82,967 results

  • Red star over Iraq: Iraqi Communism before Saddam [Book Review]

    Drury, Abdullah (2012-03)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article reviews the book 'Red star over Iraq: Iraqi Communism before Saddam', by Johan Franzén.

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  • Pseudovertical Temperature Profiles Give Insight into Winter Evolution of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer over the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica

    Zawar-Reza, Peyman; Katurji, Marwan; Soltanzadeh, Iman; Dallafior, Tanja; Zhong, Shiyuan; Steinhoff, Daniel; Storey, Bryan; Cary, S. Craig (2013)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Measuring routine vertical profiles of atmospheric temperature is critical in understanding stability and the dynamics of the boundary layer. Routine monitoring in remote areas such as the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) of Antarctica is logistically difficult and expensive. Pseudovertical profiles that were derived from a network of inexpensive ground temperature sensors planted on valley sidewalls (up to 330 m above valley floor), together with data from a weather station and a numerical weather prediction model, provided a long-term climatological description of the evolution of the winter boundary layer over the MDV. In winter, persistent valley cold pools (VCPs) were common, lasting up to 2 weeks. The VCPs were eroded by warm-air advection from aloft associated with strong winds, increasing the temperature of the valley by as much as 25 K. Pseudovertical datasets as described here can be used for model validation.

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  • Investigation of anti-fouling processing aids in the primary evaporation of whey permeate

    Harrison, Dylan (2009)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The production of lactose via the concentration of whey permeate is an important process in the dairy industry. Hautapu dairy factory, owned by Fonterra Cooperative Group, process milk into a range of dairy-based products including; Cheese, Milk Protein Concentrate and Lactose. This project was focused around reducing fouling during the evaporation of whey permeate for the production of lactose powder. As whey permeate is heated in evaporators, mineral salts precipitate and accumulate onto the stainless steel heat exchange surfaces. This layer of mineral scale, known as fouling, greatly reduces the amount of heat transfer used for evaporating the whey permeate. Once the fouling gets to a point where it is no longer achievable to reach the concentrated solids target, the evaporator is shut down and cleaned with chemicals to remove the scale build up. To decrease the amount of scale build up, a process aid is added to the whey permeate. This process aid A , or PAA, is a polyphosphate that when added to the feed stream gives longer run times. This project was aimed at establishing the chemistry behind the inhibiting abilities of PAA and its interaction with whey permeate. It is known that PAA acts as a complexing agent with calcium when it is added to the permeate stream which prevents it from forming calcium phosphate, the main source of fouling. In the course of the research, it was fortuitously discovered that PAA works very inefficiently as an inhibitor in whey permeate because of its ability to form an insoluble salt with free calcium ions. The consequence of this was that high calcium levels in whey permeate lead to PAA precipitating out of solution rendering it an ineffective anti-fouling agent to prevent further scale build up. As a result of this, alternative inhibitors were considered and tested for their calcium tolerance and calcium phosphate inhibiting properties. From these considerations, carboxymethyl inulin was regarded as the most favourable replacement candidate for PAA. This resulted in plans being set down for a future industrial trial involving the carboxymethyl inulin.

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  • Small Column Experiments for Continuous Radial Flow Chromatography

    Lee, Sook-Han Yvonne (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Continuous radial flow chromatography (CRFC) combines radial flow and rotating annular bed chromatography. Solution flows radially from eight fixed ports around the periphery through a rotating annular packed bed towards the axis. Loading, equilibration, elution and reequilibration solutions can be applied simultaneously at different feed ports. Protein is captured on resin in the loading zone and carried around by the annulus to the elution zone to be eluted, making the CRFC a continuous process. Small axial flow columns experiments were carried out to represent continuous BSA purification in the CRFC for a range of rotation speeds, flow rates, feed concentration, elution buffer concentration, loading sections and elution secions. Quality of the separation was measured based on productivity and height to width ratio. Best operating conditions for BSA purification in the CRFC include 720 deg/hr rotation speed, 1 mL/min flow rate, 1M elution buffer (NaCl) solution, and either 5 or 1.5 mg/mL feed solution. A wide range of loading sections and elution sections can be allocated. Combinations of these best conditions are restricted by total protein load per chromatography cycle. Mathematical models solved by finite difference method in Matlab were used to predict CRFC operation under the best conditions. Model accounts for change in solute concentration by convection, film diffusion and uptake into resin. Protein and salt parameters were adjusted to achieve best mached protein peaks. Model simulations agreed well with experimental results. Loading peak width was similar but experimental data showed broader elution peaks. Elution peak height for all simulations was greater while loading peak height were more variable than in the experiments. Peak tailing was observed in both experimental and model data.

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  • Characterisation of watersoluble polysaccharides produced during prehydrolysis of pinus radiata

    McDonald-Wharry, John (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    An aqueous prehydrolysate (or prehydrolysis liquor) was produced during a mild hot-water prehydrolysis (90 minute ramp to 175 C) of commercial radiata pine wood chips. Oligosaccharide and polysaccharide material was separated from the concentrated prehydrolysate using solvent precipitation after most of the noncarbohydrate material was removed. These polymeric carbohydrates were fractionated based on charge and molecular weight by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). The fractions were each analysed by a number of methods including MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry, and NMR. A number of different types of carbohydrate polymer structures were found that were produced due to the partial de-polymerisation of the wood hemicelluloses during the prehydrolysis process. The O-acetylated (galacto)glucomannans were the most extensively characterised. These partially-acetylated hexose-based polymers were the main type found and accounted for approximately 54% by mass of the polymeric carbohydrates. Most appeared to contained between 5 and 79 hexose units with differing degrees of acetylation. The average mol ratio of components in these polymers was calculated to be approximately 3.7 : 1.3 : 1 : 0.2 (D-mannosyl : acetyl : D-glucosyl : D-galactosyl). They had a structure consistent with a linear backbone of β-1,4- linked D-mannopyranosyl and β-1,4-linked D-glucopyranosyl units with acetyl groups attached at C-2 and C-3 positions of some D-mannopyranosyl units. The terminal D-galactopyranosyl units were likely to be attached at 1,4,6-linked Dmannopyranosyl branch points. Of the neutral (non-anionic) polysaccharides, this type was most prevalent in the higher molecular weight fractions. Anionic pentose-based polymers with a backbone of β-1,4-linked D-xylopyranosyl units were also characterised. Identified as (arabino)glucuronoxylans, they featured uronic acid groups consistent with 4-O-methyl-α-D-glucopyranosyluronic acids attached to the C-2 position of some D-xylopyranosyl units. Smaller amounts of terminal α-L-arabinofuranosyl units likely to be attached at β-1,3,4- linked D-xylopyranosyl branch points were also detected. These polymers appeared to mostly contain between 5 and 40 pentose units with between 1 and 4 uronic acid groups attached. The anionic fractions (approximately 30% by mass) also contained large amounts of D-galactopyranosyl and L-arabinosyl units along with some D-glucuronic and D-galacturonic acid residues. This suggested the presence of carbohydrates produced from the partial hydrolysis of arabinogalactans and pectins. The smaller molecular weight fractions of non-anionic polysaccharides were enriched in both 1,4-linked D-galactopyranosyl units and non-acetylated hexosebased polymers that contained between 5 and 30 hexose units; this suggested that significant amounts 1,4-galactan derived carbohydrates were present. Small amounts of oligomers containing only pentose units were detected in these smaller molecular weight fractions along with what appeared to be other uncharged fragments of the polysaccharide-types that were present in the anionic fractions.

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  • The Philosophical Implications of Evolutionary Biology

    Hanik, Benjamin (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    'The Philosophical Implications of Evolutionary Biology' is a philosophical enquiry written in dialogue form which asks the question 'how does modern evolutionary theory affect our notions of self and freewill?' The enquiry begins by examining the process of decision making, followed by an evolutionary explanation of how and why we make decisions. With this knowledge a theoretical value system is created which cumulatively describes the source of the perception of quality and the orientation of all human thought and behaviour. In conclusion a logical deadlock is reached: it becomes evident that our values are dictated by our evolutionary past, that we are trapped within this value system, and that even if we attempt to break free from it we inevitably fail because everything we do, even if it is designed to go directly against the system, is still inescapably directed by it.

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  • Vegetation recovery and management of kahikatea (Dacrycarpus dacrydioides)-dominated forest remnants in the Waikato Region

    Wilcox, Fiona Joyce (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The principle aim of this study was to determine whether fencing alone is a sufficient management tool for facilitating the recovery and persistence of indigenous flora in kahikatea-dominated forest patches in the Waikato region. The floral composition of twenty-six kahikatea-dominated forest patches of varied fencing time, management regime and proximity to an urban area (Hamilton City) were sampled using a modified RECCE method in 10x10m quadrats between October 2007 and February 2008. Where woody weed species were present within a forest patch, their diameter at breast height (d.b.h) and reproductive status was noted (presence/absence of flowers and/or fruit). The results of the study demonstrate that, while fencing of a patch and time for native vegetation recovery are important factors in promoting native floral species recovery and ecosystem composition, the combination of patch size, distance of a patch from a main road, and patch location were better predictors of the observed variation in native species cover than fencing time alone; particularly in the layers most affected by grazing. This study indicates that patches less than seven hectares in area, regardless of location, will require continued human intervention to ensure their persistence; and patches in urban areas, irrespective of size, may never become self-sustaining. Furthermore, the results indicate that medium to low levels of management are the most effective in promoting native flora species recovery and reducing exotic species impacts. Fifteen to twenty years of fencing represents an important stage in the trajectory of a forest fragment where exotic species cover drops below 5%, and native species recruitment is steadily rising. However, the trajectory of floristic change will be different for each patch depending on the length of time since fragmentation, the length of time it has been grazed, how far it is from native seed sources and its surrounding landscape use.

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  • Work-family conflict and enrichment: Direct and indirect effects towards mental health outcomes

    Lewis, Johanna Brooke (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    There have been calls in the work-family literature for greater attention to moderation effects. Further, the established work-family conflict approach has expanded to include work-family enrichment. Consequently, the present study explores the interaction effects between work and family conflict and enrichment towards mental health outcomes which are explored throughout three different studies. Study one uses a sample of 314 random New Zealand employees across a diverse range of industries and sectors to explore the work-family interface towards outcomes of emotional exhaustion, depression, cynicism and anxiety. Study two uses a sample of 146 random New Zealand business owners and entrepreneurs to explore the work-family interface towards the well-being of entrepreneurs, and specifically mental health outcomes of anxiety, emotional exhaustion and stress are investigated. Study three uses a sample of 266 New Zealand dual-earning couples to explore the work-family interface as predictors of job burnout. Specifically two dimensions of job burnout are investigated - emotional exhaustion and cynicism. Furthermore, the study explores the cross-over effect where males and females conflict and enrichment crosses over to the other's job burnout. Using these samples we find strong support for work-family and family-work conflict positively influencing mental health, and work-family and family-work enrichment negatively influencing mental health outcomes. In addition, a number of consistent interaction effects were found especially between family-work conflict and family-work enrichment. Overall, enrichment was found to consistently buffer some dimension of work-family conflict, indicating that employees who are enriched may be able to alleviate the negative influences of their work and family roles. The implications for research and organizations are discussed, as well as future directions for the work-family field.

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  • The Effect of a Myostatin Antagonist on the Healing of Burn Wounds in Skin.

    Fieten, Daniel John (2009)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The body's remarkable ability to repair itself from damage is both very useful and extremely complex. The wound healing system is characterised by four overlapping phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodelling. It is designed to heal rapidly and efficiently any breach in the protective barrier we call skin, in order to restore normal body function in the quickest possible time. However, pathological conditions such as keloids or hypertrophic scar may arise if events in the wound healing cascade are not coordinated properly, which can lead to loss of skin function and disfigurement. The purpose of this study was to determine whether myostatin plays a role in the healing of burn wounds in skin. Myostatin is best known for its powerful negative regulation of muscle development. Absence of myostatin results in a heavy muscling phenotype, whereas over-expression is associated with muscle wasting conditions. Recently, myostatin has been shown to be involved in muscle wound healing, where knockout of the myostatin gene resulted in improved healing, with decreased fibrotic scar tissue formation. It is noteworthy that the cell surface receptor to which myostatin binds is also present in skin. In consideration of this information the prospect of myostatin involvement in skin biology represents a gap in scientific knowledge. Therefore, the present investigation was designed to ascertain whether the effects of myostatin in muscle regeneration can also be seen in skin wound healing. To this end, a mouse burn wound model was designed to determine the efficacy of antagonising myostatin to bring about improved healing and decreased fibrosis of skin burns. Wounds of mice treated with the myostatin antagonist showed no significant difference compared to saline-treated controls in collagen content at any time point. Gene expression studies on TGF-β1, TGF-β3, decorin and fibromodulin revealed that differences between antagonist-treated and saline-treated groups were possibly masked by the effect of the burn injury but were present in uninjured skin. Similarly, uninjured skin of antagonist-treated animals exhibited a significantly higher fluid content than uninjured skin of saline-treated animals, whereas the effect was not significant in burned skin between treatments. Histological analysis revealed that antagonist-treated wounds showed evidence of decreased wound contraction which may indicate improved scar resolution and decreased risk of fibrosis. Interestingly, the gene expression results in many ways parallel those seen in foetal skin, which after injury, heals without scar. These results warrant further study into the subject area, especially to observe whether further improvements can be made by adjusting the treatment regimen.

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  • Effects of metformin on human monocytic THP-1 cells - Implications for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Tsuei, An-Chi (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Metformin is an anti-hyperglycaemic agent widely prescribed for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Despite decades of clinical use, its exact pharmacological mechanism(s) is yet to be definitively determined. Accumulative data have shown its mild inhibitory effect on the complex 1 of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, which is thought to contribute to its anti-hyperglycaemic effect. Metformin is also thought to have a protective effect on cardiovascular disease (CVD), the most common complication in T2D. It is widely accepted that T2D is an inflammatory state thus it is not surprising that T2D patients have 2-4 times higher risk in developing CVD. Furthermore, the pathology of T2D has been proposed to involve dysfunctioning mitochondria, the organelle of energy sensing and production. The use of metformin, a mitochondria inhibitor, in cells under mitochondrial stress led us to speculate the physiological responses that ensue. To understand metformin‟s mode of action and its involvement in inflammation processes the human monocytic leukemia THP-1 cells were used in this study. Since studies of metformin on this cell type is scarce if not non-existence the first task was to determine its cytoxicity in this cell line. Next the mRNA and protein expressions of heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60), a mitochondrial stress marker, was determined in metformin-treated THP-1 cells. Further, various cell types have shown surface expressed Hsp60 under stress conditions. Thus the study here attempted to optimise the detection of surface Hsp60 in THP-1 cells, as human Hsp60 has been shown to induce innate immune response. Localisation of Hsp60 on the cell surface in metformin-treated cells may exacerbate the already-inflammed state of T2D. Lastly, metformin‟s effect on PMA-stimulated monocyte differentiation was determined by the mRNA expression of CD14, a surface receptor on macrophages. The results here agreed with published data that metformin at therapeutic concentrations are not cytotoxic and is a mild inhibitor of mitochondrial respiration. We also provide evidence that metformin up-regulated the mitochondria stress protein, Hsp60, in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In addition, live cell Hsp60 immunocytochemistry proved to be a promising method for surface Hsp60 detection in THP-1 cells. Finally, at the therapeutic concentration metformin caused a significant up-regulation in cd14 expression, which contradicts with much acclaimed protective effect of metformin in the literature.

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  • Change Agents: The Promise of Social Entrepreneurship for Sustainable Development

    Houppermans, Daniel Peter (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis explores the role of private sector social entrepreneurship in sustainable development in New Zealand. A review of literature reveals sustainable development to be a diverse, complex, and challenging concept, encompassing issues from rhetorical ambiguity to the accelerating deterioration and uncertainty in natural and social systems. While business is commonly seen to exacerbate many of the challenges associated with sustainable development, this research suggests that business, as it is utilised by social entrepreneurs to spur positive change, may be a powerful tool for achieving sustainability. Three cases of private sector social entrepreneurship in New Zealand are documented by this research, drawn from the coffee roasting, still bottled water, and film and media industries. The cases are used to elucidate the relationships that exist between the two phenomena within the thematic areas of conceptualisations of sustainable development, motivations and business, and change. The entrepreneurs in this research each demonstrate qualities consistent with assertions in the literature in that they desire to affect change, they are innovative, and that their pursuits are characterised by the creation of new value. These entrepreneurs expectedly contrast with many of their industry counterparts in their recognition of opportunities amidst threat or tragedy, their desires to benefit society in some way, and in their use of business to affect positive change. However, this research also offers new knowledge regarding the role of social entrepreneurship in sustainable development through explicating the ways in which the entrepreneurs each conceptualise sustainable development. Furthermore the entrepreneurs unanimously observe that achieving sustainable development necessitates both incremental and fundamental approaches to change. Also of emergent significance are the roles adopted by the entrepreneurs in education and in raising awareness towards catalysing changes in the ways we live, think and behave. Taken together, as agents of change, social entrepreneurs present much hope and promise in realising a more sustainable world.

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  • Composition portfolio

    Gilmour, Hannah Ruth (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This collection of original compositions shows a range of themes and styles. Each piece portrays a different concept or idea I have grappled with during the year of composition. Three Angles of Anticipation is a set of three diverse orchestral works each based on the theme of waiting. In contrast, Sad Songs for a Rainy Day and a Broken Heart is a collection of six short pieces written for solo piano which explore the themes of grief and memories. Land of Promise? combines acoustic and electroacoustic techniques to create a work questioning how much we are informed of New Zealand's history, whereas Telemachus is a dramatic work about a Monk killed in a gladiator arena. To conclude, the electroacoustic tape work Ode to a Cricket is a set of three pieces created from the sample of a cricket call. It explores the theme of paying attention to the small and seemingly insignificant details of our world.

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  • Book Review: God's Mountain: The Temple Mount in Time, Place, and Memory – By Yaron Z. Eliav

    Simms, Norman (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The article reviews the book “God's Mountain: The Temple Mount in Time, Place, and Memory”, By Yaron Z. Eliav.

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  • Evaluation of Dietary Supplementation with Antioxidants on Fertility Parameters in Stallions

    Blomfield, Jody Anne (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether dietary supplementation with antioxidants affects semen fertility parameters in New Zealand Standardbred stallions. Fourteen Standardbred stallions of varying fertility, from 3 studs located throughout New Zealand, were allocated to one of 3 treatments: minerals (Se, Cu, Zn, Mn) and vitamin E supplement, oil (canola) supplement and control (no supplement). The studs were provided with the supplements as aliquots to be added to each feed once per day. Stallions from one stud were fed a different basal diet from the other two studs. At least 3 semen samples were collected from each stallion and sent to Equibreed NZ Ltd, before, and after feeding the supplements for around 60 days. Spermatozoa fertility parameters evaluated included total motility, progressive motility, total progressive motility, morphology (normal, loose heads, head defects, mid-piece defects, tail defects), acrosome status (FITC-PNA), membrane integrity (hypo-osmotic swelling test), and concentration. These parameters were assessed at various times including 6-8h and 24h after collection of semen, and immediately and 30min after thawing, frozen semen. Blood levels of Se, Cu and Zn were measured before and after supplementation. Per cycle pregnancy data was also obtained from questionnaire responses from studs A and B at the end of the trial. This study demonstrates that there was a statistically significant effect of feeding oil as a dietary supplement on sperm motility at 24h after collection (longevity) and also on the per cycle pregnancy rates when treatment groups were combined. Consequently, we were able to elucidate a difference in the actions of mineral and vitamin E supplementation when compared with oil supplementation on fertility parameters measured in this trial. Other beneficial effects of antioxidant supplementation on sperm parameters were suggested from the results of the fourteen stallions on two separate diets, but were not found to be statistically significant.

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  • The decrease in mature myostatin protein in male skeletal muscle is developmentally regulated by growth hormone

    Oldham, Jenny M.; Osepchook, Claire; Jeanplong, Ferenc; Falconer, Shelley J.; Matthews, Kenneth; Conaglen, John V.; Gerrard, David F.; Smith, Heather K.; Wilkins, Richard J.; Bass, James J.; McMahon, Christopher D. (2009)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Myostatin inhibits myogenesis and there is reduced abundance of the mature protein in skeletal muscles of adult male compared with female mice. This reduction probably occurs after translation, which suggests that it is a regulated mechanism to reduce the availability of myostatin in males. Reduced myostatin may, thereby, contribute to the development of sexually dimorphic growth of skeletal muscle. Our first objective was to determine if the decrease in mature myostatin protein occurs before the linear growth phase to aid growth, or afterwards to maintain the mass of adult muscle. Mice were killed from 2 to 32 weeks and the gastrocnemius muscle was excised. Myostatin mRNA increased from 2 to 32 weeks and was higher in males than females (P < 0.001). In contrast, mature protein decreased in males after 6 weeks (P < 0.001). Our second objective was to determine if growth hormone (GH) induces the decrease in mature myostatin protein. GH increased myostatin mRNA and decreased the abundance of mature protein in hypophysectomised mice (P < 0.05). Our final objective was to determine if the decrease in mature protein occurs in skeletal muscles of male Stat5b−/− mice (Stat5b mediates the actions of GH). As expected, mature myostatin protein was not reduced in Stat5b−/− males compared with females. However, myostatin mRNA remained higher in males than females irrespective of genotype. These data suggest that: (1) the decrease in mature myostatin protein is developmentally regulated, (2) GH acting via Stat5b regulates the abundance of mature myostatin and (3) GH acts via a non-Stat5b pathway to regulate myostatin mRNA.

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  • Leadership Activities and Behaviours that Enable Classroom Teachers

    Al-Abbas, Abdullah Adlan (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Leadership has a well researched and significant influence on the quality of school organisation and student learning. Much of the research has centred on educational leadership theory and the opinions and perspectives of serving principals. In Saudi Arabia there is little research that considers the leadership needs of schools from teacher perspectives. This project investigates the most influential and important leadership behaviours and activities displayed by principals that enable and support classroom teachers. The research is undertaken from the perspective of classroom teachers to ascertain their views regarding these enabling behaviours. It explores ways in which various leadership behaviours could influence the quality of classroom teaching and learning, and support the work of classroom teachers. The report includes a literature review that contributes to building a local literature base for Saudi Arabia, focusing on quality school leadership.

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  • Contrasting responses to catchment modification among a range of functional and structural indicators of river ecosystem health

    Young, Roger G.; Collier, Kevin J. (2009)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    1. The value of measuring ecosystem functions in regular monitoring programs is increasingly being recognised as a potent tool for assessing river health. We measured the response of ecosystem metabolism, organic matter decomposition and strength loss, and invertebrate community composition across a gradient of catchment impairment defined by upstream landuse stress in two New Zealand streams. This was performed to determine if there were consistent responses among contrasting functional and structural indicators. 2. Rates of gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) ranged from 0.1 to 7.0 gO2 m−2 day−1 and from 0.34 to 16.5 gO2 m−2 day−1 respectively. Rates of GPP were variable across the landuse stress gradient, whereas ER increased linearly with the highest rates at the most impacted sites. Production/respiration (P/R) and net ecosystem metabolism (NEM) indicated that sites at the low and high ends of the stress gradient were heterotrophic with respiration rates presumably relying on organic matter from upstream sources, adjacent land or point sources. Sites with moderate impairment were predominantly autotrophic. 3. Declines in the tensile strength of the cotton strips showed no response across part of the gradient, but a strong response among the most impaired sites. The rate of mass loss of wooden sticks (Betula platyphylla Sukaczev) changed from a linear response to a U-shaped response across the impairment gradient after water temperature compensation, whereas leaf breakdown at a subset of sites suggested a linear loss in mass per degree-day. Three macroinvertebrate metrics describing the composition of the invertebrate community and its sensitivity to pollution showed similar linear inverse responses to the landuse stress gradient. 4. The first axis of a redundancy analysis indicated an association between landuse stress and various measures of water quality, and wooden stick mass loss, the invertebrate metric % EPT [percentage of macroinvertebrate taxa belonging to the Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (excluding Hydroptilidae] taxa, P/R and NEM, supporting the utility of these structural and functional metrics for assessing degree of landuse stress. The second axis was more strongly associated with catchment size, ER and GPP which suggests that these indicators were responding to differences in stream size. 5. Our results suggest that nonlinear responses to catchment impairment need to be considered when interpreting measurements of ecosystem function. Functional indicators could be useful for detecting relatively subtle changes where the slope of the response curve is maximised and measurements at the low and high ends of the impairment gradient are roughly equivalent. Such responses may be particularly valuable for detecting early signs of degradation at high quality sites, allowing management responses to be initiated before the degradation becomes too advanced, or for detecting initial moves away from degraded states during the early stages of restoration. Close links between structural and functional indices of river health across an impairment gradient are not necessarily expected or desirable if the aim is to minimise redundancy among ecological indicators.

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  • Book Review: A Sufi-Jewish Dialogue: Philosophy and Mysticism in Baha Ibn Paqūda’s Duties of the Heart

    Simms, Norman (2009)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The article reviews the book “A Sufi-Jewish Dialogue: Philosophy and Mysticism in Baha Ibn Paqūda’s Duties of the Heart”, by Diana Lobel.

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  • Superintegrability and higher order integrals for quantum systems

    Kalnins, Ernie G.; Kress, Jonathan M.; Miller, W., Jr. (2010)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    We refine a method for finding a canonical form of symmetry operators of arbitrary order for the Schrödinger eigenvalue equation HΨ ≡ (Δ2 + V)Ψ = EΨ on any 2D Riemannian manifold, real or complex, that admits a separation of variables in some orthogonal coordinate system. The flat space equations with potentials V = α(x + iy)k − 1/(x − iy)k + 1 in Cartesian coordinates, and V = αr² + β/r²cos ²kθ + γ/r²sin ²kθ (the Tremblay, Turbiner and Winternitz system) in polar coordinates, have each been shown to be classically superintegrable for all rational numbers k. We apply the canonical operator method to give a constructive proof that each of these systems is also quantum superintegrable for all rational k. We develop the classical analog of the quantum canonical form for a symmetry. It is clear that our methods will generalize to other Hamiltonian systems.

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  • Book review: No Place of Rest: Jewish Literature, Expulsion, and the Memory of Medieval France (Middle Ages)

    Simms, Norman (2009)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article reviews the book “No Place of Rest: Jewish Literature, Expulsion, and the Memory of Medieval France”, by Susan L. Einbinder.

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