88,600 results

  • Pattern analysis of genotype x environment interactions and comparisons with alternative analyses : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Plant Science at Massey University

    Cullen, Carol

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The occurrence of genotype-environment interactions is a problem affecting the interpretation of cultivar trials. Several analyses have been used to try to resolve the inconsistencies of cultivar performances which occur when these interactions are present. An assessment of several techniques was carried out using three sets of data. Two sets of barley data came from one. season's trials covering the barley growing areas of New Zealand. Ten wheat cultivars were tested in four locations in the lower North Island in two seasons. The analyses which were examined were Analysis of variance, linear regression, Cluster Analysis and principal Component Analysis. The parameters of Wricke, Hanson and Eberhart and Russell were also studied. The Analysis of Variance revealed significant location, genotype and genotype-location interaction effects for the barley data. The wheat data had significant years, years x locations, genotype and genotype-year interactions effects. There was a strong linear relationship between the genotype means and the environmental index for the Finlay-Wilkinson regression analysis. Following refinement of the error term βi's with significant differences from 1.0 could be seen for several Barley and Wheat genotypes. It was noted that a conflict existed between the aim of finding significant differences from 1.0 and the assumption of independence of effects for the underlying model. It was suggested that an independent measure of environments be used. The parameters of Wricke, Hanson and Eberhart & Russell were each related to different concepts of stability and the genotypes ranked accordingly. The three parameters gave reasonably consistent results for the rankings of the cultivars. In the barley data the cultivars Goldmarker and Magnum had uniformly low rankings. The wheat cultivar Gamenya was generally found to rank highly. These were measures of variability over environments so a high ranking infers a low level of variability and vice versa. A comparison of the different clustering strategies available was carried out and Wards Incremental Sums of Squares method was chosen as the major strategy. This was applied to each data set using both genotype-environment effects and means. A probabilistic cut off measure was used for truncation of the dendrogram. The clusters formed could be related to the previous analyses and seemed to adequately summarise the different responses present. A Principal Component Analysis was carried out and the number of components needed to account for 75% of the total variation were examined. For the barley data sets relatively large numbers of components were needed for this ( five and six). This made interpretation and presentation of the genotypic performances difficult. For the wheat data two components explained a satisfactory level of the total variation and the arrangement of the genotypes on these two axes agreed closely with the clustering results. Varimax rotation did not aid greatly in the interpretation of the components. It was felt that the roles of these different analyses were complementary in interpreting genotypic performances.

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  • The use of ground penetrating radar to map soil physical properties that control water flow pathways in alluvial soils : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Science in Agriculture at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Lane, Angela Louise

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Soil drainage models are vital for informing smart agricultural practices. Predicting soil drainage and zones where denitrification occurs, requires knowledge of the spatially varying subsurface features, for example soil-thickness, flow pathways, and depth to water table. Obtaining information about these features rapidly and non-invasively requires the use of geophysical techniques such as ground penetrating radar (GPR). While applications of GPR are diverse, ranging from geotechnical to archaeological investigations, to mineral and groundwater exploration, GPR has not been extensively applied in soil mapping for agricultural purposes across alluvial soils. The potential use of GPR for identifying subsurface features, such as the depth to gravel and water table which both influence soil drainage and denitrification processes, could benefit future developments in precision agriculture. To assess applicability of GPR for this purpose, this thesis presents research conducted on the alluvial soils at Dairy 1 farm, Massey University, Palmerston North. Radargrams were collected on two 0.4 ha plots, one arable and one pasture, using 200 MHz and 100 MHz antennas, in a 2-m grid pattern. Radargrams were ground-truthed with 13 soil cores and 21 auger holes, targeting different layers detected by GPR. The soil cores were analysed for bulk density, soil moisture and particle size. Using the 200 MHz antennas, soil textural banding was identified with specific reflection configurations within individual radargrams. These were represented when a contrasting textural boundary appeared as a continuous line of two to three bands. However, finer layering features were not identified. The 100 MHz antennas were able to detect depth to water table in the pasture plot. Soil moisture conditions were identified by a change in radar wave velocity. This appeared on radargrams as a difference in depth and radargram configuration shape. The use of Slice View images compiled from radargram data, assisted with identifying potential flow pathways and the depth to the water table across the pasture plot. Validation of radargrams with soil core samples indicates that GPR can obtain meaningful results from alluvial sediments ranging from sandy loams to silt loams. The use of GPR for delineating subsurface features in alluvial soils is a promising tool that could assist with precision agricultural practices.

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  • How is co-leadership enacted in the Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand : a 152.800 thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of Master of Management at Massey University

    Miller, Neil James

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This research report explores the enactment of a gender-balanced co-leadership throughout the organisation of the Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand. This small-sized political organisation has had representatives in parliament since 1996. Its experimental model of a male and a female sharing positions arose out of the social movements of the baby boomer generation. Gender-balanced co-leadership was devised as an exception to the norm of a single leader (frequently presented as a heroic man). The metaphor of theatre is used to frame a description of the stage-managed performance of Green Party political co-leaders. I show how co-leaders have been portrayed over the life span of the party as if they were characters in play. The re-presentation of co-leaders is illustrated by images, primarily taken from the party magazine. Experiences of the enactment of this co-leader model are interpreted through five interviews with key informants who have all held formal positions of authority within the organisation. I provide an auto-ethnographic account as a party insider illustrated by snapshots. The Green Party’s co-leadership model has endured over 25 plus years. By virtue of longevity it has demonstrated a viable way of sharing position power between two genders in a political party. Sharing positions in this organisation requires a significant investment of effort to maintain the desired presentation of the relationship. The lead actors are constrained to conform to the stage-setting. Parliamentary politics imposes isomorphic forces of order and hierarchy. The enactment of co-leadership has become increasingly gender stereotypical. Gender-balanced co-leadership is an experiment that has become a conventional routine.

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  • Patients who present to the Emergency department but do not wait : an exploratory study : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Nursing at Massey University

    Baur, Peter

    Thesis
    Massey University

    People who do not require urgent treatment often visit Emergency Departments. Furthermore, a small - yet significant - group leave the Emergency Department (ED) before even being seen by a doctor. Previous studies suggest that most people who do not wait (DNW) having presented to the ED and then leave without being seen by a doctor may have non-urgent conditions. However, other studies contradict this. This is an exploratory study into this subject. Its main aims are to: □ correctly define this DNW group who present to EDs; □ identify the size of a DNW population in a New Zealand setting; □ establish common factors that influence people's decision to present then leave and; □ ascertain whether nursing practice may impact on this population of emergency presentations. Data collection took place, over a period of 4 months, in a Level 5 District Health Board Emergency Department in New Zealand. The study uses a retrospective cross-sectional postal survey design to secure data on people's experiences of the ED, asking them, amongst other things, why they did not wait. The study sample consisted of 642 people. 489 people were sent postal surveys which resulted in a response rate of 18% (n = 92). Data was analysed and compared using a combination of quantitative and qualitative techniques, using SPSS© and MS Excel© statistics software, elements of operations research (field observation) and content analysis. Subjective data was illuminated and extended by qualitative methods, namely interpretative and descriptive content analysis and an abstract conceptualisation of the themes generated is offered. Regional Ethics Committee approval was sought and granted prior to this investigation commencing. The results indicate that the majority of DNWs occur during daylight hours. The mean age of those who DNW was 27 years. They tended to be male. The greatest proportion of the DNW population analysed lived locally and waited a mean time of 112 minutes before choosing to leave. All Australasian Triage Scale categories (except ATS 1) demonstrated examples of those who took a DNW discharge. The most common complaints people presented with were ones they had endured for more than 12 hours and were sometimes days old. A high proportion of people reported that they received definitive treatment within 12 -24 hours following their departure from the ED. Common themes identified as reasons people chose to leave the ED related to their perception of action, perception of their illness and environment. Additional themes extracted from the data that influenced people's decisions to leave concerned their perceptions of staff communication/behaviour; systems processes; feelings of abandonment; other commitments and waiting time.

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  • Improving soluble chemical oxygen demand yields for anaerobic digester feedstock using leaching : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Engineering in Environmental Engineering, School of Advanced Technology and Engineering, College of Sciences, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand. EMBARGED until 25 February 2018

    Ralphs, John

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Waste biomass is often a liability to many municipalities. Technologies exist that can turn this biomass into energy which can then be sold. Anaerobic digestion is one of the important technologies that utilises this biomass to turn it into biogas. One of the factors that affects the rate that biogas can be produced is the speed that suitable organic compounds can be delivered to methanogenic microorganisms. These organic compounds such as sugars and amino acids are released from plant material at different rates depending on their availability. A portion of the compounds are readily soluble in water and are immediately available, some of the compounds are locked up inside the plant cells and some of the compounds such as cellulose are not soluble and need to be hydrolysed into sugars before they can be converted into methane. Hydrolysis is usually the rate limiting step in anaerobic digestion. Leaching of green waste was investigated as a form of pre-treatment to externalise the initial stages in anaerobic digestion that makes soluble organic compounds available for the consecutive mthanogenic stages of anaerobic digestion. The added benefit of leaching is it removes the complexity of solids handling from inside anaerobic digester. Many various forms of leaching technologies that are coupled to anaerobic digesters have been trialled with grass and silage, little research was found on leaching green waste and few trials had used the simplified unheated flooded tank system as tested here. Pilot and laboratory leaching trials were conducted on shredded green waste as well as grass clippings to establish the efficiency of leaching by measuring the COD yields in the leachate. Additionally, rumen contents from cattle rumen were added to grass clippings in order to investigate if the leaching efficiency from the grass could be improved. Leaching was tested at a pilot scale in an open to the air reactor tank in ambient temperature in a temperate climate. Hydraulic retention times ranging from 4 hours to 7 days were tested to establish the most effective leaching strategy. The laboratory trials were conducted with the temperature controlled at 25°C to simulate ambient environmental conditions in a temperate climate. The effect of storing feedstock was tested to see how changes in handling times affected the process. Gas production from the leachate was tested using 2 L CSTR (Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor) anaerobic digesters to confirm the usability of the leachate as a feedstock in an anaerobic digester. Pilot scale trials of shredded green waste and grass clippings gave maximum COD concentrations of 5.4 ± 0.5 and 47±4 g COD / L of leachate respectively. Pilot trials of shredded green waste and grass leachate reached a maximum total COD yields of 53 ± 2 and 410 ± 20 kg COD / tonne VS respectively. Laboratory scale trials of shredded green waste and grass clippings gave maximum COD concentrations of 7.0 ± 0.1 and 49 ± 2 g COD / L of leachate respectively. Laboratory trials of shredded green waste and grass leachate reached a maximum total COD yields of 132 ± 8 and 410 ± 20 kg COD / tonne VS respectively. Laboratory trials are indicative of how pilot trials will behave and differences are likely to be due to an increased bulk density in solids in pilot trials. Shredded green waste and grass leachate gave maximum 3.7 and 7.8 g BOD / L respectively. Nutrients in the leachate were tested: nitrogen levels in shredded green waste and grass leachate reached maximum levels of 51 and 460 mg / L respectively; DRP (Dissolved Reactive Phosphorus) levels in the shredded green waste and grass leachate reached maximum levels of 6 and 85 mg / L respectively. The leaching tanks produced gas while leaching was taking place; a sample of this gas was captured and the levels of CH4, CO2 and H2 were measured as 0%, 25.5% and 5.0% respectively. Gas production from anaerobic digestion of shredded green waste and grass in a CSTR at 35°C produced 0.23 ± 0.01 and 0.534 ± 0.005 m3 biogas / kg COD respectively. Use of grass that is fresh gives much higher yields of dissolved organic compounds in the leachate than when the grass is stored in covered area for 30 days. Leaching grass with an HRT (Hydraulic Retention Time) of 1 day gave optimal results in terms of concentration and yields of dissolved organic compounds in the leachate compared to leaching trials with an HRT of 4 hours or 7 days. Green waste gave much lower concentration and yields of COD than grass and an HRT of 7 days was the most suitable for gaining the best concentration and yield of dissolved organic compounds compared to a 4 hour or 1 day HRT. The overall mass transfer of organic compounds when leaching freshly shredded green waste is most likely limited by a combination of hydrolysis and the rate that soluble compounds are released from within plant cells as the cell membranes degrade. In trials of fresh and stored grass and stored shredded green waste, shortening the HRT increases the total yield of dissolved organic compounds leached into the leachate; however, this is at the expense of increased concentrations of dissolved organic compounds within the leachate. The lower leachate concentrations with the shorter HRTs means that the leachate is less suitable to uses as a feedstock for an anaerobic digester. Anaerobic digestion of grass leachate produced much more biogas / kg COD than anaerobic digestion of shredded green waste leachate, this may be a result of an inhibiting compounds such as tannins, additionally to this the material that the shredded green waste is composed of will have higher levels of lignocellulose materials that are not readily soluble. The leachate was found not to degrade when stored at 25°C in an open top container, this maybe a result of low pH inhibiting degrading micro-organisms, this has significant benefit as the leaching process can be separated from the anaerobic digestion process without degrading the quality of the leachate while it is being stored.

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  • Ethylene flux in postharvest kiwifruit systems : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Food Technology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

    Samarakoon, Himani Chamila

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Damaged or rotten kiwifruit or change of environmental conditions (temperature) through the supply chain may trigger premature ripening and softening of sound fruit as a result of the expected higher rates of ethylene production caused by these events. This thesis quantified some of the key factors which will govern ethylene composition within a commercial kiwifruit package (targeting ‘Hayward’ variety) as a preliminary step for constructing a predictive model that enable interpreting of ethylene from the sensor which could be used in detecting quality of kiwifruit within a package. Ethylene production was found to be strongly associated with kiwifruit firmness and temperature of ‘Hayward’ kiwifruit. Maximal ethylene production (16,000 to 120,000 times that of minimal production) was observed when kiwifruit firmness reached less than 13 N suggesting that detection of ethylene concentration within a kiwifruit box should be able to be used to provide a reasonable estimate of the firmness of the fruit within the package. Lower rates of ethylene production were measured at 0 and 2 °C in comparison to previously reported data due to the advantage of using a newly developed high sensitivity ethylene detector, ETD-300 in present study. Ethylene production data obtained at a broad range of potential supply chain temperatures (0, 2, 5, 10 and 20 °C) concluded that at higher temperature (10 and 20 °C) initiation of an observable increase in ethylene production occurs at an earlier stage of firmness (10.5-13 N) while firmness of kiwifruit should reduce more (5.6-5.7 N) to observe this at lower temperature (0 and 2 °C). A simple mathematical model was developed which can be used to predict the ethylene production of ‘Hayward’ kiwifruit given a known fruit quality (firmness) and temperature condition. Impact injured ‘Hayward’ kiwifruit produced high ethylene as a typical ‘stress/wound’ physiological response and results strongly indicated that temperature plays a significant role in controlling synthesis of wound ethylene by showing no effect at 0 °C and 2-3 times increase of ethylene production at 20 °C than at 5 °C. Two fold increase of rate of ethylene production was observed with different degree of impact damage (30, 60 and 120 cm drop heights) adding evidence to the effect of severity/degree of injury on increase of wound induced ethylene. Moreover, results of two different maturity levels of kiwifruit demonstrated the further effect of firmness reduction of kiwifruit on increase of impact injury ethylene production. A one to twenty times increase in ethylene evolution rate for ‘Hayward’ kiwifruit following subsequent transfer to a higher temperature from a lower temperature (0?2 °C, 2?5 °C, 5?10 °C, 10?20 °C) was demonstrated. Mathematical estimation of the desorbed ethylene at each transient increase of temperature using Henry’s law revealed that there are other factors (via ethylene synthesis pathway) contribute to the escalation of ethylene evolution observed during and immediately subsequent to an increase in temperature other than contribution from the release of dissolved ethylene in the kiwifruit tissue based on Henry’s law. A six to eight times greater permeability of current commercial kiwifruit polyliner (HDPE) than what reported in literature for the similar type of film demonstrated the ethylene permeability differences that can be found as a result of the structure of the film (physical and chemical) as well as experimental conditions that are often not reported alongside the data presented. Permeability of the polyliner was found to be dependent on temperature as well as with concentration of ethylene. The model established to predict ethylene composition within different types of commercial packages available in the industry using log ethylene production rate (fmol.kg-1s-1) of kiwifruit and permeability of the polyliner (mol.m.m-2s-1Pa-1) shows a 1.5 fold increase of log ethylene concentration (mPa) inside the kiwifruit package with the temperature decrease from 20 ºC to 0 ºC irrespective to the type of package. Out of all the factors considered, the approximately 10,000–100,000 fold increase of ethylene production due to firmness change of kiwifruit dwarfs the 2-20 fold increase (due to injury or temporary temperature change) indicating that the ability to detect ethylene concentration inside a kiwifruit package could be applied in getting the information of the quality of the fruit (firmness) inside the package and hence identify the kiwifruit which require remedial action within the product stock.

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  • Teachers' perceptions of psychological services in educational settings in Aotearoa New Zealand : a thesis presented to the Institute of Education at Massey University, Manawatū, New Zealand, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Masters in Educational Psychology

    Williams, Olivia J

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Despite an increasing international knowledge base, there is a lack of New Zealand based research regarding teacher and school perceptions of educational psychology. This study discusses the findings of a survey of teachers’ perceptions of educational psychology services in New Zealand. A total of 164 teachers completed the survey that yielded both quantitative and qualitative data. Findings indicate that there is considerable alignment between educational psychologists and teachers in New Zealand regarding the role of educational psychology. Teachers from this survey reported little contact with educational psychologists, and rated educational psychology services as at least ‘slightly helpful’. Consultation and collaboration with both school staff and parents was recognised as the most important service educational psychologists in New Zealand should provide. The greatest barriers to educational psychology services were identified as insufficient funds, a personal lack of knowledge regarding services and referral processes, and a shortage of educational psychologists. Teachers reported feeling overwhelmed, unsupported and underequipped to properly support the wide ranging and seemingly ever increasing needs of our learners. Overall, the teachers surveyed expressed that too many students are missing out on desperately needed support. These findings suggest important implications for the future of educational psychology services in New Zealand. An increased promotion of psychological, social, and emotional health in schools is proposed as one potential area in which the role of educational psychologists in New Zealand could be further advanced.

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  • Home made : picturing Chinese settlement in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters in Design at Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

    Lee, Kerry Ann

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Since the first gold-seekers arrived in New Zealand in the 1860s, Chinese have been regarded as outsiders to discussions of national identity. Colonial representations of otherness have left Chinese longing to be recognised as established settlers. Fresh interpretations are much needed to align myth with the longstanding realities of settlement. The absence of a recognisable Chinatown in New Zealand has meant that many of the Chinese customs inherited from the first settlers are observed in private within the family home. This condition coupled with emerging research and exposure on the topic offers a chance to define Chinese spaces and author Chinese stories from within a local community. This research project interrogates the transformation of Cantonese settlers into Chinese New Zealanders through illustration design. By claiming the book as a space, unsung moments of settlement are made visible to challenge stereotypes and forge a new space for Chinese New Zealand stories. The process of collage is used to illustrate the complexities of constructing identity. Home Made is an alternative cultural history told through visual metaphor. Gold was responsible for first transforming the sojourner into the settler, the bowl is used to mediate tradition between home and enterprise in settlement, while the lantern illuminates and celebrates local Chinese spaces. Brought out from home kitchens and backrooms of family businesses, these artefacts represent a longstanding Chinese presence. Home Made activates these metaphors to structure an argument for the longevity and contemporary significance of Chinese settlement in New Zealand.

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  • Psychological and workplace attributes that influence personal web use (PWU) : a dissertation presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Industrial/Organisational Psychology, Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Polzer-Debruyne, Andrea M.

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Using the Internet during work time for personal interest is defined as personal web use (PWU), yet only limited knowledge is available on why people engage in varying degrees in this activity. To address this shortcoming, this research project tested a heavily moderated theoretical model of thirteen psychological and workplace attributes expected to influence differences in individuals’ PWU: moral norms, boredom, workgroup norms, workload, use of the ‘ledger neutralisation strategy’, certainty about PWU rules, attitude towards work, reactance, supervisor treatment, attitude towards PWU control, status, tenure and social loafing risk. Five facets of PWU were measured as separate criterion variables: past frequency, habitual PWU, duration, and two PWU activity types. Data for the model testing was gathered through an extensive on-line questionnaire. The responses of 267 participants with varying demographics and work situations were used to test the theoretical model, using moderated regression analyses. Significant interactions were explored further through the Modgraph procedure. The model testing results showed that PWU was more common in respondents who morally approved of PWU and who were bored at their work. How often people engaged in PWU (either out of habit or in general), for how long and in what types of activities, was influenced by specific combinations of the remaining attributes. Only four of the hypothesised twelve interactions played statistically significant roles, only habitual PWU was influenced by workload; and only information-seeking activities were influenced by workgroup norms. Attributes with ‘revenge’ connotations were noticeably absent as significant influences. The findings are discussed in some detail. To further explore the context of PWU, thematic analysis was undertaken of answers to two open-response questions provided by a sub-sample of 119 participants. Results supported the role of workplace boredom in PWU situations, specified the moral issues of PWU approval, and suggested that PWU is best understood and examined in the wider context of organisational culture. The thesis concludes with synthesis and discussion of statistical and qualitative analyses results, identifying the contributions the research has made to the field of study. Suggested practical applications of the findings, limitations of the research project and suggestions for future studies conclude the documentation.

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  • Māori organisation and contemporary Māori development : strengthening the conceptual plait : a thesis presented for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Māori Studies at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Puketapu, Brendon Te Tiwha

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis is primarily a study of organisational approaches used by Maori to achieve their development goals and aspirations. One focus is the impact of development ideas and practice, largely driven by international and national influence, upon Maori. Another focus is the role of the state in the direction and implementation of Maori development with particular emphasis on the impact of the structural adjustment programme. As a consequence, the relationships between Maori and the state, Maori and Maori, and Maori with others are critically examined. The thesis canvasses a number of disciplines including Maori history, ecology, sociology, anthropology, environmental studies, management, and development studies. Engaging with this broad spectrum of ideas and actions and using literature based, empirical and participatory research tools, three themes are explored. They are: (i) The theme of 'development' which examines international and national perspectives of development in order to identify the merits of Shifting the praxis of Maori development; (ii) The theme of 'organisation' which explores local and wider perspectives of organisational theory and practice in order to identify the implications for Maori organisations; (iii) The theme of 'relationship' which investigates a wide range of perspectives about the dynamic relationships between Maori themselves and with others, and the opportunities to reaffinn and build new relationships. The thesis concludes with an analysis of current thought and action before presenting five major conclusions. In essence and simply stated, if Maori self-determination is the destination then the journey is best guided by a Maori centred approach to development and organisational arrangements that are cognisant of the contemporary circumstances, in particular the relationship dynamics, that challenge Maori and the life choices they make.

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  • Barriers to affordable housing for mental health service users : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of Master of Public Policy at Massey University, Albany Campus, New Zealand

    Andrew, Colwell

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Housing is both a social issue and a determinant for well being and is an integral component of social policy. The research specifically looked at the barriers for mental health service users to accessing affordable housing. Previous studies have identified affordability, lack of choice and discrimination as specific issues in relation to people with mental illness and housing. While previous studies focussed on housing affordability in relation to the individual, this research considered the barriers to affordable housing for mental health service users in relation to the capitalist structure of society. The research utilised a Marxist theoretical perspective that views housing in terms of the social structures of society and the relationship to class. This approach was supported by the social model of disability, a social construct where those with disabilities are oppressed by the social structures of society. Another element of the research provided a history of government housing policy in New Zealand. A quantitative and qualitative approach was used to collect data which consisted of statistical information and information gained from interviews with the relevant participants. Analysis from a Marxist perspective explained, from the findings, that there are systemic barriers in accessing affordable housing for mental health service users within a capitalist system. From the findings, the social model of disability explained that there are structural disadvantages for mental health service users that result in barriers to accessing affordable housing. An analysis of the history of government housing policy in New Zealand, which has continually promoted the commodification of housing, also explained from the findings that there are systemic barriers to accessing affordable housing for mental health service users within a capitalist system.

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  • Mechanisms of complex programmed patterns of anthocyanin pigment formation in Antirrhinum majus : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Plant Molecular Biology at Massey University, Palmerston North New Zealand

    Pathirana, Nilangani Nadyeshda

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Antirrhinum majus is a model plant used in flower pigmentation studies. Anthocyanin pigment production is mainly controlled by regulation of transcription of the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes. Two types of transcription factors, M Y B and bHLH, together with a WD40 type co-regulator have been shown to regulate the transcription of the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes. In antirrhinum, in addition to the wild type Rosea 1 phenotype, in which pigmentation occurs throughout the inner and outer epidermis of the petal , other complex pigmentation patterns are observed, such as anthocyanins being produced only in the outer (abaxial) epidermis of both lobes and upper tube region of the dorsal petals (roseadorsea phenotype). The major objective of this research project was to understand the genetic regulatory system leading to the development of the two different floral pigmentation patterns in antirrhinum as a means to understanding differential regulation of gene expression in similar cells. Promoter deletion analysis coupled with linker scanning mutagenesis identified the - 1 62 bp to - 1 20 bp region of the Rosea l promoter as i mportant for the regulation of the Rosea l gene. Four putative transcription factor-binding sites within this region : a Wbox, a pyrimidine box, a DOF and a WRKY transcription factor binding site were shown to be important for Rosea l gene regulation. Promoter deletion analysis carried out on the rosea ldorsea promoter showed that the proximal 1 87 bp deletion was, surprisingly, not responsible for the roseadorsea phenotype. Cloning and characterisation of the Rosea l promoter sequence from various Antirrhinum species and accessions verified this finding. The rosealdorsea promoter analysis also indicated that - 1 5 1 bp of the promoter was sufficient for its expression as well as for the maintenance of petal specific expression. The rosea ldorsea allele was also shown to encode a functional protein . In situ hybridisation analysis showed that Rosea l transcripts were present in the inner and outer epidermis of the petal tissue of both wild type and roseadorsea petal tissue. Vascular expression of the Roseal mRNA is indicative of regulation of this gene through sugar or hormonal cues. However, rosea ldorsea transcript levels (in roseadorsea) were much lower than Roseal (wild type). Lowered expression of rosea ldorsea transcripts may be responsible for the overall weak pigmentation in the roseadorsea flowers. Analysis of the intron sequences of the two alleles revealed that many sequence changes were present in the intron 2 of rosea l dorsea. These changes may lead to instability or the lower expression of the rosea l dorsea mRNA and may be responsible for the roseadorsea phenotype. Another possibility is that a fourth Myb gene may be responsible for the roseadorsea phenotype. The role of the Deficiens gene in direct regulation of Rosea l was analysed by RNAi and bioinformatics-based methods. The presence of potential MADS box binding sites in the intron 2 region of the Roseal allele indicated that Rosea l might be directly regulated by Deficiens. Initial experiments using transient assays did not support this suggestion. However, silencing of Deficiens in wild type antirrhinum buds led to the loss of anthocyanin pigments in the petals. Further analysis of the RNAi tissue using SEM revealed that the proper development of conical shaped epidermal cells was also affected . The RNAi tissue also developed chlorophyll pigments underscoring the plasticity of petal identity. This work demonstrated that proper expression of Deficiens is required throughout flowering for anthocyanin pigment production as well as maintenance of petal cell identity. The current investigation revealed that the higher order regulation of the Rosea l alleles in antirrhinum petals is much more complex than initially postulated.

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  • The role of inhibitors in mitigating nitrogen losses from cattle urine and nitrogen fertiliser inputs in pastures : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. D.) in Soil Science at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Singh, Jagrati

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The major land use in New Zealand is pastoral farming of sheep and cattle. In intensively grazed dairy-pasture systems, animals graze on nitrogen (N)-rich legume-based pastures, but do not efficiently utilize the N they ingest. On average only 10.5% of the N in forage-based animal feed is converted into milk and the remainder is excreted in dung and urine. In the pastures, a cow urine patch can typically contain up to 1000 kg N ha-1. Nitrogen input, either in the form of cow urine or fertilizer, often exceeds immediate plant requirements and hence is susceptible to losses as ammonia (NH3) volatilisation and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and removal in drainage water through nitrate (NO3-) leaching. This loss of N from grazed pastures causes detrimental environmental impacts in the form of acidification and eutrophication of the soil and water bodies, global warming, destruction of stratospheric ozone, and NO3- toxicity. Various approaches have been attempted to mitigate the economic and environmental impacts of N losses. One such approach is the use of Urease (UIs) and Nitrification (NIs) inhibitors. There have been extensive studies on the value of UIs in arable farming and NIs in grazed pastures. However, only limited work on the impact of UI and NI alone and in combination in influencing the N dynamics, and thus mitigating N gaseous losses from pastures, has been conducted. This thesis examines the impact of UI (Agrotain; N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide) and NI (Dicyandiamide, commonly known as DCD), when applied alone or in combination to cow urine and urea fertiliser, on N losses through NH3 and N2O emissions and NO3- leaching, and on herbage production under glasshouse conditions and a field-plot study. The degradation rate of DCD, and its effect on nitrification and on N2O emissions from four soils varying in their physical and chemical properties was also examined under laboratory incubations. The results from the field-plot study were then used to predict the effect of DCD on N2O emissions reductions from urine by adapting the process-based NZ-DNDC model. Both NH3 and N2O emissions have common sources in agriculture. Therefore, chambers were adapted to measure their emissions simultaneously using active and passive gas sampling. Active sampling involved continuous air flow and the use of acid (0.05 M H2SO4 and 2% H3BO3) traps for NH3 measurements and passive sampling involved collecting three gas samples over a one-hour period from a static chamber used for N2O emissions. The first glasshouse experiment used UI with urine or urea to assess its effect on NH3 and N2O emissions, changes in soil mineral-N and N uptake by pasture plants. The UI treatments also involved two commercial products, Sustain Yellow (urea coated with Agrotain and elemental S) and Sustain Green (urea coated with Agrotain). The use of UI effectively decreased total NH3 emissions, as well as delaying the time of maximum NH3 emissions from both urea (600 kg N ha-1) and urine (476 kg N ha-1) by 27% and 22%, respectively. The UI-induced decrease in NH3 volatilization ranged from 42-48% when urea was applied @ 100 kg N ha-1. Urease inhibitor was also effective in decreasing N2O emissions significantly from urine and urea applied @ 100 kg N ha-1. The addition of UI increased dry matter yield by 13-19% as compared to the urea-alone treatment. In the second glasshouse study, NI (DCD) was added @ 25 kg ha-1 to urea (@ 25, 50 and 75 kg N ha-1) and urine (@ 144, 290 and 570 kg N ha-1) applied at different rates. Addition of DCD reduced N2O emissions from both urea and urine and NO3- leaching from urine. Dicyandiamide reduced N2O emissions by 34-93% from the added urea and 33-80% from the added urine. However, its use increased the amount of ammonium (NH4+) present in the soil by 3 to 13% both in the urea and urine treatments, and this NH4+ was susceptible to leaching and volatilisation losses. The addition of DCD, however, resulted in a 60-65% reduction in NO3- leaching from urine applied to pasture soil cores. It also caused a significant reduction in NO3- -induced cation leaching. Leaching of K+, Mg+2 and Ca+2 ions was reduced by 36-42%, 33-50% and 72%, respectively, with DCD applied to cattle urine (290 and 570 kg N ha-1). The combined use of UI and NI was more effective in controlling N gaseous losses than using them individually. The combination of UI and NI retarded NH3 emissions by 70% in the urea treatment and by 4% in the urine treatment (field-plot study). It also considerably reduced N2O emissions (50-51%) following the application of urea and urine (field-plot study) to pasture soil. With the combined inhibitors, there was a 14 and 38% increase in herbage yield from added urea and urine (field-plot study), respectively. A laboratory incubation experiment was undertaken to study the effect of soil types and the rate of DCD application on the degradation kinetics of DCD. The rate of degradation of DCD varied among the four soils studied. The degradation was slowest (half-life period of 6 to 11 days) in an allophanic soil with a high concentration of organic matter. The effectiveness of DCD in inhibiting nitrification also varied depending on the nature and amount of soil organic matter and clay content. The maximum inhibition was observed in a soil with low organic matter and high clay content. Finally, 'NZ-DNDC', a process-based model, was adapted and used to simulate the effect of DCD on emissions reduction using DCD inhibition values that vary according to different soil types. This model effectively simulated the effect of DCD on N2O emissions reductions in Tokomaru silt loam following urine application. However, more field data are required from a range of pasture soils with contrasting amount of soil organic matter and clay content under differing climatic conditions to further test this model modification to predict emission-reductions with DCD application in different soil types.

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  • Field and modelling studies of the effects of herbage allowance and maize grain feeding on animal performance in beef cattle finishing systems : a thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Animal Science at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Machado, Claudio Fabián

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The objetive [sic] of the work described in this thesis was to develop a mathematical model designed as a tool for research intended to improve the efficiency of finishing systems for 1-2 year old beef cattle under intensive grazing mangement [sic] on sown pastures in Argentina. The work involved a) three experiments in Argentina carried out to define the effects of herbage allowance and maize grain supplementation on herbage intake and animal performance, b) one experiment in Argentina following a preliminary study in New Zealand of seasonal variation in the composition and nutritive value of intensively managed beef pastures, and c) an exercise to develop a model of beef cattle production incorporating modules dealing with aspects of pasture production and utiisation [sic], herbage intake and animal performance. The results from the series of short-term grazing studies showed consistency in the comparison of the effects of increasing herbage allowance and supplementation on herbage intake and animal LWG (Chapter 4). A method combining the use of n-alkane and 13C method proved to be accurate for quantitative estimates of herbage and maize grain intake, and allowed estimates of a substantial variation in individual maize grain intake (between 31 to 41 % CV) when animals are supplemented in groups. The substitution rate (SR) measured in these studies varied little across experiments or level of grain at a herbage DM allowance of 2.5 % LW d-1 (0.36 and 0.38 kg herbage DM per kg grain DM for Chapters 3 and 4 respectively). Increasing level of herbage DM allowance increased quadratically the SR from 0.38 to 0.83 and 0.87 kg herbage DM per kg grain DM. The n-alkane method was effective in providing estimates of diet digestibility. Different methods for estimating diet composition, such as microhistological evaluation of faeces, differences in nutrient and component selection indexes and n-alkanes were used in the initial grazing trial (Chapter 2) but they were not considered to be reliable and they were too laborious for continued use under field conditions. The outcome of the studies on seasonal variation in herbage quality initially was useful in establishing a database of the range of values observed, and in demonstrating their relative robustness, at least under conditions of good pasture management. In these studies, herbage nutritive value did not seem to be a limiting factor for growing beef cattle, at least in terms of the minimum observed content of metabolisable energy (10.8 MJ ME kg DM) or crude protein (17.3 % DM). Additionally, significant relationships were established between morphological and maturity estimates and herbage nutritional variables in a pasture under grazing conditions. These relationships showed promise for future use in the prediction of herbage nutritive value, but require further work. The model developed ("BeefSim"), represents the main biological dynamic processes of the target system of this thesis, together with additional management decision and financial estimates. It was shown that the model presents adequate flexibility and can be interrogated in terms of its response to different management conditions, scenarios and timeframes. Pasture management and grain feeding were controlled in an interactive management module responding to deviations in pasture conditions and animal liveweight from pre-determined targets. Two key outcomes of the model, liveweight gain and herbage intake were accurately predicted when compared against experimental information under different levels of herbage allowance and maize feeding. System comparisons developed with the model showed agreement with the literature, and maize grain feeding associated with the monitoring procedure demonstrated an effective use of grain in the system. The model provides a good biological basis for a holistic appraisal of the effects of "process technologies" such as grain feeding in beef cattle finishing systems, and will be developed further.

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  • Effects of ethanol on glycogen metabolism : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Biochemistry at Massey University

    Jeyarathan, Pooranalingam

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The effects of alcohol on glycogen structure and metabolism in fed, starved and starved-refed animals were studied in rats, taking into account factors such as post mortem degradation, careful isolation (native glycogen), and the separate structures and metabolism of low (cytosolic) and high (lysosomal) molecular weight glycogen. These studies were performed using the technique of density gradient ultracentrifugation. In fed animals, rats were administered doses of ethanol (intragastically) of either 2, 4, or 6 g/kg. The glycogen decreasing effect of ethanol was dose dependent. The lowest ethanol dose (2 g/kg) depleted liver glycogen content by 7-27%, while the highest dose (6 g/kg) showed 60-78% depletion. Ethanol doses of 4 g/kg and 6 g/kg decreased both low and high molecular weight glycogen almost evenly. There was slightly more low molecular weight glycogen loss than high with a 2 g/kg ethanol dose. In time course experiments, maximal glycogen depletion was observed at 90 minutes after an ethanol dose of 6 g/kg. After 24 hours, over-production of glycogen content was seen in ethanol treated rats. However, after 48 hours, liver glycogen content had returned to fed values in ethanol treated rats, although the content of low molecular weight glycogen was elevated relative to high molecular weight. Starvation of rats for 48 hours decreased both body weight and liver weight. The hepatic and skeletal muscle glycogen concentrations were decreased by 95% and 55% respectively. The livers of rats starved for 72 hours contained more liver glycogen than those starved for 24 hours and 48 hours. Ethanol accelerated glycogen degradation in the fed-to-starved transition. After 3 hours starvation, liver glycogen content had decreased to about half of the fed levels in ethanol treated rats. However, at 24 hours, glycogen content increased in the ethanol treated rats, to as much as twice that in the control animals. The rate and extent of depletion was greater in LMW glycogen than HMW glycogen at 6 hours and 12 hours. Studies on the effects of ethanol on the starved-to-refed transition were undertaken using two different protocols, chow refeeding and glucose administration by intragastric intubation. On chow refeeding after 48 hours starvation, liver glycogen repletion at 5 hours was decreased by about 30% in animals treated with ethanol dose of 4 g/kg. At longer time intervals there was no significant inhibition of glycogen resynthesis. The Inhibition of glycogen resynthesis at 5 hours was probably due both to a decrease in food intake in the treated animals and to inhibition of glycogen synthesis by ethanol. The rate and extent of resynthesis of high molecular weight glycogen was slower in treated rats than in control rats indicating that ethanol might preferentially inhibit the synthesis of high molecular weight glycogen, possibly through disruption or prevention of formation of disulphide bonds in the protein component of high molecular weight glycogen. Unlike liver, intragastric administration of 4 g/kg ethanol before chow refeeding following 48 hours starvation decreased muscle glycogen repletion until 24 hours refeeding, compared to the respective control rats. A single dose of intragastric administration of ethanol (3.45 g/kg) 1 hour before glucose refeeding by intragastric intubation decreased liver glycogen resynthesis by between 20-40% during the 2 hours after glucose administration. Ethanol probably delayed the peak reached in liver glycogen content by either decreasing glucose absorption, by inhibiting gluconeogenesis or glycogen synthesis, or a combination of all these factors. The overall effect of ethanol in inhibiting glycogen synthesis was not, however, nearly as great as that reported previously in similar experiments. In experiments where rats were given repeated doses of ethanol for 7 days, liver glycogen content was as much as 25 % higher in treated animals than in control animals at 24 and 48 hours after the last ethanol dose. Both low and high molecular weight glycogen had increased almost uniformly at 48 hours in the ethanol treated rats. Ethanol treatment had, however, decreased kidney glycogen content by 6-26% in the treated rats compared with the control rats, but the content of heart and muscle glycogen was not changed. The results of this research show that ethanol-induced overproduction of glycogen was seen in fed, fed-starved and starved-refed animals and also in repeated dose experiments. This finding is potentially of great importance in exercise physiology and sports science, in helping to develop recommendations for alcohol intake during training regimes.

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  • Offsite manufacturing as a means of improving productivity in New Zealand construction industry : key barriers to adoption and improvement measures : a research thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Construction Management at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Shahzad, Wajiha Mohsin

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Off-site manufacturing (OSM) of building components could be leveraged to improve the reported low productivity trend in the New Zealand (NZ) construction industry. Despite the numerous known benefits of OSM, the uptake of the technology in the industry has been discouragingly low. Previous studies offer little help in terms of prioritising identified barriers to the uptake of OSM. As a result, improvement efforts have been daunted by numerous barriers in the face of limited resources. This study aims to contribute to bridging the gap in the extant literature by identifying and prioritising the key constraints to the industry-wide uptake of prefabrication and the improvement measures. Through a nation-wide survey of consultants, contractors, employers and manufacturers, feedback was received and analysed using the multiattribute analytical technique. Results show that the broad categories of constraints to the adoption of prefabrication in NZ are (in order of decreasing impact and relative contributions): industry and market culture (16.2%), skills and knowledge (15.5%), logistics and site operations (14.8%), cost/value/productivity (14%), supply chain and procurement (13.7%), process and programme (13.6%), and regulatory (12.2%). The subcomponents of the broad constraint categories and their relative levels of impact on the uptake of the technology were reported. In addition to addressing the key barriers identified in the study, further measures for improving the uptake of the technology in New Zealand include promotion by client through specifying OSM in the design briefs, improved education and training on the use of OSM, more marketing/ awareness campaign on the benefits of the technology and better supply chain management and transportation logistics. To enable a methodical evaluation of the marginal value achievable by the use of a variant of OSM over and above that of the traditional stick-built system at the design and life-cycle phases of the procurement process, a decision support model was developed. The model incorporates the key performance indicators (KP1s) underlying clients’ value system at the development and operational phases and compares the extent to which each variant of OSM delivers each value criterion relative to the conventional system. The sum of the marginal values at each phase of the procurement iii | P a g e system provides the rationale basis for choosing either the OSM variant or the conventional system based on the approach that delivers the highest marginal value. The model application to real life project was demonstrated using the modular variant of the OSM compared to the conventional stick-built system. Results of the model application at the development phase shows that the OSM was more beneficial to the client than the conventional system with an overall marginal value of 34% relative to the conventional construction approach. Individual results showed 22% improvement in the completion time for the project, 9% improvement in quality and 3% reduction in the carbon footprint at the development phase. However, the technology was found to be 2.4% more expensive than the traditional stick-built system. Results of the model application at the operation and life-cycle phases also show that the technology achieved superior value compared to the conventional stick-built system. The overall marginal value achieved by the modular OSM application at the operation phase was 49% compared to the traditional stick-built system; this comprised 23% reduction in the running and maintenance costs, 18% reduction in the maintenance frequency of the structure and fabric, and an annual 8% reduction in the carbon footprint. Overall, the use of modular variant of the OSM was found to deliver superior value to clients compared to the conventional system at the development, operational and lifecycle phases of the procurement process.

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  • Kua tae kē tatou? : Tikanga ā rua i roto i ngā kura auraki o Āotearoa = Are we there yet? Biculturalism in New Zealand mainstream schools : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education (Adult Education) at Massey University

    Snowden, Mary Jennifer

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The rationale for conducting this research is embedded in the articles of The Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tīrītī o Waitangi 2.3), the cornerstone of the partnership between Māori and Pākehā. Te Tīrītī promotes research set in a peculiarly Āotearoa New Zealand context where biculturalism is seen as promoting a dignified, respectful coexistence of Māori and Pākehā in which both languages cultures and ways of life are acknowledged and valued (Vasil, 2000). In the context of this work the word biculturalism concerns the cultural being of Māori and Pākehā alike. Though the word biculturalism appears in the New ZeaIand Curriculum, the works explored in the process of undertaking this research did not name biculturalism as existing in New Zealand schools, hence the paucity of up-to-date references. Using aspects of Kaupapa Māori (Smith, 1997) as the research method the research aimed to develop a better understanding around the implementation of te reo Māori and tikanga Māori to promote biculturalism in Āotearoa New Zealand mainstream schools today. The historical context that foregrounds biculturalism and the educational policy that influenced the growth and development of biculturalism were also taken into account. In endeavouring to understand and define the shape and form of biculturalism a small group of teachers (Te Whānau Rangahau) agreed to share their ideas around the tensions, successes, enablers and challenges involved in ‘creating a space’ for the implementation of te Māori (Māori language) and tikanga Māori (Māori culture and values) to nurture and assist biculturalism. Keeping within the framework of Kaupapa Māori the kairangahau (researcher) felt ‘kanohi ki te kanohi’ (face to face discussion) was both relevant and appropriate. The use of focussed conversations and individual interviews provided a unique opportunity to identify key influences on teacher willingness to engage in discourse around biculturalism. An opportunity to determine essential elements that need to be present to allow biculturalism to be nurtured through to fruition was also captured. This thesis found that the perception of including te reo Māori and tikanga Māori in Āotearoa New Zealand mainstream schools to encourage true biculturalism continues to be complicated and worked through institutional and social practices. These create, maintain and perpetuate a dominant ideology that maintains a monolingual, monocultural Pākehā curriculum.

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  • Effects of temperature on seasonal changes in growth and carbohydrate physiology of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctorate of Philosophy in Plant Science at Massey University

    Hughes, Avis Rosalie

    Thesis
    Massey University

    In a temperate climate, most of the visible, seasonal changes in asparagus growth are induced by or dependent on changing temperature regimes. Senescence of ferns in autumn occurred below 13C, but was prevented by 20C. Crowns required chilling at temperatures below 12.5C to release the internal dormancy which occurred during winter. Although budbreak was never completely suppressed, the minimum temperature at which budbreak could occur changed during winter dormancy. Budbreak did not occur at 12.5C in some cultivars at maximum dormancy. The optimum temperature for the growth of young plants was between 25C and 30C. A model was developed which simulated seasonal changes in carbohydrate accumulation and utilisation, and the changing source-sink relationships within male and female plants. The model used temperature, indirectly, to determine the times at which seasonal changes in plant growth occurred. The basic unit for carbohydrate production and allocation in cultivars with well defined rhizomes, e.g.'Rutger's Beacon', was a rhizome and it's attached developing axillaries. An axillary rhizome became independent very soon after it had developed fern. The basic unit may differ in cultivars such as 'UC157' which have less well defined rhizomes. The strength of correlative inhibition within a cultivar appears to affect both rhizome morphology and budbreak patterns during spear harvest. In summer, young fern had a higher mobilising ability for assimilate than older fern or roots in male plants. In late summer-early autumn, roots became a stronger sink than the fern. On female plants, reproductive sinks (i.e, berries) had the highest competitive and mobilising ability. Crown carbohydrate concentration appeared to reach a physiological maximum of 65% in late summer. Most of the carbohydrate pool was long chain fructans, i.e, with degree of polymerisation above eight. The size of the crown carbohydrate pool increased during autumn and senescence as crown dry weight increased. The concentration of disaccharide increased during senescence indicating that it may have a role in cold tolerance. There was little change in crown dry weight or carbohydrate concentration of chilled plants until after the plants had been chilled for five weeks and the minimum temperature for budbreak had decreased. Respiration then increased as internal dormancy was further released. Changes in the composition of carbohydrate reserves are associated with the chilling process, and may affect the release of internal dormancy. Dormant plants required exposure to temperatures below 12.5C to increase the monosaccharide concentration above 4.5% dry weight and to depolymerise long chain fructans. Both these factors would decrease the substrate for some energy requiring process which must occur before budbreak can occur. 'Rutger's Beacon' required approximately 500 chilling units (calculated using the Utah model) to release 50% of the basal buds from internal dormancy and permit growth at 12.5C. The chilling response curve for asparagus appears to be flatter than the Utah model. This thesis confirmed earlier work which indicated that improved agronomic performance may be related to increased partitioning into carbohydrate storage tissue i.e, the crown. Genotypic differences in depth of internal dormancy and spear growth rate will also affect yield. Differences in carbohydrate metabolism are not the reason for agronomic differences between male and female plants. The strong sink effect of berries on female plants reduces crown dry weight and thus the crown carbohydrate pool.

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  • Wastewater effects on epilithon, particularly sewage fungus, and water quality in the Manawatu River, New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the degree Doctor of Philosophy in Biotechnology at Massey University

    Quinn, John Martin

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Epilithon development, in relation to the discharge of domestic sewage, dairy factory and meatworks wastewaters, and its effects on water quality were studied in laboratory channels and in the Manawatu River. During the three year period of the study the organic material inputs to this river were progressively reduced to meet the requirements of water rights designed to limit the in-river BOD5 to 5 g.m-3 at the end of a defined mixing zone with the objective of maintaining adequate oxygen levels and controlling sewage fungus growth. Laboratory channel studies demonstrated that, for a given BOD5 addition, untreated dairy factory wastewater increased the heterotrophic growth 2-3 times more than primary treated meatworks wastewater. Similar observations were made in the Manawatu River. These varied growth responses could be accounted for by the different relative contributions of dissolved and low molecular weight (< 1000 daltons) organic compounds in the different wastewaters. The dissolved or low molecular weight (determined after sample ultrafiltration) BOD5 therefore provide more reliable general sewage fungus control parameters than BOD5. Current velocity and spates had marked influences on the development of benthic communities. Maximum sewage fungus biomasses on the natural bed were observed at current velocities of 0.2 to 0.45 m.s-1. Short heterotrophic fronds occurred at the maximum current velocity investigated of 1.16 m.s-1. Small spates of up to 50 to 70 m.s-3 caused preferential sloughing of heterotrophs over epilithic phototrophs which had developed on concrete plates at river flows of approximately 25 m3.s-1. Flows in excess of approximately 150 m3.s-1 removed growths of Cladophora glomerata which had developed at sites where the pre-spate current velocity was 0.3 to 0.4 m.s-1. Much higher flows, in excess of 400 m3.s-1, were required to remove the dense growths of the macrophyte Potamogeton crispus. Observations of sewage fungus biomass at various depths in the Manawatu River and growth rates on both upper, sunlight exposed, and lower, shaded, surfaces of concrete plates suspended in the water column indicated that solar radiation inhibition of heterotrophic growth is not important in the Manawatu River. These heterotrophic growths in the river were replaced by heavy phototroph-dominated epilithon as organic concentrations were reduced. Both communities had significant impacts on the suspended biomass and dissolved oxygen levels in the river. A computer model simulating summer low flow conditions in the Manawatu River predicted that the river can sustain average respiration rates of 20 and 24 g 02 m-3 d-1 at mean river temperatures of 21°C to 12°C respectively without breaching the statutory minimum permissable dissolved oxygen concentration of 5 g.m-3. A multiple regression model of the factors influencing epilithon respiration was developed from in situ chamber studies of a range of epilithic community types. This gave adequate predictions when tested against measurements over reaches below the discharges and predicted that the benthic biomass resulting in the maximum permissible respiration rates decreased from approximately 143 g AFDW m-2 at 12°C to 34 g AFDW m-2 at 21°C. A management strategy limiting the organic, but not the nutrient, inputs to the Manawatu River was shown to be unlikely to ensure consistent maintenance of the statutory minimum dissolved oxygen concentration. The implications for management of the river are discussed,

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  • The "manufacture" of news in the 1993 New Zealand general election : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of PhD in Human Resource Management at Massey University

    McGregor, Judith Helen

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The news media's role in general election campaigns in New Zealand remains mysterious because few indigenous research antecedents inform the debate about the democratic function of journalists reporting election campaigns. This study analyses the creation of news by reporters during the 1993 New Zealand general election campaign and examines the relationships between journalists, politicians and third party sources which impact on political communication. The analysis leads to a discussion of the role of the news media in reporting election news. The notions that news is created by journalists and through relationship between journalists, politicians and third party sources are central to the study. The concept that news is "manufactured" or socially constructed is explained in the introductory chapter and linked to theoretical perspectives in the literature review in Chapter Two. The two broad research questions which the study answers are: 1. how was the news manufactured during the 1993 New Zealand election campaign? 2. what does this mean for the "dialogue of democracy" (Taylor, 1992)? The manufacture of news is examined from three perspectives in the research. These can be called the "doing" perspective which employs action research methodology, the "watching" perspective which uses participant observation methodology and the "measuring" perspective utilising content analysis. The research notes the failure of "any particular holistic paradigm" to sweep the field of political communication and employs "ground-up paradigm building" by carving out broad research problem areas and examining them through the use of appropriate research methodologies (Bennett, 1993, p.182). The objectives of the action research project were twofold. First, to assist an individual political candidate contesting the election to develop systematic processes to use the news media to raise the candidate's profile. Second, to increase the level of understanding by the political candidate of news media processes and news concepts such as newsworthiness, candidate accessibility and news angles so she could utilise the knowledge to generate news and photographic opportunities. The findings revealed that the political candidate perceived that her level of understanding of news processes was enhanced through the action research. The study found, too, that a systematic process of source relationship was cultivated between the political candidate and journalist, which in principle enhanced the democratic function of the news media as a platform for political debate. The action research project, was, however, bound by the prevailing climate of political rhetoric with all its shortcomings. The participant observation methodology explored the nature of the contest between the triumvirate of political candidates as sources, journalists and third party sources such as "spin doctors". A second research question examined whether reporters seek to reassert their role in such a way as to influence the news when traditional journalistic autonomy is threatened. The findings showed a complex, shifting contest for control over knowledge and power in the making of news. This contest was characterised by features such as the increased sophistication of third party sources actively intervening in news processes, by strategic utilisation of "new" news formats by politicians and by journalists vigorously defending their status and enlarging their role. The impact of the findings on democratic journalism were examined using Golding's (1990) suggestion of a revival of the notion of citizenship, "to what degree and in what ways are people denied access to necessary information and imagery to allow full and equal participation in the social order?" (p.98). The third methodology, content analysis, tested Edelstein, Ito and Kepplinger's (1989) theory of news content using a cognitive construct, the problematic situation. The results confirmed a larger interpretive as opposed to purely descriptive role for metropolitan newspaper journalists reporting news in the 1993 general election campaign in New Zealand. Over 70% of election campaign issues in the period sampled were defined problematically and negatively with a high reliance on references to loss of value and conflict. The findings have implications for how political candidates could and should tailor their political messages. Overall the results taken together have fundamental implications for the "dialogue of democracy" (Taylor, 1992). They disclose a powerful dilemma about the manufacture of news in the 1993 New Zealand general election. The expanded influence of the news media has not been accompanied by a reassessment of what it is the news media should be doing in election campaign reportage. Reformative suggestions are made in the final chapter of the study and the implications for political journalism in a democracy are discussed.

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