85,985 results

  • Using academic research methodologies to improve the quality of teaching: A case study

    McEwan, W. (2001)

    Conference item
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    A contract for the European Space Agency (ESA) was carried out by the University of Aberdeen, Scotland, to study the performance of the protocols (particularly TCP/IP) used within the ESA funded CODE satellite communication system (Fairhurst, Ord et al. 1993; Fairhurst, McEwan, et al. 1993; Fairhurst, et al. 1994). As part of that study, data was collected from the routers connected to the VSAT terminal equipment using the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). The analysis of data gathered from that experiment, and the later comparison of some of the methodologies used, formed part of a M.Sc. Engineering by research thesis published by the author of this paper (2000). The present paper does not particularly concern itself with the results of the above research. Rather, it is intended to illustrate that the experimental methodologies, devised for a leading academic research project undertaken at postgraduate level, can at times be later used to improve the quality of teaching and research at degree level and below. This is contrary to the common but ill-conceived notion that such academic research is overly esoteric and thus somehow unrelated and of no benefit to the more down-to-earth realities of general teaching. Within this paper some of the practical details of the methodology used in the CODE experiment will be described. This will include the hardware internetwork configurations used during both the “live” satellite data communication link (an expensive resource) and a similar configuration using a “Satellite Link Simulator (SLS)” during the majority time when the live link was unavailable. Following the model of the above research, the School of Computing at Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology (CPIT) has recently begun work on the creation of an in-house data communications research and teaching laboratory. Although this is in its early stages of formation this presentation will show that parts of its design are derived directly from the above CODE experiments. In addition, some software simulations used in the CODE experiments will be briefly described along with our plans for using similar software simulations in student research project work.

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  • Elder abuse and neglect: Past endeavours as a springboard for the future

    Brook, G. (2008)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    This paper traces the emergence of, and responses to, the phenomenon known as elder abuse and neglect in Aotearoa New Zealand and considers where to from here.

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  • A comparison of activities undertaken by enrolled and registered nurses on medical wards in Australia: an observational study

    Chaboyer, W.; Wallis, M.; Duffield, C.; Courtney, M.; Seaton, P.; Holzhauser, K.; Schluter, J.; Bost, N. (2008)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Background: The past decade has seen increasing patient acuity and shortening lengths of stays in acute care hospitals, which has implications for how nursing staff organise and provide care to patients. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the activities undertaken by Enrolled Nurses (ENs) and Registered Nurses (RNs) on acute medical wards in two Australian hospitals. Design: This study used structured observation, employing a work sampling technique, to identify the activities undertaken by nursing staff in four wards in two hospitals. Nursing staff were observed for two weeks. The data collection instrument identified 25 activities grouped into four categories, direct patient care, indirect care, unit related activities and personal activities. Setting: Two hospitals in Queensland, Australia. Results: A total of 114 nursing staff were observed undertaking 14,528 activities during 482 hours of data collection. In total, 6,870 (47.3%) indirect, 4,826 (33.2%) direct, 1,960 (13.5%) personal and 872 (6.0%) unit related activities were recorded. Within the direct patient care activities, the five most frequently observed activities (out of a total of 10 activities) for all classifications of nursing staff were quite similar (admission and assessment, hygiene and patient/family interaction, medication and IV administration and procedures), however the absolute proportion of Level 2 RN activities were much lower than the other two groups. In terms of indirect care, three of the four most commonly occurring activities (out of a total of eight activities) were similar among groups (patient rounds and team meetings, verbal report/handover and care planning and clinical pathways). The six unit related activities occurred rarely for all groups of nurses. Conclusion: This study suggests that similarities exist in the activities undertaken by ENs and Level 1 RNs, supporting the contention that role boundaries are no longer clearly delineated.

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  • Carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 enrichment in coastal forest foliage from nutrient-poor and seabird-enriched sites in southern New Zealand

    Hawke, D. J.; Newman, J. (2007)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    To assess the effect of nutrient inputs from breeding seabirds on forest foliage δ13C and δ15N, we collected foliage samples from two contrasting locations. Olearia lyallii forest on North East Island at The Snares hosts large numbers of (in particular) breeding sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus). At Mason Bay (Rakiura/Stewart Island), samples of Brachyglottis rotundifolia, Griselinia littoralis, and Dracophyllum longifolium were collected from two strata within diverse dune forest and one stratum from the open dunes. The δ13C results were typical of C3 plants and did not differ significantly between Mason Bay and North East Island. In contrast, the δ15N results from Mason Bay (mean ± standard deviation, -6.1 ± 1.7‰) were significantly lower than expected for temperate forest (95% confidence interval of difference, 2.7–3.9‰), and dramatically lower (19.1–21.5‰) than North East Island where enrichments (+14.2 ± 3.1‰) were among the highest ever reported for vegetation.

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  • Caring for obese patients in a culturally safe way

    Hughes, M.; Farrow, T. (2007)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Obesity is a culturally constructed concept and nurses need to be culturally safe in their practice, when caring for those labelled obese.

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  • The game’s the thing: Levelling up from novice status

    McCarthy, D P.; Oliver, R. (2014)

    Conference item
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Quality computer engineering education is integral to the recruitment, retention, and employment of quality software engineers, as part of enabling a greater uptake of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) careers. The introductory programing course DICT440 uses Build Your Own Blocks (BYOB) and the team creation of a game, Theseus and the Minotaur, to teach introductory programing principles and skills. This paper argues that creativity is essential to innovation. Digital Games are being increasingly used in education and training internationally, as well as specifically in computer education. Aotearoa-New Zealand ITPs need to position themselves positively to leverage the creativity and motivation of software engineering students who are experienced gamers by developing games as part of teaching and learning software engineering. Computer game development courses can be developed collaboratively in a multi-disciplinary team, using appropriate learning theory, across ITPs in second and third year degree courses, in conjunction with regional game companies, alongside core business applications.

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  • Student mistakes in an introductory programming course: Sample problems

    Sarkar, A.; Lopez, M.; Lance, M.; Oliver, R.; Xu, L. (2013)

    Conference item
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Learning to program is a challenging task for novice learners. This study aimed to investigate students’ concepts as they were being formed. To capture these, we chose to focus on students who made some mistakes in basic concepts. Our study sought to capture students’ conceptions at a very early stage in their study: five weeks into an introductory programming course. We invited students who did not pass an early mastery test at their first attempt to participate in a diagnostic and remedial session. In this session, the teaching team carried out one-on-one interviews with students to diagnose any misconceptions the students exhibited and devise individual remedial learning. The teaching team documented these interviews and these formed the basis of our phenomenographic analysis. Our main finding was that the lack of success in the test was attributable more to application of process than to conceptual misunderstandings. We also found that the technique of inviting students who do not succeed in a test to participate in a in-depth diagnostic interview and one-on-one remedial instruction was useful, even though no major misconceptions or alternative conceptions were identified.

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  • An overview of the practice of IT governance

    Asgarkhani, M. (2013)

    Conference item
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Investment on Information Technology (IT) solutions in most organizations accounts for the largest component of capital expenditure. Even though there are at times conflicting views on value and return regarding investment on IT, in general, there is consensus amongst strategists, planning advisors and many researchers that Investment in IT can bring significant value to business. Value is added through improved productivity, increased efficiency, profitability, better communication, more effective decision making and customer satisfaction. However, in order to maximize benefits and value gained from investment on IT, it is universally acknowledged that IT must be fully aligned with overall business strategies and direction. As capital investment on IT continues to grow, IT managers and strategists are expected to develop and put in practice effective decision making models (frameworks) that improve decision-making processes for the use of IT in organizations and optimize the investment on ICT solutions. More specifically, there is an expectation that organizations not only maximize the benefits of adopting IT solutions but also avoid the many pitfalls that are associated with rapid introduction of technological change. Different organizations depending on size, complexity of solutions required and processes used for financial management may use different techniques for managing strategic investment on IT solutions. Corporate IT governance encompasses the necessary organisational structures and processes to ensure the alignment of IT and business occurs whilst at the same time minimising any associated risks. Decision making processes for strategic use of IT within organizations are often referred to as IT Governance (or Corporate IT Governance). This research through examining and analysing recent studies aims to identify key factors for effective IT governance. The many benefits of IT governance are discussed along with suggestions for why implementation of governance systems can fail. The study examines IT governance as a tool for best practice in decision making on strategic use of IT. The study is concerned with phase I of a project intended to identify key components and success factors. It establishes that the practice of IT governance, depending on complexity of IT solutions, size of organization and organization’s stage of maturity in using IT varies significantly within various organizations. It can range from informal approaches to sophisticated formal frameworks. It is confirmed that there is no one standard framework for IT Governance that suits all organizations. Ownership and direction prove to be amongst essential elements to successful implementation of governance practices. Clearly defined roles and responsibilities tied with clear communication and continual senior management involvement were highlighted as significant success factors.

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  • Evaluating the distraction of ICT devices in the classroom

    Goundar, S.; Clear, A.; Lopez, M. (2012)

    Conference item
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Information Communication Technology (ICT) devices such as laptops, smartphones, and tablets, have become the standard stationery of today's tertiary students. Many years ago, the standard stationery required was a writing notepad and ball point pen, and a brain. These were all that was needed (along with some attention) to take in and store what was being taught by the teacher. Ubiquitous ICT technology has changed all that and the “stationery” requirements of today's tertiary scholars are far more cognitively penetrating; they are demanding of one's attention and highly pervasive in the learning environment. With tertiary institutions, teachers and students still in existence, the question that needs to be addressed is: how does the availability of such ubiquitous technology impact on students’ learning, our teaching and the future of tertiary institutions? Formal systematic research on the distraction of ICT devices in tertiary education classrooms in New Zealand is relatively limited; therefore, this research intends to explore the issue. This paper will show that they have dramatically changed the ecology of education from "learner-plus-learning-material" into "learner-plus-learning-material-plus-technology-plus-distraction".

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  • Gender and health promotion: a feminist perspective

    Yarwood, J. (2002)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Throughout the twentieth century feminist thinking underwent radical change as the women’s movement gained momentum. The social movement of feminism has embraced many guises, from liberal, to Marxist, to the postmodern. However, critical understanding of the experience of women’s oppression has remained the raison d’être of feminist thinking. The relevance of feminist scholarship within the interrelationship of gender and health care will be analysed and debated in this article, through the dominant discourse of health promotion.Throughout the twentieth century feminist thinking underwent radical change as the women’s movement gained momentum. The social movement of feminism has embraced many guises, from liberal, to Marxist, to the postmodern. However, critical understanding of the experience of women’s oppression has remained the raison d’être of feminist thinking. The relevance of feminist scholarship within the interrelationship of gender and health care will be analysed and debated in this article, through the dominant discourse of health promotion.

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  • The co-evolution of learning and internationalization strategy in international new ventures

    Pellegrino, J. M.; McNaughton, R.B. (2015)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    In this paper, we examine the co-evolution of learning and internationalization strategy in international new ventures (INVs). Many researchers have suggested that in contrast to the reliance on experiential knowledge by firms that internationalize incrementally, firms that internationalize rapidly use alternatives such as congenital and vicarious learning. However, few empirical studies explicitly examine how the use of learning processes in INVs evolves. We used retrospective longitudinal analysis to explore the learning processes of four New Zealand-based INVs, and found that their dominant learning mode and foci of learning changed as internationalization increased. Around the time of founding, congenital learning dominated, but as the firms began to internationalize, they relied more on experiential, vicarious, searching and noticing learning processes. The focus of their learning also shifted from product knowledge to knowledge about foreign markets and the internationalization process. In the later stages of their internationalization, experiential learning increased in importance, as did other resource-intensive learning processes such as grafting by acquiring a company overseas. We conclude that the learning processes used by INVs co-evolve with their internationalization, and are more rapid and less systematic than is implied by traditional models of the internationalization process, with substitutes for experiential learning dominating early in the process.

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  • Towards a social ontology of improvised sound work

    Russell, B. (2010)

    Book item
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Improvised sound work is one of the key areas of inter-generic hybridity in contemporary music. Any attempt to identify a social role and agree on a cultural meaning for such improvisational practice must grapple first with issues of definition. These issues are especially acute for emerging hybrid practices because their practical development outstrips the ability of the available critical/ideological structures to provide useful and generally agreed definitions for them.

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  • Encouraging students to think strategically when learning to solve linear equations

    Robson, D. E.; Abell, W.; Boustead, T. (2012)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Students who are preparing to study science and engineering need to understand equation solving but adult students returning to study can find this difficult. In this paper, the design of an online resource, Equations2go, for helping students learn to solve linear equations is investigated. Students learning to solve equations need to consider their overall strategy as well as the procedures for each step. Students were encouraged to develop strategies for solving equations with interactive software, Equations2go, which allowed students to decide on strategies while the computer carried out the procedures. The results of trials showed that the software helped students solve equations which they could not solve on their own. Some of the students were then able to successfully transfer their learning to solving linear equations with pen and paper.

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  • Sing No Sad Songs

    Arnold, S. (2010)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

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  • Computing student views on sustainability: a snapshot

    Lopez, D.; Lopez, M. (2010)

    Conference item
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    UNESCO launched the Decade of Education for Sustainable Development for 2005-2014 with the aim of integrating Education doe Sustainable Development (ESD) into all aspects of education and learning. The motivation for this study was to inform our decisions on embedding ESD into our teaching. Incoming computing students (n=116) were surveyed to capture their viewd on sustaunability before they engaged in formal learning and these views were compared to those of computing students at another institution. The study explored views on the relevance of sustainability to their study, sustainability [riorities and knowledge, possible actions they could take, their capacity to take these actions and make a difference, and how they would deal with a challenging scenario. Students were pro-ecological but did not believe they had the capability to make a difference. Significant variation was found in attitudes and cvalues across the various ethnicities in our sample, suggesting that careful consideration should be given to this aspect. This study adds to the emerging body of knowledge around sustainability perceptions and values of incoming students and informs curriculum for the embedding of ESD into education and learning.

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  • A Māori approach to management: Contrasting traditional and modern Māori management practices in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Mika, J.P.; O'Sullivan, J.G. (2014)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    This is a conceptual article located in the discourses of indigeneity, post-colonialism and critical management studies in which we seek to renew interest in Māori management as a distinctive form of management within Aotearoa New Zealand. We discuss defining Māori management and Māori organisations and their relevance for today's organsiations in New Zealand and internationally. We examine differences and similarities between Western and Māori management in terms of the four functions of management adapted from principles first proposed by Fayol in 1949. We propose a theoretical model of Māori management and discuss the implications of Māori management for management research, policy and practice.

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  • www.useless.com: Crisis communications on shaky ground

    Vavasour, K (2014)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    After the magnitude 6.3 earthquake that struck the city of Christchurch on February 22, 2011, the physical and communications infrastructure that many city dwellers rely on suddenly ceased to function. For many, this disruption to physical and virtual networks resulted in access to media, information, assistance and family being cut off or restricted in a number of different ways. Survey results show residents of the less-damaged suburbs made more use of television, websites and social media than those in badly damaged areas, who relied more on radio, word-­of-mouth, and print material. Social media and new technologies are now an established part of the crisis communications discourse; however, the infrastructure they rely on is not as solid and reliable as it may appear. After exploring the concept of blackboxing, the failures and weaknesses of previously backgrounded objects exposed by the earthquakes provide examples of its undoing (un-blackboxing). Quantitative and qualitative survey data is used to show how variations in location and disruption impacted on the information-­seeking of residents, and how the un-­blackboxing of infrastructure and socio-­technical networks left residents out of the loop. This research also challenges perceptions of how widely used, accessible and/or useful technologies like Twitter are to those in the middle of a disaster.

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  • Relationships between logic depiction, UML diagramming and programming

    Sarkar, A.; Lance, M.; Lopez, M.; Oliver, R. (2012)

    Conference item
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Beginning programmers are often taught to design algorithms in pseudo code, a structured form of English, before implementing the algorithms in code. This approach is often advocated because it is seen as enabling programmers, and especially novice programmers, to reason about program logic without the distraction of the specific syntax of a programming language, and because it can be used as a basis for program documentation. Similar arguments are often given for the use of UML diagrams. In recent semesters, we have trialled the programming language Scratch as an alternative to structured English for pseudo code. This paper uses assessment data to investigate the relationship between pseudo code (both structured English and Scratch programs), UML, and programming ability. We found a consistent and strong relationship between programming and UML diagramming skills, but a relatively weak relationship between programming and either form of pseudo code. These findings lead us to question the value of teaching pseudo code and our motives for teaching it.

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  • Effects of resistance training combined with vascular occulsion or hypoxia on neuromuscular function in athletes

    Manimmanakorn, A.; Manimmanakorn, N.; Taylor, R.; Draper, N.; Billaut, F.; Shearman, J.P.; Hamlin, M.J. (2013)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    The aim was to investigate the effects of low-load resistant training combined with vascular occlusion or normobaric hypoxic exposure, on neuromuscular function. In a randomised controlled trial, well-trained athletes took part in a 5-week training of knee flexor/extensor muscles in which low-load resistant exercise (20 % of one repetition maximum, 1-RM) was combined with either (1) an occlusion pressure of approximately 230 mmHg (KT, n = 10), (2) hypoxic air to generate an arterial blood oxygen saturation of ~80 % (HT, n = 10), or (3) with no additional stimulus (CT, n = 10). Before and after training, participants completed the following tests: 3-s maximal voluntary contraction (MVC3), 30-s MVC, and an endurance test (maximal number of repetitions at 20 % 1-RM, Reps20). Electromyographic activity (root mean square, RMS) was measured during tests and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the quadriceps and hamstrings was measured pre- and post-training. Relative to CT, KT, and HT showed likely increases in MVC3 (11.0 ± 11.9 and 15.0 ± 13.1 %, mean ± 90 % confidence interval), MVC30 (10.2 ± 9.0 and 18.3 ± 17.4 %), and Reps20 (28.9 ± 23.7 and 23.3 ± 24.0 %). Compared to the CT group, CSA increased in the KT (7.6 ± 5.8) and HT groups (5.3 ± 3.0). KT had a large effect on RMS during MVC3, compared to CT (effect size 0.8) and HT (effect size 0.8). We suspect hypoxic conditions created within the muscles during vascular occlusion and hypoxic training may play a key role in these performance enhancements.

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  • Microbial carbon concentration in samples of seabird and non-seabirdforest soil: Implications for leaf litter cycling

    Hawke, D.J.; Vallance, J. R. (2015)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    The paucity of leaf litter in seabird forest is usually explained by litter burial in burrows, but burial byitself fails to address the processes controlling decomposition. We measured soil microbial C in samplesfrom a Westland petrel (Procellaria westlandica) colony both within and outside the breeding season,and compared the results with two non-seabird forests. From the few studies of seabird soil microbialC, we initially hypothesised a soil microbial C concentration sequence of occupied burrows > unoccupiedburrows > adjacent forest floor > non-seabird forest. Instead, the highest values came from non-seabirdforest, a pattern consistent with published meta-analyses on the effects of N addition. Within the colony,highest concentrations were in forest floor soil and there was no burrow occupation effect. However,seabird forest soil microbial C followed a strong inverse relationship with soil ı13C (r = −0.58; P < 0.001)as well as the expected relationship with total soil C (r = 0.75); the relationship with soil ı13C in non-seabird forest was not significant (P = 0.29). We propose that soil microbes in seabird forest repeatedlyprocess a single pool of increasingly refractory terrestrial soil C, facilitated by seabird guano priming oforganic matter mineralisation. In this context, the paucity of leaf litter in seabird forest can be seen asa consequence of microbial C limitation in a nutrient-saturated system, an explanation consistent withrecent theory.

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