89,537 results

  • Comparison of two methods of herbage production measurement in continuously grazed hill pastures : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science in Animal Science at Massey University

    Hawkins, Clive Leo

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Herbage production of continuously grazed hill country pastures has traditionally been measured using grazing exclusion cages and a trim technique. Herbage production values obtained via this system differ from those of the surrounding grazed sward due to differences in sward structure. Herbage production of four farmlets with differing fertiliser treatments was measured by two methods over a full year. The first method involved a computer model which calculated herbage production from dry matter intake and cover change. Secondly, herbage production was measured via frame cuts, and the results of the two methods compared. The model measured less herbage production than the frames on an annual basis in all four fertiliser treatments (0.77 of frame average for the four fertiliser treatments). The ratio of model to frame herbage production varied widely during the year, with maximum ratios of model to frame herbage production of 1.6 occurring in autumn, and the minimum of -0.02 in winter. More herbage was produced under the frames in spring than in the grazed sward as a result of increased expression of reproductive tillers under the frames than in the grazed sward. Frames appear to underestimate herbage production in dry conditions as the trimming off of herbage at the placement of frames leads to lower levels of plant available water when compared to the surrounding sward. The low ratios are a result of the large amounts of dead material which build up in grazed hill pastures over summer and the rapid breakdown of this material when conditions are right, in this case in early-late winter. The results suggest that there are large differences in the annual, and seasonal pattern of herbage production between that measured off grazed swards and that measured via frames. This suggests that anyone wishing to calculate expected pasture supply using frame cut information must modify frame cut values to determine production of a continuously grazed sward.

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  • Constancy and difference in the dimensions and elements of nursing practice, 1901-1981 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of M.A. (Soc. Sci.) at Massey University

    Rayner, Beverley M

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Irregular pagination: pgs 124 & 285 missing

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  • Characterisation of adhesion of a probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 to extracellular matrix proteins and the intestinal cell line Caco-2 : a thesis presented to Massey University in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Science in Microbiology

    Authier, Astrid

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This study focuses on Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001, a potential candidate for use as a probiotic. Probiotics are microorganisms that can exert a beneficial effect on a host. It is believed that the ability of a probiotic to colonise gastrointestinal surfaces is important in its ability to exert a beneficial effect on the host. In order to do so, it is thought the microorganism must be able to adhere to molecules found on intestinal cells. HN001 has been shown to adhere to human intestinal cell lines (Gopal et al., 2001). This study characterises the molecular species involved in the adherence of HN001 to intestinal molecules and cell lines, which may be important in the ability of HN001 to exert health benefits in a host. Both liquid and solid-phase binding assays were used to characterise HN001 binding to extracellular matrix (ECM) components found in intestinal tissues. Of the ECM components investigated, HN001 bound fibronectin with the highest affinity. This interaction was specific, saturable and dependent on the growth phase of HN001. HN001 bound immobilised fibronectin in preference to soluble fibronectin through a protein-dependent interaction. HN001 was also found to bind to the N-terminal heparin binding domain of fibronectin and the C-terminal part of the first type III repeat in the fibronectin molecule (III1-C). HN001 adhered to the human intestinal cell line, Caco-2, in a dose-dependent manner that was enhanced by a pH-sensitivc factor present in the spent culture supernatant. Since fibronectin-binding was identified as a possible mechanism for adherence of HN001 to intestinal tissues, HN001 genome DNA sequence was examined for genes encoding putative fibronectin-binding proteins. Fbl (Fibronectin-binding like) was identified through its similarity to fibronectin-binding proteins from Streptococcus pneumoniae (Holmes et al., 2001) and S. pyogenes (Courtney et al., 1994). Fbl was expressed by a GST fusion system and used to compete with HN001 adhesion in liquid-phase binding assays to ascertain its function. Since difficulties were experienced when expressing and purifying soluble Fbl, an insertional disruption of the fbl gene was created and its phenotype investigated in liquid-phase, solid-phase and Caco-2 binding assays to determine Fbl function.

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  • Characterising stickiness of dairy powders : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology in Bioprocess Engineering, Massey University

    Chatterjee, Rajesh

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The stickiness phenomenon, one of the major operational problems, in the spray drying process is strongly related to changes in the powder particle surface. During the course of drying, powder particles with intermediate moisture pass through a very cohesive and adhesive 'plastic' phase. This phase has shown to be influenced by surface composition, moisture content, particle size, manufacturing method, surrounding air humidity and temperature. During spray drying, the powder particle experiences varied temperature and humidity conditions, which were replicated under controlled dynamic conditions to some extent in a 'Bench-top-scale Fluid Bed Rig' or in a 'Particle Gun Rig'. In these two set-ups, stickiness-end-point or deposition rates at a particular temperature and humidity combination were plotted to develop 'Stickiness Curves' after testing different dairy-based powders. Further improvements in the 'Particle Gun Rig' has been identified to minimise heat loss for future experimentation. It has been demonstrated that the stickiness property is a surface phenomenon. This is governed by the composition of a particular powder, manufacturing methods and the temperature / humidity conditions surrounding the powder particles. The low fat powders (42%) followed a combined 'Fat and lactose based stickiness model'. The 'lactose based model' followed the predicted glass transition (Tg) trend of amorphous lactose, shifted by some degree (X) upwards, depending on the product composition or the amount of amorphous lactose present - to be specific. These quick and easy methods to identify a safe and non-sticky operating window to minimise product adhesion to the equipment wall would be of huge benefit to the dairy industry in process optimization, as fore knowledge of likely difficulties and specified operating conditions will help efficient and economic operation. Attempts have been made to rectify the humidity tracking system in a spray drier and relate the 'stickiness curves' with its drying parameters. Further work should be done by taking commercial trial runs at recommended or allowable operating conditions with reference to 'Stickiness Curves', in order to maximise the throughput and to minimise the drying cost without compromising the product quality. Looking into the effects of other variables like air velocity, angle of impact, different impact surface materials and particle size on powder stickiness would be of much interest to the dairy industry.

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  • Cardiopulmonary resuscitation : attitudes and knowledge of medical and nursing staff : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Nursing at Massey University

    O'Sullivan, Claire

    Thesis
    Massey University

    End of life issues, in particular the use of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with the intention of prolonging life, remain a problem for many doctors and nurses. Research indicates that survival rates have not significantly improved over the last 30 years and that certain predictors prior to the cardiac arrest or during the cardiac arrest point to likely survival chances (Marik & Craft, 1997; Sanders, 1999; van Walraven, Forster & Steill, 1999). The attitudes and knowledge of doctors and nurses may influence CPR decision-making and practice. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the issues that surround CPR are complex, and each context is unique. The role of doctors and nurses in discussion and decision-making concerning CPR is likely to be influenced by many factors. Such decision-making continues to be highlighted by both doctors and nurses as their foremost ethical dilemma, even though their roles in CPR may differ (Oberle & Hughes, 2001). This study explores the attitudes of doctors and nurses, and searches for any relationships between attitudes, knowledge and decision-making in CPR. The data for the study was collected from 141 doctors and nurses working in a tertiary, teaching hospital. The investigator following a review of the research literature developed a questionnaire aiming to measure the attitudes and knowledge of doctors and nurses. Analysis of the data from the questionnaire was performed using the Statistical Software Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), and included descriptive inferential statistics, using chi-square analysis and logistic regression. The results of this study showed a general lack of knowledge amongst doctors and nurses about CPR survival outcomes; however doctors did demonstrate a higher level of knowledge than nurses. Discrepancies were evident in the perception of roles in CPR decision-making particularly amongst nurses. There were also a number of doctors who did not consider decision-making in CPR to be their role. Nurses and doctors differed in their perception of their roles, with nurses primarily viewing initiation of CPR as their role and only some nurses considering their role to be decision-making during CPR. The study also confirmed the differences in attitudes by doctors and nurses towards end of life issues, and confirmed that health professionals would like to discuss resuscitation more with their patients. Findings are discussed and related to the literature surrounding CPR, in particular, the general patterns of findings from the sample which pointed to a knowledge deficit in some doctors and nurses in relation to CPR and may impact on other areas such as discussion of end of life issues. The implications of these findings for practice, research and education are then outlined with recommendations. The general limitations of the study are also discussed with implications for future research.

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  • Childbirth in the Manawatu : women's perspectives : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Sociology at Massey University

    McSherry, Margaret Anne

    Thesis
    Massey University

    In most western countries the management of childbirth is surrounded by controversy and debate. New Zealand is no exception. Much of the debate centres round the role of medicine in the management of the healthy birth and the powerful influence exerted by the providers of maternity services over policy in this area. New Zealand research conducted on the management of childbirth, including consumer surveys, reflects the questions, methodologies and experience of the providers. Women's experiences of childbirth have not usually been considered legitimate data. This 'invisibility' of women in the research data has produced a body of knowledge about childbirth that is androcentric, reflecting male experience. Women, until recently, have been powerless to challenge this version of the reality of childbirth because they lacked access to medical knowledge and technology and because of the existence of an ideology of motherhood that imbued women with an expectation of self-sacrifice and nurturance impelling them to give priority to the perceived needs of the baby. The medical profession has been able to maintain control of the management of childbirth by requiring women's passivity and dependence 'for the sake of the baby'. In this way, medicine might, be said to act as an agent of social control of women, reproducing the unequal relations of gender by confirming women in their dependent roles of motherhood and domesticity. The pregnancy and birth experiences of 48 Manawatu women are explored in depth. The sample consisted of rural and urban women who, when pregnant, were expecting to have a normal labour and birth. Perinatal care was provided either by a specialist obstetric unit at the regional base hospital or by low technology, general practitioner (obstetric) units (GPU's) in the peripheral areas. Management of childbirth was found to be generally consistent with an obstetric or medical model of childbirth and similar in both high and low technology hospitals. Women's priorities for a quality service were more akin to a model of childbirth based on traditional midwifery. Women wanted a more 'holistic' form of maternity care; one that recognised and incorporated the socio-emotional dimensions of pregnancy and birth. Most women rejected the passive role expected of them in medical encounters and during the birth process. Women were likely to reject the association of childbirth with illness, preferring antenatal and perinatal services that were autonomous of general medical services. Few women, however, felt that the home could provide the ideal conditions for giving birth. The physical difficulty of labour and the level of medical intervention in the birth process were less likely to influence women's satisfaction with labour and birth that the quality of the emotional support women received from birth attendants and the level of the mothers' active participation in labour. Greater approval was found for the GPU as a place of birth, than for the specialist unit. Such findings challenge some of the current assumptions and directions of policy on maternity services in New Zealand.

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  • The politics of teachers' work in the context of curriculum resources marketisation policy reforms in three secondary schools in Tanzania : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) at Massey University, Manawatu Campus, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Mislay, Moshi Amsi

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Before Tanzania enjoyed the fruits of postcolonial education policy reforms, the country was hit by the world economic crises in the 1970s. Consequently, Tanzania and other developing countries turned to the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) that imposed, financed, and controlled her education and economic policy through the Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAP) of the 1980s. Thus, Tanzania adopted education privatisation and marketisation policies during the 1990s. More specifically, in 1991, the Policy on Production and Distribution of School and College Books, which I will call Marketisation Policy, redefined school and college curriculum resources according to market principles. The purpose of this study was to critically analyse how marketisation policy reforms, reconstructed at societal, institutional, and local classroom levels, reshaped teachers’ subjectivities and practices between 1992 and 2012. Using an ethnographic case study of three secondary schools from northern Tanzania, the study examines teachers’ work histories, politics, and cultures using a combination of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) (Fairclough, 1989, 1992, 1995, 2015) and the theory of pedagogic discourse (Bernstein, 1971, 1975, 1990, 1996, 1999, 2000). The study aimed to answer three research questions, namely: (1) What policy texts and discourses were constructed in the process of marketisation policy interpretation in secondary schools? (2) How do marketisation policy texts and discourses reshape secondary school teachers’ subject positions and pedagogical codes? and (3) How do the subject positions and pedagogical codes constructed by marketisation policy texts and discourses reshape teachers’ pedagogic practices and official knowledge construction? Marketisation policy implementation and professional documents, interview and focus group transcripts, and classroom observation notes were collected from the three schools. These were analysed to discern themes that characterised the nature, history, and politics of teachers’ work practices. Findings indicate that marketisation policy texts and discourses positioned secondary school teachers as passive and dependent consumers of marketised curriculum resources (MCR) produced by private publishers and the state. They were also positioned as lacking knowledge to plan, decide, and implement curricula, pedagogic, and evaluation practices. These subject positions constrained teacher creativity and critical thinking, and reproduced capitalist publishers and state power and ideologies through the policy texts and discourses. Curricular, pedagogical, and evaluatative cultural practices were dominated and influenced by capitalist publishers and the state through marketisation policy texts and the discourses of finance, MCR, educational materials’ approval, and advertising. The study documents how marketisation policy aims, objectives, outcomes, and pedagogic strategies reflected the aims and effects of both colonial and postcolonial education policy. Teachers and students constructed multiple power/knowledge and resistance to dominant discourses based on accessible MCR, private tuition, past educational training, collaboration with colleagues, and attending some training. However, although these discourses empowered them to construct and exercise power/knowledge to respond to marketisation policy discursive constraints, they also reconstructed curriculum domination because of students’ limited access to MCR and classroom curriculum discourses.

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  • Analysis of mitochondrial control region DNA variation in New Zealand's brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Ecology at Massey University

    Chapman, Joanne R

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) were first introduced from Australia to New Zealand in 1858 to establish a fur industry. Currently numbering more than 65 million, they are recognised as the most important mammalian pest in New Zealand, because of the environmental and agricultural damage they cause. Possums act as a wildlife reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (Tb) and, as such, threaten New Zealand's multi-million dollar beef and dairy industry. Eliminating bovine Tb in livestock requires removal of contact with infected possums. This is mainly achieved through the intensive poisoning of areas of known wildlife Tb infection and the establishment around them of zones of low possum density (known as buffer zones) adjacent to at-risk farmland. Not only does this result in lower possum density, and thus fewer dispersing possums, but may also affect the movement patterns of possums. Measurement of gene frequency differences between populations associated with a buffer zone would allow a qualitative estimate of the effect of buffer zones on limiting possum movement. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region is an effective marker for detecting intraspccific genetic structure because it has a high mutation rate, lack of recombination and uniparental mode of inheritance. An extensive survey of brushtail possum mtDNA control region variation in New Zealand was conducted to quantify levels of variation and thus assess the utility of the mtDNA control region as a marker for detecting genetic differentiation between possum populations. Nine haplotypes were found among 70 possums from throughout New Zealand. Most of the variation (six haplotypes) was concentrated in the North Island, and the most widespread haplotype (occurring in all four islands surveyed) was also the most common - found in 67% of possums surveyed. The technique of single stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) was developed for the brushtail possum so that a quick, cost-effective and sensitive method for surveying mtDNA control region variation in large numbers of individuals was available. This assay was applied to screen the variation in possums separated by small spatial scales associated with two buffer zones in the South Island. A total of 234 possums were screened, with 98.7% found to possess the same haplotype. The other 1.3%, all from one location, possessed a second haplotype. The extremely low levels of variation makes it highly unlikely that surveys of variation in mtDNA will be able to detect an effect of buffer zones on possum movement, at least in the South Island. Areas of higher variation, such as certain parts on the North Island, would be better candidates for testing the effect of barriers such as buffer zones on genetic differentiation between possum populations.

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  • Application of environmental weighting system for quantification of minimum flow in Whanganui River : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for a degree in Master of Philosophy in Resource and Environmental Planning, Planning Department, Massey University

    Guinto, Rufino C

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Environmental weighting system is a technique for measuring the environmental sensitivity of reduced river flows. A points system with seven environmental categories was used to arrive at scores indicative of a location's sensitivity and commensurate with the maximum permissible volume of abstraction. The same score is used to estimate the environmentally prescribed flow or minimum flow. This study deals with the applicability of an environmental weighting system to the quantification of a prescribed minimum flow using the Whanganui River as a case study. The minimum flows in Whanganui River have been subject to considerable debate since the construction of a series of intakes on several headwater streams in the early seventies for the purpose of increasing water volumes for the ECNZ power generation at Tokaanu and nine hydroelectric power plant stations on the Waikato River. In 1977, the NZ Canoeing Association requested that a minimum flow be fixed which in 1983, culminated in a recommendation of 22 m-3 s-1 minimum flow at Te Maire in December and January. A review of these flows was carried out in 1987 and the minimum flow was increased to 29 m-3 -1 from December to May following a Planning Tribunal Hearing in 1989-90. The results showed that one of the flow allocation methods was very restrictive to ECNZ operations while strongly favouring the requirements of fisheries and other instream uses. Two other options were examined under the demand conditions in the Whanganui River. They provided for an environmentally prescribed flow which was similar to that proposed by the Planning Tribunal Determination (1990), but each had slightly different abstraction proposals to meet suggested flows. Under New Zealand conditions the technique was found to be useful in identifying the environmental constraints of competing demands for river water. However, in an already regulated flow regime the outcomes were hypothetical but still meaningful.

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  • An anthropological investigation of urban land development : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of M.A. in Social Anthropology at Massey University

    Coles, Michael Manoa

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The impetus for this project came from examples of neighbours' disempowerment in the land and property development process. There is a growing academic consensus that dominant approaches to land development fail to adequately address this issue. NeoMarxist approaches focus on conflict, power, and exploitation, but effectively eliminate the role of the actual developer in exercising power. Case study approaches, on the other hand, have been concerned with conflict and disempowerment, but have focused on specific instances of neighbourhood opposition and resistance. Explanation is often confined to local and national features of the social and geographical environment. These inadequacies pointed to the need to investigate the increasingly significant role that professional, entrepreneurial developers play at the nexus of the contemporary development process. An ethnographic methodology was used to provide a richer understanding of the land and property development process. The principal participants in the study are a set of 'entrepreneurial developers' operating in and around Palmerston North. Interviews, participant observation, and the examination of case studies are employed. This is complemented by an investigation of the Regulatory Procedure, including interviews with Council Officers, and examination of Council case studies. The research also uses interviews with neighbours, and a wide body of material published within the development industry. Planning for the study drew on Giddens' 'Theory of Structuration' (1979,1984) which stresses the interrelationship between the social structures of the development process, and the agency of developers. The research sought to elucidate the dominant forms of action and ideology which development agents acknowledge, and which therefore constitute the action and ideology of the development industry. The interpretation of the empirical data uses three interrelated perspectives: The first, provides a broad, industry-level, perspective on the local development industry. It asks, 'What are the major influences which shape and structure the contemporary development industry?'; The second, examines the level of action. It asks 'What are the actions of most significance to developers?', and 'What forms of conduct constitute the Institutional structures of the Regulatory Procedure?'; The third focuses on ideology. It asks, 'What are the dominant motivations which direct and influence developers' conduct?', and 'How do developers legitimate and rationalise conduct?'. An interesting aspect to the thesis is the extent to which developers share patterns of ideology, not only with each other, but also with a wider business community. Much of this characteristic ideology parallels findings in other ethnographic studies of capitalistic systems. The research highlights the fact that ethnography, and the notion of 'culture', provide an insightful and useful perspective of both the business world, and the study of development.

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  • Fluid identities : contextualising genital reconstructive surgery after female circumcision in Burkina Faso : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Social Anthropology at Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand. EMBARGOED until 1 October 2018

    Nyarango, Margaret

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Female circumcision procedures were traditionally performed on many girls and women in Burkina Faso. These practices were outlawed in 1996, and are now termed ‘female genital mutilation’ by the government and activists trying to stop them. About thirtyfive years ago, Pierre Foldès, a French urologist who was on a humanitarian mission to West Africa, developed a surgical procedure to alleviate health problems associated with these practices. He later refined his procedure and started using it to also restore clitoral anatomy and function. This surgery, which is presented as two distinct procedures in Burkina Faso, is now performed by some indigenous doctors in Ouagadougou and Bobo-Dioulasso. In this ethnographic study, I explore the reasons motivating some Burkinabe women to seek genital reconstructive surgery, the impact this surgery has on them and societal attitudes towards this surgery and these women. I discuss concepts of gender and embodiment in relation to Burkinabe girls’ and women’s health and sexuality by considering their understanding of what is normal, healthy, natural, complete, sexually attractive and feminine. I also consider the manner in which the meanings of these notions are changing depending on the prevailing discourse. I argue that the salience of the discourse promoted by the Burkinabe government and activists working to end female circumcision in the urban areas of Burkina Faso is compounding the harm associated with this practice. It has led some circumcised women to view themselves, and to be viewed by others, as unhealthy and sexually defective, and to believe that they need genital reconstructive surgery. Yet, limited information about this surgery, its cost and taboos associated with sex and sexuality limit women’s access to the surgery. I further argue that that some Burkinabe women in the Raëlian Movement are co-opting the discourse that paints circumcised women as victims to create spaces where they can remodel typical Burkinabe values, but also exercise those which are particular to their religion. They have thus embraced genital reconstructive surgery to reconstruct not just their bodies, but also their identity as healthy and sensual women.

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  • Applications of linear programming to corporate farm planning in developing countries : a case study for NAFCO Farms in Tanzania : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Agricultural Business and Administration at Massey University

    Swai, Ernest Aleonasaa

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The economic development of most of the developing countries depends, almost entirely, on the agricultural industry. Measures to speed-up the development of the agricultural sector to increase productivity in such countries are therefore imperative. In Tanzania, one of the actions the government has taken to achieve this is the establishment of agricultural Corporations which operate large scale mechanized farms. To achieve maximum productivity from scarce resources, such Corporations must be operated efficiently and this can only be achieved with appropriate planning of the corporate farms. This study has dealt with one such Corporation in Tanzania called National Agricultural and Food Corporation (NAFCO). The objective of the study has been to illustrate how such a Corporation can be operated efficiently so that maximum food production can be achieved from scarce resources. Linear programming has been evaluated as a planning tool for a single representative farm of NAFCO. The aim was to develop a suitable LP model for the farm, use this model to determine the optimal farm plans and associated information and evaluate whether the technique would form a suitable planning tool for NAFCO farms. The linear programing model developed demonstrated that the profits of the farm under study could be increased substantially by allocating the farm scarce resources more optimally. Repeating the optimisations of the model by changing the various assumptions proved to be quite useful in providing additional information on which to base management decisions. These results provided a better understanding of the effects and implications on what would happen if the anticipated yields, prices and certain policy decisions were changed. These are discussed in detail. The optimum plan computed should with minor changes be both acceptable and realizable. It is argued that, because under corporate farm structure, specific data relevant to individual farms is more readily available than under peasant farm situations and that because of the large scale nature of the corporate farms, the availability of wide choice of activities and resources as well as the necessary skills and defined objectives; linear programming would form a suitable planning tool for NAFCO farms.

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  • Academic achievement in male secondary students : a thesis in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology

    Drum, Michaela

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This study explored academic underachievement of fourth form boys in male secondary schools within the Auckland area. There were two aspects to this study; firstly, to identify students who are underachieving relative to their abilities and secondly, to explore possible psychological differences between underachievers and non-underachievers. An underachiever for the purpose of this study is a student who is achieving lower grades than expected in accordance with his abilities (McCall, Evahn & Kratzer, 1992). 598 of the 770 students enrolled in the participating schools had the necessary data for regression analyses to identify underachievers. Of the 598 students with valid data, 315 consented to participate in the questionnaire. The sample for this study comprised 315 fourth form boys. A discrepancy model using regression analysis was carried out on the 315 students to identify underachievers within the schools. 82 students were identified as underachievers using this method, which resulted in 13.9% of the sample being defined as underachievers. In addition, a self-report questionnaire was administered to the 770 students. The questionnaire measured six psychological dimensions that have been identified in previous research to be related to academic achievement. The responses of the underachieves and non-underachievers were compared to ascertain whether these two groups differ on the psychological dimensions measured. These psychological constructs measured in the questionnaire included study strategies (cognitive/self-regulation, persistence/effort, and disorganisation), social support, self- efficacy, test anxiety, intrinsic motivation/interest in school subjects, and outcome expectancies. There was a significant mean difference between non-underachievers and underachievers on the disorganisation scale. This finding suggests that underachievers had more disorganised study habits than their non-underachieving comparison group. There were also significant mean differences between underachievers and non-underachievers for intrinsic value in English and science. These findings suggested that underachievers were more intrinsically motivated in English than their non-underachieving comparison group, but less intrinsically motivated in Science.

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  • Absorptive capacity and knowledge transfer : an exploratory model for university-led research institutes (RIs) and small and medium enterprises (SMEs) : a 152.800 thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of Masters of Business Studies in Management at Massey University

    Paul, Smita

    Thesis
    Massey University

    'Absorptive capacity' is a construct used to define an organisation's ability to exploit knowledge that is available internally and externally. The construct is very popular within management research and has been used to describe the absorptive capacity of a range of strategic Multinational Corporation partners through to whole regions of countries. SMEs account for over 95% of businesses throughout the world. They provide innovation, productivity and economic growth, but because of their size and resources cannot afford to carry out costly Research and Development (R&D). They therefore need to be able to harness the intellectual property from universities through University-led Research institutes. This thesis uses the construct of absorptive capacity to propose a theoretical model to analyse the knowledge transfer from a University-led Research Institute (RI) to an SME, when the SME is commercialising a product or process the RI has developed. The application of absorptive capacity in this context would allow SME researchers and managers to develop understanding of how this knowledge transfer is affected by internal and external factors. The importance of continued government funding to ensure the collaboration between SMEs and RIs is highlighted. This research design is highly exploratory resulting in a range of future research suggestions for future hypothesis generation. Most important of these are suggestions for determining, defining and developing the organisational determinants of absorptive capacity. This will allow a prescriptive analysis of how knowledge transfer occurs between the SME and RI and how managers can foster organisational absorptive capacity for successful knowledge transfer. Additionally, the temporal aspect of the SME and RI relationship could be explored, such as the impact of the initial experience on the ease and length of future knowledge transfer relationships. Also, researchers could study the change in the SME's knowledge requirements from the RI as the SME's organisational structure grows.

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  • Achievement motivation orientation and psychological/interpersonal well-being in male recreational and elite cricket players : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Hadfield, David

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The present study examined differences between a convenience sample of elite (n=55) and recreational (n=31) cricketers in achievement motivation orientation, psychological well-being, relationship satisfaction and general attitudes and feelings to the game. Major findings were that (a) Elite athletes scored higher on both competitiveness and win orientation. (b) There was no significant difference between groups on psychological well-being. (c) There was no significant difference in relationship satisfaction between groups. Qualitative data from two open-ended questions indicated that for 40% of elite players, relationship sacrifices were the worst aspect of playing at elite level. (d) Elite cricketers scored significantly higher on commitment to cricket, achievement needs, competitive anxiety, intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation, and lower on fun/stimulation needs. (e) For elite players the best things about playing were the challenge, comradeship and win-oriented achievement, while the worst aspects were relationship sacrifices, travel, and career/financial sacrifices. For the recreational group, the best aspects were comradeship (83%) and enjoyment, and the worst aspects were overcompetitive players, cheating or incompetent umpires and rain.

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  • Aokautere basins : a study in morphometry : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Geography at Massey University

    Lee, Nanyang

    Thesis
    Massey University

    1.1 Location Of The Study Area The location of the study area is shown in Figure 1. It comprises part of the terrace to the south-east of the Manawatu River just opposite Palmerston North City centre. Almost all the area of the two drainage basins studied is within the boundary of Palmerston North City which has been expanded since 1967 to include land on this side of the river. This suburb is generally known as Aokautere. Both streams selected for study are secondary tributaries to the Manawatu River (Figure 2). They are here designated as Alton Creek, on the left, and Bolton Creek on the right, and the trunk stream they join before entering the Manawatu River is named Cliff Stream. The exact location of the study area can be found on NZMS 1 N149, the "Palmerston North" sheet, between grids E130 and E150, and N290 and N330. The township of Aokautere is about one mile northeast of the study area.

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  • Agrarian aspirations and demands as illustrated by the 1905 Royal Commission on Land Tenure : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in History at Massey University

    Bailey, Ross Leonard

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This essay is an examination of the 1905 Royal Commission report on Land Tenure. The introduction examines the Commission's final report and looks at its reception. The report and newspapers are set against each other in order to show what pressures were exerted on the Commission to come out in favour of the freehold. The essay also looks at the Minutes of evidence in order that themes not apparent in the final report can be examined. The aspirations and demands of witnesses are considered in relation to their background: rural and Urban, pro-freehold and pro-land nationalization. Newspapers and parliamentary debates are used where they comment or throw light on the evidence in the minutes and on the general issue of the freehold-leasehold controversy. The essay examines the idea that the freehold-leasehold controversy had a greater emotional dimension than a practical one. The practical side, however, has not been ignored. Two areas were selected for examination and were fairly representative of the problems throughout New Zealand. The conclusion suggests that the emotional aspect of the freehold-leasehold issue was largely a result of the agitation by freeholders, in order to preserve their way of life against the encroaching land nationalizers. The leaseholders were upset by the fear of having their rents revalued, and once this fear was removed most leasees-in-perpetuity were content with the lease-in-perpetuity system.

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  • Adoption and use of technology in beef production in the south of Brazil : a multiple-case study investigation of farmers' attitudes : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Applied Science in Agribusiness

    Borba Nunes, Fernanda

    Thesis
    Massey University

    In the last decade, the agricultural sector in Brazil has been undergoing significant structural changes as a result of the economic situation of the country and the modernisation process required by globalisation. The South of Brazil, after achieving status as a "zone free of foot-and-mouth disease", has enlarged its export market and faces new productivity requirements. It is assumed that increases in the rate of adoption of technologies in beef production can promote improvement in productivity and quality. The research aim was to identify farmers' attitudes towards adoption and use of technologies in beef production and their reasons for using/not using them. The purpose is to assist the increase in the rate of adoption of technologies in the Brazilian beef sector by the adequate formulation and recommendation of new technologies. The study was conducted in the South of Brazil, using multiple-case study and qualitative analysts. Nine beef farmers were interviewed in Rio Grande do Sul, concerning the use of five technologies: artificial insemination, use of salt/urea, use of fertilisers and soil correction, parasite and disease control and soil testing. Rogers' five attributes of innovation were used as a framework for analysis and compared with farmers' perceptions of the technologies. The research findings suggest that Rogers' attributes of innovations, although not all of the same importance, exert influence in the adoption decision. Farmers' very positive attitudes towards the adoption of new technologies was also identified. However, adoption and use of technologies are limited by financial constraints. It was concluded that further research and extension should focus on the financial and environmental circumstances of the farmers when developing and recommending the use of technologies, in order to increase the rate of adoption. Further research on this subject is suggested to confirm the study findings and to assist improvements in the sector.

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  • An analysis of the environmental planning framework for coastal developments in Fiji's coral coast tourist region : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements of a degree in Masters of Philosophy in Resource and Environmental Planning at Massey University

    Tuvuki, Suliasi Wavu

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis examines Fiji's environmental planning framework with particular reference to tourism development along the coast. This focus is an acknowledgement of the coastal ecosystems upon which the tourism industry depends. However, despite this emphasis, the findings in this thesis could be relevant to all types of development in Fiji. Firstly, the shortcomings of the present planning framework are identified, with particular attention being paid to the sectoral nature of the existing institutional and legal arrangements. The important role of EIA is also discussed and is applied to the situation in Fiji's. Particular attention is placed upon the way the present system does not sufficiently recognise the important role the indigenous Fijian plays in the development planning process. This seems unjust since the indigenous rural dweller is the most affected by tourism developments along the coast and so the case study area, Korolevu, was chosen to provide a typical example of how such large scale, unsustainable, coastal developments have in the past, because of flaws in the present system, were often established with little appreciation for the traditions, protocols and more sustainable environmental management practices of the traditional local people. Now that the international community is beginning to recognise the importance of providing sustainable development which preserves the environment in the fullest sense, including the cultural environment into which development is placed, the Government of Fiji is starting to recognise the importance of applying such strategies as Caring for the Earth (IUCN/UNEP/WWF 1991) and Agenda 21 (Sitarz 1993) to the situation in Fiji. The findings of this thesis result in various reforms which have the achievement of sustainable development practices in the Fijian cultural context as the underlying focus. These reforms emphasise the need to recognise and implement indigenous rights into the environmental planning framework at policy, institutional and legal levels. The incorporation of the indigenous Fijian's interests in this framework is an essential component to providing sustainable practices in Fiji. This inclusion can only be achieved by providing meaningful public participation opportunities for such communities. Ultimately, the IUCN/UNEP/WWF (1991) and Sitarz (1993) documents and, in addition, New Zealand's Resource Management Act (1992) collectively provide a useful model out of which the Fiji Government could develop its own environmental management regime which promotes sustainable development through the identification, avoidance, mitigation and remedying of the many environmental problems encountered in Fiji's coastal environment.

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  • Civilised men -- members of the craft : Freemasonry in Auckland to the formation of the Grand Lodge of New Zealandin 1890 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in History at Massey University

    Gardiner, Carol Elizabeth

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The public's fascination with freemasonry seems endless. Freemasons are variously believed to be members of a mysterious brotherhood of enormous influence, a secret society believed to have its roots in the order of the Knights Templar or the Egyptian pyramids and a sect involved in sacrilegious rites. Most will know of the periodic attacks upon freemasonry - claims that it is a secret society of men who conspire to help each other against the rest of the world, that they recognise each other by secret signs and then extend favours, even though this may be in conflict with their public duties - and the response of freemasons that their overriding duty is to obey the law. Their meetings, at which the rich symbolism of freemasonry is displayed in the course of the ceremonies, which are inspiring rituals to their members, may seem to be silly nonsense and play-acting to laymen. Freemasonry was one of the earliest social institutions to appear in Auckland and its members were active and influential. Whenever freemasons are mentioned in Auckland today, almost everyone claims to have had a predecessor who was a freemason. Many people recall seeing a father, grandfather or uncle going to lodge meetings carrying a thin case and wearing a dark suit and wondering what happened when the door of the lodge building closed behind them. On 7th October 1769 Sir Joseph Banks, who paid for his passage on Captain Cook's first voyage, was the first freemason to sight New Zealand. It was inevitable that those who chose to seek a new life in the colony would include a number of masonic brethren who saw themselves as enlightened, peace-loving and the practitioners of social equity, whose purpose was to exert the influence of freemasonry in this new colony which had been claimed for civilisation. As one of the first organised social institutions in the new colony, freemasonry had the benefit of being an already established fraternity with a tried and tested constitution. While the instigators of the first masonic lodges in New Zealand were men of means and influence (early members included lawyers, engineers, architects, civil servants and merchants) they struggled in the first fifteen years to attract members to their fraternity as men used their energy to build homes and businesses. From about 1850, freemasonry enjoyed a period of rapid expansion, and they attracted a new type of membership. Occupations were then recorded as shopkeeper, school teacher, shipping clerk, butcher, carrier and gardener. In the 1870s occupational changes of political or economic origin saw less of the workforce involved in defence and a rising proportion concerned with commerce, transport, trades and services. Local activities began to provide private rather than public services in the processing and distribution of food and clothing and businesses were started by people with very little capital. 1 R.C. J. Stone, Makers of Fortune: A Colonial Business Community And its Fall, Auckland: Auckland University Press, Oxford University Press, 1973, p.32

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