89,525 results

  • The effect of nutrition during pregnancy on hogget reproduction : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Animal Science at Massey University

    Mulvaney, Fraser John

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Mulvaney, F.J. (2006). The effect of nutrition during pregnancy on hogget reproduction. M.Sc. (Animal Science) Thesis, Massey University, Palmerston North. New Zealand. 59pp The reproduction rate of hoggets in New Zealand is much lower than that observed in adult ewes. New Zealand farmers have indicated this is a major limitation to the uptake of hogget breeding and lambing. A series of studies conducted during pregnancy in the U.K. under housed conditions, utilising a concentrate diet, reported rapidly grown hoggets had reduced placental and fetal development and lamb birth weight. It is, therefore, possible nutrition during pregnancy plays a role in the poor reproductive performance seen in New Zealand hoggets. This thesis investigates the impact of 'low', 'medium' and 'high' levels of feeding on pasture during pregnancy on hogget pregnancy rate, fetal loss, lamb birth weight and growth rate of resulting lambs. Two-hundred-and-forty hoggets that were mated (identified by crayon tupp mark) during a five day breeding period were randomly allocated one of three (n-80) nutritional regimes ('low', 'medium' and 'high'). The 'low' treatment group during the first 100 days of pregnancy were fed to maintain live weight. From day 100 until term, these hoggets were offered herbage to ensure a daily live weight change of 100 g/day. The 'medium' treated group were fed to ensure live weight change was 100 g/day throughout the entire pregnancy period, while the 'high' treated group were offered ad libitum, with the aim of achieving 200 g/day throughout the entire pregnancy period. The target live weight changes were achieved in the 'low', 'medium' and the 'high' hogget feeding treatment groups. Pregnancy rates at day 50 of pregnancy were significantly (P fed hoggets at L87. Therefore, this study indicates that farmers wishing to maximise reproductive performance of hoggets should feed hoggets to ensure live weight gain during pregnancy is above 60 g/day but below 200 g/day.

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  • Women's participation in crusades from the eleventh to thirteenth centuries : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts at Massey University

    Corry, Suzanne Helen

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis studies the involvement of women in the four great armed pilgrimages, the crusades of 1096-1204. A crusade was a pilgrimage, an act of penance for the sins of its participants, as well as being a holy war. Women were entitled to join pilgrimages because it was an act they had enjoyed for centuries. When, therefore, the armed pilgrimage was preached by Urban II in 1095, women too were permitted to journey although it was not anticipated at first by the papacy that they would. The presence of women in ritually pure camps and on the battlefields was objected to. The biblical beliefs of chroniclers and moralists of the period held that the presence of women on these campaigns compromised their purpose. This thesis will examine in primary sources the beliefs of the moralists and writers of the crusades, and the responses to the presence of women on campaigns.

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  • The automatic generation and execution of Lean Cuisine+ specifications : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Information Science in Computer Science at Massey University

    Li, Lei

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Lean Cuisine+ (Phillips, 1995), a semi-formal graphical dialogue notation for describing the behaviour of event based direct manipulation GUIs, was developed at Massey University in the early 1990s. More recently, a software environment, SELCU (Scogings, 2003) has been built for Lean Cuisine+ which permits dialogue models to be manually constructed and edited using a drag and drop approach. The aim of the research presented in this thesis is to develop extensions to SELCU, which include the automatic generation of Lean Cuisine+ diagrams, and their execution. A shortcoming of current prototyping tools and user interface builders is that although they permit the designer to construct a mock up of the look and feel of the interface, they provide no model of the interaction. The Auto-Generation Software is a tool which can automatically generate a Lean Cuisine+ diagram for a graphical user interface developed using Delphi. The generated description is represented as a text file, and in a format compatible with the SELCU system. The Lean Cuisine+ Execution Environment is embedded in the SELCU application. It supports the execution of Lean Cuisine+ specifications, including meneme selection and task action sequence, and also takes account of triggers. The SELCU extensions successfully integrate a graphical dialogue notation (Lean Cuisine+), an object oriented development environment (Delphi), and an existing support environment (SELCU). This offers a more complete environment for the early stages of the design of graphical user interfaces.

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  • A college self review : a report on an Action Research Cycle conducted for the purpose of school improvement : presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree Master of Educational Administration, Massey University

    Hughes, Gay

    Thesis
    Massey University

    A school self-review: (i) occupies a central role in the development of effective schools and (ii) it is what we do to make sure that all of us who care about schools and pupils know what we are trying to achieve, how we check whether we have met our aspirations and how we use this information for further development. This study is a school self-review which focuses on the requirements (including National Administration Guideline 1, (Ministry of Education, 2000) that relates specifically to learning) that were put in place by the Establishment Board of Trustees of a new school prior to the school opening at the beginning of the 1999 school year, i.e the school's Vision and Guiding Principles. The study uses an action-research cycle to review how well the school has met these standards after a period of two years and will continue to use further action-research cycles to continue the process of review and development. While this review has been initiated and lead by the Principal of the school, the school's staff has been, and continues to be actively involved in the data gathering process and it is envisaged that staff wil be further empowered to complete this first cycle of action-research using the results to drive subsequent action-research cycles. The completed review will be presented to the school's Board of Trustees to provide members with an opportunity to reflect on the development of the school since its opening and to assist with ongoing strategic planning. It is believed that by placing the staff of the school in the role of researchers, the process will lead to increased motivation, collegiality and ownership of the school's vsion and provide a method for ongoing institution-wide site-based school development.

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  • The role and potential of community based cancer care for Māori in Aotearoa/New Zealand : A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Public Health at Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

    Slater, Tania Michelle

    Thesis
    Massey University

    There are unacceptable ethnic differences in cancer survival in Aotearoa/New Zealand and quality of life differs between Māori and non-Māori at all stages of the cancer journey. Overseas studies have recognised that all the priorities for cancer services are affected by actions in primary care – reducing the risk of cancer, early detection and faster access to specialist treatment, improved support for patients living with cancer, and reducing inequalities. Additionally, the importance of strategic policy to direct practical and effective community-based cancer care has also been identified. Māori health provider organisations have been using a ‘Whānau Ora’ approach to provide primary health care services for over twenty years; however their contributions to cancer care have been largely invisible. This qualitative study explores the role and potential of community based cancer care for Māori as a means to addressing three study questions:  What helps patients and whānau to access and receive cancer services?  What is the role of primary care, which includes Māori health providers and mainstream providers, in facilitating access into and through cancer care services?  Does current cancer control policy adequately address Māori needs? Using a case study approach, participants from four areas of cancer care were recruited within a Māori-centred, ethic of care framework, to explore the experiences of those who plan, manage and administer, deliver, and receive cancer care. The main source of data was in-depth semi-structured interviews. The key themes identified from this research are that: whānau hold critical and multiple roles across cancer care; there are gaps in supportive cancer care and information that is appropriate for Māori; ongoing relationships with a primary health care provider assist whānau to navigate their cancer journeys, with Māori health providers in particular, delivering wide ranging cancer care services, and linking patients with mainstream services; engaging successfully with the cancer care system currently requires an individual rather than collective approach; cultural safety education should extend across all cancer care services; communication between cancer care providers is improving and; cancer control policy in Aotearoa has a universal focus which does not adequately address Māori needs. The role of primary care is pivotal in Māori cancer care access, from prevention through to survival, and must be at the forefront of cancer policy. Acknowledgement of the different support and quality of life needs of Māori, including recognition of the interdependence of whānau as a strength, is required. Māori health providers have the potential to play a much greater role in cancer care and support, but sustainable funding models are required if Māori health providers are to continue, and expand on, the wide range of work that they undertake within their communities. The newly implemented Whānau Ora Initiatives may provide a vehicle for provision of sustainable community cancer care services.

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  • Tongans in Auckland : a preliminary investigation of the Tongan community in the Central Auckland urban area : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in geography at Massey University

    Whitehead, David Warwick

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The minority Polynesian community examined in this thesis required more than those research techniques familiar to students of migrant groups. Specific interviewing difficulties and solutions to these are proposed for interviewing Tongans. Suggestions to overcome the suspicions of respondents and the dangers of ethnocentrisim on the part of the researcher are also suggested. A questionnaire is included and its design, to include internal checks and ease in tabulation are noted. Chapter Two deals with migration motives, both real and stated. These motives are confined in the main, to those acting at the source, Tonga, and include population pressures on land, housing, employment and capital. Data is provided from recent surveys in Tonga, together with the results of a survey of Tongans residing in the Central Auckland Urban Area, 1974. An examination of data provided by the Department of Statistics, concerning arrivals and departures, is included in Chapter Three. This is supplemented with data on airfares and the manner in which the migrant raised sufficient capital to purchase his passage, from the survey. Special attention is paid to permits and the reason why some Tongans have overstayed their legally permitted stay. Chapter Four compares the demographic and social characteristics of Tongans with other Polynesians in New Zealand. Age, marital status, dependents, sex, religion, birthplace and educational qualifications of migrants in the survey are recorded. The results of an investigation into the occupational and residential characteristics of Tongan migrants are recorded in Chapters Five and Six. Comparison is drawn between the unskilled occupations of Tongans and other Polynesians and the location of place of work and residence is noted. The method of securing initial employment revealed the social and psychological pressures impinging on the recent migrant and reasons and results suggested. Using data supplied by the Department of Statistics the spatial distribution of Tongans in New Zealand, and in particular each statistical subdivision of Auckland is recorded. Movement over time within the Central Auckland Urban Area is discussed using indices of segregation and a Lorenz Curve.

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  • The approach to measuring the returns to secondary and tertiary qualifications in New Zealand : an investigation and update using data from the 2001 census : a research thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Applied Economics at Massey University, Department of Applied and International Economics, College of Business, Massey University

    Penny, Nathan J

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This study investigates the approaches to measuring the returns to secondary and tertiary qualifications in New Zealand using the latest Census of Population and Dwellings data from 2001. It calculates the returns to qualifications using income function analysis, elaborate analysis and also extends the elaborate analysis by using the quantile regression technique. It reports returns within a narrow band for both methods and at a similar or higher magnitude to previous years. However, the results reported using the net present value (NPV) criteria reveal higher social returns to qualifications than private returns. This contradicts previous literature. In the policy implications section, the study recommends policies focus more on reducing the level of forgone earnings. Also, the study finds that income function analysis is better suited to measuring income inequality and its link with education. Furthermore, the study concludes that elaborate analysis, using the NPV criteria, allows better comparison of the marginal returns to educational investments of varying scale and duration. Finally, the quantile regression estimates show that point estimates of the mean return give a poor indication of the distribution of returns.

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  • Acetaldehyde metabolism by wine lactic acid bacteria and its oenological implications : a thesis presented in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Microbiology at Massey University

    Osborne, James

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Acetaldehyde is one of the most important sensory carbonyl compounds formed during vinification. Excess acetaldehyde can adversely affect the flavour of wine and acetaldehyde plays a role in the colour development of red wines. Excess acetaldehyde is usually masked by the addition of sulphur dioxide (SO2) to the wine (SO2 is also used as an antimicrobial and antioxidant agent in wine and acetaldehyde bound SO2 is less effective in these roles). To date there has been no definitive study of the impact of wine LAB on free and bound acetaldehyde. Therefore, this study investigated the metabolism of free and bound acetaldehyde and its oenological implications. A survey of 11 commercial malolactic starter cultures (mostly Oenococcus oeni strains) showed that 9 out of 11 were able to metabolise acetaldehyde (in a resting state) with the corresponding formation of ethanol and acetic acid as products. SO2 bound acetaldehyde was also metabolised by the two strains tested (Lactobacillus buchneri CUC-3 and Oenococcus oeni MCW). This is the first evidence that LAB can indeed catabolise SO2 bound acetaldehyde, therefore releasing free SO2. During growth Oenococcus oeni EQ54 and Oenococcus oeni VFO were able to metabolise free acetaldehyde in wine at pH 3.3 and pH 3.6. In wine containing SO2 bound acetaldehyde, Oenococcus oeni EQ54 and Oenococcus oeni VFO were able to metabolise SO2 bound acetaldehyde at pH 3.6 after a period of sluggish growth. At pH 3.3 there was no metabolism of SO2 bound acetaldehyde by Oenococcus oeni EQ54 and Oenococcus oeni VFO during the incubation period. Results from growth experiments showed that in broth there was inhibition of growth at 300 mg/L concentration of acetaldehyde for all strains. In wine, no significant inhibition or stimulation of the cultures examined was found at any acetaldehyde concentrations up to 300 mg/L. In a simultaneous resting cell incubation of Saccharomyces bayanus Première Cuvée and Oenococcus oeni Lol11, acetaldehyde produced by the yeast was metabolised by the wine LAB. The metabolism of acetaldehyde by wine LAB is expected to influence wine flavour as small amounts of ethanol and acetic acid are produced and acetaldehyde is removed. This removal of acetaldehyde by wine LAB suggests that less SO2 will need to be added to the wine to mask excess acetaldehyde when malolactic fermentation is performed. Inhibition of wine LAB growth in broth by high levels of acetaldehyde suggests a role for acetaldehyde in stuck or sluggish MLF. Sluggish growth in wine containing SO2 bound acetaldehyde also suggests a possible role of SO2 bound acetaldehyde in stuck and sluggish MLF. This is due to the release of free SO2 through the metabolism of the acetaldehyde moiety of SO2 bound acetaldehyde.

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  • A critical analysis of the methodology of selected major accounting theorists since 1960 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Business in Accounting at Massey University

    Gaffikin, M. J. R. (Michael John Renny)

    Thesis
    Massey University

    There has recently been a significant amount of effort and space in the accounting theory literature devoted to attempts to determine a suitable methodological base for accounting. While some may take this to indicate that accounting is intellectually immature, it can also be taken to mean that accounting thinkers are aware of the need for a sound structure on which to develop the discipline: they have attempted to apply accepted scientific methods for research programmes and theory construction. It is important that the scientific methods chosen are themselves sufficiently rigorous and accepted as meeting these needs. This thesis is concerned with examining the work of four accounting writers who appear to have had a significant influence on accounting thought - Raymond Chambers, Yuji Ijiri, Richard Mattessich and Robert Sterling. Although no one year can be held to be more significant than others, 1960, as the beginning of the decade in which most of the work was carried out, has been selected as the boundary of this analysis. The four selected theorists have all produced major works since that date. In order to provide a perspective from which to assess the methodology of the theorists some space is devoted to tracing the thought on scientific theory construction over the last seventy years. It has included a brief survey of the major characteristics of logical positivism, and the work of philosophers who have reacted against that movement - Popper, Kuhn, Feyerabend and others. It is shown that accounting theorists have tended to rely too heavily on a logical positivist position to determine the process by which research is undertaken and theories constructed. If the work of those philosophers of science who have reacted against the positivist position can be accepted as providing a more suitable expression of how knowledge is attained then accounting theorists have erred. With the possible exception of Chambers, from an analysis of theoretical works since 1960, this appears to be so.

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  • Adolescent-parent conflict as preceived by the adolescent : a study of the development of independence in adolescence : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment for the degree of Master of Arts in Education

    Chong, Helen

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The development of independence is one of the major developmental tasks of adolescence. The development of two aspects of independence - economic independence and emotional independence - were considered in this study. It was postulated that when the individual is emotionally dependent on his parents, and acceptant of being so, the degree of conflict with parents is low and that during the period of striving for emotional independence the degree of conflict with parents rises to a maximum, then falls as emotional independence is established. After a consideration of factors stated in the literature to be related to adolescent-parent conflict the following hypothesis was developed and tested: for those adolescents living with their parents who are by law permitted to engage in full time employment there is an inverse relation between the degree of economic independence and the degree of conflict with parents, regardless of age, sex, socio-economic status and whether or not the adolescent is a student. A scale to measure degree of conflict was developed and used to assess degree of conflict with mother, with father, and with both parents together. From 133 responses to the questionnaire designed to test this hypothesis a sample of 85 Europeans, ranging in age from 15 to 19 years who came from families where both the natural parents were present was obtained. The hypothesis was not verified. Conflict with mother was found to decrease with age. No other factors were found to be related to degree of conflict. An analysis of the areas of conflict indicated, on average, a greater number of areas of conflict with mother than with father and a greater number of areas of conflict with father than with both parents together. Examination of the highest ranking areas indicated that adolescents argue more with their mothers about specific home-centered topics and more with their fathers and both parents together about abstract and external topics. This difference in the nature of adolescent-parent conflict was explained in terms of the structure of the New Zealand family and the role each parent plays in the family.

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  • The Raman spectroscopy of ionic liquids : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Chemical Physics at Massey University, New Zealand

    Swanson, Adam James

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Raman and infrared spectra were recorded for the ionic liquids [CH3N(C4H8)Bu]+[(F3CSO2)2N]-, [Et3NH]+[(octyl)PO2H]-, [Bu4N]+[(hexyl)PO2H]-, and [Bu4P]+[(octyl)2PO2]- and was compared to spectra calculated by Gaussian 03 using the density functional theory method B3LYP. The experimental and calculated spectra were found to be very similar, indicating that no underlying anomalous effects were perturbing the vibrational modes. The peaks of the experimental and calculated Raman and infrared spectra were found to be broad and intertwined, because of the close proximity of numerous vibrational bands. The differential and absolute scattering cross sections of selected bands of the ionic liquids were determined using a method of comparing the area of the ionic liquid’s peak to standards of known cross section (cyclohexane, carbon tetrachloride, benzene, dichloromethane, and acetonitrile). Differential and absolute cross sections were determined experimentally at wavelengths 416 nm, 487 nm, 514 nm, 532 nm and 633 nm. A-term plots were constructed with these results to obtain the coupling constant and the effective excited state energy. These parameters allowed the calculation of the differential and absolute scattering cross sections at any wavelength. This project is the first in a series of investigations to determine the electron transfer rate of ionic liquids and determine their suitability as materials in new devices.

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  • Exploring the Self-Concept and Sense of Belonging of Academically Accelerated Gifted Male Adolescents in a New Zealand Context : thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters in Educational Psychology at Massey University, Manawatū New Zealand

    Yeo, Lindsay James

    Thesis
    Massey University

    When it comes to provision for intellectually gifted students, acceleration – the introduction of curriculum early or at a faster rate than usual – is not a popular choice in New Zealand. This is despite overwhelming overseas research finding academic acceleration to be a very effective way of meeting the needs of gifted learners. Research has also identified that many parents and educators hold a common fear that accelerating children will negatively affect their social-emotional development. The current study aimed to explore the validity of this fear. A mixed-methods study with an explanatory-sequential design was used to explore the self-concepts and sense of belonging of a cohort of 30 male Year 13 students at a single-sex secondary school in New Zealand. The students were all dually-enrolled in a variety of 100-level courses through a local university. The participants completed the Piers-Harris Children’s Self-Concept Scale 2, with the results compared to the test norms; other than physical-self-concept, no significant differences were found between the norms and the cohort on the domains measured, with all scores within the “Normal” range. Five of the participants were then purposively selected for semi-structured interviews investigating self-concept and sense of belonging, and how their experiences in their school’s acceleration programme may have impacted upon these. All of the interviewees expressed a strong sense of belonging to the school and the acceleration programme, and felt that the programme had enabled them to develop socially. The questionnaire and interview results indicated that the accelerated students felt comfortable in their identity as “accelerates”, while also feeling accepted by their fellow students. These findings suggest acceleration classes to be a positive provision for gifted students that does not significantly impact their social-emotional development.

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  • The contribution of the informal sector to development : a study of street food vendors in Jakarta Indonesia : a thesis presented in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Development Studies at Massey University

    Fixy, Fixy

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis discusses how the development strategies and policies implemented by the Government have failed to distribute income and wealth and have exacerbated inequality instead. It shows viewpoints which argued that this kind of development has enriched only a few people while leaving others marginalised. It also reveals that the misconception of ideal development as similar to the state found in developed countries has undermined other forms of economic activities and development which are different from and do not conform to the recipe given by those model countries. It leads to the harsh treatment and affects many economic activities initiated by the marginalised people. This study tries to point out the importance of the informal sector to development, which forms a large portion of the workforce in many developing countries. It studied how these economic activities provided a means for survival for those people. It assesses the contribution of this sector to job creation, income generation activities, improved livelihoods and living standards. It studied the sustainability of this sector against the economic crisis which started in the middle of 1997. It focused on food businesses operated on the sidewalks in the area known as the Segi Tiga Emas (the Golden Triangle) in Jakarta. The results of this study revealed a number of interesting findings. This particular informal sector was found to make a huge contribution to the livelihoods of the people involved in it. It also contributed to the well-being of many people who used its services. Some of the income derived from these businesses was transferred to other provinces from where the vendors came from, meaning it helped in the regional distribution of wealth. As most of these businesses employed relatives or family members it also created jobs for the unemployed. These businesses were found not to be badly affected by the economic crisis and seeing how they had been running for a number of years, they were also susainable. Unfortunately, this good living enjoyed by the people involved in this sector was only for the self-employed or the owners of the businesses. The wage workers who worked at street food stalls did not receive a good income for their labour nor did they get any protection from the Indonesian Government. Regardless, the existence of the informal sector should not be curbed or eliminated. The Government should take decisive steps in promoting the development of this sector. This promotion should include steps to protect and should regard the development of individuals, small groups and marginalised people as an important part of development.

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  • A chewing robot based on parallel mechanism-- analysis and design : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Engineering in Mechatronics at Massey University

    Pap, József-Sebastian

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Masticatory efficiency, dependent on number and condition of the teeth, length of time spent in chewing a bolus and the force exerted when chewing, influences an individual with the selection of food and therefore nutritionally diet. A characterisation of the masticatory efficiency could be possible with a chewing robot that simulates human chewing behaviours in a mechanically controllable way (Pap et al. 2005; Xu et al. 2005). This thesis describes such a chewing robot, developed from a biological basis in terms of jaw structure and muscles of mastication according to published articles. A six degrees of freedom parallel mechanism is proposed with the mandible as a moving platform, the skull as a fixed platform, and six actuators representing the main masticatory muscle groups, temporalis, masseter, and lateral pterygoid on the left and right side. Extensive simulations of inverse kinematics (i.e., generating muscular actuations with implementing recorded human trajectories) were conducted in SolidWorks and COSMOS/Motion to validate two mathematical models of the robot and to analyse kinematic properties. The research showed that selection of appropriate actuation systems, to achieve mandible movement space, velocity, acceleration, and chewing force, was the key challenge in successfully developing a chewing robot. Two custom designed actuation systems, for the six actuators, were developed and built. In the first approach, the muscle groups were presented as linear actuators, positioned so as to reproduce the resultant lines of action of the human muscles. However, with this design concept the spatial requirements specified from the human masticatory system made the physical building of the model impossible. The second approach used a crank mechanism based actuator. This concept did not allow a perfectly linear actuator movement that copied the muscle line of action. However, it was possible to fulfil the spatial requirements set by the human system and to allow reproduction of human chewing behaviours in relation to kinematic requirements and chewing force. The design, manufacture and testing of the entire chewing robot with crank actuators was then carried out. This included the implementation of realistic denture morphology, a mechanical jaw and the framework design for the whole system. In conclusion, this thesis research has developed successfully a mathematical and a physical robotic model. Future work on the control and sensing of the robot and design of a food retention system are required in order to fully functionalise the device.

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  • Attachment type and cognitive status of people in treatment for substance use and abuse : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts at Massey University

    Murch, Lesley Barbara

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Irregular pagination:- pgs 80-81 are missing

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  • The cooling of spent carbon anodes in the aluminium smelting industry : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Mathematics at Massey University

    Cole, Matthew

    Thesis
    Massey University

    As part of the New Zealand Aluminium Smelters (NZAS) upgrade, a hot butt cleaning system has been proposed, this would remove the bath from anodes as they are removed from the cells. It is expected that the time to cool for hot cleaned anodes would be significantly less than for current method of allowing the butts to cool before the bath is removed. In this project a mathematical model of the cooling process of both the clean and dirty anodes is developed. This model will aid in the investigation of the hot butt cleaning system by showing the difference in cooling times between the clean and dirty anodes. The temperature profiles within both clean and dirty anodes is calculated for one-, two- and three-dimensional models. Temperature changes in the anodes with time are also compared to experimental data.

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  • Assessment of standby power utilisation in New Zealand : a thesis submitted for the degree of Masters of Technology in Energy Management from Massey University

    Flinte, Inge

    Thesis
    Massey University

    "Standby Power" refers to a product or appliance that is connected to a power source but does not produce any sound or picture, transmit or receive information or is waiting to be switched "on" by a direct or indirect signal from the consumer. This includes the "off" mode, even where there is no remote control. Standby Power is currently a global problem in the developed world and is estimated to be responsible for 1.5 % of total electricity consumption. It contributes 0.6 % (68 million tons) of CO2 emissions from the electricity sector. At the present time, standby power is a relatively new concept with very few statistics available on the standby power consumption in New Zealand. To date New Zealand has not considered standby power to be important. While almost all first world countries are introducing legislation and making active movements toward reducing standby power in new appliances, New Zealand has yet to take action. There is a growing awareness of standby power in New Zealand that has gained some media coverage. However from this study it is clear that although 89% of surveyed consumers had heard of standby power, the general consumer was unaware of the extent to which standby power is emitted through appliances and the amount of power and money it consumes nationally per year. In the midst of a power crisis (at the time of writing, June, 2003), New Zealand has the capability to reduce power consumption by 10%, by turning all appliances off onto standby. Unfortunately, the lack of consumer education in regard to the extent of wastage in standby power in the average New Zealand household inhibits this saving from being made. The possible future directions for New Zealand as a result of this study are as follows. - Legislation needs to be put into place in New Zealand to encourage manufacturers to reduce standby power consumption of new appliances. This will help to bring New Zealand manufacturers up to standard with places like the USA, Europe, Australia, Japan and China, who are already taking active steps to reduce standby power. Legislation in other countries has shown that mandatory legislation is hard to police. A campaign educating the consumer on energy labelling and the cost of standby power teamed with a voluntary manufacturers' scheme to lower standby power consumption (using the worldwide energy star label) would be potentially effective. Previous studies have called for a worldwide standardised standby power labelling scheme. This scheme is seen as being necessary as many New Zealand products are being manufactured overseas. The following changes need to take place to take an active approach to reducing standby power wastage: - Research into the standby consumption of the commercial and industrial sectors within New Zealand. - Improvements in energy labelling. Consumer education and awareness campaign with regard to energy labelling, needs to take place on a public arena. Energy labels need to be simplified so the average New Zealander can understand the energy emitted through standby power on market appliances and the amount that standby power costs both on a nation wide scale and to the individual consumer.

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  • Comparison of production systems for potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) minituber production with different cultivars : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Applied Science in Nursery Production

    Jegathees, Ambalavanar

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The purpose of these studies is to determine the effect of different production systems (Aeroponic (AP), Deep flow (DF), Nutrition film technique (NFT) and Bark) on production of first generation (prebasic) potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) minitubers with different cultivars (Russet Burbank, Rua, Kenebec, Atlantic and Diésrée). Prebasic tubers usually multiplied in a greenhouse in a bark medium. Replacing the bark based system by a highly intensive aeroponic system is viable. The aeroponic system significantly produced higher tuber numbers per plant and produced a higher percentage (82%) of 1 -2g size tuber than other systems evaluated. In aeroponic and deep flow systems, the time to tuberization is higher. When tuberization is delayed, stolons grow continuously in the deep flow and aeroponic systems. In hydroponic systems a developing stolons did not encounter sufficient mechanical resistance to limit growth, they grew extremely vigorously and very wide of diameter (1.92- 2.42 mm). When roots and stolons filled the aeroponic and deep flow containers some root rustication occurred then tubers were initiated. Acid treatment efficiently synchronised tuberization in the aeroponic systems, tubers were visible four days after acid treatment. Optimum acid treatment depends on the specific cultivar or stage of stolon development. Rua produced the highest yield per plant and highest tuber number per plant. The pH and treatment time significantly affected the tuber number per plant. Acid treatment at pH 3.5 produced the highest tuber number (19.8) per plant. Minitubers show a dormant period immediately after they are harvested. Application of GA is a useful method to break minituber dormancy. Fifty percentage of the GA treated tubers sprouted within 20 days after treatment, while untreated control took 37 days. Overall, sprouting was highest for 100 ppm treatment, but was not significantly different from 30 ppm. The highest and lowest sprouting cultivars were Russet Burbank and Atlantic respectively. Potato cuttings can be propagated in an aeroponic system. Application of IBA treatment at 0.1 to 0.3% significantly induced root formation and root growth. About 80% of the IBA treated cuttings rooted and produced longer roots than untreated cuttings. From these studies we found the aeroponic system to be suitable for minituber production as well as the propagation of potato cuttings. Production of high tuber number per plant in aeroponic systems will reduced the production cost and reduce the number of field multiplications required before final cropping.

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  • Aspects of the osmotic and water balance of the New Zealand native frog Leiopelma hochstetteri fitzinger, and the Australian whistling frog Litoria ewingi dumeril and bibron : a thesis ... for the degree of Master of Science in Zoology

    Cameron, Murray Colin

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Rates of dehydration and rates of water uptake when hydrated or dehydrated are described for two species of frogs of similar size from different habitats. No detectable differences in rates of water loss in frogs of both species of comparable size were noted. Considerable differences were seen in rates of water uptake. These uptake rates were lower in hydrated and dehydrated Le. hochstetteri than in hydrated Li. ewingi. Differences in rates of water uptake were reflected in measurements of skin permeability and blood plasma osmolality. Rates of water uptake in Li. ewingi were dramatically increased after dehydration, and it was proposed that this was due to hormonal mediation. The osmotic permeability of different skin regions in frogs of different species may vary in the presence or absence of oxytocin or vasopressin. This was not observed in Le. hochstetteri where the skin exhibited relatively uniform permeability, but was seen in Li. ewingi and Li. aurea. In these two species, the abdominal skin was more permeable and more readily stimulated by oxytocin or vasopressin than the dorsal skin. Oxytocin and vasopressin also increased the short circuit current (inward Na+transport) through both dorsal and ventral skin in Le. hochstetteri, but most noticeably through the ventral skin in Li. ewingi and Li. aurea. The skin was observed to be thinner in Li. ewingi than in Le. hochstetteri or Li. aurea. Thin areas in the ventral pelvic integument of Li. ewingi and Li. aurea and the presence of epidermal capillaries in these two species are thought to be of importance in water uptake. It has been suggested that water uptake mechanisms are a major factor determining the distribution of the three frog species.

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  • Akha zangr : the Akha system of sustainable development and its conflicts with Thailand's development process : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Development Studies at Massey University

    Phillips, Emma

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis assesses Akha "zangr" ("way of life") as an indigenous system of development relevant to Akha development in the highlands of Thailand. It uses the principles of sustainable development studies, incorporating empowerment, gender, environment, health, education, justice, equality, poverty and participation as a framework for the assessment. This is the first study to examine Akha zangr as a system of sustainable development. It follows on from the description given by Alting von Geusau (1999) of Akha zangr as a "system for the sustainability and continuity of the Akha as a margnialised people". It is an attempt to empower the Akha community by giving credit to their knowledge and system of development as a modern rather than traditional system relevant to the 21st century. In Thailand there are nine ethnic groups officially recognised as indigenous to the highlands, each with a unique language and "zangr" based on strategies for survival and development in the highland environment. This thesis describes their common experiences of the Thai development process. Consequences include political and social exclusion from participation in the development process, their unjustified label as "problem makers" in Thai politics, and the inaccurate assessment of Mountain People as ignorant and backward. Disastrous impacts of foreign development in the highlands include deforestation, poverty, human rights abuses and a loss of cultural independence and knowledge for minority ethnic groups. Thailand's development process is examined based on increasing economic growth. Discussions focus on the industrialisation period initiated in the 1950's until the present day that, on paper, closely follow trends in international development thought. Thailand's policies of sustainable development have so far been ineffective in reducing environmental degradation from rapid economic growth and instead exclude local people from participating in the management of the environment. The assessment concludes that Thailand's top-down national economic growth policies have failed to improve the quality of life for the most disadvantaged people in Thai society and instead have caused massive environmental degradation, increased poverty, inequalities and the disempowerment of individuals and the community.

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