89,490 results

  • Eye-Movement does not reduce ratings of vividness and emotionality or the number of intrusive thoughts of unpleasant memories: Implications for Eye-Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR)

    Arnott-Steel, Nicholas (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Eye-Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) is a psychotherapy that incorporates the use of saccadic Eye-Movements (EM) to alleviate distress caused by traumatic memories. Although EMDR is recognised as a front-line treatment for individuals suffering from Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), the mechanisms underlying the efficacy of the EM component remain a point of contention. The aim of the current research was to investigate first, whether EM reduced ratings of memory vividness and emotionality by taxing Working Memory (WM) capacity, and second, to examine whether EM lowered the number of intrusive thoughts under two opposing suppression conditions. In two experiments, 244 non-clinical participants were asked to recall an unpleasant memory while simultaneously engaging in fast-EM, slow-EM or a no-EM control. Participants then received an instruction to intentionally avoid thinking about the memory, or to think about whatever came to mind. Relative to no-EM, fast-EM and slow-EM had no significant effect on vividness and emotionality ratings, nor did they influence the number of intrusive thoughts. In addition, the level of suppression intent had no impact on memory outcomes. Overall, the results from these two experiments oppose earlier findings in support of WM theory, and a significant body of research that has demonstrated the efficacy of the EM component. Implications for the EM component in EMDR are discussed, and an alternative explanation for EM is offered.

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  • E hine, ngā whāea: Teen mothering in the gaze

    Adcock, Anna (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In Aotearoa New Zealand, teen pregnancy is associated with social disadvantage and being ‘Māori’. Research on teen motherhood typically focuses on ‘risks’ and ‘dangers’, such as lower educational attainment and welfare ‘dependency’. These images cast young Māori mothers as abnormal and deviant – as perpetually deficit. Hence, public (and public service) perceptions of these women are often negative. This study displaces the deficit lens, and explores the lived realities of fifteen young (teen) Māori mothers, and the perspectives of their whānau. The purpose of this research was to understand the life circumstances of young Māori mothers, to examine the role of the state in their lives, and to make suggestions for service improvements. It draws on data from the E Hine study (Women’s Health Research Centre, Otago University, Wellington). Young mothers participating in E Hine were interviewed three to seven times over a three-year period, with up to two whānau interviews conducted for each young woman. The data set for this thesis, comprising of fifteen young Māori mothers and their whānau, totalled eighty-four in-depth, semi-structured interviews. Data analysis was thematic, and was informed by Foucault’s concepts of the medical and disciplinary gazes, and postcolonial notions of the colonial gaze. The research suggests that public health and social services, as well as public perceptions, seek to regulate these young women according to Eurocentric conceptions of normality; and in doing so, stigmatize and disengage them, thus creating barriers to positive outcomes. Despite this, these young mothers resist disempowerment, and hope for a better future for themselves and their whānau. Their stories are a testament to the fact that being young and Māori and mothering does not equate to failure. By treating young Māori mothers with respect and empathy, support services could be improved.

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  • The productivity paradox in green buildings

    Byrd, Hugh; Rasheed, Eziaku Onyeizu (2016-04-08)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    In this paper we challenge the notion that “green” buildings can achieve greater productivity than buildings that are not accredited as “green”. For nearly two decades, research has produced apparent evidence which indicates that the design of a “green” building can enhance the productivity of its occupants. This relationship between building design and productivity is claimed to be achieved through compliance with internal environmental quality (IEQ) criteria of Green rating tools. This paper reviews methods of measuring productivity and the appropriateness of the metrics used for measuring IEQ in office environments. This review is supported by the results of a survey of office building users which identifies social factors to be significantly more important than environmental factors in trying to correlate productivity and IEQ. It also presents the findings of observations that were discretely carried out on user-response in green buildings. These findings demonstrate that, despite a building’s compliance with IEQ criteria, occupants still resort to exceptional measures to alter their working environment in a bid to achieve comfort. The work has been carried out on “green” buildings in New Zealand. These buildings are rated based on the NZ “Green Star” system which has adopted the Australian “green star” system with its roots in BREEAM. Despite this, the results of this research are applicable to many other “green” rating systems. The paper concludes that methods of measuring productivity are flawed, that IEQ criteria for building design is unrepresentative of how occupants perceive the environment and that this can lead to an architecture that has few of the inherent characteristics of good environmental design.

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  • Stable investment or stable climate? Would New Zealand be in breach of its investment treat obligations if it phased out fossil fuel extraction?

    Boardman, Claire Charlotte (Lottie) (2016)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper considers the possibility of phasing out fossil fuel extraction in New Zealand. It examines New Zealand’s current relationship with fossil fuels and its legal framework relating to fossil fuel extraction before assessing the remedies available to domestic and foreign investors should fossil fuel extraction be phased out, thereby removing their current rights to extract fossil fuels. The paper concludes that there would no remedy available to domestic investors but there is a possibility that foreign investors could claim compensation pursuant to an investment treaty such as Chapter 9 of Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement. It was also argued that New Zealand would have arguments to make that it should not have to compensate those investors, including an argument based on a duty under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change for New Zealand to protect its fossil fuel reserves.

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  • Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing in New Zealand

    Jochem, Helena (2016)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper examines the direct-to-consumer genetic testing industry against the background of the current regulatory framework in New Zealand. Direct-to-consumer genetic testing refers to genetic testing services sold directly to consumers mainly via the Internet without the involvement of health care professionals. This paper focuses on disease predisposition genetic tests that calculate a personal risk to develop a disease based on genetic information. After an analysis of the peculiarities of DTC genetic testing services, the paper contrasts the main arguments for no further state intervention with the concerns about DTC genetic testing that call for more governmental oversight. The main part of the paper argues that the current partial coverage of the existing regulatory framework in New Zealand is insufficient. The paper presents possible recommendations for legislative reform, taking into account recently released details regarding a new Therapeutic products Bill.

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  • Crowd Scene Analysis in Video Surveillance

    Lin, Hanhe (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    There is an increasing interest in crowd scene analysis in video surveillance due to the ubiquitously deployed video surveillance systems in public places with high density of objects amid the increasing concern on public security and safety. A comprehensive crowd scene analysis approach is required to not only be able to recognize crowd events and detect abnormal events, but also update the innate learning model in an online, real-time fashion. To this end, a set of approaches for Crowd Event Recognition (CER) and Abnormal Event Detection (AED) are developed in this thesis. To address the problem of curse of dimensionality, we propose a video manifold learning method for crowd event analysis. A novel feature descriptor is proposed to encode regional optical flow features of video frames, where adaptive quantization and binarization of the feature code are employed to improve the discriminant ability of crowd motion patterns. Using the feature code as input, a linear dimensionality reduction algorithm that preserves both the intrinsic spatial and temporal properties is proposed, where the generated low-dimensional video manifolds are conducted for CER and AED. Moreover, we introduce a framework for AED by integrating a novel incremental and decremental One-Class Support Vector Machine (OCSVM) with a sliding buffer. It not only updates the model in an online fashion with low computational cost, but also adapts to concept drift by discarding obsolete patterns. Furthermore, the framework has been improved by introducing Multiple Incremental and Decremental Learning (MIDL), kernel fusion, and multiple target tracking, which leads to more accurate and faster AED. In addition, we develop a framework for another video content analysis task, i.e., shot boundary detection. Specifically, instead of directly assessing the pairwise difference between consecutive frames over time, we propose to evaluate a divergence measure between two OCSVM classifiers trained on two successive frame sets, which is more robust to noise and gradual transitions such as fade-in and fade-out. To speed up the processing procedure, the two OCSVM classifiers are updated online by the MIDL proposed for AED. Extensive experiments on five benchmark datasets validate the effectiveness and efficiency of our approaches in comparison with the state of the art.

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  • Changing conceptualisations of domestic comfort in the tourist accommodation sector A case study of youth hostels in Germany (1909-2013)

    Nagy, Gabriella (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Youth hostels can look back on more than a hundred years of history and play a significant role in tourist accommodation today. Hostelling International, the youth hostels’ parenting organisation, is the sixth largest provider of travel accommodation around the world ("About Hostelling International", 2015). However, despite their long history, popularity and importance, studies on youth hostels have largely been absent from academic tourism literature. Little is also known about the dramatic changes these hostels have undergone since they were first established. While the first youth hostels offered very simple, inexpensive accommodation in two big gender-segregated dormitories with shared facilities, today youth hostels are not far behind hotels in terms of their facilities. The improvement of youth hostel facilities is not only an interesting phenomenon in its own right but might have implications also for understanding the evolution of other types of tourist accommodations. Since these changes happened over a century, this thesis, although focussing on a topic in tourism, builds more strongly on the examination of historical events and social changes than tourism studies generally do. This thesis provides a longitudinal analysis that discovers some of the reasons for these changes and it also adds to the dearth of literature on youth hostels more generally. The youth hostel movement originated in Germany and, from there, this type of accommodation spread all over the world. This thesis takes a qualitative approach to examine the evolution of youth hostel facilities, using German youth hostels as a case study. It looks at their history from 1909, when they were first established, up until 2013. The thesis follows an emergent design that allows for a theoretical account to be developed whilst simultaneously grounding it in the data, collected by means of archival research and semi-structured interviews and followed by thematic analysis. The overarching finding that emerged from the data was that the guests’ increasing need for domestic comfort was responsible for the changes that happened in the hostel facilities. Comfort is a word used extensively in the tourism industry, suggesting that it is part of what is sold to us when on holiday. However, to date the concept of comfort, particularly domestic comfort, and its implications for tourist accommodation providers has been an under-researched area. For this reason, the thesis set out to explore the evolution of youth hostel facilities in the light of the changing conceptualisations of domestic comfort over time. More specifically, the research produced a comprehensive understanding of domestic comfort by evaluating the role of its different attributes – privacy, intimacy, convenience and food and catering in particular. It revealed that the idea of domestic comfort entered youth hostels through improvements in housing conditions and, as it changed over the years, it made youth hostels become similar to hotels. In other words, when more privacy, convenience and better food became available for the majority of people at home, they soon came to be taken for granted and youth hostels had to provide them. Consequently, today guests expect to have the comforts of home at youth hostels. Since this increasing demand for domestic comfort is expected to affect all kinds of tourist accommodation in the future, further research should put this thesis into a broader context and, by verification of its findings, contribute to the development of a theory of comfort that could be transferred to the whole tourism industry.

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  • Climatic Correlates of Plant Species Distributions in Alpine New Zealand

    Clarke, Amy Georgina (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    New Zealand’s alpine environment is characterised by high levels of endemism with more than 90% of plant species found in the alpine zone being endemic to New Zealand. The South Island shows clear disjunct distribution patterns in several alpine plant species, and two species-rich endemism centres located at either end of the Island. Quantifying the relationship between climatic conditions and floristic composition of New Zealand’s alpine flora underlying these patterns is crucial for understanding the role of climate in determining species distribution patterns. The aim of this study is to assess patterns in climate conditions and species composition in New Zealand, and to characterize and analyse the climatic niche conditions of disjunct vascular species. This study also identifies whether the central South Island is acting as a climatic barrier between the northern and southern disjunct populations, preventing them from colonising the central region. To determine such relationships, New Zealand was divided into five regions and the South Island into six subregions. Land area was categorised as above or below treeline, allowing comparisons to be made along a latitudinal and altitudinal axis. Published climate and species distribution data were used to determine climatic conditions and species composition patterns. Occurrence records for ten endemic species from five genera, five disjunct and five continuous species, were used to investigate the relationship between climate and disjunctions in the South Island. Throughout New Zealand and the South Island, climate conditions were more similar between nearby regions than between distant regions. Across New Zealand and below the treeline in the South Island, nearby regions contained a more similar set of species than distant regions. Above the treeline in the South Island, the endemism centres had a similar set of species while the composition of species in the central region was distinctly different to that of the endemism centres. This study found evidence of a niche shift wherein the disjunct populations now occupy distinctly different niche conditions in the endemism centres. The central South Island was too climatically similar to the climate of the endemism centres to conclude that it might act as a distinct climatic barrier between the disjunct populations. This study demonstrated that there are large-scale climatic correlates with species distributions in New Zealand. Quantifying the relationship between these climate-vegetation relationships and the spatial patterns they drive can improve our understanding of New Zealand vegetation in light of past and future climate change.

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  • Bioelectronics and medical diagnostics

    Gholamhosseini, H

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    No abstract.

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  • Using genetic algorithms to solve layout optimisation problems in residential building construction

    Connor, AM; Siringoringo, WS

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    This paper outlines an approach for the automatic design of material layouts for the residential building construction industry. The goal is to cover a flat surface using the minimum number of rectangular stock panels by nesting the off cut shapes in an efficient manner. This problem has been classified as the Minimum Cost Polygon Overlay problem. Results are presented for a typical problem and two algorithms are compared.

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  • Social sculpture and the thirsting millions

    Turner, Thomas John Hamilton (Tom)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This project explores the fissures and junctures between the utopian propositions that everyone has equal intelligence, that everyone is an artist, and that there is an art that the people can call their own. The project re-examines the tensions that exist between the high art world and the public, focussing on the potentials that might occur if these tensions were bridged using social sculpture and emancipatory discourse theories of Joseph Beuys, Jacques Ranciere et.al. These concepts are surveyed by means of participatory events and discourse, locating the events in diverse sites across New Zealand in order to test their capacity to function in the current cultural and art worlds.

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  • International Climate Change Governance: Issues of Democracy, Institutions and the Media

    Pandey, Chandra Lal (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was established in 1992 to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere to prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. The nation states of the world have attempted to arrest climate change through a state-centric large scale multilateral treaty making process. Yet, over a period of more than twenty years, little has been achieved toward that objective. The making of international climate change governance required to arrest climate change is falling short. Greenhouse gases, which scientists consider to be the main culprit of climate change, are increasing rapidly making every subsequent year’s emissions concentration a new record. Climate scientists say global temperatures rising above 2 degrees Celsius could be extremely dangerous. The 1992 Convention, 1997 Kyoto Protocol, 2009 Copenhagen Accord and subsequent agreements have failed to translate the goal and achieve the threshold target as no serious and viable policies are forthcoming. Instead, the United Nations’ climate conferences have become a yearly chore for diplomats. The complexities of climate change governance arise not only from the nature and uncertainty of its impact, but also from its embedded relationships with social, cultural, political, economic, historical and institutional dimensions. Appropriate responses to address the challenges of climate change are difficult in the absence of potential solutions in sight. The pre-requisite for any effective policy responses is that the decision making process be democratic, transparent, and inclusive so that the ultimate addressees can ‘own’ the problem and contribute to solutions. A sizable literature focuses on the causes and reasons behind climate change and advocates radical actions to arrest it. Other research highlights economic implications, alternatives to fossil fuels, consumption and production, scientific uncertainty and challenges the perennial North-South politics in seeking to explain the lack of progress. There has been little research on why international climate change governance is making only incremental progress. This thesis takes as its starting point the paucity of attention to working out how and why progress has not been made, drawing on insights from climate change negotiations, major climate agreements and analyses of data on media communications on the issues of international climate change negotiations for policy making. The research recognizes the complexity of climate change and takes a comprehensive approach in considering why has there been little progress in the making of an effective international climate change governance to prevent climate change. The thesis takes three complementary approaches in addressing the central research question. The first develops from the concept of a democratic deficit and posits that the failure of progress can be attributed to a lack of the democratic processes in grappling with the issues. The second explores the state-centric framework of UNFCCC and posits that since the environmental issues are non-territorial, the challenges postulated by climate change cannot be resolved and progress made by solely relying on a state-centric approach. The third is to do with media communications and posits the role of the media in public education as central to develop the necessary public support for addressing the issues of climate change. The Kyoto Protocol and the Copenhagen Accord, and how they were achieved are central to this research as these are the two major climate change agreements achieved internationally so far. This research concludes that the approaches we have adopted so far have been inadequate because of the lack of involvement of the main stakeholders in decision making processes. The common but differentiated and historical responsibilities, pertinent principles in 1992, no longer reflect current economic growth and greenhouse gas emission patterns. There is a need to review our state-centric institutional framework toward a more inclusive, participatory, and deliberative accountability whereby the public and businesses can ‘own’ the problem. The role of the media is paramount in this because it is the media that passes information from the scientists, experts and policy makers to the public. The research concludes that the media has a key role to play and needs to be more critical in advancing measures to address the problems of climate change.

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  • Water extraction and use of seedling and established dryland lucerne crops

    Sim, Richard E.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The main aim of this research was to refine best management practices for dryland lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) crops in relation to crop water extraction. To do this, dryland lucerne was established at Lincoln University, New Zealand in two soils which differed in the plant available water content (PAWC). The low PAWC site (Ashely Dene) had a very stony silt loam soil with ~130 mm of water to 2.3 m. The high PAWC site (Iversen 12) is a deep silt loam soil with ~360 mm of water to 2.3 m. The available water for crop extraction in the establishment year was manipulated by imposing the second treatment, sowing date. This resulted in mean annual dry matter (DM) yields which ranged from 0.4 to 21.5 t DM/ha. A detailed examination of lucerne physiology was undertaken to determine how lucerne extracts water from the soil to explain these yield differences.

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  • Credit accessibility and small and medium sized enterprises growth in Vietnam

    Nguyen, Nhung; Gan, Christopher; Hu, Baiding

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) have been highly conducive to economic development in Vietnam. SMEs are a mean of income generation, job creation, poverty reduction, and government revenue contribution, etc. However, SMEs have lagged far behind other business sectors in terms of performance. It is claimed that one of the major reasons is their inability to access credits. This study empirically tests the impact of access to different sources of financing on SMEs’ growth. Primary data was obtained from a survey of 487 SMEs in Hanoi in June 2013. The empirical models include Ordinary Least Square (OLS) estimation and Heckman Two Stage Procedure model to account for endogeneity issue. The models reject the claim that the inability to access credit adversely affects SMEs growth. The result is consistent in both OLS model and the Heckman Two Stage Procedure model. Furthermore, the results from the Heckman Two Stage Procedure model indicated that there is a remarkable difference in the growing pattern of externally and internally financed group. The fastest growing SMEs are those who did not borrow externally and their growth strategy relies on the owner’s human capital (i.e. young and well‐educated), direct export and network developed with customers. On the other hand, the SMEs group that obtained external finance grows faster as their enterprise size increases and they keep financial records.

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  • The doctrine of frustration, commercial leases and the Canterbury earthquakes

    Collins, Toni Leah (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Canterbury earthquakes in 2010 and 2011 had a significant impact on landlords and tenants of commercial buildings in the city of Christchurch. The devastation wrought on the city was so severe that in an unprecedented response to this disaster a cordon was erected around the central business district for nearly two and half years while demolition, repairs and rebuilding took place. Despite the destruction, not all buildings were damaged. Many could have been occupied and used immediately if they had not been within the cordoned area. Others had only minor damage but repairs to them could not be commenced, let alone completed, owing to restrictions on access caused by the cordon. Tenants were faced with a major problem in that they could not access their buildings and it was likely to be a long time before they would be allowed access again. The other problem was uncertainty about the legal position as neither the standard form leases in use, nor any statute, provided for issues arising from an inaccessible building. The parties were therefore uncertain about their legal rights and obligations in this situation. Landlords and tenants were unsure whether tenants were required to pay rent for a building that could not be accessed or whether they could terminate their leases on the basis that the building was inaccessible. This thesis looks at whether the common law doctrine of frustration could apply to leases in these circumstances, where the lease had made no provision. It analyses the history of the doctrine and how it applies to a lease, the standard form leases in use at the time of the earthquakes and the unexpected and extraordinary nature of the earthquakes. It then reports on the findings of the qualitative empirical research undertaken to look at the experiences of landlords and tenants after the earthquakes. It is argued that the circumstances of landlords and tenants met the test for the doctrine of frustration. Therefore, the doctrine could have applied to leases to enable the parties to terminate them. It concludes with a suggestion for reform in the form of a new Act to govern the special relationship between commercial landlords and tenants, similar to legislation already in place covering other types of relationships like those in residential tenancies and employment. Such legislation could provide dispute resolution services to enable landlords and tenants to have access to justice to determine their legal rights at all times, and in particular, in times of crisis.

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  • The Influence of Groundwater Nitrate on the Waimea Stream, Southland, New Zealand

    Thornton, James Michael (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    It has long been understood that groundwater and surface water interact, and thus cannot be studied separately. Gaining an understanding of the relationship and connectivity between the two is critical for water management in New Zealand. However, interactions between surface and groundwater are naturally complex, varying both spatially and seasonally due to a multitude of different factors. The aim of this study was to characterise the connectivity between the groundwater of the Waimea Plains in Southland, which has highly elevated nitrate concentrations near the small town of Balfour, and the Waimea Stream, which has also been shown to have elevated nitrate concentrations. The chemistry of the Waimea Stream was characterised and analysed for significant differences between summer low flows and winter high flows. This was done by first analysing a suite of hydrochemical data collected by Environment Southland between September 2012 and June 2014, then undertaking a monitoring programme from late summer condition to winter (February to July 2016). As well as dominant chemical signatures for winter high flows and summer low flows, spatial and temporal variation in in-stream nutrient concentrations was established. The stable isotopic composition water (δ2H and δ18O) and DIC (dissolved inorganic carbon) (δ13C) was also analysed. In both Environment Southland’s data and the author’s monitoring data, a distinct shift in-stream chemistry was identified between summer low flows and winter high flows. Winter high flows had elevated SO4, K, B, and Al, concentrations, a Na:Cl ratio similar to that of precipitation and a significantly elevated SO4:Cl ratio relative to marine aerosols. Summer low flows had elevated Na and HCO3 concentrations, a significantly elevated Na:Cl ratio relative to that of precipitation, and a diminished SO4:Cl ratio. Groundwater was shown to exhibit the same chemistry as summer stream water, with a significantly elevated Na:Cl ratio and a low SO4:Cl ratio. Summer flows are therefore interpreted to be dominated by groundwater, and winter flows are interpreted to be dominantly made up of overland flow and lateral flow through the soil zone. From δ2H and δ18O analysis, the Waimea Plains surface and groundwater appears to be principally sourced from local precipitation. There was no evidence found of any contribution to the Waimea Plains aquifer from the nearby Oreti River. Variation in δ2H and δ18O between the headwater and middle reaches of the Waimea Stream suggested that groundwater was contributing significantly to flow in the middle reaches of the Waimea Stream. This was supported by δ13C analysis which also indicated groundwater connectivity to the Waimea Stream for these same reaches. However, there was limited groundwater connectivity in the lower Waimea Stream, where the strong shift in δ13C was consistent with DIC outgassing. This may be the result of confining bedrock layers beneath the lower Waimea Stream limiting groundwater contributions to stream water. In summer, nitrate concentrations in the mid to lower Waimea Stream were significantly higher compared to those in the upper, hill country-fed reaches. Given the findings from hydrochemical and stable isotope analyses, the elevated nitrate over summer in the mid to lower reaches of the Waimea Stream is likely to result from groundwater entering the Waimea Stream in the mid-reaches. Nitrate concentrations are higher throughout the Waimea catchment during winter, although to a slightly lesser extent in the headwaters. Similarly, dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) was elevated over winter. As overland flow is a significant contributor to flow during winter, the winter increase of nitrate and DRP is expected to stem from increased farm run off. Future management of nutrient inputs into the Waimea Stream should therefore focus on limiting winter surface runoff inputs of both DRP and nitrate. Groundwater inputs of nitrate will be much more difficult to ameliorate, although the use of on farm nutrient budgets should help limit the vertical loss of nitrate down into the Waimea Plains aquifer. Future research should investigate the chemistry of lateral flow soil water directly to better characterise soil water and overland or farm runoff inputs to the Waimea Stream, and hence nutrient fluxes of nutrients into the Waimea Stream from non-groundwater sources

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  • Understanding pre-school children’s Community Dental Service appointment failure: a mixed-methods study

    Smith, B. J. (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Background Disengagement is the active avoidance of a group or situation. Patient disengagement is an ongoing problem for health services and governments, as it reduces efficiency, generates additional financial costs, and reduces early identification and management of health problems. Patients who frequently disengage from preventive care services often require secondary care. Patient disengagement is an ongoing issue for oral health services. Cost, past experience, perceptions, and accessibility are key determinants to oral health service disengagement. Moreover, child disengagement is likely to follow into adolescence and adulthood. However, oral health disengagement is under researched, and what research has been conducted, predominately utilises quantitative methods. These methods identify disengagement characteristics, including who, when and how often, but fails to uncover why patients disengage from oral health services. In contrast, qualitative research methods usefully augment the current evidence-base by providing rich insights into disengagement rationalisation. Disengagement is often the result of a combination of complex circumstances occurring in a patient’s life. These complexities make disengagement difficult to clearly define. However, appointment failure is considered as one important component of disengagement, and for the purpose of this research, was used as a proxy measure of disengagement. The study investigates appointment failure at the Canterbury District Health Board’s (CDHB) Community Dental Service (CDS). The CDS is a preventative dental service providing free dental care for eligible children between the age of 6 months to 13 years, in Canterbury and South Canterbury. Objectives Set with the Canterbury District Health Board’s (CDHB) Community Dental Service (CDS), the primary research objectives are to identify the characteristics of pre-schooler appointment failure, identify the frequency of appointment failure per Community Dental Clinic (CDC), and discover parent and caregiver reasons for disengagement and their recommendations to the CDS to ameliorate it. Methods The study was granted ethics approval from the CDHB research office and the University of Canterbury (UC), Human Ethics Committee. A mixed methods sequential research design was employed to meet the research objectives. Phase one, a quantitative epidemiological investigation, utilised a retrospective closed cohort of eligible CDHB CDS pre-schoolers born in 2010 and their 2010-2014 appointment history. Eligibility required pre-schoolers to be enrolled with the CDS for the duration of the study period. A descriptive and analytical epidemiological approach was taken to characterise the population and factors associated with appointment failure. Phase two, the qualitative component, involved undertaking two parent and caregiver focus groups. Focus group participants were recruited from CDS clinic locations identified as having high failure rates in Phase one. To be eligible for the focus group, parents and caregivers had to have at least one pre-schooler currently enrolled in the CDS, who had missed a minimum of two appointments. Focus group transcripts were transcribed and analysed to uncover the factors that influence appointment failure. Results Overall, in Phase one, 6,986 pre-schoolers were born in 2010 and eligible for CDS enrolment. Male pre-schoolers accounted for 50.4% of the study population, while females made up 49.6%. The majority of pre-schoolers were European (77.6%), followed by Māori, Asian, Pacific Islands and Other, 9.2%, 7.7%, 3.9% and 1.6% respectively. Of the total number of pre-schoolers, 49.8% were living in the least deprived areas (quintiles one and two), 19.3% were living in moderate deprivation areas (quintile three) and 30.9% were living in the most deprived areas (quintiles four and five). Of the 18,933 scheduled appointments, 12.3% ended in appointment failure. The odds of failing an appointment were significantly greater for pre-schoolers with a Māori or Pacific Islands ethnicity (4.3 and 4.8 respectively), living in high deprivation areas (3.0 and 5.6 respectively), or aged 3 or 4 years at their scheduled appointment (0.6 and 0.5 respectively). Appointment type and pre-schooler sex did not increase the odds of failing an appointment. In Phase two, focus group participants identified four factors that influence appointment failure: waiting room and dental surgery ambience, staff attitude, physical resources that inhibit accessibility, and communicating with technology. Participants did not associate their childhood and current dental anxiety and fear with their pre-schooler’s failed appointments. Participants made several recommendations to reduce future appointment failure; these recommendations ranged in implementation difficulty. Seemingly simple recommendations involved enhancing the clinic environment, issuing parents with fridge magnets with the services contact details, and clinical staff communication. Potentially more difficult recommendations involved changing the clinic hours to offer late night and weekend appointments, and changing the services care delivery model so pre-schoolers can be screened in CDS mobile dental vans instead of CDC’s. Conclusions Consistent with New Zealand oral health literature, Māori and Pacific Islands pre-schoolers, pre-schoolers living in high deprivation areas and pre-schoolers aged 3 or 4 experienced greater odds of failing an appointment at the CDS. However, unique to New Zealand oral health disengagement literature, four factors were identified by participants as influencing their pre-schoolers appointment failure. These factors did not include a participant’s own childhood dental perceptions and experiences as influencing their pre-schoolers failed appointments; a factor considered to be a barrier in the international literature. The strengths of the research were the selected research methods and analysis. The mixed methods approach brought an innovative complementary perspective to an important but poorly understood topic. The opportunity to use a large, prospectively collected database systematically captured from a reliable patient data information system to inform strengths based focus groups, was also important. Talking to parents and caregivers and uncovering the reasons for non-attendance provided fresh insight, outside the routinely collected quantitative variables, and is another salient strength of this study. The research findings demonstrate the complexity and intricacies of pre-school appointment failure. Furthermore, there are clear cultural, socio-economic and age disparities associated with CDS disengagement. The CDS needs to address these disparities by targeting and promoting a service that will best meet the needs of vulnerable parents and caregivers. To improve utilisation for vulnerable pre-schoolers, the CDS should begin by incorporating the recommendations made by participants into the services model of care and future service development.

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  • Inhomogeneous Cosmological Models and the Cosmic Microwave Background

    Dam, Lawrence H. (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) dipole, measured in the heliocentric frame, is conventionally attributed entirely to a local Lorentz boost. However, recent work [1] suggests the CMB dipole may have a non-kinematic component arising from local expansion gradients in space, or relativistic differential expansion. In this thesis we examine the possibility of a non-kinematic dipole component using exact inhomogeneous cosmological models that naturally give rise to this notion of differential expansion. In particular, we investigate the spherically symmetric Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) model describing a local void and a less symmetric Szekeres model describing both a void and a neighbouring overdense structure. We derive analytic formulae to estimate the non-kinematic dipole and find a non-kinematic component of -0:12 ± 0:22 mK. As yet, a precise determination of a non-zero non-kinematic dipole is not possible given current measurements of the boost velocity of the heliocentric frame relative to the Local Group (LG) frame. We further characterise the extent to which observers in a local void, described by the LTB model, will see secondary effects attributed to a Lorentz boost, namely the aberration and modulation effects. We find that similar effects do arise for observers in the LTB model and therefore such effects are not unique to a Lorentz boost.

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  • Sovereign Sense

    Majurey, Dylan (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The South Pacific Island of Funafuti, Tuvalu is at threat of becoming one of the first countries globally to be Inundated due to rising sea levels. The likely result is that the people of this country will lose a sense of place and culture and be unable to sustain their National Sovereignty in the face of impending climate change and refugee status. Willi Telavi Tuvalu’s Prime Minister states ‘Relocation is not seen as an option but as a last resort, rights to land and culture are held with utmost importance’. And thus relocation will result in a loss of sovereignty (McNamara and Gibson, 2009). Architectural intervention can insure that a sense of sovereignty is maintained during the drastic climate change transformations that their native lands face. The intention of this Architectural Thesis is to design a solution that actively engages with sea level rise so that Tuvalu and other low-lying atoll nations can maintain a minimum of subsistence dwelling and economy. The current problems the Capital Island of Funafuti face are crippling with the loss of coastal areas and increased tidal flooding. This results with not only a loss in land area but also permanent salinisation in areas traditionally used for crop harvesting. This salinisation will only increase in severity with the projected future sea level rise. It will force the population of Funafuti to become climate refugees before it is fully submerged (IPCC, 2013). The main question this thesis aims to address is; How can architecture maintain a sense of sovereignty within a disappearing context. And what are the implications of habitation, culture and contested territories for the Tuvaluan’s? This critical reflection aims to investigate the architectural advantages of atoll environments. How the preservation of social, cultural identity and order can be maintained through a contemporary evolutionary process. Throughout this changing context it is imperative to maintain a sense of human scale within this small populace of Tuvaluan’s. The process begins with analysing a series of architectural design experiments. They are design led research experiments with themes of impending reality. They are similar to Tuvalu’s vernacular and built environment by their inherent characteristics and layout design Sourcing concrete current ideas and findings on Tuvalu itself are scarce as to the nature of fluxes of the global climate change predictions. Therefore research will be provided on the current environmental conditions of the island and the current problems the Tuvaluan's face, The predictions for sea level rise will be compared on a Funafuti cross section. This will show impact on the islands informal dwellings over time periods and how improvements can be made to mitigate the exacerbated conditions of climate change and the potential future problems that Funafuti Island will face.

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  • Co-Constructed Goal Setting: An Intervention to Raise Writing Achievement

    Russell, Essie (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    International and New Zealand research continues to identify student underachievement in writing. The present study examines whether co-constructed goal setting can improve primary-aged students’ writing achievement. An intervention was implemented at a low-decile, urban contributing primary school, mid-way through the 30-week study. The intervention was delivered in the form of a professional development session, and was evaluated by comparing progress after the implementation with progress made in an equal period prior to it. The intervention sought to improve the teacher participants’ (=4) understanding of how to effectively implement the practice of co-constructed learning goals. A quasi-experimental research design was used to identify the effect of co-constructed goals on the 86 year 4, 5, and 6 students’ writing achievement. A quantitative approach was first taken to monitor students’ writing achievement; data were collected using the e-asTTle revised 2012) online learning and assessment tool. A questionnaire administered at the beginning and end of the study was used to gain insight into teachers’ perspectives on their own practice, and to monitor any changes resulting from the intervention. The data suggested that the co-constructed goal-setting intervention was successful in raising the writing achievement of low-achieving students, although there was no significant effect on the achievement of the remaining participants. This is possibly because three out of the four participating teachers were found to have been employing co-constructed learning goals prior to the commencement of the study, which contributed to their students making consistently good progress over the 30-weeks duration of the study, including the period prior to the intervention. The findings of the present study indicate that if implemented correctly, co-constructed learning goals can assist in raising the writing achievement of lower-achieving students.

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