88,686 results

  • The impact of trade liberalisation on the Indonesian food crop sector : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Economics at Massey University

    Da Costa, Helder

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Studies of agricultural trade policies in developed countries generally focus their attention on impacts in their own domestic markets. Less attention has been given to impacts on developing countries nor their need for special and differential treatment in multilateral trade negotiations. This study assesses the impacts of trade liberalisation by modelling the outcome of the Uruguay Round of GATT negotiations. The removal of support in the industrialised nations on the Indonesian food crops sector was examined. Using the Static World Policy Simulation (SWOPSIM) model of world agricultural trade, the impacts on Indonesian consumption, production and net trade were estimated. The results indicate that Indonesian exports of corn would expand, and the country could also become an exporter of rice. Imports of sugar could expand partly as a result of a reduction in Indonesian sugar subsidies. While multilateral trade liberalisation that results in higher world prices may have a negative effect on food importing developing countries, this was found not to be the case for Indonesia (at least for the food crops studied). The increase in producer welfare would more than compensate for the fall in consumer welfare, government subsidy expenditures would fall and the country's trade balance would improve. In addition, continuing unilateral deregulatory and liberalisation measures in other sectors of the Indonesian economy, as well as in agriculture, will provide scope for the development of further new export opportunities.

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  • The impact of honey bees on montane ecosystems within Tongariro National Park : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Ecology at Massey University

    Murphy, Claire

    Thesis
    Massey University

    A study of the effects of honey bees on montane ecosystems was conducted during the summers of 1993/1994 and 1994/1995 at Tongariro National Park. Three possible effects of the introduced honey bee were examined. The primary aims of the study were to identity areas with and without honey bees and to identify differences in the pollination success of a weed species, heather (Calluna vugaris) and a native species, the New Zealand flax (Phormium tenax) under different pollinator regimes, and to examine differences in the composition of native pollinator communities in these different bee areas. The impact of honey bees on the reproductive success of heather, an important weed species in Tongariro National Park was examined over two flowering seasons. Insect visitation rates on heather flowers were low at each of the four study sites. Bagging plants to exclude insect flower visitors had little effect on female fitness. The potential of other pollen vectors, wind and thrips, as pollinators of heather was also examined. Both were determined to have a negative effect on several measures of female success, including pollen deposition, pollen tube formation, and pollination levels. However it appears that none of the pollen vectors (honey bees, wind or thrips) significantly effect the overall fitness of heather in terms of the viable seed produced. The second part of the study examined the impact of honey bees on the pollination systems of a native plant species. Flax is thought to be predominantly bird pollinated, however, the floral resources are also utilised by a variety of native and introduced insect species. At some sites birds were either not present or rarely used the flowers. Seed set in flax was highest in heavily bird pollinated sites. The results also suggest, however, that flax has a flexible pollinating system that enables it to maintain a range of fruit and seed set levels under the different pollintor regimes. The abundance and diversity of insect flower visitors on manuka and Hebe stricta, two common subalpine shrubs, was highly variable between sites, and between observation periods. Some of this variation may be ascribed to differences in the weather or to altitude. However, I have shown that the abundance and diversity of diptera appears to be strongly influenced by levels of honey bee activity. This indicates that honey bees do play a role in determining the structure of pollinator communities and may be displacing a significant component of the native pollinating fauna.

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  • Wind energy scoping

    Murray, PE

    Conference paper
    Massey University

    false

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  • Leaf litter decomposition and stream macroinvertebrate communities of the Central Volcanic Plateau : the effects of landuse : a thesis presented in fulfilment for the degree of Masters of Science in Ecology at Massey University

    Tubby, Christopher Jon

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The effects of landuse on benthic macroinvertebrate community structure was assessed in 35 streams draining four different landuse activities (native (Beech and Broadleaf/Podocarp) forest, exotic (Pinus radiata) forest, hill country pasture and scrubland) around Lake Taupo, North Island, New Zealand, between January and March 1997. Ephemerotera (mainly Deleatidium sp.) were abundant in all landuse types. Diptera (Chironomidae), Coleoptera (Elmidae) and Trichoptera (Pycnocentrodes aureola) dominated invertebrate communities in open canopy pasture streams, where higher algal biomass existed. Native forest and exotic forest stream communities were considerably different. Native forest streams had higher water velocities, substrate stability and overhead cover, whereas exotic forest streams had low bed stability and high sand levels. In response to the higher sand levels in exotic streams, invertebrate communities had higher abundance of molluscs (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) and Coleoptera (Elmidae). Native stream communities were dominated by Ephemeroptera (Deleatidium sp. and Colorburiscus humeralis), Coleoptera (Elmidae) and Trichoptera (Aoteapsyche colonica). Landuse effects on invertebrates are different throughout New Zealand and will depend on local conditions, especially geology. In December 1997 and January 1998, leaf litter decomposition and invertebrate colonisation were examined in 12 streams draining four different landuse activities around Lake Taupo. Mesh leaf tubes (0.2mm) and mesh leaf bags (3mm) containing dried Rangiora (Brachyglottis repanda) leaves were immersed into streams draining the four landuse types. Leaf tubes and bags were removed from streams after 14 days, 28 days and 42 days to measure the percentage of leaf weight lost from each leaf tube and bag and to assess the invertebrate colonisation of the leaf litter bags. Open canopy streams processed leaf litter in the tubes faster than closed canopy streams and it is likely that the increased temperatures and nutrient levels in open streams contributed to this phenomenon. Leaf bags were decomposed more rapidly in exotic streams where invertebrate densities in bags were highest among the landuse types. The low abundance of quality food available in exotic sites is likely to have contributed to the higher numbers of invertebrates feeding on the limited food resource. Invertebrate communities in all landuse types were distinctly different from each other, in contrast to benthic communities which were more similar. It appears that landuse does affect invertebrate communities in leaf bags, and this in turn influences leaf litter decomposition rates. Keywords: abundance, algal biomass, benthic communities, exotic forest, hill country pasture, invertebrate colonisation, leaf litter decomposition, macroinvertebrate community structure, mesh bags, mesh tubes, native forest, percentage weight loss, scrubland.

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  • "I shall not want another home on this planet", a study of the tradition of elegiac poetry in the work of three New Zealand female poets, Ursula Bethell, Robin Hyde and Katherine Mansfield : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in English at Massey University

    Hankin, Emma Tui

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis is a discussion of the elegiac poetry tradition as it exists in English literature and how it impacts on the New Zealand literary tradition. The discussion centres around three New Zealand female poets; Mary Ursula Bethell, Robin Hyde and Katherine Mansfield and their participation in the elegiac tradition. The time period which encompasses these three poets reaches from 1915-1945, a period of intense growth and discovery in the literature of New Zealand, as it dissociated itself from the English model and redirected itself in a Pacific direction. Each of the three poets was influenced by the literary beliefs which were cultivated in New Zealand and exhibited this knowledge through their work. Mary Ursula Bethell and Katherine Mansfield composed personal elegies on the loss of companion and brother respectively, yet Robin Hyde composed a more formal elegy on Mansfield's death, though she had not personally known her. One theme runs through the work of Bethell, Hyde and Mansfield, the theme of exile. Bethell was the typical Englishwoman exiled in New Zealand by geography, but also by her education and her upbringing. Mansfield chose the life of an expatriate, yet this was no more than a self-delusion, when after the death of her brother she realised that the New Zealand of her childhood was no more. Hyde also fled to England, like Mansfield, yet her impetus was no more than a schoolgirl memory. She too, as in the case of Mansfield, produced her finest compositions when the idea of exile became reality. In some way, all three poets experienced the intensity of exile, from the known landscape whether of New Zealand or England, and transferred that yearning into their elegiac verse, as they became exiled from all that their loved one represented. For Mansfield, her brother's death ensured she could never go 'home' and yet provided the impetus for her New Zealand stories within which she challenged short story convention and wrote lasting memorials to both her country and her self. For Hyde, her elegy on Mansfield was an elegy to New Zealand and her reality without it. Bethell, after the death of her companion Effie Pollen, became exiled from her physical home in the Cashmere Hills, and, more poignantly, her garden. All three of the poets were faced with a universe which had been altered irreversibly by exile and in elegy attempted to describe and mourn that loss. These three women, though participating in a genre and a tradition which was undeniably male-oriented, expressed themselves as women within a tradition which through its very versatility accommodated both them and their grief.

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  • Rats on Kapiti Island, New Zealand : coexistence and diet of Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout and Rattus exulans Peale : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Zoology at Massey University

    Dick, Andrew Mark Philip

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Snap-trapping information and diet analysis were used to investigate the coexistence of Rattus norvegicus and Rattus exulans with one another and with indigenous avifauna on Kapiti Island (1,965ha, 40 0 51'S., 174 0 56'E.). The period of trapping was one year (May 1983 to April 1984) and a diversity of habitat types were involved. Areas were trapped for a three day period after three days of prebaiting and most areas were trapped three times during the year. Reproductive and morphometric parameters were also recorded for the rat populations and an alternative form of estimating density, nocturnal rat counts, was tested. Attempts were also made to measure the arboreal activity of rats using chalk dust tracking paper. The density estimate for the combined populations (15.06 rats/100 trap-nights) is high when compared with mainland rat populations. Density varied with habitat and season, the highest density index being obtained in lowland grass, the lowest along a stony beach. A Standard Minimum estimate of 63 rats/ha was derived for the lowland grass area. Changes in density with season varied from area to area although there was a particular tendency for variations in spring. Species composition was different between habitats. Of eight areas trapped R. norvegicus was the predominant species in five. R. exulans was the predominant species in three areas and occurred in six. Seasonal fluctuations in species ratios were observed and in the three R. exulans areas a high negative correlation existed between the abundance of each species. Male R. exulans were heavier (x̄=85.92g) than females (x̄=78.98g) although the reverse situation occurred in R. norvegicus, (male x̄=209.76g, female x̄=222.07g). Reproduction in both species was seasonal with breeding activity peaking in summer and spring. Length of breeding season, average frequency of litter production and mean foetus number were greater in R. norvegicus. R. exulans showed greater fluctuations in age structure. Of the three main food categories measured, invertebrates, vegetation and seeds, the invertebrate fraction was, in terms of mean percentage volume and frequency of occurrence, the most important for both species. R. exulans had a less varied diet and was more reliant on invertebrates. Lepidopteran larvae were the most frequently eaten invertebrates with Araneida, Coleoptera, Orthoptera, Dipteran larvae and Chilopoda also occurring. Invertebrates formed a greater part of the diet in summer months. Diet strongly reflected the habitat in which rats were trapped. Distinctly different diets were noted in animals inhabiting forest when compared with those from grassland. The proportion of exotic vegetation and seed was more pronounced in the grassland habitats. Although the overlap in diet was considerable, particularly with the invertebrate types eaten (52 types identified, 17 eaten by only one species) the differences in volumes eaten were substantial. Birds did not feature heavily in rat diet and no instances were recorded of kiore having eaten bird remains. Nocturnal rat counts appear an unreliable alternative to trapping as a density measure and kiore do not appear to forage arboreally. The changes in species ratio, density and diet with area are discussed in terms of competition theory. It is hypothesised that R. norvegicus is competitively superior and excludes R. exulans from mutually desirable habitats. The mechanisms of the competition are unclear although available evidence suggests that competition for food rather than competition for space is the more likely.

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  • Drought tolerance of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and the role of Epichloë endophyte : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Plant Science at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    He, Lulu

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Perennial ryegrass is the most important grass species in New Zealand. Due to climate change, drought will become more severe and frequent in New Zealand, which makes it increasingly important to improve drought tolerance of perennial ryegrass. There are many ryegrass cultivars in the seed market; however, very limited information is available about drought tolerance of these cultivars. Therefore, the first aim of this thesis was to compare drought tolerance of several market-leading perennial or long-rotation ryegrass cultivars in order to provide cultivar information for pastoral industry. Epichloë festucae var. lolii fungal endophyte naturally colonises perennial ryegrass. Reported effects of endophyte on drought tolerance of the host perennial ryegrass are multifarious. Therefore, the second aim of this thesis was to investigate effects of endophyte on drought tolerance of perennial ryegrass comprehensively. Two main experiments were conducted in this PhD project. In the first experiment, endophyte-free (E–) and endophyte-infected (E+) cloned plants of seven perennial or long-rotation ryegrass cultivars (Grasslands Commando, Ceres One50, Banquet II, Alto, Bealey, Trojan and Avalon), an un-released elite perennial ryegrass line (URL) and one Mediterranean tall fescue cultivar (Grasslands Flecha) were subjected to a cycle of drought and rehydration from December 2012 to May 2013 while other clones of the same plants were irrigated. In the second experiment, two perennial ryegrass cultivars One50 and Commando infected with and without the AR37 endophyte were subjected to a glasshouse experiment. Eight genotypes of each cultivar with and without endophyte infection were either under irrigation or withheld irrigation for two weeks and then rehydrated for one month. A series of plant morphological and physiological responses were measured in each experiment. In the rainout shelter experiment, it was found that Flecha tall fescue was more tolerant to drought than ryegrass cultivars, but this was attributed to its small plant size induced by the partial summer dormancy. Introducing germplasm from Mediterranean areas would be an option to improve drought tolerance of perennial ryegrass in New Zealand. Among evaluated ryegrass cultivars, Banquet II was relatively more drought tolerant than other cultivars, which was also mainly due to its small plant size. In the glasshouse experiment, it was found that Spanish germplasm based One50 was more drought tolerant than „Mangere? ecotype based Commando, suggesting that Spanish germplasm has conferred enhanced drought tolerance to perennial ryegrass in New Zealand. Under both irrigated and non-irrigated conditions, endophyte infection reduced the herbage yield, decreased the relative water content, osmotic potential and stomatal conductance (as indicated by carbon isotope discrimination) and increased the proline concentration of the host compared to E– plants. Also, a majority of these effects were more pronounced in the URL (infected with AR37) and One50 (infected with AR1). It was concluded that E+ plants are at a disadvantage compared to E- plants when insect pressure is artificially controlled, no matter whether the water availability is high or low.

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  • Comparative genomics of rumen methanogens : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Biochemistry at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Li, Yang

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Methane (CH4) emissions from agriculture represent around 9% of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The single largest source of this CH4 is animal enteric fermentation, predominantly from ruminant livestock, where it is produced mainly in their fermentative forestomach (or reticulo-rumen) by a group of archaea known as methanogens. In order to reduce CH4 emissions from ruminants, it is necessary to understand the role of methanogenic archaea in the rumen, and to identify their distinguishing characteristics that can be used to develop CH4 mitigation technologies. To gain insights into the role of methanogens in the rumen environment, two methanogens have been isolated from ovine rumen and their genomes were sequenced: methanogenic archaeon ISO4-H5 of the order Methanomassiliicoccales and Methanobrevibacter sp. D5 of Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii clade. Genomic analysis suggests ISO4-H5 is an obligate hydrogen-dependent methylotrophic methanogen, able to use methanol and methylamines as substrates for methanogenesis. Like other organisms within this order, ISO4-H5 does not possess genes required for the first six steps of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Comparison between the genomes of different members of the order Methanomassiliicoccales revealed strong conservation in energy metabolism, particularly in genes of the methylotrophic methanogenesis pathway, as well as in the biosynthesis and use of pyrrolysine. Unlike members of Methanomassiliicoccales from human sources, ISO4-H5 does not contain the genes required for production of coenzyme M (CoM), and requires external supply of CoM to survive. Methanobrevibacter sp. D5 is a hydrogenotrophic methanogen predicted to utilise CO2 + H2 and formate as substrates. Comparisons between the available Methanobrevibacter genomes has revealed a high conservation in energy metabolism and characteristics specific to each clade. The coexistence of different Methanobrevibacter species in the rumen may be partly due to the physical association Methanobrevibacter species with different microorganisms and host surface, which allow unique niches to be established.

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  • Professional practice attributes within public health nursing : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Nursing at Massey University

    Hansen, Chiquita

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Modifiable organisational attributes that reflect a professional nursing practice environment are important determinants of both the experience of people who access health care services and the job satisfaction of nurses who work within health care organisations. Research relating to acute care settings, commonly known as the Magnet phenomenon has made an outstanding contribution to health sector knowledge by identifying features that attract and retain nurses, promote excellence in patient care, and achieve superior patient outcomes. These features have been studied by the Nursing Work Index Revised which measures attributes that reflect a professional nursing practice environment. More recently there has been an interest in the potential applicability of these attributes in the community setting. A recent study surveyed United States home health nurses and New Zealand district nurses to ascertain which of the Nursing Work Index Revised attributes were perceived by them as important to the support of their professional practice. In this study 92% of items previously tested in acute settings were considered important in community settings. This descriptive study extends the previous work by investigating how another group of primary health care nurses in New Zealand (public health nurses) perceive the importance of specific organisational attributes within their practice setting. The Nursing Work Index Revised was utilised and participants were asked to rate their agreement or disagreement with the importance and presence of 48 attributes on the Nursing Work Index Revised against a 4-point Likert scale. The findings of the study validate the use of the Nursing Work Index Revised as a tool in the community setting. The study's findings, implications for nursing practice, future research and the potential use of this tool to support the development of primary health care nursing in the New Zealand health sector is presented.

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  • Re-entry adjustment of high school exchange students to New Zealand : cross-cultural transition within a loss and grief framework : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Psychology at Massey University

    Soeterik, Sonja Marieke

    Thesis
    Massey University

    While it is generally assumed re-entry into a person's own culture after life abroad can be problematic, little attention has been given in the theory or research to the re-entry life of sojourners, and even less to adolescent sojourners. The aim of the present study was to examine a new conceptual framework for the readjustment process using existing loss and grief models. This study examined nine variables associated with the grieving process (Despair, Anger/Hostility, Guilt, Social Isolation, Loss of Control, Rumination, Depersonalization, Death Anxiety and Somatization) and applied them to the cross-cultural transition of American Field Service (AFS) high school exchange students back into New Zealand after one year abroad. 207 sojourners responded to mail-in questionnaires measuring grief (Grief Experience Inventory; GEI) and psychological adjustment (the short form of the Profile of Mood States; POMS-SF). Their responses on the POMS-SF were compared to that of a home based control of high school students while responses on the GEI were compared with three reference groups and a control group from the GEI manual. Results suggest sojourners are more similar to people grieving after a death than people experiencing loss by divorce. While sojourners were typically satisfied with their exchange, 61% noted re-entry was problematic. Further support for the results came from the unsolicited qualitative information participants provided. The theoretical basis of the present study proved useful and it is suggested that future research could develop this methodology further.

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  • Journeys into the ancient world : classical studies in New Zealand : new directions along ancient paths : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in English at Massey University

    Gordon, Derek Ross

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Irregular pagination (3-8) in Appendices

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  • The novels of Maurice Gee (1962-1994) : Gee's New Zealand : in the throes of entropy : a thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in English at Massey University

    Lyons, Mark Robert

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This inquiry explores the dualistic aspects of Maurice Gee's novels, particularly with reference to Prowlers and Going West. I will be highlighting the juxtaposition of opposing characters (the observers and the doers), and the opposition of mind and body - of idealism and empiricism - as developed in these two novels. I will also be investigating how Gee's novels explore the dynamics of human relationships, accounting for the recurrent themes of language, fear, death, love and madness, as they appear in his oeuvre. Chapter three explores how Gee's fiction deals with the difficulties of writing an objective account of someone's life. All these areas of investigation reveal an overall view that Gee's New Zealand society has gradually shifted towards a state of chaos and uncertainty within the last one hundred years. In chapter one I will explore the images and events, as depicted in Gee's autobiographical essay "Beginnings," that have shaped his creative imagination. I will show how they have been transformed, or re-worked, in his fiction, as well as how and why they stress the importance of imagination. I will be arguing how, through his characters, Gee continues to exorcise the traumas, conflicts and confusions of his own past, as well as demonstrating the didactic functions given to this process by his subjecting his main characters to similar experiences. I will show how Gee investigates the negative effects of a puritan heritage, and ultimately, how it can be damaging to the growing and developing adolescent psyche, causing confusion, and distorting one's perception of the real, particularly in the way it is expressed in the novel In My Father's Den. I will show how Gee's abhorrence of 'bureaucratic and institutional repression' is expressed in The Big Season, and the 'O' trilogy - at the level of community, - and in the two novels, The Special Flower and Games of Choice - at the level of family. More specifically, I will show how the narratives emphasize the need for the individual to break away from these constricting forces in order to find his own shape, and achieve a firm sense of personal identity. I will inquire into the ways in which Gee explores the idea of 'the mixed nature of the human condition' in the 'O' trilogy, and will commence a discussion of how this theme is developed in Prowlers and Going West, which will be expanded in the remaining two chapters. I will discuss how the sense of feeling 'special,' and of being in possession of 'special knowledge', can create the illusion of feeling privileged, but also how this can be seen as a burden, and how it can generate a sense of 'isolation,' thereby alienating the individual from the outside world. I will show how Gee's vision of the world can be interpreted as dualistic.

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  • Putting conservation medicine into practice : examples from three endemic New Zealand bird species : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Conservation Biology at Massey University

    Low, Matthew Richard

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Conservation medicine is increasingly being viewed as an important component of conservation biology. While programmes focussing on wildlife health are generally limited to controlling the spread of infectious diseases, there is a need to evaluate the impacts of non-infectious diseases: in particular, a critical examination of invasive management practices is overdue. Marking or tagging animals for identification is one of the most common management tools employed by conservation managers, and yet their impacts have rarely been quantified. In the kakapo, Strigops habroptilus, metallic bands applied to the tarsus were implicated in joint problems in the banded leg; in contrast to this, subcutaneously implanted passive integrated transponders appear to be safe and effective in both adults and chicks. In the North Island robin, Petroica longipes, leg bands were directly implicated in leg injuries at a rate of 2% of adults per year. The most common injury was a result of the birds trapping their hallux (back toe) between a band and their leg; this forced the leg into a flexed position and resulted in tissue damage. To accurately interpret clinical pathology data collected in wildlife health assessments, reference ranges for haematological and biochemical data should be generated for each species. In the kakapo, blood samples from 1996 and 2002 allowed these references to be produced; however, this exercise highlighted limitations that are often underappreciated in conservation medicine. Many factors can influence the results: two of these being sample storage and laboratory processing methods. Many conservation programmes cannot collect, store and process samples in an ideal environment and, thus, comparisons between ideally generated reference ranges and data from individuals collected in the field may be spurious. Similarly, opportunistic carcass collection and post-mortem examination provides valuable identification of disease agents, but the findings are difficult to interpret in terms of their importance or prevalence within populations. The description of aspergillosis in a North Island robin is a case in point. The movement of animals for conservation purposes - translocations - is becoming widespread, and has the potential to introduce diseases into disease-free areas; the stitchbird, Notiomystis cincta, is currently the focus of conservation efforts that rely on translocations. Two poorly-understood diseases were examined: facial dermatitis and sub-lingual oral fistulas. The prevalence of facial dermatitis was influenced by season and sex, with males showing a higher prevalence of the condition than females during the breeding season. Histopathology, mite isolation and a therapeutic drug trial all suggest that a burrowing mite, Knemidocoptes spp is responsible for the condition. Sub-lingual oral fistulas are more widespread than previously thought, as they are not limited to birds with obvious tongue protrusions through the tissue deficit in the lower mandible. Evidence supports the hypothesis that these fistulas are acquired after fledging, and have a limited impact on bird productivity and survival.

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  • Profiling long-term unemployment utilising the logit model : a New Zealand case study : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Applied Economics at Massey University

    Thompson, V. Wesley

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This study attempts to fit the logit model to a random sample of data compiled by the New Zealand Employment Service on individuals who have completed unemployment spells, over the period 1988-1997. The objective is to estimate the probability that an individual job seeker, with a certain set of personal attributes, will become long-term unemployed. The regression results are consistent with a priori expectations. However, the predictive power of the model is low, lending support to conclusions from other empirical studies that have used other approaches to modelling long-term unemployment in New Zealand. That is, the current set of personal attributes on which data arc collected in New Zealand are inadequate for modelling long-term unemployment.

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  • Land of milk and-- gas? Economic change and its social consequences in 1980s Taranaki : a regional history : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in History at Massey University

    Towers, Richard John

    Thesis
    Massey University

    In the minds of most New Zealanders the 1980s will be remembered as a decade of immense change and upheaval. In 1980 New Zealand was a fortress economy, with high tariffs and key industries heavily subsidised and sometimes owned by the government. 1 1 Brian Easton, The Commercialisation of New Zealand, Auckland, Auckland University Press, 1997, p.6. By 1990 the walls of that fortress had largely been removed. 2 2 Jane Kelsey, The New Zealand Experiment: A world model for structural adjustment?, Auckland, Auckland University Press with Bridget Williams Books, 1995, p.99. In 1980 the National government led by Robert Muldoon was pushing ahead its policy of energy development, borrowing and spending billions of dollars in the process.3 3 Easton, p.18. By the 1990s New Zealand was firmly in the grip of neo-liberal economic thinking, with government spending cuts, user pays, and market deregulation the driving forces behind government and the economy. 4 4 Kelsey, p.1. The beginning of the decade saw increasing concern over the growing number of unemployed. Employment was a prime issue in the 1981 election campaign. After the Labour government took office following the 1984 snap election, unemployment was reaching the five percent mark and was predicted to climb further. 5 5 Simon Collins, Rogernomics: Is there a better way?, Wellington, Pitman Publishing, 1987, p.26. By the 1990 election unemployment had grown so high in some regions that a level of five percent looked like a desirable yet impossible target. Indeed, even today in what appear to be prosperous times for New Zealand we have still not attained a level of unemployment as low as that which was facing New Zealand in the early 1980s. It says much of what occurred both economically and politically through the 1980s that we now view what was once seen as an unthinkably high level of national unemployment as remarkably low. The decade was a period which altered the relationship between New Zealanders and the governments elected by them. Nobody was left untouched by the processes of transformation. Where New Zealand once prided itself on being a country that led the world on issues of social welfare, it became one leading the world in market driven economic change. 6 6 Kelsey, p.1. All facets of society were effected from the social to the cultural. The governments of New Zealand began the 1980s as New Zealand's major employer and reluctant deregulators, and finished the decade having corporatised and sold many state assets, affecting thousands of jobs along the way. From being a protected economy, relying partly on import substitution to maintain employment, New Zealand became, in world terms, an open economy importing many new and cheaper products, changing the life styles and spending habits of many. 7 7 Easton, p.6. By the close of the decade the government was actively seeking to play less of a role in the lives of New Zealanders.

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  • Peptide sequences by mass spectrometry : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Biochemistry at Massey University

    Kent, Stephen Brian Henry

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The preparation and mass spectrometry of permethylated peptide derivatives was investigated. Procedures for the modification of free peptides prior to permethylation were examined. Acetylation with methanol+ acetic anhydride was found to result in partial esterification of the peptide. Specific cleavage of the C-terminal residue was also observed; a mechanism is proposed for this reaction. Esterification with HCl in methanol followed by acetylation of the peptide ester gave a mixture of products due to random methanolysis during the esterification. Methods of acetylating free peptides were examined, and it was found that the use of water + acetic anhydride at room temperature resulted in rapid quantitative acetylation, with no significant side reactions. Reaction of an ethereal solution of diazomethane with the acetyl-peptide gave quantitative esterification with negligible byproduct formation. Use of dimethylsulfinyl sodium in dimethylsulfoxide, and methyl iodide for the permethylation of peptide derivatives was investigated. Suitable conditions were found for the preparation of the reagent and for its use in the permethylation reaction. Substitution at existing ester groups was found to occur during the permethylation, and the products were partially characterised. Use of the free acetyl-peptide rather than its methyl ester eliminated this side reaction. Introduction of more than the expected number of methyl groups was observed. This extra-methylation was found to occur mainly at specific residues, although some random methylation was observed. The conditions of permethylation were adjusted to minimise extra-methylation and limit it to specific sites in the molecule. Peptides containing aspartyl residues undergo chain cleavage; the products of this reaction were identified and a mechanism proposed for their formation. The permethylation reaction is discussed in relation to the formation of these artefacts; it is thought to involve deprotonation of the peptide to form a multiple anion. Reaction conditions are suggested to eliminate these side reactions. The mass spectrometry of permethylated peptide derivatives is discussed and the mass spectra of peptides of known sequence reported. The mass spectra show the sequence-determining fragments as the principal ions. This observation is rationalised in terms of the negative-inductive effect of the N-methyl groups. The simple procedure for interpreting the mass spectra of permethylated peptide derivatives is outlined, together with the use of minor fragmentation modes in identifying the molecular ion and sequencing peaks. Deuteriated methyl iodide, high resolution mass spectrometry and the detection of metastable transitions can all be used to confirm the deduced sequence. The techniques developed were applied to a mixture of free peptides isolated from cheese; the three peptides present were sequenced. The results were confirmed by high resolution mass measurement and permethylation with deuteriated methyl iodide. The present state of peptide sequence determination by mass spectometry is evaluated and possible future developments discussed.

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  • Pattern analysis of genotype x environment interactions and comparisons with alternative analyses : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Plant Science at Massey University

    Cullen, Carol

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The occurrence of genotype-environment interactions is a problem affecting the interpretation of cultivar trials. Several analyses have been used to try to resolve the inconsistencies of cultivar performances which occur when these interactions are present. An assessment of several techniques was carried out using three sets of data. Two sets of barley data came from one. season's trials covering the barley growing areas of New Zealand. Ten wheat cultivars were tested in four locations in the lower North Island in two seasons. The analyses which were examined were Analysis of variance, linear regression, Cluster Analysis and principal Component Analysis. The parameters of Wricke, Hanson and Eberhart and Russell were also studied. The Analysis of Variance revealed significant location, genotype and genotype-location interaction effects for the barley data. The wheat data had significant years, years x locations, genotype and genotype-year interactions effects. There was a strong linear relationship between the genotype means and the environmental index for the Finlay-Wilkinson regression analysis. Following refinement of the error term βi's with significant differences from 1.0 could be seen for several Barley and Wheat genotypes. It was noted that a conflict existed between the aim of finding significant differences from 1.0 and the assumption of independence of effects for the underlying model. It was suggested that an independent measure of environments be used. The parameters of Wricke, Hanson and Eberhart & Russell were each related to different concepts of stability and the genotypes ranked accordingly. The three parameters gave reasonably consistent results for the rankings of the cultivars. In the barley data the cultivars Goldmarker and Magnum had uniformly low rankings. The wheat cultivar Gamenya was generally found to rank highly. These were measures of variability over environments so a high ranking infers a low level of variability and vice versa. A comparison of the different clustering strategies available was carried out and Wards Incremental Sums of Squares method was chosen as the major strategy. This was applied to each data set using both genotype-environment effects and means. A probabilistic cut off measure was used for truncation of the dendrogram. The clusters formed could be related to the previous analyses and seemed to adequately summarise the different responses present. A Principal Component Analysis was carried out and the number of components needed to account for 75% of the total variation were examined. For the barley data sets relatively large numbers of components were needed for this ( five and six). This made interpretation and presentation of the genotypic performances difficult. For the wheat data two components explained a satisfactory level of the total variation and the arrangement of the genotypes on these two axes agreed closely with the clustering results. Varimax rotation did not aid greatly in the interpretation of the components. It was felt that the roles of these different analyses were complementary in interpreting genotypic performances.

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  • The use of ground penetrating radar to map soil physical properties that control water flow pathways in alluvial soils : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Science in Agriculture at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Lane, Angela Louise

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Soil drainage models are vital for informing smart agricultural practices. Predicting soil drainage and zones where denitrification occurs, requires knowledge of the spatially varying subsurface features, for example soil-thickness, flow pathways, and depth to water table. Obtaining information about these features rapidly and non-invasively requires the use of geophysical techniques such as ground penetrating radar (GPR). While applications of GPR are diverse, ranging from geotechnical to archaeological investigations, to mineral and groundwater exploration, GPR has not been extensively applied in soil mapping for agricultural purposes across alluvial soils. The potential use of GPR for identifying subsurface features, such as the depth to gravel and water table which both influence soil drainage and denitrification processes, could benefit future developments in precision agriculture. To assess applicability of GPR for this purpose, this thesis presents research conducted on the alluvial soils at Dairy 1 farm, Massey University, Palmerston North. Radargrams were collected on two 0.4 ha plots, one arable and one pasture, using 200 MHz and 100 MHz antennas, in a 2-m grid pattern. Radargrams were ground-truthed with 13 soil cores and 21 auger holes, targeting different layers detected by GPR. The soil cores were analysed for bulk density, soil moisture and particle size. Using the 200 MHz antennas, soil textural banding was identified with specific reflection configurations within individual radargrams. These were represented when a contrasting textural boundary appeared as a continuous line of two to three bands. However, finer layering features were not identified. The 100 MHz antennas were able to detect depth to water table in the pasture plot. Soil moisture conditions were identified by a change in radar wave velocity. This appeared on radargrams as a difference in depth and radargram configuration shape. The use of Slice View images compiled from radargram data, assisted with identifying potential flow pathways and the depth to the water table across the pasture plot. Validation of radargrams with soil core samples indicates that GPR can obtain meaningful results from alluvial sediments ranging from sandy loams to silt loams. The use of GPR for delineating subsurface features in alluvial soils is a promising tool that could assist with precision agricultural practices.

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  • How is co-leadership enacted in the Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand : a 152.800 thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of Master of Management at Massey University

    Miller, Neil James

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This research report explores the enactment of a gender-balanced co-leadership throughout the organisation of the Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand. This small-sized political organisation has had representatives in parliament since 1996. Its experimental model of a male and a female sharing positions arose out of the social movements of the baby boomer generation. Gender-balanced co-leadership was devised as an exception to the norm of a single leader (frequently presented as a heroic man). The metaphor of theatre is used to frame a description of the stage-managed performance of Green Party political co-leaders. I show how co-leaders have been portrayed over the life span of the party as if they were characters in play. The re-presentation of co-leaders is illustrated by images, primarily taken from the party magazine. Experiences of the enactment of this co-leader model are interpreted through five interviews with key informants who have all held formal positions of authority within the organisation. I provide an auto-ethnographic account as a party insider illustrated by snapshots. The Green Party’s co-leadership model has endured over 25 plus years. By virtue of longevity it has demonstrated a viable way of sharing position power between two genders in a political party. Sharing positions in this organisation requires a significant investment of effort to maintain the desired presentation of the relationship. The lead actors are constrained to conform to the stage-setting. Parliamentary politics imposes isomorphic forces of order and hierarchy. The enactment of co-leadership has become increasingly gender stereotypical. Gender-balanced co-leadership is an experiment that has become a conventional routine.

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  • Patients who present to the Emergency department but do not wait : an exploratory study : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Nursing at Massey University

    Baur, Peter

    Thesis
    Massey University

    People who do not require urgent treatment often visit Emergency Departments. Furthermore, a small - yet significant - group leave the Emergency Department (ED) before even being seen by a doctor. Previous studies suggest that most people who do not wait (DNW) having presented to the ED and then leave without being seen by a doctor may have non-urgent conditions. However, other studies contradict this. This is an exploratory study into this subject. Its main aims are to: □ correctly define this DNW group who present to EDs; □ identify the size of a DNW population in a New Zealand setting; □ establish common factors that influence people's decision to present then leave and; □ ascertain whether nursing practice may impact on this population of emergency presentations. Data collection took place, over a period of 4 months, in a Level 5 District Health Board Emergency Department in New Zealand. The study uses a retrospective cross-sectional postal survey design to secure data on people's experiences of the ED, asking them, amongst other things, why they did not wait. The study sample consisted of 642 people. 489 people were sent postal surveys which resulted in a response rate of 18% (n = 92). Data was analysed and compared using a combination of quantitative and qualitative techniques, using SPSS© and MS Excel© statistics software, elements of operations research (field observation) and content analysis. Subjective data was illuminated and extended by qualitative methods, namely interpretative and descriptive content analysis and an abstract conceptualisation of the themes generated is offered. Regional Ethics Committee approval was sought and granted prior to this investigation commencing. The results indicate that the majority of DNWs occur during daylight hours. The mean age of those who DNW was 27 years. They tended to be male. The greatest proportion of the DNW population analysed lived locally and waited a mean time of 112 minutes before choosing to leave. All Australasian Triage Scale categories (except ATS 1) demonstrated examples of those who took a DNW discharge. The most common complaints people presented with were ones they had endured for more than 12 hours and were sometimes days old. A high proportion of people reported that they received definitive treatment within 12 -24 hours following their departure from the ED. Common themes identified as reasons people chose to leave the ED related to their perception of action, perception of their illness and environment. Additional themes extracted from the data that influenced people's decisions to leave concerned their perceptions of staff communication/behaviour; systems processes; feelings of abandonment; other commitments and waiting time.

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