89,479 results

  • The Impact of Shared Pedagogical Leadership on Physical Activity in Early Childhood Education: An Interpretive Analysis

    Foley, Hannah Christine

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The original contribution of this thesis is to add to the minimal amount of literature regarding the impact of shared pedagogical leadership on physical activity in early childhood education. Developing a lifelong love of physical activity can start in the early years. These years are critical for developing behavioural habits and subconscious belief systems about what one can achieve. The aim of this study was to research the impact of leadership within the realm of physical activity in early childhood education. The aim arose with the hope of contributing to the wellbeing of children in their early years of development; and the need to improve my knowledge of shared leadership to enhance my own practice and thus impact positively on others in my field. Also, there is a desire to help others struggling with leadership conceptualisation in early childhood education. Oliver (2008) asserts that physical activity is beneficial to bone weight and weight status. Conversely, inactivity has been linked to obesity. In both childhood and adult years obesity has been linked to cardiovascular disease and diabetes (Oliver, 2008). Besides disease prevention measures, physical activity is related to essential motor skills development and improved cognition (Brownlee, 2015; Oliver, 2008). Participation in physical activity coincides with increased skills and mental abilities and is yet another reason why leaders in early childhood education must confidently focus greater attention on physical activity implementation. Finally, with the nature of community of early childhood education in mind, this research seeks to identify which forms of leadership are the most suitable for physical activity enhancement. Interpretive data from this qualitative study was synthesised with the wider field of literature in shared leadership. This data demonstrated that shared leadership forms best enhance children’s participation in physical activity. When pedagogical leaders share their goals and invite family to participate in the decision making and role-modelling, the results are maximised.

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  • Personal Information Disclosure and Privacy in Social Networking Sites

    Al Johani, Mashael

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Social networking sites (SNSs) have revolutionized traditional information-sharing methods. They are mostly built on an individual’s offline social circle and they provide users with a wide variety of virtual interaction mechanisms. Such sites and applications have become important communication platforms that are integrated into the daily life of many users. However, they have also blurred the line between users’ offline and online lives and created the illusion of familiarity and intimacy over the web, which may have resulted in the sharing of a significant amount of personal information that users might have preferred to remain private. The technology of social networks is a double-edged sword. Although it can provide great benefits to its users, it comes with a huge price and responsibility: users’ privacy. SNSs users are not just the source of information; they are also the targets. They leave digital footprints during their visits to those websites and mobile applications, where privacy breaches and identity theft cases are increasing at an alarming rate. Users are vulnerable to privacy breaches from many different entities. They can come from SNSs service providers, third party applications, other users from SNSs users’ social networks, or other malicious attackers. However, privacy protection responsibility lies primarily with the individual user and often depends on users’ levels of personal information disclosure and knowledge of protection methods. The sharing of personal and identifying details such as gender, age, education, location, address and other personal information such as personal and family photographs can assist in establishing an identity that can be easily stolen and used by criminals. Identity theft criminals exploit the lack of awareness of SNSs users to gather personal information that has been freely supplied by the user. The purpose of this research is to assess the intensity of this problem by identifying SNSs users’ personal information disclosure levels, the kinds of information that they reveal, the degree to which they expose personal information to the public, the privacy settings they apply and their level of knowledge and awareness about how their information is protected by SNSs service providers. In addition, this research studied the effects of gender, age, education, and level of privacy concern on the amount and kind of personal information disclosure and privacy settings applied. Two methods of data collection were used. Firstly and primarily, an online survey was used to collect information about users’ behaviour on SNSs. The secondary method was a social experiment that tested SNSs users’ reactions to profile access requests by a stranger. The research focused on four different social networks: Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Snapchat. The survey showed that there was a significant amount of disclosure of personal information; however, it differed from one social network to another. Facebook had the highest level of information disclosure, whereas Twitter had the lowest amount of information disclosure compared to the other networks. The research revealed that gender, age, and education had significant influences on information disclosure and users’ privacy settings. In general, males, young people between 16-24, and high school students showed reckless and very identifying behaviour on SNSs that might comprise their privacy and, in the worst cases, their safety, as they become more vulnerable to attacks from identity thieves and other malicious entities. The findings of the social experiment indicated that the majority of Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter users were likely to accept complete strangers into their personal private profiles. The study concludes by offering recommendations and guidelines that may provide a safer browsing experience for social network users.

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  • Intraspecific differences in the response of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) to drought

    Wilson, Samuel Symes

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) has traditionally been the grass species of choice for most New Zealand regions and is currently an important component of our highest-producing pastures. However perennial ryegrass is drought-sensitive and recent climate change projections for increased drought frequency and intensity in New Zealand have raised industry concern about the limitations of perennial ryegrass, particularly for northern and eastern regions. One possible solution is the introgression of wild-type germplasm that possess morphological and physiological attributes which improve drought tolerance, into high-producing commercial cultivars of perennial ryegrass. However there has been little research on perennial ryegrass in New Zealand that includes morphological and physiological drought response mechanisms. The objective of the current study was to investigate the responses to drought, of two bred perennial ryegrass cultivars; Grasslands Samson and Cropmark Seeds Kai; and two ecotypes, one of Norwegian origin and the other from Tunisia. This research was carried out in a glasshouse at Lincoln University, Canterbury during the winter of 2016. Under favourable conditions, the bred populations out-performed the ecotypes, producing 43% greater shoot biomass over the whole experiment than the ecotypes. The drought treatment reduced the shoot biomass of all populations, resulting in comparable shoot biomass production under drought among the four populations. However the Norwegian ecotype, in relation to its well-watered plants, was reduced by 58% by drought, showing a smaller reduction than Kai (-70%). Leaf DM (dry matter) production and LER (leaf extension rate) were both reduced by drought treatment in all populations. The mean LER and leaf DM production of the Tunisian population under the second drought by -58% and -23% respectively was a smaller reduction than that experienced by Kai (-70% and -64% respectively). The mean LER of the Norwegian population was reduced to the largest degree in the first drought cycle (-85%). The root to shoot DM ratio was increased in Kai, Samson and the Tunisian population under drought and to the greatest degree in the Tunisian population (+88%). However the root to shoot DM ratio of the Norwegian population remained unaffected by the drought treatment. The RWC (relative water content) across all populations was halved by the drought treatment, from a mean RWC of 92% in the well-watered plants to 47% under drought. However, the Norwegian population was able to maintain a greater RWC (60%) than that of Kai in the drought treatment (35%). The solute potential was reduced by drought in Kai (-145%), Samson (-139%) and the Tunisian population (-92%), but was unchanged in the population from Norway, indicating that it did not osmotically adjust. There were no differences in the chlorophyll concentration or leaf temperature between the four populations under drought. The Tunisian population was the only endophyte-infected population of the four. Taken together, this study identified intraspecific differences in key morphological and physiological drought responses of perennial ryegrass. The ecotypes showed signs of early drought tolerance, in contrast to the bred populations. Furthermore, there were differences in the drought tolerance strategies between the ecotypes, where the Norwegian population reduced leaf growth and preserved resources, and the Tunisian population increased its root to shoot DM ratio and was able to maintain LER to a greater extent than the other populations under drought as a result. The presence of endophyte in the Tunisian population likely contributed to its drought tolerance strategy. These findings provide functional information that can be used in future breeding initiatives towards improving drought tolerance in perennial ryegrass.

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  • ACT and smoking cessation using a smartphone application (SmartQuit™)

    Singh, Satvir (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Acceptance and Commitment Therapy is a third wave behavioural therapy, which encourages individuals to stop fighting their internal experiences (e.g. thoughts, feelings, and memories) and teaches individuals techniques to help them accept these internal experiences for what they are. SmartQuit™ is a smartphone application for smoking cessation based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy principles. SmartQuit™ consists of eight effective activities, each of which provides the user with techniques to deal with cravings to smoke cigarettes. My first aim was to examine whether using SmartQuit™, would lead to reductions in cigarette intake. My second aim was to determine whether scores obtained on the Commitment to Quit Scale would predict smoking outcomes at post-intervention and follow-up phases. I used a single-subject, A-B-A-C design across 10 participants to examine the feasibility of a smartphone app targeting smoking cessation (SmartQuit™), with a New Zealand population. Most participants showed a significant reduction in cigarette intake and a noticeable reduction in cravings to smoke cigarettes. In conclusion, the results of the current study suggest that SmartQuit™ is well suited for smoking cessation, with a New Zealand population. However, given the small sample size, a larger evaluation may be required.

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  • An Investigation of Suboptimal Choice by Possums

    Hill, Stephanie Anne (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This study addressed the question of whether an overall preference for a suboptimal choice, previously found in pigeons (Stagner and Zentall, 2010), would be replicated with five brushtail possums. In Part One of this experiment possums responded on a concurrent-chain procedure where both alternatives had fixed-ratio 1 schedules in the initial link and a fixed-interval 10s in the terminal link. Two stimuli outcomes (four line orientations) are presented on the alternatives based on a probability of 0.20 or 0. 80. The left produced a discriminative stimulus with the right reinforcing on half of trials (20:50). Three of the five possums showed a consistent preference for the optimal alternative (50%), while the others showed a preference for the suboptimal (20%). When data was averaged possums showed a preference for the optimal alternative, which was not consistent with Stagner and Zentall’s (2010) earlier findings. Part Two of this investigation replicated Gipson, Alessandri, Miller and Zentall (2009), probabilities of stimuli appearing were changed to 50/50, with a discriminative stimulus on the left alternative and the probability of reinforcement on the optimal alternative increased to 75% (50:75). The discriminative stimuli were now more predictable than previously, when this was not present all possums showed a preference for the suboptimal alternative. When discriminative stimuli were associated with both alternatives (20:50), replicating Stagner, Laude and Zentall (2012), all possums showed all possums optimal preferences. An overall preference for the optimal alternative, seen during this study, is consistent with the findings reported in a more recent study by Trujano and Orduña’s (2015) with rats. This overall optimal preference is somewhat consistent with optimal foraging theory, however, this does not account for the suboptimal choices made by some possums. The suboptimal preferences seen by two possums in Part One and all in Part Two also loosely support previous findings that pigeons are under the control of discriminative stimuli.

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  • Bathymetric evolution of Tasman Glacier terminal lake, New Zealand, as determined by remote surveying techniques

    Purdie, Heather; Bealing, Paul; Tidey, Emily; Gomez, Christopher; Harrison, Justin (2016-12)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Peer Reviewed

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  • Theoretical Underpinnings of Kaupapa Maori Directed Practice

    Eketone, Anaru (2008)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    This article attempts to unbundle and identify the theoretical underpinnings of Kaupapa Māori practice. It suggests that Kaupapa Māori as a concept, has been underpinned by two differing, sometimes competing theoretical perspectives. One is Critical Theory, which comes from the Marxist/socialist grand theoretical tradition seeking to challenge and transform oppressive structures. The second is constructivism, where knowledge is validated through a social construction of the world, thus is located and specific. This article contends that a Critical Theory informed approach is not the understanding held by many in the Māori community of what Kaupapa Māori practice is, instead, this article advocates for a constructivist ‘Native Theory’ approach as being one that fits better both with the community view as well as a theoretical explanation that is more conducive to Māori development. While these two theoretical explanations may seem to be in conflict with one another, a preliminary model is presented that integrates these approaches

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  • He Tirohanga I te Oranga o ngā Tāngata Whai Ora o te Hapori Haumanu o Te Whare Moana (Māori Men’s Perspectives of Rehabilitation in the Moana House Therapeutic Community: A Qualitative Enquiry)

    Ashdown, Jacob Dylan (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    In New Zealand/Aotearoa, there are various rehabilitation programmes that aim specifically to reduce criminal offending among Māori. Currently, there is a lack of research investigating the experiences of rehabilitation from clients’ perspectives. The aim of this present study was to enhance our understanding of the lived experiences of Māori men who were participating in the Moana House residential therapeutic community (TC) rehabilitation programme in New Zealand. Semi-structured open- ended interviews were conducted one-on-one by a Master’s student studying psychology who is a Moana House staff member and also of Māori decent. Seven residents of the Moana House TC aged 22-48 who all identified as Māori were interviewed on topics relating to life in a TC, barriers to recovery, education, and the relevance of culture in the TC. Thematic analysis of the interview data yielded four themes. The first theme, ‘The importance of healing family relationships’, addresses the positive and negative aspects of involving family in the recovery process. The second theme, ‘The relevance of Māori culture in rehabilitation’, emphasizes the relevance of Māori culture and providing culturally relevant treatment in rehabilitation. The third theme, ‘Increased self-awareness’, explores motivations for change and describes how the group therapy based approach of the TC facilitated learning about the self and influenced behavioural change. The fourth theme, ‘Aspirations for education’, describes participants’ educational desires and needs in their future recovery. The findings suggest that culturally relevant rehabilitation programmes that allow for the inclusion of family in the rehabilitation process are valuable for individuals in recovery. Furthermore, the holistic approach of the TC model may be particularly relevant for Māori men. This thesis concludes with recommendations for service delivery and suggests lines of inquiry for future research.

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  • Policy, Operations and Outcomes in the New Zealand Employment Jurisdiction 1990-2008

    Robson, Susan (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This analysis of the policy for, and the operations of, the dispute resolution institutions established successively by the Employment Contracts Act 1991 and the Employment Relations Act 2000, examined the relationship between dispute resolution system design and success in meeting government employment policy objectives. The grounded theory research method was utilised to first gather archived material from the Department of Labour (now the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment) about policy for, and the operations of, the institutions of each period under review. This material was organised for each period under review by commencing with a narrative of the policy that established the institutions, and following with a description of the operations of those institutions, policy changes, and the outcomes (in terms of policy objectives) that resulted. Each institution created by statute is described separately. From these narratives common themes emerged as subjects of further analysis and this formed a concluding part of each operational chapter. The final chapter draws from this theme analysis. The dominant themes concerned the transition from collectivised to individualised approaches to dispute resolution, the arrival of lawyers to a jurisdiction that had historically excluded or restricted them, the speed with which individual disputes (personal grievances) dominated the work of the institutions, and the emergence of two distinct and different advocacy and resolution cultures: a collectivist culture of union and employer association advocates and mediators; and an individualist culture of lawyers, employment advocates and adjudicators. The individualist culture imposed the norms, practices, costs and outcomes of the civil courts on the employment institutions, notwithstanding specific policy prescription (in both statutes) against that form of resolution. This study concludes that the relationship of advocacy culture to institutional structure is key to predicting effects on policy objectives. It is furthermore possible that success in meeting those objectives may be more dependent on advocacy culture than institutional structure.

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  • Hitting the Wrong Note: Recognition of Music Emotions Decreases with Age

    Sutcliffe, Ryan (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Effective emotion recognition underlies successful social interactions. Abundant research with facial emotions indicates that those necessary skills decline with age. Deficits in emotional understanding, and therefore social functioning, might impact mental health among the aging population. Consequently, there is a need to identify how and why age influences emotion recognition, such that measures can be taken to reduce negative impacts. Emotion recognition in other modalities has received some, but not adequate empirical investigation. The aims of the present study were to extend the aging and emotion literature using a novel set of music stimuli, and to investigate which mechanisms might explain consistently observed age effects. Young and older adults labelled emotions in a validated set of music clips and in an existing set of faces, and made age estimations in another set of faces. Older participants were significantly worse than young participants in each of the tasks. With respect to specific emotions, there were age-related decreases in recognition of happy, sad, peaceful, angry, and fearful music clips, and sad and angry faces. Older adults’ difficulties in each of the three tasks were not correlated with each other, suggesting that facial emotions are deciphered somewhat independently from face processing generally, and from emotions expressed in music. Fluid IQ did correlate with older participants’ emotion recognition in faces and music. However, age predicted emotion performance within the older group when fluid IQ was accounted for, inconsistent with a cognitive aging explanation. Similarly, age-related decreases in general motivation did not appear to underlie group differences because age group was negatively associated with performance on each task, after controlling for the other tasks. These results are discussed with respect to previous studies, and future research possibilities. Neuropsychological differences most likely underlie age-related decreases in emotion recognition ability, and should be the focus of research to come.

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  • Synthesis of shape-controlled magnetic nanoparticles and a novel route for their surface modification in suspension for biomedical applications

    Jaskolska, Dagmara Ewa (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SNPs) have many potential biomedical applications, for instance as MRI contrast agents, which was of specific interest in this work. Various techniques were used to synthesise spherical and non-spherical SNPs of a desired size in suspension. The size, shape and composition of the resulting NPs were characterised by DLS, TEM, TGA, ICP-MS, elemental analysis and IR spectroscopy. Magnetic properties of the NPs in solid form were characterised by VSM and SQUID, and further discussed within the context of their size, shape, crystallinity and the synthetic methods used to produce the NPs. Langevin function fitting to M-H curves yielded the magnetic moment of the particles (μ) and a magnetic domain size (d). Magnetic resonance properties of the NPs in suspension were characterised through NMRD measurements, and further analysed according to a well-accepted superparamagnetic theory. Finally, the magnetometry results were compared with those obtained from NMRD analysis. Competitive stabiliser desorption (CSD)-based cluster growth in the presence of silica was exploited in this thesis. A series of experiments were performed in order to gain an understanding of the mechanism of this process. Parameters which govern the CSD-based growth of clusters were identified. Next, a novel CSD-ligand exchange method performed on the surface of iron oxide nanoparticle (IONP) clusters and discrete particles in suspension was successfully developed. Various secondary ligands were trialled which rendered the NPs dispersible in more polar solvents. A new molecule, 2-azido-2-methyl-propionic acid 2-phoshonooxy-hexyl ester (C6), was synthesised and used in the CSD-ligand exchange process. ATR-IR spectroscopy was appointed as an effective method for the pre-selection of a potential secondary ligand which could be utilised during the CSD-ligand exchange procedure. Various experimental vessels were developed in order to scale up the CSD-cluster growth and ligand exchange experiments, and to address some technical issues that arose while performing the experiments on a small scale. The results of the CSD-cluster growth and ligand exchange procedures performed in these vessels were presented and discussed. Moreover, a glass vessel with a Teflon holder for TLC plates was successfully developed and used for both CSD-cluster growth and ligand exchange procedures. This approached not only enabled the scale-up of the experiments, but also allowed an advantageous change from silica gel to silica gel-covered TLC plates.

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  • Low-intensity land use in grassland catchments: Effects on a large, oligotrophic lake

    Weaver, Amy Katherine (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    In southern New Zealand, many upland streams drain into large oligotrophic lakes surrounded by native grassland, low-intensity farming, and small urban centers. Little work has been undertaken to determine the impact low-intensity development has on nutrient dynamics and microbial activity in these large lake systems. Lake Wanaka, Central Otago, was chosen as a study site since the recent appearance of nuisance organic aggregates and changes in phytoplankton community structure suggest the lake is not in a steady state. Research undertaken for this project included intensive sampling of tributaries to the lake during different seasons and hydrological conditions, following the path of two tributaries out into the lake, and laboratory-based experiments. In the Wanaka catchment, pasture cover correlated positively with stream dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN) and nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) concentrations. Nitrogen concentrations were not influenced by weather-related variables, but temperature and soil moisture mitigated the influence of pasture cover on surface water DOC concentration under very dry or wet conditions. Neither land use nor weather-related conditions correlated with total phosphorus (TP) or dissolved phosphorus (DRP) concentrations in streams, possibly reflecting good P-binding in soils, low-intensity agriculture in the catchment and/or lack of sampling during high flow events. Amending lake water with stream water in the laboratory did not influence the production of sticky polysaccharides (i.e. transparent exopolymer particles (TEP)), but enriching treatments with high concentrations of N and P increased TEP 1.7 to 9.3 times over unamended treatments. Phytoplankton cell numbers, diatom abundance, and chl a also increased in response to nutrient-enrichment, and organic aggregates were visible in nutrient-enriched treatments within 6 days. In the field, the intermixing depth of a main river inflow varied under stratified and un-stratified conditions, affecting where catchment-derived material was delivered in the Lake. Nutrient and DOC concentrations in the Matukituki River were within range of the Lake, and the river plume was capable of stimulating phytoplankton growth in nearshore waters. Despite similar bulk DOC concentrations, dissolved organic matter (DOM) character and lability differed between the River and the Lake. DOM from deep-sourced lake water contained more aromatic, refractory structures than shallower lake water or river water. The river had almost double the number of organic sulphur compounds than the lake, including potential sulfonates. The source of the S is unknown, but may be geologic in origin or reflect agricultural activity in the River catchment. In the laboratory, riverine bacterial communities could break down a diverse array of organic substances regardless of season, suggesting a consistent labile supply of DOM. In contrast, organic substrate use patterns in the lake were seasonal, and varied by depth. Lake water amended with Matukituki River water stimulated bacterial respiration and uptake of DOC and P, but did not affect bacterial productivity, which may reflect limitations of the experimental design. My results indicate low intensity land use in grassland catchments affects nutrient flux and microbial processes in Lake Wanaka. These data provide a foundation for future research on land development and microbial dynamics in similar large, oligotrophic lake systems.

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  • Healthcare Interpreting from a New Zealand Sign Language Interpreters' Perspective

    Magill, Delys

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This research examines healthcare interpreting from the perspective of New Zealand Sign Language interpreters. Healthcare interpreting is a growing topic of research globally. However, little focus has been given to the perspective of the interpreters working in healthcare settings. The challenges encountered by interpreters providing communication access to healthcare professionals and deaf clients ranged from interpersonal demands between the interpreter and the other participants to linguistic demands dealing with unfamiliar terminology. To the best of my knowledge, this research is the first of its kind in New Zealand. The aim of this study was to identify challenges encountered by New Zealand Sign Language (NZSL) interpreters working in healthcare settings and examine what coping strategies they employ to deal with challenges. The research was carried out using a mixed-method approach with a quantitative online survey and qualitative interviews. A total of 28 NZSL interpreters responded to the survey and 8 NZSL interpreters volunteered to be interviewed. The results indicated that the main challenges encountered in healthcare settings included a lack of understanding of the interpreter’s role by healthcare professionals, difficulty in dealing with unfamiliar healthcare terminology and in some cases interpreters’ belief that the deaf clients did not receive adequate access to full healthcare information. The participants shared the coping strategies they use to deal with the unfamiliar terminology and these strategies were discussed from a perspective of where the onus of decoding the message was placed. The study suggests that NZSL interpreters working in healthcare situations should be more assertive in terms of their professional relationship building, give thought to moving the onus of providing clear information back to the healthcare professional and ensure that all participants are aware of the role of the interpreter. If consumers of healthcare interpreter services are educated on how to work effectively with interpreters, communication will be more effective and the risk to deaf clients will be reduced.

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  • Landscape architecture and big data: it’s crunch time

    Royds, Don

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Big data is growing in volume, variety and velocity. It is becoming more available as open data due to rise in prominence and significance, along with an increase in government policies and inter-governmental agreements such as The Open Data Charter. Big data, if used as part of the design process by landscape architects, has the potential to broaden and inform site understanding. However, working with big data and analysing the diverse range of datasets is currently the main challenge. It is unclear whether the appropriate tools are available in landscape architecture to analyse and work with big data at present. Through a literature review, a critique and a matrix evaluation, a clearer understanding of the current tools used in data analysis approaches are presented. Three data analysis approaches are applied to a case study site (Waitangi Park, Wellington, New Zealand). The case study reveals that landscape architecture does not currently have the tools to work with big data and that there is a clear gap between analysing geospatial data and non-spatial data. The implications are that if landscape architecture is to take full advantage of working with big data, better tools and data analysis approaches need to be developed.

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  • Journey of an accounting software company from desktop to online

    Benbow, Pamela

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The purpose of this research was to explore experiences of an accounting software company (CRS Software Limited) as it transformed its application from a desktop version to online. A case study approach was taken and semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight employees. Additional data on CRS Software Limited is found from publicly available information including press releases, videos, company web site, customer testimonials and program help files Three key components of the journey were identified. The first is the use of a modern web based application offering advantages such as accessibility, data sharing, increased security, Software as a Service, program updates and automated backups. Concerns include data security, reliance on internet and data ownership. The second key component is the software company, experiencing challenges as it develops and supports cloud computing. These are addressed through business strategy and operational changes. The customer is the final component, and the move to accounting applications in the cloud is dependent on their perspective on change: a willingness to embrace technology, or a reluctance for change. The three components are discussed independently, yet aspects of them inter-relate with each other. This study contributes to the body of knowledge for a current issue faced by many accounting software developers, and their customers. Observations of CRS Software Limited’s journey are transferable to other accounting software developers, local and international and other computing applications.

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  • Talking About 'My Place'/My Place: Feminism, Criticism and the Other's Autobiography

    Cooper, Annabel (1995)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    A few years ago I edited an autobiography written in 1936 by a working- class New Zealand woman, Mary Lee's The Not So Poor. Setting out on a project of "restoring a voice," allowing the as yet unpublished speech of a member of a largely silenced group to be heard, I nevertheless found that my research and commentary, with its access to research tools and specialised knowledges, undermined the authority of that voice even as it attempted to assert it, delivering not a formerly silenced truth but a problematic and strategic text which negotiated uneasily with more powerful texts of its historical moment. To borrow the formulation Gayatri Spivak uses, "representation" in the politico-legal sense of "speaking for" could rapidly slide into something more like "substitution" (Spivak 275-6). In what follows, therefore, I contest parts of the critical pieces I discuss, but write from a position of complicity rather than out of a claim to purity. Indeed, it is central to the argument of this article that in these matters there is no position of purity, no clean place.

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  • Where Should the Focus be in the Aftermath of Parental Separation: Children's Rights and Interests, or Parental Responsibility/Rights?

    Tapp, Pauline; Taylor, Nicola (2001)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    A study evaluates legal framework governing guardianship, custody and access arrangements for children in United Kingdom and Australia, together with the most recent research on the impact of parental separation on children. In England and Australia, legislation is used to educate parents to accept the importance for the child's well-being of settling custody and access disputes and continuing to co-operate as parents after separation.

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  • The experience of cancer treatment with curative intent: A mixed-methods exploration with patients and oncology healthcare professionals

    Aldaz Barba, Bruno Eduardo (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    It is estimated that 35% of patients receiving oncology treatment may be affected by psychological distress, making a compelling case for researchers to further investigate how psychosocial supportive services or interventions could best help patients reduce distress and enhance well-being during oncology treatment. The aim of this thesis was to explore patients' experiences and their psychosocial needs during the active phase of oncology treatment with curative intent. The empirical research undertaken in this thesis consisted of Studies 1 and 2 (qualitative phase) followed by Study 3 (quantitative phase). A mixed-methods approach allowed the gathering and integration of complementary qualitative and quantitative findings underpinned by a pragmatic epistemology and psychological theories of uncertainty, stress and coping. The aim of Study 1 was to gather in-depth insights into the experiences of patients with a range of primary sites of cancer. Ten patients receiving oncology treatment with curative intent participated in individual semi-structured interviews. Six themes were identified using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis: (i) diminished well-being; (ii) role changes in intimate relationships; (iii) heightened awareness of limited time; (iv) a new order of priorities; (v) taking things as they come and; (vi) development of trust in healthcare professionals (HPs). Study 2 involved a multi-disciplinary sample of nine HPs who also participated in individual semi-structured interviews. Six themes were identified using Thematic Analysis: (i) treating patients as people; (ii) facing death brings new meanings to life; (iii) social support as a buffer to distress; (iv) barriers to psychosocial supportive services; (v) acceptance, denial and endurance of difficulties and; (vi) compatibility of modern and alternative medicine. HPs endorsed a patient-centred approach that enables the effective identification and provision of services to meet the needs of patients with cancer. The quantitative phase of this thesis was developed following integration of the findings of the two studies within the qualitative phase. The aim of Study 3 was to investigate daily distress, well-being, illness uncertainty, and experiential avoidance of illness uncertainty across a week of active oncology treatment with curative intent. Thirty-one patients with heterogeneous primary sites of cancer produced a total of 213 days' worth of data. Analyses were conducted at both the between- and within-person levels. On the days participants reported higher levels of experiential avoidance of illness uncertainty, they also reported corresponding increases in their levels of distress. Moreover, experiential avoidance of illness uncertainty mediated the relationship between average daily distress and well-being across a week of oncology treatment. Taken together, this thesis supports previous qualitative and quantitative studies and offers novel contributions to the psycho-oncology literature by exploring patients' relevant psychosocial experiences during oncology treatment complemented by the perspectives of oncology HPs. A novel contribution of this thesis to the literature consisted in its within-person idiographic analysis, as well as detecting experiential avoidance as an unhelpful emotional regulatory strategy in coping with illness uncertainty. The findings of this thesis may have practical application to psychosocial supportive services and future interventions, particularly by helping patients overcome experiential avoidance and encouraging acceptance of illness and treatment uncertainty as two helpful ways of coping during oncology treatment with curative intent, which may be beneficial in reducing distress and enhancing well-being.

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  • The reactions of superoxide with tyrosyl radicals on proteins

    Das, Andrew Bejoy (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Superoxide is continuously removed from cells by superoxide dismutase (SOD). Genetic knockout studies have shown that SOD is crucial for survival, suggesting that higher levels of superoxide are damaging. Tyrosyl radicals are a likely target because they react rapidly with superoxide, either by reduction to form tyrosine (repair), or by oxidative addition to form reactive hydroperoxides. Because tyrosyl radicals are formed on proteins under pathological and physiological conditions, taking a closer at look these reactions will shed light on the role of superoxide and SOD in aerobic organisms. The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the reaction between superoxide and protein tyrosyl radicals generated by different mechanisms. The reaction of hydrogen peroxide with sperm whale myoglobin is a useful model because tyrosyl radicals are produced, facilitating myoglobin dimer formation. When myoglobin was treated with hydrogen peroxide and superoxide, dimer formation was greatly decreased. SOD restored dimer formation in a dose dependent manner. Tryptic digestion of products, analysed by mass spectrometry, revealed evidence for repair and addition, with addition occurring specifically on Tyr151. Overall, the ratio of repair to addition was approximately 10:1. These results show that superoxide is capable of reacting with tyrosyl radicals formed on proteins, with tyrosine hydroperoxide and tyrosine hydroxide as potential products. To detect superoxide addition products in biological samples, other members of my host lab began antibody development. Attempts to produce sufficient quantities of tyrosine hydroxide as an antigen led to the discovery that glutathione conjugates readily to this product. My initial attempts to detect the glutathione adduct on oxidised myoglobin via mass spectrometry and immunoblotting revealed that the adduct was reversible when excess glutathione was removed. After treatment with sodium borohydride the glutathione adduct was detected in tryptic digest samples as well as via anti-GSH immunoblotting. These results suggest that any tyrosine hydroxide arising in vivo should be conjugated to thiols, with implications for protein aggregation and cell signalling. During oxidative stress, the transfer of radicals from free tyrosine to proteins can occur. Using insulin aspart as a model protein, free tyrosine transferred radical equivalents to the protein when oxidation was initiated by a peroxidase. In the absence of superoxide, a number of dityrosine products formed as measured by mass spectrometry. Superoxide prevented the formation of these dityrosine products, and addition products were detected, both on the whole protein as well as in tryptic digests. Superoxide addition was localised to Tyr14. These results suggest that tyrosine hydroperoxide formation on proteins may occur under conditions of oxidative stress that involve peroxidases and free tyrosine. Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) catalyses the rate-limiting step of DNA synthesis, with catalysis requiring radical transfer along a pathway of tyrosines. Superoxide has been shown to remove the radical signal in vitro, and increase the mass of the whole protein corresponding to superoxide addition. Therefore, RNR activity was measured in sodΔ strains of S. cerevisiae. RNR activity in cell lysate from both sod2Δ and sod1Δ cells was decreased compared to wt. When superoxide production was increased with the paraquat treatment, sod1Δ cells were the most sensitive with respect to RNR activity loss and decreased growth. These results suggest that SOD is important for maintaining RNR activity. In summary, the findings in this thesis support the hypothesis that the reactions of superoxide with protein tyrosyl radicals could contribute to superoxide toxicity. They also show that SOD has the potential to mitigate this damage.

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  • Characterising relational view updates using relative information capacity

    Stanger, Nigel (2017-01)

    Conference item
    University of Otago

    This item includes a version that corrects to some minor errata that appeared in the published version.

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