82,954 results

  • Decomposing complete equipartite graphs into short odd cycles

    Smith, Benjamin R.; Cavenagh, Nicholas J. (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    In this paper we examine the problem of decomposing the lexicographic product of a cycle with an empty graph into cycles of uniform length. We determine necessary and sufficient conditions for a solution to this problem when the cycles are of odd length. We apply this result to find necessary and sufficient conditions to decompose a complete equipartite graph into cycles of uniform length, in the case that the length is both odd and short relative to the number of parts.

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  • Book review: The Tram Conductor’s Blue Cap

    Locke, Terry (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article reviews the book “The Tram Conductor’s Blue Cap”, by Michael Harlow.

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  • Evaluation of treatment responsivity in a psychopathic prison treatment sample

    Champion, Michelle Elizabeth (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Although punishment still dominates the criminal justice system, the progression of research on offending and imprisonment has led to a general consensus that rehabilitation programmes are the appropriate method to effectively reduce both recidivism and prison populations. Hence, many effective offender treatment programmes have been developed. This thesis evaluated phase one of a 10 month pilot treatment programme which used the theories and principles of effective programming to develop an effective programme for male high risk violent offenders assessed with elevated psychopathic personality (High Risk Personality Programme; HRPP), a population of offenders that is often regarded as treatment resistant. Specifically, phase one of the HRPP was designed to address the participants’ responsivity barriers (namely, antisocial interpersonal style) in order to increase self-efficacy, therapeutic alliance, treatability, and readiness, and to reduce perceived coercion in order to aid engagement and success in treatment. A sample of 11 male HRPP inmates had data collected before and after their 17-week first phase of the 10 month three-phase programme. Treatment contact comprised four sessions per week, including three group sessions of 2.5 hours, and 1 individual session of one hour, as well as a two-hour group cultural session that focused on Maori cultural identity (10 of the 11 men were Maori). The battery of tests employed included the Self-Efficacy Questionnaire; the responsivity and readiness scales of the Treatment Readiness Responsivity and Gain Scale; the Corrections Victoria Treatment Readiness Questionnaire, the Paulhus Deception Scale, and the therapist and client versions of the Working Alliance Inventory Short Form, the Perceived Coercion Scale, and an evaluation questionnaire. Demographic data was also collected. The results indicated that the majority of the participants came to the intervention ready or motivated to change. Perceived coercion remained low throughout the programme, representing the participant’s voluntary status. On average participants’ levels of self-efficacy and treatability (except callousness) improved significantly over the course of the treatment. Differing levels of improvement were found for the client and therapist perspective of the therapeutic alliance, indicating they interpreted the alliance differently. Participants with high PCL-R factor one scores showed a decrease in coercion, compared to an increase by their counterparts with low PCL-R factor one scores. Participants with high PCL-R factor one scores also had higher overall scores on the CVTRQ readiness measure, and the participant’s perspective of the therapeutic alliance. Individually, six of the treatment participants made significant improvements on at least five of the seven responsivity measures. These findings and their implications for treatment of psychopathic offenders are discussed, along with the relevance of the study’s responsivity measures, the strengths and limitations of the research project, and future research in this area.

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  • Book review: Dying in the Law of Moses: Crypto-Jewish Martyrdom in the Iberian World – By Miriam Bodian

    Simms, Norman (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article reviews the book: “Dying in the Law of Moses: Crypto-Jewish Martyrdom in the Iberian World”, by Miriam Bodian.

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  • The amendment to section 59 of the Crimes Act 1961: A case study in legislative change

    Austin, Geraldine Rachel (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    In June of 2007 the New Zealand Government passed the Crimes (Substituted section 59) Amendment Act 2007, legally abolishing the right of parents to physically discipline their children and making New Zealand one of 29 States to have (so far) achieved full prohibition of corporal punishment. However the hypothesis of this thesis is that this process of abolishing corporal punishment can be characterised as a lost opportunity - the opportunity to engage in productive debate about the way in which our country’s children are viewed and raised and to address some of the underlying practices and attitudes which contribute towards our appalling rates of child abuse. Instead it degenerated into one of the most contentious debates in recent political history. Rational debate deteriorated into abuse, misunderstandings and deliberate thwarting of reasoned discussion. As a result in 2010 we are in a position where the boundaries surrounding permissible and impermissible discipline are arguably less clear than they were before. This thesis analyses the process of legislative change with a view to showing how, why and where things went wrong. It argues that this process was stymied by two crucial factors; firstly the influence of right wing lobby groups who garnered support for their religiously motivated viewpoints by capitalising on the public’s misplaced fears and underlying attitudes towards children ; and secondly the failure of the Government to adequately advocate for, and educate the public on, the law which it passed. Ultimately these two factors were heavily influenced by the fact that our collective and individual opinions on physical discipline have arisen as a result of the historically dominant construction of children as inherently evil – a construction which we inherited from Britain and which is intrinsically aligned with the practice of corporal punishment. The thesis then demonstrates that the negative repercussions of the debate process could be partially ameliorated through education and that lessons learned in this process can be utilised in the future

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  • Keeping it together: A comparative analysis of four long-established intentional communities in New Zealand

    Jones, Olive (2011)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    Through a comparative analysis of four long-lived intentional communities in New Zealand, this thesis examines the extent to which each one has sustained, adapted or abandoned its original ideals and aspirations over time. An analysis of in-depth interviews with current and former participants from each community reveals ways that ideological beliefs, organisational processes, and foundation structures have shaped the distinctive cultures that have developed. The relevance of the assertion that long-lived intentional communities share a common purpose and a desire to live beyond mainstream society, and the assumption that longevity and survival can be considered to be the same thing, are challenged. It is concluded that ownership structures for holding land are significant to the longevity of intentional communities, and that the distinctions that once existed between alternative-orientated communities and the larger society that they are situated within have become less clear over time.

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  • Mental Health Service Provision for the People of Cambridge: Are services facilitating recovery?

    Cleland, Hannah Nicole (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The purpose of the present research was to investigate consumer perspectives of mental health service provision in Cambridge and whether services were helpful in facilitating recovery. Cambridge is a small township in the Waikato region, approximately twenty-five kilometers south-east of Hamilton. The study aimed to: gain an understanding of consumers’ interpretations of recovery; identify consumer perspectives of service delivery in Cambridge; assess whether services in Cambridge are working from a recovery ethos; and determine how consumers’ think service delivery could be improved. Interviews with 14 consumers of mental health services were completed. The key findings of this study suggest that the mental health needs of Cambridge consumer’s were not being met. More specifically, consumers’ who had severe or mild mental illness were reasonably happy with service delivery. However, consumers whose mental illness impacted their life considerably, yet their symptoms were not deemed severe enough to access public services, identified significant discrepancies between service provision and recovery facilitation.

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  • Performance of a building integrated solar combisystem

    Anderson, Timothy Nicholas; Duke, Mike; Carson, James K. (2010)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Solar combisystems providing both water and space heating to buildings are becoming commonplace in European and North American locations. However, the use of these systems in Australia and New Zealand is still in its infancy. While significant work has been undertaken to characterise the performance of these systems in northern hemisphere locations, this does not necessarily reflect their performance in Australia or New Zealand. This work examines the performance of solar combisystems utilising TRNSYS and F-chart simulations of an integrated solar thermal combisystem installed in a single storey detached dwelling under typical Australian and New Zealand climatic conditions. In doing this, it shows that there is significant scope for increased use of solar combisystems in the cooler climate regions of Australia and New Zealand.

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  • Help seeking of adolescents when faced with a psychological problem

    de Bruin, Marizanne (2011)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis explored the help seeking of adolescents. In particular it focused on who adolescents seek help from for particular problems, the relationship between the options they selected, gender, previous help seeking and psychological distress, their experiences of seeking help for themselves, providing advice to friends and their opinions of help seeking for adolescents. One hundred and forty three adolescents between the ages of 15 and 18 who were attending two high schools in Hamilton, New Zealand, completed a Help Seeking questionnaire and the Youth Outcomes Questionnaire-30.2 (YOQ-30.2). Seven participants completed a semi structured interview focusing on their experience of seeking help. The results indicated that friends followed by parents were the help sources that were endorsed most frequently overall. Informal sources of help were selected more often than formal options. Of particular interest was the frequency with which ‘no one’ was selected as a first choice option. Males’ YOQ-30.2 total scores were significantly higher compared to females. Females were significantly more likely to have sought professional help in the past. Significant relationships were found between the help seeking options selected for the respective questions and gender and previous help seeking from a professional. Key themes that emerged from the semi structured interviews included increasing awareness of help options, the helpfulness, trustworthiness and friendliness of help sources, closeness of the relationship, what adolescents have heard about the help source, and the reaction of the help source when being informed about the young person’s difficulties. Males appeared to be more likely to encourage their friends to seek professional help and to feel confident in providing help to a peer. The implications of these findings were discussed in relation to the current literature.

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  • Developing a quality workforce: Linking a strategic research agenda to industry training; and Higher level skill needs and worker voice: Exploring new ground in skills analysis.

    Cochrane, William; Law, Michael; Piercy, Gemma Louise (2005)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    This presentation will pivot around the relationship between industry training, workplace productivity, worker voice, and the role of unions. Two, linked mini-papers will be presented. Both built on material presented to last year’s forum. The first minipaper summarises a template developed by the researchers in response to approaches from Industry Training Organisations. Its focus is on labour market skills forecasting. The second mini-paper breaks new ground. It outlines the broad thrust of a new research project that explores the more advanced skills required by workers in order to participate effectively in high performance (manufacturing) workplace schemes. Underpinning both mini-papers is the researchers’ central focus on the ways in which on-the-job union activity, the redesign of work, workers’ education and training, and employee involvement at the workplace can come together in order to provide workers with a ‘voice’ both in their work and in the wider society. The mini-papers assume that workplace productivity is central not only to the growth of the New Zealand economy, but also to union renewal and the achievement of the union movement’s social agenda. But they also recognise that for unions and workers the present emphasis on the ‘knowledge society’ will fall short of their economic and social aspirations unless it looks well beyond the myopic horizon of narrow, inherently self-limiting, skills training. The presentation will end with an integrative conclusion.

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  • Nitrogen leaching from effluent irrigated pasture

    Treweek, Glen (2011)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The surface waters of the Taupo region are of high quality and are sensitive to inputs of nitrogen. To reduce the amount of nitrogen discharged to surface water, the Taupo District Council (TDC) has employed a land treatment scheme (LTS), where treated municipal wastewater is irrigated onto ryegrass pasture. To limit the possibility of nitrogen pollution, regulations govern the amount of effluent that TDC may irrigate. This study reports the results from the first year of a five year trial where nitrogen leaching from the Taupo LTS was measured. To measure nitrogen leaching from the Taupo LTS, 48 intact monolith lysimeters were installed beneath effluent irrigation from two centre pivot irrigators. Four treatments based on nitrogen loading rates were trialled, nominally no-N (0 kg N ha-¹yr-¹), low-N (350 kg N ha-¹yr-¹ or less), mid-N (between 350 and 450 kg N ha-¹yr-¹), and high-N (greater than 450 kg N ha-¹yr-¹). Leachate was collected at least monthly and analysed for total nitrogen (TN), nitrate/nitrite nitrogen (NO₃-N), ammoniacal nitrogen (NH₄-N), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN). The pasture was removed from the lysimeters to determine dry-matter production and pasture nitrogen concentration to calculate nitrogen uptake. Effluent irrigation significantly increased pasture growth and nitrogen leaching compared to the un-irrigated treatments (P<0.005), but there was no significant difference in TN leached between the high-N and mid-N, or the mid-N and low-N treatments. The TN leached was poorly correlated with the rate of effluent irrigation. TN leached was positively correlated with the volume of water that drained through the soil (R2=0.7). The nitrogen in the leachate of the irrigated treatments comprised on average, 53 % NO₃-N, and 45 % DON, while the leachate of the un-irrigated treatments comprised, on average, 26 % NO₃-N and 72 % DON. NH₄-N accounted for approximately 2% of all nitrogen leached. Most of the NO₃-N leached throughout the year was leached after rain during summer and autumn. The mean concentration of NO₃-N leached from the irrigated treatments was 1.3 g N m-³. The concentration of NO₃-N in the leachate never exceeded Ministry of Health guidelines (11.3 g N m-³). The mean concentration of DON leached from the irrigated treatments was 1.2 g N m-³. Removing nitrogen in the pasture is the solution to avoid excess nitrogen leaching from the Taupo LTS. There is potential to recover more nitrogen in the pasture by improving the pasture cover and frequency of harvest.

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  • The 2nd workshop on active internet measurements (AIMS-2) report

    claffy, k.c.; Aben, Emile; Auge, Jordan; Beverly, Robert; Bustamante, Fabian; Donnet, Benoit; Friedman, Timur; Fomenkov, Marina; Haga, Peter; Luckie, Matthew John; Shavitt, Yuval (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    On February 8-10, 2010, CAIDA hosted the second Workshop on Active Internet Measurements (AIMS-2) as part of our series of Internet Statistics and Metrics Analysis (ISMA) workshops. The goals of this workshop were to further our understanding of the potential and limitations of active measurement research and infrastructure in the wide-area Internet, and to promote cooperative solutions and coordinated strategies to addressing future data needs of the network and security research communities. The three-day workshop included presentations, group discussion and analysis, and focused interaction between participating researchers, operators, and policymakers from all over the world. This report describes the motivation and findings of the workshop, and reviews progress on recommendations developed at the 1st Active Internet Measurements Workshop in 2009 [18]. Slides from the workshop presentations are available at [9].

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  • Common ground: Islam, Christianity, and religious pluralism [Book review]

    Pratt, Douglas (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article reviews the book, “Common ground: Islam, Christianity, and religious pluralism”, by Paul L. Heck.

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  • A discursive analysis of Maori in sexual and reproductive health policy

    Green, Jane Alison (2011)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    No abstract provided

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  • Efficiency Improvement of LDO Output Based Linear Regulator With Supercapacitor Energy Recovery – A versatile new technique with an example of a 5V to 1.5V version

    Zainul Abidin, Saiful Riza (2011)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Supercapacitors are used in various industrial applications and the supercapacitors technology is gradually progressing into a mature state. Common applications of supercapacitors are in electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, uninterruptible power supply (UPS) and in portable devices such as cellular phones and laptops. The capacitance values range from fractional Farads to few thousand Farads and their continuos DC voltage ratings are from 2V to 6V. At University of Waikato, a team works on using supercapacitors for improving the efficiency of linear voltage regulators. In particular, this patented technique aims at combining off the shelfs LDO ICs and a supercapacitor array for improving end to end efficiency of linear regulator. My work is aimed at developing the theoretical background and designing prototype circuitry for a voltage regulator for the case of unregulated input supply is more than 3 times of the minimum input voltage requirement of the LDO which is applicable for a 5V to 1.5V regulator. Experimental results are indicated with future suggestions for improvement.

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  • The characterisation of a thermostable endo-β-1,4-mannanase cloned from “Caldocellum saccharolyticum”

    Bicho, Paul A.; Clark, Tom A.; Mackie, Keith; Morgan, Hugh W.; Daniel, Roy M. (1991)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    An endo-gb-1,4-mannanase cloned from caldocellum saccharolyticum and expressed in Escherichia coli was partially purified. The purification involved heat treatment, anion exchange and gel filtration. The mannanase was only active against mannan, glucomannans and galactoglucomannans and obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics on these substrates. The rate and extent of hydrolysis was dependent on the type of substrate. Galactomannans were not as readily depolymerized as the mannan and glucomannans investigated. The glucose content of the glucomannans did not affect the rate of hydrolysis and only slightly affected the extent. The molecular mass of the mannanase was estimated at 39 kDa. The pH and temperature optima were 6.5 and 80° C respectively. The mannanase was very thermostable with a half life of 48 min at 85° C and no loss in activity after 24 h at 70° C.

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  • Tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD) oxidase activity and cytochrome distribution in the genus

    West, P.A.; Daniel, Roy M.; Knowles, C.J.; Lee, J.V. (1978)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Kovacs' [1] qualitative test for N,N,N',N',-tetramethyl- p-phenylenediamine (TMPD) oxidase activity is a fundamental test in the identification of bacteria [2,3]. TMPD (E~ = +0.26 V at pH 7.0) acts as an artificial electron donor to the terminal portion of aerobic respiratory systems [4], and the ability to oxidise TMPD, reduced by ascorbate, has been widely used as a quantitative assay of terminal oxidase activity [5]. In a wide range of heterotrophic bacteria there is a close correlation between their response to the Kovacs test and their ascorbate-TMPD oxidase activity measured manometrically [6]. The inability to oxidise ascorbate-TMPD or a negative response to the Kovacs test, however, does not necessarily indicate that an organism lacks an aerobic respiratory system and a terminal oxidase. For example, species belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae are oxidase- negative yet form aerobic respiratory systems[5,7].

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  • Thermonema lapsum gen. nov., sp. nov., a Thermophilic Gliding Bacterium

    Hudson, J. Andrew; Schofield, Karin M.; Morgan, Hugh W.; Daniel, Roy M. (1989)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    We previously reported the isolation of five strains of a thermophilic gliding organism. These strains are described here as a new genus and species, Thermonema lapsum. The isolates can be readily distinguished from other thermophilic gliding bacteria as they are apparently unicellular aerobic filaments that grow optimally at 60°C. Their cell walls are similar in ultrastructure to those of gram-negative cells, but they are susceptible to penicillin G. Our isolates can be grown on a fully defined medium containing amino acids. Oxidation-versus-fermentation tests indicate that deamination takes place. The type strain, strain 23/9, has been deposited with the American Type Culture Collection as strain ATCC 43542.

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  • Active-site- and substrate-specificity of Thermoanaerobium Tok6-B1 pullulanase.

    Plant, Adrian R.; Clemens, Robyn M.; Morgan, Hugh W.; Daniel, Roy M. (1987)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Thermoanaerobium Tok6-B1 pullulanase (EC 3.2.1.41) was active on alpha 1-6-glucosidic linkages of pullulan, amylopectin and glycogen and the alpha 1-4 linkages of amylose, amylopectin and glycogen but not of pullulan. Hydrolysis of short-chain-length malto-oligosaccharides (seven or fewer glucose residues) yielded maltose as product. Pullulan hydrolysis was pH-dependent and a plot of log(V/Km) versus pH implied a carboxy group with pKa 4.3 at the active site. Modification with 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodi-imide (EDAC) confirmed this view, and analysis of the order of reaction and inactivation kinetics suggested the presence of a single carboxy group at a catalytic centre of the active site. EDAC-mediated inhibition of pullulan alpha 1-6-bond hydrolysis was relieved by amylose or pullulan. Similarly both pullulan and amylose protected the activity directed at alpha 1-4 bonds of amylose from EDAC inhibition. When both amylose and pullulan were simultaneously present, the observed rate of product formation closely fitted a kinetic model in which both substrates were hydrolysed at the same active site.

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  • Book Review: A Brief History of Theology: From the New Testament to Feminist Theology – By Derek Johnston

    Pratt, Douglas (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article reviews the book: “A Brief History of Theology: From the New Testament to Feminist Theology”, by Derek Johnston.

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