82,947 results

  • Book Review: A Brief History of Theology: From the New Testament to Feminist Theology – By Derek Johnston

    Pratt, Douglas (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article reviews the book: “A Brief History of Theology: From the New Testament to Feminist Theology”, by Derek Johnston.

    View record details
  • Isolation of a strain of Bacillus schlegelii from geothermally heated antarctic soil

    Hudson, J. Andrew; Daniel, Roy M.; Morgan, Hugh W. (1988)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    A bacterium capable of growth from 59 to 72° C was isolated from geothermal soil collected from Mount Erebus, Ross Island, Antarctica. The isolate was enriched in medium containing thiosulphate and bicarbonate. Subsequently the organism was found also to be capable of heterotrophic growth and autotrophic growth in the presence of hydrogen and carbon dioxide. In a comparison with Bacillus schlegelii and Bacillus tusciae the isolate most closely resembled B. schlegelii. This conclusion was supported by the finding that B. schlegelii is also capable of autotrophic growth using thiosulphate. The new isolate had a characteristic subunit layer on the cell wall which is typical of B. schlegelii.

    View record details
  • The Purification of Cellulase and Hemicellulase Components from an Extreme Thermophile by the Cloning of Enzymes into E. coli

    Schofield, L.R.; Neal, T.L.; Patchett, Mark L.; Strange, R.C.; Daniel, Roy M.; Morgan, Hugh W. (1988)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The use of heat treatment to purify enzymes by selective denaturation and then by the subsequent precipitation of denatured protein is a simple, rapid, and well established procedure. Successful applications are limited to those few enzymes that possess a thermostability considerably higher than the majority of cell proteins. The introduction of thermostable enzymes into the protein population of a mesophile by cloning offers a clear opportunity to employ a heat-treatment method of purification to its full advantage (e.g., see references 1 and 2). In light of the difficulties involved in purifying bacterial cellulases, the cloning of some of the cellulase and hemicellulase genes of Caldocellum saccharolyticum into Escherichia coli has provided a welcome alternative procedure for obtaining pure enzymes.

    View record details
  • Compression and full-text indexing for Digital Libraries

    Witten, Ian H.; Moffat, Alistair; Bell, Timothy C. (1995)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    This chapter has demonstrated the feasibility of full-text indexing of large information bases. The use of modern compression techniques means that there is no space penalty: large document databases can be compressed and indexed in less than a third of the space required by the originals. Surprisingly, there is little or no time penalty either: querying can be faster because less information needs to be read from disk. Simple queries can be answered in a second; more complex ones with more query terms may take a few seconds. One important application is the creation of static databases on CD-ROM, and a 1.5 gigabyte document database can be compressed onto a standard 660 megabyte CD-ROM. Creating a compressed and indexed document database containing hundreds of thousands of documents and gigabytes of data takes a few hours. Whereas retrieval can be done on ordinary workstations, creation requires a machine with a fair amount of main memory.

    View record details
  • Young, British and Muslim [Book review]

    Pratt, Douglas (2009)


    University of Waikato

    This article reviews the book: “Young, British and Muslim”, by Philip Lewis.

    View record details
  • Evaluation of Rongo Atea: Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Centre for Adolescents

    Paki, Helen Mary (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Abstract Rongo Ātea is a residential abstinence-based Kaupapa Māori alcohol and other drug programme accommodating youth between the ages of 13 and 17. This evaluation investigates the role that staff play at Rongo Ātea along with a number of other factors including the physical environment; stages of change; programme implementation and aftercare. As a Kaupapa Māori programme, the role of how culture and identity can influence positive change is also explored along with the development of a youth-focused approach. I utilised a three phase framework borrowed from the work of Mason Durie (2008) to organise themes. These three phases, which Durie (2008) based on marae encounters, include Whakapiri (Engagement); Whakamarama (Enlightenment); and Whakamana (Empowerment) as they aptly reflect a three phase intervention approach: detoxification and early programme engagement; learning and development through ongoing programme commitment; and post treatment outcomes and aftercare. The data collection phase of this evaluation took place in 2006 and was initiated by the manager of Rongo Ātea who requested an evaluation to identify programme strengths and limitations from the perspectives of staff and students, and to make recommendations to Rongo Ātea that would assist with further programme developments. I utilised a collaborative and participatory approach (Bishop, 1996; Patton, 1990). Kaupapa Māori research principles were reflected in the use of ‘kanohi kitea’— face to face contact (Smith, 1999). With appropriate training and management support, staff could have a greater influence on programme outcomes. Evaluation findings suggest that drug and alcohol intervention and treatment for young people in New Zealand is significantly under-resourced, particularly in the areas of detoxification and aftercare. To be effective, residential treatment programmes should consist of a three stage programme covering detoxification; treatment; and aftercare incorporating an integrated approach. A greater emphasis on working with whānau alongside the young person is recommended.

    View record details
  • Development of a Method for the Quantitative Detection of Honey in Imported Products.

    Dumté, Mérine Emilie Jennifer (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The carbohydrate composition of Asian honeys was determined using analysis of per-O-trimethylsilylated sugar alditols by GC-FID. This method was established to detect the presence and quantify honey in imported products scheduled for investigation by the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (MAF) Biosecurity, because the import of honey products is regulated. The Asian honeys analysed had a carbohydrate composition within the limits set for honey by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, and had a disaccharide profile similar to honeys from elsewhere in the world. Kojibiose, and peaks corresponding to turanose/nigerose and turanose/maltulose, which are carbohydrates not common in nature, were present in all the honey samples analysed. A reference database of the sugar content of these honeys was created; and the presence of these disaccharides together in imported products under investigation would indicate that the product contains honey. Several samples were found to be adulterated, mostly with sucrose syrup and also with glucose syrup through improper bee-feeding. This method is suitable for detection of the presence of honey in a product being investigated but might encounter problems when quantitation of the honey at low levels of honey addition is required, due to the poor precision of the method. This low precision resulted from the difficulty in getting a homogeneous honey sample and quantifying the small or poorly resolved peaks in the chromatograms. A report on the analysis of actual samples supplied by MAF is presented in Appendix A; quantitation of the monosaccharides, the ratio of glucose:fructose and ratio of disaccharides to monosaccharides could be used to quantitate the amount of honey present and this method is recommended for future use.

    View record details
  • Forecasting Lake Waikaremoana Water Availability for Hydro Power

    Hopkirk, Carrie Louise (2011)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Lake Waikaremoana is a high-altitude, large-volume lake located within the rugged terrain of the Urewera National Park. At the lake outflow a rapid elevation change of nearly 450 metres in 8 kilometres facilitates the lake’s use as the upper intake portal for the Waikaremoana Hydro Power Scheme. At the time of this study, Genesis Energy operated the Waikaremoana Power Scheme in response to a water availability model based on daily lake level differencing from which daily generation capacity is predicted, allowing strategic bidding into the electricity market. However, when river flows are low this model is subject to error, as small changes in lake level sometimes cannot be determined accurately beyond background noise on daily timescales. This project develops a method of estimating both current day and day-ahead water availability of Lake Waikaremoana, independent of lake levels using simple hydrological models, thereby improving operational efficiency of the Waikaremoana Power Scheme. The forecasting is developed specifically for the lower inflow conditions when the lake level differencing approach is most error prone. It has long been recognised that a significant volume of Lake Waikaremoana water leaks through the ancient landslide dam which created the lake. Previous to this study, it was considered that an inaccurate estimation of this leakage rate combined with evaporative losses might contribute to the error within the existing water availability model. A modified catchment water balance and simple regression approach was applied to Lake Waikaremoana to estimate the lake water loss not accounted for by recorded outflows. Estimating this unrecorded loss translates to estimating the intercept of a linear regression relation, where the assumption is made that there is a linear relationship between the discharge of the Aniwaniwa Stream and the net lake water balance (excluding known outflows) under low inflow conditions. On the basis of the confidence intervals about the intercept, the balance term (constant background lake inflow minus leakage and evaporative loss) is estimated to within the range of 2.89 and -1.17 m³s-¹ suggesting that the unknown portion of leakage and evaporative losses are not significant contributors to model error. A useful consequence of the regression was that regression coefficients could be used as a means of upscaling to give net lake storage change for low-flow conditions. This enabled day-ahead water availability forecasts to be acquired from Aniwaniwa Stream discharge day-ahead forecasts. Two forecasting methodologies are developed to forecast the Aniwaniwa Stream discharge: a finite mixture rainfall-runoff model, and a multiple linear regression method. The rainfall-runoff model is formulated initially as a many-parameter model which is then subjected to a lasso-based model simplification concurrent with model calibration. The simplified model forecasts next-day inflows by using a weighted linear combination of hydrograph forms which best match the previous observed discharges in the calibration set where the various weights are linear functions of recent rainfalls. An auto-recalibrating version of the rainfall-runoff model was also developed where model simplification and calibration is carried out for each forecast, with the greatest fitting weights most likely on the most recent discharges to allow for changing catchment conditions. The rainfall-runoff model was calibrated under a range of lasso-based parameter elimination pressures to determine the number of parameters which gave the best validation fit as quantified by the Nash-Sutcliffe fit. The highest validation fit using the original rainfall-runoff model was 50.7%. Using the auto-recalibrating rainfall-runoff model a slightly better maximum validation fit of (52.3%) occurred at an elimination pressure giving 14 final parameters from an initial 300. However, a validation fit which is not much lower (46.8%) is achieved at a higher elimination pressure yielding just 6 final parameters, demonstrating a trade-off between model simplification and validation fit. As expected, the rainfall-runoff model was more successful at predicting low to medium flows because forecasting focus was on the lower flows. Higher discharges were consistently under-predicted. Validation fits of the rainfall-runoff model could probably be improved by increasing the range of possible hydrograph forms available for selection at the expense of model simplicity. The multiple regression technique was applied to forecast ‘next-day’ Aniwaniwa inflows in a simpler way, in this case using just current daily rainfall and discharges as independent variables. The discharge forecasts derived from both techniques are then scaled using the regression equation mentioned earlier to give net storage change estimates into Lake Waikaremoana for low to medium inflows. The regression approach was the more successful for overall day-ahead Aniwaniwa flow forecasts. The final prediction for current day storage change is: ΔS = 0.399(AQ) + 0.59 [1] Where AQ is the observed daily total discharge of the Aniwaniwa Stream. Day-ahead Aniwaniwa Stream forecasts can be approximated by equation [2] then scaled to storage change using equation [1] AQ(Next-day) = 0.095(Train) + 0.558(TQ) + 0.611 [2] Where Train is current day total rainfall and TQ is current day total discharge. This single equation gave higher calibration fits than separate regressions based on season. Using only current rainfall and current discharge as independent variables, the Nash-Sutcliffe validation fits were as high as 66%. The linear regression approach gives the most useful inflow estimates to Lake Waikaremoana for the current day, based on upscaling the Aniwaniwa Stream discharges for low to medium flows. Estimating the day-ahead lake inflows is then equated to estimating day-ahead Aniwaniwa discharges for conditions outside of high flows. For this day-ahead forecasting the regression technique proved better than the rainfall-runoff models. It is thus recommended that the multiple regression technique is applied at the Waikaremoana Power Scheme.

    View record details
  • How does culture impact on women's leadership in higher education? A case study in Vietnam

    Le, Ngan Thi Thuy (2011)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Whilst the subject of women and educational leadership is well documented internationally, research in this field is rare in Vietnam. This scarcity consolidates the commonly held belief that equity has been achieved in this country which masks the persistence of gender discrimination and social injustice. Drawing on the experiences of six women leaders, this study explored how culture shaped the way women led as well as their beliefs and perceptions about leadership in higher education in Vietnam. This qualitative research was conducted within a phenomenological theoretical framework which is concerned with people’s lived experience. Five out of six women leaders were Heads of Departments or Divisions at a technical university. They were personally interviewed in depth and the data gathered was analyzed using a thematic approach. The findings indicated that both the indigenous and organisational culture substantially influenced the female participants’ exercising of leadership and consequently contributed to the poor representation of women in senior positions. The women encountered more challenges in filling their roles when they were younger. Age appeared to be a very important factor in the practice of leadership in Vietnam. The women in this study were overwhelmed with huge workloads and domestic duties. The merit awards they strove for assigned them more responsibilities and made it harder for them to balance their work and other areas of life. In spite of these difficulties, the women could be proud of their leadership because of the democratic and transformational leadership styles they embraced. Traditional gender roles and socio-cultural norms together with the selection process and stereotypical tasks lowered the women’s self-confidence and career aspirations. This study indicates that to promote women’s progress and their representation in leadership positions, cultural change is necessary. This process will require the efforts and cooperation of many authorities, organisations and policy makers.

    View record details
  • Social work and human services best practice [Book review]

    Piercy, Gemma Louise (2010-11)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article reviews the book: “Social work and human services best practice”, edited by Wing Hong Chui and Jill Wilson, Annandale, The Federation Press.

    View record details
  • New Zealand’s Muslims and multiculturalism [Book review]

    Pratt, Douglas (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article review the book, “New Zealand’s Muslims and multiculturalism”, by Erich Kolig.

    View record details
  • Raising dust: a cultural history of dance in Palestine [Book review]

    Pratt, Douglas (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article review the book, “Raising dust: a cultural history of dance in Palestine”, by Paul L. Heck.

    View record details
  • Deriving bovine embryonic stem-like cells in defined conditions

    Muhammad Alahdal, Hadil (2011)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The first embryonic stem ES cell line was isolated from mouse in 1981 (Evans and Kaufman 1981; Martin1981). However, ESCs are only available in rodent species. Although research has been carried out on bovine embryos for more than two decades, there is no evidence of ESCs (Shanbo, Fang et al. 2009). Reasons for this are unknown developmental aspects associated with bovine embryology. Most attempts to culture bovine ES-like cells have been to isolate them from the ICM of day seven blastocysts, which have been generated by in vitro production (IVP). Here I report an alternative method to derive bES-like cells using dissociated blastomeres from early stages embryos (8 and 16-cell) and day 5 and 7 embryos. These bovine outgrowths were cultured in order to investigate which developmental stage associated with better blastomere attachment. Also, to examine their pluripotency, as it was hypothesised that early stages of development up to the blastocyst stage are pluripotent and that the naive state of bovine ESCs exist. In addition, instead of using animal material as feeder layers such as mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), which provides leukemic inhibitory factor (LIF) to maintain pluripotency, defined extra cellular matrixes (ECM) were used in order to derive bES-like cells in defined conditions, avoid contamination by reagents used in cell culture and to find the substrate associated with better attachment and proliferation. 2i media was applied to the development of bovine embryos in order to determine if the use of 2i media with different numbers of blastomeres would encourage bES-like cell development, proliferation and to introduce cell uniformity. Blastomeres were cultured singularly, and in groups in 96 well plates and in tissue culture plates in order to produce short term cell lines. Development rate, attachment and outgrowth production were measured, for example, the proportion of blastomeres attached and proliferated. Markers of ESCs, epiblast stem cells (epiESCs) and trophectoderm were investigated in produced bovine outgrowths in order to examine their pluripotency, and their karyotyping was examined. In this study, from the different developmental stages used, outgrowths were produced from all stages used, but the inner cell mass (ICM) was associated with better outgrowth production. Different ECMs promoted attachment, however, with variable efficiency, in which gelatin was associated with better attachment and proliferation. The use of 2i media resulted in attachment, but with poor proliferation. cDNA isolated from bovine outgrowths expressed some of pluripotency markers, but with a lack of uniformity. In addition, metaphase spreads from outgrowths showed an abnormal karyotype. From this study, we increased our understanding of the factors that enhance the derivation of bES-like cells such as the culture media and the substrates. In addition, we have gained more information on bovine gene expression in blastomere derived outgrowths.

    View record details
  • Book review: Decentering Empire: Britain, India and the Transcolonial World

    Beattie, James John (2007)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article reviews the book: “Decentering Empire: Britain, India and the Transcolonial World”, by Durba Ghosh and Dane Kennedy.

    View record details
  • The Microflora of the Huhu Grub

    Williams, Thomas Carl (2011)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    New Zealand's endemic longhorned beetle larvae, the Huhu grub (Prionoplus reticularis) feeds on dead coniferous wood. No studies have been conducted on its gut microflora. Given that the Huhu grub feeds solely on lignocelluloses, it is likely that there are microorganisms present in its gut which are capable of degrading lignocelluloses to release energy rich sugars. This process of lignocelluloses release is the rate limiting step in the utilisation of woody material for bioprocesses such as bioethanol production. Microbial communities from wild grubs were compared with those raised on laboratory diets of either: lignocellulose, cellulose, or complex nutrients. Bacterial gut communities were surveyed using 454 pyrosequencing of the variable 5 and 6 regions (400nt reads) of bacterial 16S rRNA genes as well as clone library analysis of the full length gene (1500bp). Fungal gut communities were analysed using cloning and Sanger sequencing of amplified fungal intergenic spacer (ITS) regions. The wild type gut bacterial population was highly diverse, with no known cellulose or lignin degraders detected in any abundance, although a strain of Burkholderia thought to be capable of nitrogen fixation was detected. No methanogenic archaea or acetogenic bacteria were detected. Fungal ITS sequences had high similarity with those of known lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose degraders in the public databases, and an uncultured Basidiomycete made up 51% of the wild type community, while species of the Penicillium genus dominated the grubs reared on laboratory diets of lignocellulose. When grubs were reared on a diet of only cellulose the fungal community was dominated by a single species identified as Candida shehatae, a hemicellulose degrader known to associate with other longhorned beetle larvae. These fungi may be of interest for the biological conversion of lignocelluloses.

    View record details
  • Māori outcome evaluation: A kaupapa Māori, outcomes and indictors, framework and methodology

    Jefferies, Richard; Kennedy, Nathan (2009-06-30)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    Territorial local authorities (i.e. regional and district councils) are by law required to provide for Māori values and interests, and to undertake plan evaluation and environmental monitoring, to ensure that the provisions they have in place for these purposes are effective. Councils have not, however, had methods available that would enable them to meet these statutory obligations. This gap is filled by the framework and methods that we have developed and trialled over the past 5 years. The development and use of our Kaupapa Māori Environmental Outcomes and Indicators Framework and Methodology is the focus of this report.

    View record details
  • Does respondent perception of the status quo matter in non-market valuation with choice experiments? An application to New Zealand freshwater streams

    Marsh, Dan; Mkwara, Lena; Scarpa, Riccardo (2010-07)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    In environmental valuation studies with stated preference methods, researchers often provide descriptions of status quo conditions which may differ from those perceived by respondents. Ignoring this difference in utility baselines may affect the magnitude of utility changes and hence bias the implied estimates of benefits from the proposed environmental policies. We investigate this issue using data from a choice experiment on a community’s willingness to pay for water quality improvements in streams. More than 60 percent of respondents perceived the description of the quality of water in streams to be better than the one we provided in our scenario. Our results show that respondents who could provide details of their perception of the status quo displayed stronger preferences for water quality improvements - hence a higher marginal willingness to pay - than their counterparts. Respondents who opted for their own status quo description displayed a higher inclination to remain in the status quo, while their counterparts displayed the contrary. We argue this might be linked to the amount of knowledge each group displayed about the status quo: a kind of reluctance to leave what one knows well.

    View record details
  • Riding the knowledge wave: An examination of recent work-based learning in New Zealand

    Piercy, Gemma Louise (2005)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    This paper offers insights into the policy environment within which work-based learning takes place. Since 1999, work-based learning in New Zealand has been reframed by a series of ‘third way’ policies implemented by the Labour-led coalition government. These initiatives incorporate an interesting mix of borrowed ideas, principally from the United Kingdom, and domestic imperatives. The purpose of this paper is to outline, examine, and evaluate New Zealand’s ‘third way’ approach to education and training and its present and future implications for work-based learning. The direction of Labour’s policies was signaled in its 1999 election manifesto document, Skills for 21st Century. Buoyed by the support for and success of its initial policies, the government has continued to borrow and adapt overseas initiatives. This paper builds on previous comparative research (Piercy, 2003; Murray and Piercy, 2003). It traces the implementation of key policy reforms that relate to the broad area of work-based learning. It describes, briefly, the evolution of the current Tertiary Education Strategy (TES) and the contribution made by the ‘third way’ Tertiary Education Advisory Committee (TEAC). The TES is a five to seven year plan that intends to give focus and certainty to the entire post-compulsory education and training sector (PCET); this effectively includes all work-based learning. The paper also examines the three Statements of Educational Priorities (STEP) that have been released to date (the latest in April 2005). The STEPs constitute an action plan for each phase of the TES. The paper concludes that the adoption of a ‘third way’ approach since 1999 has not only altered significantly the role now played by employers, unions, and industry training organizations (ITOs) but also provided opportunities to transform important aspects of work-based learning.

    View record details
  • (R)evolutionary aesthetics: Denis Dutton’s The art instinct: beauty, pleasure and human evolution

    Kingsbury, Justine (2009)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Denis Dutton’s ‘‘The Art Instinct’’ succeeds admirably in showing that it is possible to think about art from a biological point of view, and this is a significant achievement, given that resistance to the idea that cultural phenomena have biological underpinnings remains widespread in many academic disciplines. However, his account of the origins of our artistic impulses and the far-reaching conclusions he draws from that account are not persuasive. This article points out a number of problems: in particular, problems with Dutton’s appeal to sexual selection, with his discussion of the adaptation/by-product distinction and its significance, and with drawing normative conclusions from evolutionary hypotheses.

    View record details
  • Three variations of observation equivalence preserving synthesis abstraction

    Mohajerani, Sahar; Malik, Robi; Ware, Simon; Fabian, Martin (2011-01-26)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    In a previous paper we introduced the notion of synthesis abstraction, which allows efficient compositional synthesis of maximally permissive supervisors for large-scale systems of composed finite-state automata. In the current paper, observation equivalence is studied in relation to synthesis abstraction. It is shown that general observation equivalence is not useful for synthesis abstraction. Instead, we introduce additional conditions strengthening observation equivalence, so that it can be used with the compositional synthesis method. The paper concludes with an example showing the suitability of these relations to achieve substantial state reduction while computing a modular supervisor.

    View record details