82,974 results

  • Investigation of Flow Parameters for Titanium Cold Spraying using CFD Simulation

    Singh, Tejinder (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    A comprehensive study of cold gas dynamic spray technology is required for optimising performance and gun design for spraying various materials. Cold spraying technology is a new technique in industry and very limited data is available. This thesis focuses on the investigation of cold spray parameters for spraying ductile titanium alloys through a de-Laval convergent-divergent nozzle and optimisation of the nozzle dimensions. This work describes a detailed study of the various parameters, namely applied gas pressure, gas temperature, size of titanium particles and dimensions of the nozzle on the outlet velocity of the titanium particles. A model of a two-dimensional axisymmetric nozzle was used to generate the flow field of titanium particles with the help of a gas stream flowing at supersonic speed. ANSYS FLUENT software was used for the simulation of a cold spray nozzle. A standard k-ɛ model has been used to account for the turbulence produced due to the very high velocity flow. Differences in the velocity of titanium particles were modelled over the range of applied gas pressure, gas temperature and size of titanium particles. From the CFD simulation results optimum values of gas pressure and temperature were found for making a successful coating of titanium particles. The optimum nozzle dimensions were also found as the diverging length and exit diameter of the nozzle were found to affect the outlet velocity of titanium particles. The simulation results show good agreement with previous cold spray work using different spraying materials. Validation of the CFD model was done by referring to the experimental work and CFD work done for a similar kind of flow field. The grid quality of the model was investigated to get the results to converge and be independent of the grid size to give good agreement between the accuracy of results and the computational time.

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  • Conversing with ‘monsters’? Narratives about men who sexually abuse(d) children

    Young-Hauser, Amanda Maria (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    This research has examined multiperspectival narratives told about and by men who sexually abuse(d) children. Drawing on institutional, public and private narratives, I have explored how men who sexually abuse(d) children are characterised, how meanings about these men are created, and how their reintegrative prospects are understood. The project has encompassed five research elements: historical narratives evident in archival materials; media narratives evident in news articles; public discourse reflected in five focus groups; the accounts of support people of men who sexually abused reflected in one focus group; and the stories of ten men imprisoned for sexually abusing children elicited through pre-release and post-release conversations. These multiple levels of narration have allowed me to look within and across these settings to establish links and to demarcate points of convergence and departure of these diverse narratives. Results have suggested a mismatch between narratives about men who offend(ed) with those evident in the stories of support persons and the men themselves. The latter are anchored in, but contest the former; in particular the narrow representations of these men as inherently evil and not rehabilitatable. Subtle disruptions that question commonly held assumptions about men who sexually abuse(d) children and tell of alternative possibilities are evident in some narratives. My research shows that narratives can accumulate and reinforce assumptions over time and in many respects be discriminatory and exclusionary as well as being liberatory, enveloped in healing and open to change. By locating these men in their social environment and contextualising the crime, I examine the issues of child sex abuse from various angles. This research offers a more inclusive perspective on men who offend(ed) against children that can contribute to broadening public dialogue regarding the characterizations of these men, issues of community reintegration and repairing people’s lives.

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  • Natural and anthropogenic lead in sediments of the Rotorua lakes, New Zealand

    Pearson, Lisa Kyle; Hendy, Chris H.; Hamilton, David P.; Pickett, Rachel Cara (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Global atmospheric sources of lead have increased more than 100-fold over the past century as a result of deforestation, coal combustion, ore smelting and leaded petroleum. Lead compounds generally accumulate in depositional areas across the globe where, due to low solubility and relative freedom from microbial degradation, the history of their inputs is preserved. In lakes there is rapid deposition and often little bioturbation of lead, resulting in an excellent depositional history of changes in both natural and anthropogenic sources. The objective of this study was to use sediments from a regionally bounded set of lakes to provide an indication of the rates of environmental inputs of lead whilst taking into account differences of trophic state and lead exposure between lakes. Intact sediment gravity cores were collected from 13 Rotorua lakes in North Island of New Zealand between March 2006 and January 2007. Cores penetrated sediments to a depth of 16–30 cm and contained volcanic tephra from the 1886 AD Tarawera eruption. The upper depth of the Tarawera tephra enabled prescription of a date for the associated depth in the core (120 years). Each core showed a sub-surface peak in lead concentration above the Tarawera tephra which was contemporaneous with the peak use of lead alkyl as a petroleum additive in New Zealand. An 8 m piston core was taken in the largest of the lakes, Lake Rotorua, in March 2007. The lake is antipodal to the pre-industrial sources of atmospheric lead but still shows increasing lead concentrations from <2 up to 3.5 μg g−1 between the Whakatane eruption (5530 ± 60 cal. yr BP) and the Tarawera eruption. Peaks in lead concentration in Lake Rotorua are associated with volcanic tephras, but are small compared with those arising from recent anthropogenic-derived lead deposition. Our results show that diagenetic processes associated with iron, manganese and sulfate oxidation-reduction, and sulfide precipitation, act to smooth distributions of lead from anthropogenic sources in the lake sediments. The extent of this smoothing can be related to changes in sulfate availability and reduction in sulfide driven by differences in trophic status amongst the lakes. Greatest lead mobilisation occurs in mesotrophic lakes during seasonal anoxia as iron and manganese are released to the porewater, allowing upward migration of lead towards the sediment–water interface. This lead mobilisation can only occur if sulfides are not present. The sub-surface peak in lead concentrations in lake sediments ascribed to lead alkyl in petroleum persists despite the diagenetic processes acting to disperse lead within the sediments and into the overlying water.

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  • Children of the migrant dreamers: Comparing the experiences of Pasifika students in two secondary schools attempting to be culturally responsive to mine from a generation ago

    Siope, Sefulu Anne Marie (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Since the 1950s the original Migrant Dreamers have come from their home islands of the Pacific to Aotearoa New Zealand, in the hopes of gaining a better life with Education being that ticket to happiness. The title of this thesis, Children of the Migrant Dreamers, refers to their posterity. This thesis investigates the experiences of Pasifika students in two secondary schools involved in the Te Kotahitanga project. External statistical evidence has shown Te Kotahitanga to be successful for all students, including Pasifika students. This thesis attempts to see if, and how far, the educational aspirations of the Migrant Dreamers were being manifested or realised through comparison of the Pasifika students experiences in these two schools with my own from over a generation ago. What I found was a much more positive picture in the way Pasifika students are being treated compared to my own schooling experiences. Although Pasifika students in both schools admitted that their schooling experiences were far from perfect, they were fully aware of the efforts put in by their respective schools on their behalf. The lessons to be learned from my research can be of use to teachers of students from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds. It can also be of use to the Pasifika students and their families now residing in Aotearoa New Zealand. These experiences serve as a reminder tat within this culturally diverse land, we are all the descendant children of Alii.

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  • Implementing critical literacy in a Tongan bilingual classroom

    Vea, Peseti Tupou'ila (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This report describes a research study which trialled a unit of work designed for senior high school levels in a Tongan bilingual classroom. The main purpose of the study was to investigate the appropriateness and possible benefits of using critical literacy as a teaching strategy to teach literature in bilingual classrooms in Tonga. A critical literacy approach is relatively new in Tonga, so the study set out to test if this approach would contribute to making the teaching of English more innovative and student-centred. The methodology used in this study was a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods within an action research paradigm. One action research cycle spanned three months for trialling of the study unit and for collecting data. A class of thirty-four students from one Form Six class participated in this study, along with their English teacher as a participant observer. Eleven teachers of English from the same school also participated in interviews for further data collection. I took the role of teacher-researcher. In addition to teaching the study unit, I conducted interviews with teachers and students for further data-gathering. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the data indicated that both participating teachers and students identified that a critical literacy approach to teaching of English as a subject was highly appropriate to use in Tongan classrooms. Teachers identified resources to be a detriment to the successful implementation of a critical literacy approach. While this concern is acknowledged as a long-term one, in the short-term, existing available resources can still be of practical use. The study was conducted under a bilingual program that might be viewed by researchers on bilingual education as a subtractive bilingual program. Findings related to students‟ ability in both Tongan and English language signified a very low competence in these two languages. But findings related to bilingual teaching indicated a mismatch between the newly adopted bilingual curriculum in Tonga and Tongan English teachers‟ perceptions of bilingual education. It was shown in this study that this mismatch stemmed from a lack of teacher understanding of bilingual education. A couple of pedagogical issues were recommended in order to clear up this misunderstanding. The report concludes with the researcher‟s recommendations for the explicit inclusion of critical literacy in the Tonga Language curriculum. Parental involvement and teachers training are two issues to address in order to achieve a successful implementation of the newly adopted bilingual curriculum where a paradigm shift in teaching is necessary. Recommendations for further research are also included.

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  • Intervention analysis of SARS on Japanese tourism demand for Taiwan

    Min, Jennifer C.H.; Lim, Christine; Kung, Hsien-Hung (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Japan was Asia’s leading generator of international tourism in the 1980s and 1990s. Japanese tourists make up over 30% of all international tourists to Taiwan and they have been the highest ranking tourist source market since the early stages of the island’s tourism development in the 1970s. However, the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak in 2003, the most catastrophic disaster in the past 100 years in Taiwan, had a huge impact on Japanese inbound tourism to the island. The purpose of this study is to evaluate how Japanese inbound arrivals have been affected by the SARS outbreak. A SARIMA with intervention model is used to assess the impact of the epidemic on inbound tourism from Japan to Taiwan in the aftermath of the SARS outbreak. The empirical results indicated that inbound tourism from Japan was devastated by the crisis, particularly during the first 5 months after the SARS outbreak. This study provides some helpful insight for the tourism industry to respond to the impact of exogenous shock.

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  • Midwives' experiences when working with third year midwifery students

    James, Elizabeth Margaret (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Purpose: Midwifery students require appropriate and timely access to clinical learning opportunities during their education toward a Bachelor of Midwifery and the quality of this clinical experience influences the student’s learning and confidence. To achieve this they must be supported by practising midwives. However at times midwives decline to work with students, citing a variety of reasons. To ensure the required quality and quantity of clinical placements the midwifery schools need to understand the barriers and enablers to midwives working effectively with third year midwifery students. Method: Midwives on the midwifery school’s database who regularly work with midwifery students were invited to participate in the research. Data was gathered through two focus groups of midwives who have worked with third year midwifery students. The transcripts were then thematically analysed. Findings: The midwives described their experiences when working with students. The first theme describes the midwives’ work with students and includes: that confidence thing, it’s not just about clinical skills and learning to be professional. The second theme describes the implications for midwives’ practice when working with students and includes: we are responsible, what is expected of me and wanting a break. Issues arising in professionalism weave through these themes. Implications: Students with poor knowledge levels and unprofessional behaviour were regarded as problematic for the midwives working with them. The midwives were frustrated when students could not see the bigger picture and did not appear to understand the expected professional behaviours and boundaries. The midwives enjoyed regular contact with the midwifery school to support them when working with students particularly concerning assessment of students. They also enjoyed the learning they gained from working alongside students which they found beneficial to their own practice knowledge. At times there were tensions between the needs of women and students, and as the midwife moved between her role as teacher, supporter and assessor of the student. However most placements were a positive experience for the midwives and they took pleasure in the student’s progression through the programme.

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  • The upper limits of enzyme thermal stability

    Daniel, Roy M. (1996)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Some enzymes, such as those from extreme thermophiles, have significant half-lives above 100°C. The differences in structure and function between these very stable and less stable enzymes are relatively small and are comparable with those differences found among enzymes of similar stability. Recent evidence suggests that protein degradative reactions at high temperatures (>80°C) occur only slowly in conformationally intact proteins, so that conformational stability may still dictate the upper temperature limit for enzyme activity. The interrelationship of both conformational stability and enzymatic activity with protein flexibility suggests that in naturally occurring enzymes, we cannot expect to find stability at temperatures far above those which are optimum for the growth of the organism. Genetic and enzyme engineering studies are promising in terms of enhancing conformational stability, but are likely to require case-by-case knowledge of the enzyme concerned, and stability enhancements achieved so far are relatively small. Furthermore, engineered increases in stability may well be accompanied by a decrease in specific activity. Nevertheless, it should be feasible to engineer enzymes to be substantially more stable than any of those found so far in nature where useful half-lives above 120°C are already available.

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  • Exploring medications amongst Tongan households in New Zealand

    Tongi, Lolohea (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The current thesis explores: how four related Tongan households understand, treat and use medications; and the ‘flow’ of medications into, around and out of these households. The participants for this research come from four Tongan families living in the Auckland area. A broad ethnographic approach which is multilayered, multi-method and multi-centred was to capture such data. This included individual interviews, household discussions, diaries and photo elicitation methods. Key themes reported on are Western and Traditional Medication Use; Faito’o fakatonga; Use of Western Medication; Prayer, Faith and Medications; and Flow. Tongan cultural values and practices shape how these four households treat, use and understand medications. Participants in this study structured their lives around Tongan customary relationships, obligations to respect and care, and to have faith that resolutions would be found to any ailments or illnesses suffered by household members. Household members clearly had a respect and regard for Western medications and trust in Western practitioners but were sometimes frustrated by the dominance of this model. The same was mostly true of Tongan medicine and associated healers. Some household members went as far as using both in conjunction with each other. However, across most households, there was the presence of a firm belief that a resolution of health issues required more than medication. Good health was a product of rightful relationships and faith and trust, in medications, health practitioners and God. This study adds to research on medication use by highlighting the importance of culture to extending existing understandings of the everyday practices through which people use and share medications.

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  • Rapid purification of two thermophilic proteinases using dye-ligand chromatography

    Cowan, Don A.; Daniel, Roy M. (1996)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Dye-ligand chromatography has been used successfully for the purification of extracellular thermostable proteinases from thermophilic Bacillus and Thermus cultures. Single step purification factors of up to 115-fold (for Thermus protease) and 2195-fold (for Bacillus protease) were obtained. Elution studies suggested that the mode of binding involved the enzyme active sites. The method was readily scaleable to 600 l volume.

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  • The industrial potential of enzymes from extremely thermophilic bacteria

    Daniel, Roy M.; Cowan, Don A.; Morgan, Hugh W. (1981)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The thermal regions of the central North Island of New Zealand are some of the most extensive in the world. In addition, they are readily accessible and contain a diversity of ecological habitats, including a large number at 100°C. These areas are regarded as an important tourist attraction, and as a source of geothermal power, It is now clear that they also contain an important and unique genetic resource.

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  • Citrate synthases from the Archaea: Development of a bio-specific, affinity chromatography purification procedure

    James, Keith D.; Russell, Rupert J.M.; Parker, Lynne; Daniel, Roy M.; Hough, David W.; Danson, Michael J. (1994)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Citrate synthases from both thermophilic and halophilic Archaea have been purified to homogeneity using affinity chromatography on Matrex Gel Red A and elution with a combination of substrate (oxaloacetate) and product (coenzyme A). In a number of cases, purification from cell-extract to protein suitable for N-terminal sequencing can be achieved by this single-step procedure. The method is particularly useful in the rapid purification of a thermophilic archaeal citrate synthase from a cloned gene expressed in a mesophilic host.

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  • The one-many problem – one problem or many? Some insights from Plato’s Philebus.

    Legg, Catherine; Gibbons, Stephanie (2010)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    We discuss the one-many problem as it appears in the Philebus and find that it is not restricted to a problem about the relation between universals and the particulars that instantiate them (the “Hylomorphic One-Many Problem”). In fact some of the most interesting aspects of the problem occur purely in the realm of Forms. We discuss a solution to the One-Many problem offered in the dialogue in terms of the concepts of ‘limit’ and ‘the unlimited’.

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  • Properties and stabilization of an extracellular α-glucosidase from the extremely thermophilic archaebacteria Thermococcus strain AN 1: enzyme activity at 130°C

    Piller, Karin; Daniel, Roy M.; Petach, Helen H. (1996)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    An extracellular α-glucosidase from the thermophilic archaebacterium Thermococcus strain AN1 was purified 875-fold in five steps (Hiload Q-Sepharose, phenyl Sepharose, HPHT-hydroxyapatite, gel filtration and Mono Q chromatography) with a yield of 4%. It is a monomer with a molecular mass of about 60 kDa and a pI around 5. At 98°C, the purified enzyme in buffer has a half-life around 35 min, which is increased to around 215 min in presence of l% (w/v) dithiothreitol and 1% (w/v) BSA. Dithiothreitol (1%, w/v) and BSA (0.4%, w/v) also substantially increase the enzyme activity. The Km at 75°C is 0.41 mM with pNP-α- -glucopyranoside as substrate. The substrate preference of the enzyme is: pNP-α-D-glucoside > nigerose > panose > palatinose > isomaltose > maltose and turanose. No activity was found against starch, pullulan, amylose, maltotriose, maltotetraose, isomaltotriose, cellobiose and β-gentiobiose. A variety of techniques including immobilization (e.g., on epoxy and glass beads), chemical modification (cross- and cocross-linking) and the use of additives (including polyhydroxylic molecules, BSA, salts, etc.) were applied to enhance stability at temperatures above 100°C. The half-life could be increased from about 4 min at 110°C to 30–60 min at 130°C in presence of 90% (w/v) sorbitol, 1% (w/v) dithiothreitol and l% (w/v) BSA, and by cocross-linking with BSA in the presence of 90% (w/v) sorbitol. The stabilized enzyme showed good activity at 130°C.

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  • New Zealand Industry Training Policy in the 2008-2010 Environment

    Batters, Taryn (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This study is broadly concerned with the changing nature of industry training policy in New Zealand between the mid-1980s and mid-2010. It sets the two-year period subsequent to the 2008 election against this broader background. Using key elements of the process of change within industry training policy – ideology and prevailing perceptions of skills and their contribution to economic and social goals – this research sought to investigate the extent to which the National-led Government’s policy approach and practices demonstrate ideological and policy change from the previous two decades. This study used a qualitative approach involving in-depth interviews with representatives of key organisations in industry training. These organisations include the Department of Labour, Ministry of Education, Tertiary Education Commission, Business NZ, Council of Trade Unions and the Industry Training Federation. Thematic analysis of interview data was combined with a review of existing literature in order to argue that the National-led Government’s claims of pragmatic orientation were not substantiated. Rather, it is argued here that the Government’s industry training policies aligned more closely with the neo-liberal policies of the 1990s, than with the Third Way of 1999-2008. For example, there was a deliberate retrenchment of government funding for industry training in some respects, and a significantly lessened role of the non-governmental key organisations in policy development. In addition, it is argued here that the National-led Government has demonstrated a narrow focus on skill development that contradicts wider advice and trends in favour of a multi-faceted view of skill that prioritises skill utilisation as well. Overall, it is argued that the National-led Government’s policy approach and practices are likely to be ineffective at addressing enduring issues in industry training as well as new issues.

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  • Al-Andalus Rediscovered: Iberia's New Muslims [Book Review]

    Drury, Abdullah (2013-07)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article reviews the book 'Al-Andalus Rediscovered: Iberia’s New Muslims', by Marvine Howe.

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  • Determinants of cost-effectiveness in tender and offset programmes for Australian biodiversity conservation

    Doole, Graeme J.; Blackmore, Louise; Schilizzi, Steven (2014)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Tender and offset programmes have been broadly applied for biodiversity conservation throughout Australia. This analysis identifies the relative importance of a range of factors that determine the overall cost-effectiveness of these programmes to guide future management, based on the perceptions of survey respondents with experience in their design and implementation. The novel method of maximum entropy regression for categorical response variables is used to analyse survey results. Key actions for tender programmes, in order of decreasing importance, are the: (a) provision of adequate funding, (b) development of flexible tender designs to aid organisational efficiency, (c) promotion of landholder competition, (d) identification of low-cost means of monitoring, and (e) establishment of strong relationships with landholders. In comparison, key actions for offset programmes, in decreasing order of importance, are the: (a) establishment of efficient organisational processes, (b) promotion of a short time lag between development and the restoration of ecological values, (c) employment of contracts of extended duration, (d) investment in landholder education and support, and (e) development of appropriate biophysical models.

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  • Understanding how an audio-visual introduction engaged GATE students in technology activity

    Smith, Thomas William (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    As a technology education provider working in a technology education centre contracted to fourteen client schools, my aim is to provide experiences of quality learning for all students visiting the centre. One of the challenges to fulfilling this aim is the limited time available to work with visiting students and the accompanying need to engage students as quickly as possible in the learning activities This study is an investigation into how the use of an audio-visual introduction to technology class activities might meet this challenge when used in a series of three technology classes with gifted and talented (GATE) students. A qualitative, interpretive methodology was employed to gain insights into the effectiveness of this type of introduction in quickly motivating and engaging students in technological challenges in the study. Data gathering methods included classroom observations, video recording of class sessions, interviews with students and teacher, and analysis of student work. The study's findings indicate that carefully selected audio-visual material can provide an effective introduction to technology activities that quickly engage and motivate students to work together to find solutions to technological problems. The audio-visual introductions provided a shared experience and focus for students from different classes and schools to come together and work collaboratively towards a negotiated solution.

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  • Ibn Khaldun: life and times [Book Review]

    Drury, Abdullah (2012-06)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article reviews the book 'Ibn Khaldun: life and times', by Allen James Fromherz.

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  • Red star over Iraq: Iraqi Communism before Saddam [Book Review]

    Drury, Abdullah (2012-03)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article reviews the book 'Red star over Iraq: Iraqi Communism before Saddam', by Johan Franzén.

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