenets of conservation ecology. With its foundations in voluntarism and market mechanisms, bush-lot subdivision induces selection bias in the location of protected remnants. Strategic and interventionist approaches will be required to moderate the impact of habitat loss, fragmentation, and perforation.

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  • Evaluating the impact of implementing an early warning score system on incidence of in-hospital cardiac arrest

    Drower, D; McKeany, R; Jogia, P; Jull, Andrew (2013)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Aim To evaluate the introduction of an early warning score (EWS) system on incidence of in-hospital adult cardiac arrest. Methods A before-after evaluation of an EWS system (in the form of a patient observation chart with escalation protocol) in a 600 bed tertiary teaching hospital in New Zealand during the two 12-month periods between March 2009 and March 2011. Difference in incidence rates was compared using Student???s t test. Results There were 168 cardiac arrests during the 24 month period. The incidence rate of cardiac arrests per 1000 admissions was 4.67 during 2009???2010 and 2.91 during 2010???2011 (mean difference of 1.77, 95%CI 0.59???2.94). The number of cardiac arrests dropped from an average of 8.5 arrests per month during 2009???2010 to 5.5 arrests per month during 2010???2011 following the introduction of ADDS (mean difference 3.0, 95%CI 0.78???5.22). There was no significant increase in the number of medical emergency calls (7.5 calls versus 9.1 calls per month). Conclusion Introduction of an EWS system in addition to an existing cardiac arrest team response decreased the incidence of in-hospital cardiac arrests in a tertiary hospital in New Zealand.

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  • Review: Mixed signals from trials concerning pharmacologic prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Kenealy, Timothy; Arroll, Bruce (2005-09)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The article focuses on a study by researcher R. Padwal and colleagues, which reports on the pharmacologic prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The study found that in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, some oral hypoglycemic agents and antiobesity drugs reduce the incidence of diabetes, but the findings are inconsistent and many studies have low patient follow-up or show high drug-related gastrointestinal adverse effects. It is concluded that no single agent is a clear choice for preventing diabetes in patients with impaired glucose tolerance..

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  • Hypomethylation of the IL17RC Promoter in Peripheral Blood Leukocytes is not a Hallmark of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Oliver, Verity; Franchina, Maria; Jaffe, Andrew E; Branham, Kari E; Othman, Mohammad; Heckenlively, John R; Swaroop, Anand; Campochiaro, Betsy; Vote, Brendan J; Craig, Jamie E; Saffery, Richard; Mackey, David A; Qian, Jiang; Zack, Donald J; Hewitt, Alex W; Merbs, Shannath L (2013-12-26)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of visual impairment worldwide. Aberrant DNA methylation within the promoter of IL17RC in peripheral blood mononuclear cells has recently been reported in AMD. To validate this association, we examined DNA methylation of the IL17RC promoter in peripheral blood. First, we used Illumina Human Methylation450 Bead Arrays, a widely accepted platform for measuring global DNA methylation. Second, methylation status at multiple sites within the IL17RC promoter was determined by bisulfite pyrosequencing in two cohorts. Third, a methylation-sensitive quantitative PCR-based assay was performed on a subset of samples. In contrast to previous findings, we did not find evidence of differential methylation between AMD cases and age-matched controls. We conclude that hypomethylation within the IL17RC gene promoter in peripheral blood is not suitable for use as a clinical biomarker of AMD. This study highlights the need for considerable replication of epigenetic association studies prior to clinical application.

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  • Can we predict which hospitalised patients are in their last year of life? A prospective cross-sectional study of the Gold Standards Framework Prognostic Indicator Guidance as a screening tool in the acute hospital setting.

    O'Callaghan, Anne; Laking, George; Frey, Rosemary; Robinson, Jacqualine; Gott, Caryl (2014-09)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    BACKGROUND: Screening to identify hospital inpatients with a short life expectancy may be a way to improve care towards the end of life. The Gold Standards Framework Prognostic Indicator Guidance is a screening tool that has recently been advocated for use in the hospital setting. AIM: To assess the clinical utility of the Gold Standards Framework Prognostic Indicator Guidance as a screening tool in an acute hospital setting. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality at 6 and 12 months and sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of the Gold Standards Framework Prognostic Indicator Guidance at 1 year. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective cross-sectional study of 501 adult inpatients in a tertiary New Zealand teaching hospital screened utilising the Gold Standards Framework Prognostic Indicator Guidance. RESULTS: A total of 99 patients were identified as meeting at least one of the Gold Standards Framework Prognostic Indicator Guidance triggers. In this group, 6-month mortality was 56.6% and 12-month mortality was 67.7% compared with 5.2% and 10%, respectively, for those not identified as meeting the criteria. The sensitivity and specificity of the Gold Standards Framework Prognostic Indicator Guidance at 1 year were 62.6% and 91.9%, respectively, with a positive predictive value of 67.7% and a negative predictive value of 90.0%. CONCLUSION: The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of the Gold Standards Framework Prognostic Indicator Guidance in this study are comparable to, or better than, results of studies identifying patients with a limited life expectancy in particular disease states (e.g. heart failure and renal failure). Screening utilising the Gold Standards Framework Prognostic Indicator Guidance in the acute setting could be the first step towards implementing a more systematic way of addressing patient need - both current unrecognised and future anticipated - thereby improving outcomes for this population.

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  • Febrile events including convulsions following the administration of four brands of 2010 and 2011 inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine in NZ infants and children: The importance of routine active safety surveillance

    Petousis-Harris, Helen; Ellis, Tracey; Turner, Nicola; Reynolds, Gary (2012-07-13)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Objective: To evaluate and compare rates of febrile events, including febrile convulsion, following immunisation with four brands of inactivated 2010 and 2011 influenza vaccine in NZ infants and children. Design: Retrospective telephone surveys of parents of infants and children who received at least one dose of the vaccines of interest. Setting: 184 NZ General Practices who received the vaccines of interest. Participants: Recipients of 4088 doses of trivalent inactivated vaccines Fluvax , Vaxigrip , Influvac and Fluarix and/or monovalent Celvapan. Vaccinees were identified via the electronic Practice Management System and contacted consecutively. Main outcome measures: Primary outcome was febrile convulsive seizure. Secondary outcomes were presence of fever plus other organ system specific symptoms. Results: The parental response rate was 99%. Of 4088 doses given, 865 were Fluvax , 2571 Vaxigrip , 204 Influvac , 438 Fluarix and 10 Celvapan. Three febrile convulsions followed Fluvax , a rate of 35 per 10,000 doses. No convulsions occurred following any dose of the other vaccines. There were nine febrile events that included rigors, all following Fluvax . Fever occurred significantly more frequently following administration of Fluvax compared with the other brands of vaccines (p<0.0001) and Fluvax recipients were more likely to seek medical attention. Influvac also had higher rates of febrile reactions (OR 0.54, 0.36-0.81) than the other two brands Vaxigrip (OR 0.21, 0.16-0.27) and Fluarix (OR 0.10, 0.05-0.20). After multivariable analysis vaccine, European ethnicity and second dose of vaccine were significantly associated with reporting of fever within 24h of vaccination. Conclusions: Influenza vaccines have different rates of reactogenicity in children which varies between ethnic groups. High rates of febrile convulsions and reactions in children receiving Fluvax and to a lesser extent the higher fever rates in those receiving Influvac compared with the other two brands of influenza vaccines in this study suggests that reactogenicity profiles need to be considered prior to national policy advice each season. The risk-benefit profile in children might not be equally favourable for all licensed paediatric influenza vaccines. More attention needs to be given to comparative research for all trivalent seasonal vaccines, and with all strain changes. ?? 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

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  • Improving the Reporting of Clinical Trials of Infertility Treatments (IMPRINT): modifying the CONSORT statement.

    Legro, RS; Wu, X; Barnhart, KT; Farquhar, Cynthia; Fauser, BC; Mol, B (2014)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Clinical trials testing infertility treatments often do not report on the major outcomes of interest to patients and clinicians and the public (such as live birth) nor on the harms, including maternal risks during pregnancy and fetal anomalies. This is complicated by the multiple participants in infertility trials which may include a woman (mother), a man (father), and result in a third individual if successful, their offspring (child), who is also the desired outcome of treatment. The primary outcome of interest and many adverse events occur after cessation of infertility treatment and during pregnancy and the puerperium, which create a unique burden of follow-up for clinical trial investigators and participants. In 2013, because of the inconsistencies in trial reporting and the unique aspects of infertility trials not adequately addressed by existing Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statements, we convened a consensus conference in Harbin, China, with the aim of planning modifications to the CONSORT checklist to improve the quality of reporting of clinical trials testing infertility treatment. The consensus group recommended that the preferred primary outcome of all infertility trials is live birth (defined as any delivery of a live infant ???20 weeks gestations) or cumulative live birth, defined as the live birth per women over a defined time period (or number of treatment cycles). In addition, harms to all participants should be systematically collected and reported, including during the intervention, any resulting pregnancy, and during the neonatal period. Routine information should be collected and reported on both male and female participants in the trial. We propose to track the change in quality that these guidelines may produce in published trials testing infertility treatments. Our ultimate goal is to increase the transparency of benefits and risks of infertility treatments to provide better medical care to affected individuals and couples.

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  • Passive and dynamic shoulder rotation range in uninjured and previously injured overhead throwing athletes and the effect of shoulder taping.

    McConnell, J; Donnelly, C; Hamner, S; Dunne, J; Besier, Thor (2012-02)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate: (1) the passive and dynamic shoulder internal (IR) and external (ER) rotation range of motion (ROM) of 2 groups of asymptomatic overhead throwing athletes: one group who had never experienced shoulder symptoms and another who had shoulder symptoms >12 months ago, (2) the effect of taping on the passive and dynamic IR-ER ROM in both these groups. DESIGN: A within-subject repeated measures analysis of variance design to determine the differences in passive and dynamic shoulder rotation range and the effect of shoulder taping on the rotation range in a group of uninjured and previously injured overhead throwing athletes. SETTING: Academic institution sports medicine setting. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-six overhead throwing collegiate athletes: 17 with no history of shoulder injury and 9 with previous shoulder injury. METHODS: Passive shoulder ROM was measured with a goniometer with the subject in the supine position. To measure dynamic ROM, the subjects sat on a chair and threw a handball into a net. An 8-camera Vicon Motion Capture system recorded markers placed on the upper limb and trunk. Dynamic ROM was calculated with inverse kinematics by using OpenSim. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENT: Shoulder IR-ER ROM. RESULTS: Dynamic IR-ER ROM was significantly greater than passive IR-ER ROM (P < .0001). There was no difference in passive IR-ER ROM between the uninjured and previously injured overhead throwing athletes. However, there was a significant difference in the total dynamic IR-ER ROM, whereby the overhead throwing athletes who had never experienced shoulder symptoms had less IR-ER ROM than the previously injured group (173.9?? versus 196.9??, respectively; P = .049). Taping the shoulder increased the passive ROM in both groups of subjects (P < .001), increased the dynamic IR-ER ROM in the uninjured subjects, but decreased the dynamic IR-ER ROM in the previously injured subjects, although this was not statistically significant (P = .07). CONCLUSIONS: Passive IR-ER ROM is a poor indication of dynamic shoulder function. Athletes who have had a previous shoulder injury demonstrate a greater dynamic IR-ER ROM than athletes who have never had a shoulder injury. Shoulder taping decreased the dynamic range of the previously injured athlete, so that it was nearer the dynamic range of the uninjured athlete. Shoulder taping might provide increased protection for the injured athlete by decreasing the dynamic IR-ER ROM and by facilitating better shoulder and scapular muscle control. Further studies are necessary to demonstrate whether this finding is clinically significant.

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  • Consumer views on the potential use of mobile phones for the delivery of weight-loss interventions

    Gorton, D; Dixon, Robyn; Maddison, Ralph; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Jull, Andrew (2011)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: The surge in the incidence of obesity and being overweight demands new options to extend the reach of weight-loss interventions. Mobile phones provide a medium for reaching large numbers of people in a cost-effective manner. The present study aimed to explore the potential for weight-loss interventions to be delivered via mobile phone. Methods: A mixed methods approach was employed. A telephone survey was conducted with 306 randomly selected participants, and 10 focus groups were undertaken with 54 purposively selected participants. The telephone survey comprised questions exploring the nature and acceptability of any potential weight-loss programme that might be delivered via mobile phones. The focus groups were conducted to explore issues of acceptability in more depth than was possible in the survey. Results: Two-thirds of participants reported support for a mobile phone weight-loss intervention, with greater levels of support amongst younger age groups and rural M aori (the indigenous population in New Zealand). Participants liked the idea of ready access to weight-loss information, and associated feedback and encouragement. The results suggest that interventions would need to include aspects of social support, use tailored and personalised content, and be practical and relevant so that they appeal to consumers. Appropriate methods of providing social support using a mobile phone require further exploration. Conclusions: Mobile phones may provide a novel but acceptable way to deliver a weight-loss intervention. They have the potential to be automatically personalised and tailored to the needs of the individual, at the same time as being delivered at a population level.

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  • Intimal thickening after arterial balloon injury is increased by intermittent repetitive hypoxia, but intermittent repetitive hyperoxia is not protective.

    Lau, AK; Chaufour, X; McLachlan, C; Leichtweis, Steven; Celermajer, DS; Sullivan, C; Stocker, R (2006-04)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Hypoxia increases and hyperoxia decreases experimental atherosclerosis, but it is unclear if repetitive hypoxic and hyperoxic insults affect intimal thickening after arterial injury. Rabbits on 2% cholesterol diet for 6 weeks underwent balloon injury to the abdominal aorta (AA) after week 3, and were then exposed to normoxia (n = 6), or 12 h daily of intermittent repetitive hypoxia (n = 6) or hyperoxia (n = 6). After week 6, damaged AA and undamaged thoracic aorta (TA) were assessed for intimal thickening and lipid content. Compared with normoxia, hypoxia and hyperoxia did not alter the rise in serum cholesterol related to cholesterol feeding. However, compared to normoxia, hypoxia markedly increased the intima-to-media ratio in AA (1.18 +/- 0.09 versus 1.96 +/- 0.14, P < 0.01) and TA (0.15 +/- 0.02 versus 0.41 +/- 0.01, P < 0.01) whereas hyperoxia had no effect on AA disease and increased intimal thickening in TA (0.26 +/- 0.03, P < 0.01). Hyperoxia promoted positive arterial remodeling in both TA and AA, resulting in larger luminal size. The cholesterol content in AA was increased by hypoxia and decreased by hyperoxia, but decreased by both treatments in TA. Lipophilic antioxidants and the proportion of arterial lipids that was oxidized were not altered by hypoxia or hyperoxia. These results suggest that intermittent repetitive hyperoxia is not protective and intermittent repetitive hypoxia promotes arterial disease in normal and injured arteries independent of lipid peroxidation.

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  • Anaesthetists' management of oxygen pipeline failure: room for improvement

    Weller, Jennifer; Merry, Alan; Warman, Guy; Robinson, B (2007)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Oxygen pipeline failure is a rare but potentially catastrophic event which can affect the care of patients throughout an entire hospital. Anaesthetists play a critical role in maintaining patient safety, and should be prepared to support an institution-wide emergency response if oxygen failure occurs. We tested the preparedness for this through observation of 20 specialist anaesthetists to a standardised simulator scenario of central oxygen supply failure. Responses were documented using multiple approaches to ensure accuracy. All anaesthetists demonstrated safe immediate patient care, but we observed a number of deviations from optimal management, including failure to conserve oxygen supplies and, following restoration of gas supplies, failure to test the composition of the gas supplied from the repaired pipelines. This has implications for patient care at both individual and hospital level. Our results indicate a gap in anaesthesia training which should be addressed, in conjunction with planning for effective hospital-wide responses to the event of critical resource failure.

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