88,788 results

  • The contemporary appeal of cognitive behaviour therapy

    Merrick, PL; Dattilio, FM

    Journal article
    Massey University

    Published

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  • A revisit of price discovery dynamics across Australia and New Zealand

    Dassanayake, W; Li, X-M; Buhr, K

    Journal article
    Massey University

    This study re-investigates the price discovery dynamics of selected stocks cross-listed on the Australian Stock Exchange (ASX) and the New Zealand Stock Exchange (NZX) during a bear trading phase from January 2008 to December 2011. A differing price discovery dynamic in a bear market versus a bull market may occur because of variations in investor sentiments and disparities in the role of the stock prices. Using intraday data, we employ the vector error correction mechanism, Hasbrouck’s (1995) information share and Grammig e t al. ’s (2005) conditional information share methods. Consistent with previous research, we find that price discovery takes place mostly on the home market for the Australian firms and for all but one of the New Zealand firms. However, not seen in existing studies, we show that the NZX has grown in importance for both the Australian and New Zealand firms. This suggests that the NZX is deviating from being a pure satellite market.

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  • Construction of otherness in the CBS’s sitcom, the big bang theory

    Amerian, S; Marzban, B

    Conference paper
    Massey University

    The fact that TV enjoys a great number of viewers, many of whom are influenced by it is undeniably acknowledged. This paper analyses the successful American sitcom, The Big Bang Theory, and investigates the factor of Otherness and Orientalist representation of an Indian character named Raj Koothrappali in the series. Employing content analysis, the authors investigated how the character was represented, and his culture, religion, beliefs, values and appearance were taken into account. The aim was to see if there was still misrepresentation of other nations and their cultures and beliefs in the 21st century television. It was concluded that despite this series being a situation comedy and having humorous tone and display, there is more than just humor when we look in depth at the way the Otherness is represented in the show by depicting this ethnic Indian character. Abundance of material were found to project stereotypical constructions and the fact that this character is seen as an “Other” by the creators of the show and at times even distanced from his American friends whether through his sense of clothing or sitting alone on the ground while others are seated on chairs or his feminine qualities.

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  • Children's notation of number computations : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Educational Studies (Mathematics) at Massey University

    Warner, Linda Claire

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This study examines the development of children's notational schemes including their use of informal nonstandard notations and formal standard notations. A Year 5/6 class of students, their teacher and the researcher were involved in a collaborative teaching experiment in the context of qualitative developmental research. 'Experiment' refers not to untried or unusual instruction, but rather to collaborative analysis and planning of the students' mathematical activity. In order to gain information about children's notation of number computations data was gathered through interviewing, observing, and analyzing work samples of six case study students. This research study documents the emergence and development of notational schemes from children's problem-solving activities. The ways of symbolizing that emerged in the classroom evolved from the need to clarify and communicate thinking. Children represented their mathematical ideas using a variety of notational forms, both informal and formal. Within the classroom children used notational schemes as a 'thinking device' to help them make sense of their developing mathematical knowledge. Classroom practice intellectually engaged children with key mathematical ideas. Children increasingly became engaged in genuine dialogical encounters making reference to their own and others' explanations as captured by the notational schemes. As a result, notational schemes served to support shifts in children's mathematical understanding and development.

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  • Continuing the commitment-to-care : family members' experience of being visitors in a long-term care facility : a thesis presented in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts at Massey University

    Holloway, Lia

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The purpose of this phenomenological study is to describe and interpret the phenomenon of being a visitor to an older relative in a long-term care facility as experienced by eight family members. These family members were previously their relatives' primary carers in the community. Each family member was interviewed about two months after their relative entered a care facility, and seven of the family members again three months later. Their narratives gave rich descriptions which showed how being a visitor was an integral part of each family member's life. The study shows that most family members are very committed to continuing the caregiving relationship when they visit their relatives. Emotional commitment is especially high. Family members perceive their visits as benefiting both their relatives and themselves. Their attempts to continue to participate in caregiving, though mostly respected, are sometimes discouraged and, on occasions, seem to be resented by some staff. For this and other reasons family members perceive some lack of control in their interaction with staff and with their relatives. Thus being a visitor is a stressful and yet also a valuable experience to which they learnt to adjust themselves. Family members sought support and guidance from nurses especially in setting their visiting goals and in communicating with them and their relatives. This was particularly the case with cognitively impaired relatives. Even after routine patterns of interaction had been established, further assistance was needed as the health of a relative declined or their own circumstances changed. A better understanding of family perspectives is important if family roles are not to be determined only by organisational and resident perspectives. Health providers, including nurses, need to appropriately balance responsibilities toward family members and residents to make visits meaningful for both. In turn, family members have knowledge and skills which have accumulated usually over a long time of caregiving from which nurses can learn. The main theme of this study is continuing-the-commitment-to-care. This is supported by four essential themes: perceiving-visiting, learning-to-live-with-visiting, continuing-with-visiting, valuing-commitment-to-visiling.

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  • Comparison of the Chilean and New Zealand milk production costs : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters in Applied Economics in Agribusiness, Massey University

    Winkler, Daniela Karin

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This research concludes that Chilean farmers have lower or competitive winter milk production costs, measured as the cost per unit of production and per unit of production factor. This research highlights Chilean and New Zealand advantages, being the formers lower labor cost and lower value of land, and the latter's existence of the veal market and a completely vertically integrated industrial organization. This industrial organization provides "tacit protection" to NZ dairy farmers, this protection provides the necessary stability to permit complete specialization by dairy farmers, which increases efficiency. The "tacit protection" explains the higher prices paid to New Zealand winter milk producers in comparison to Chilean farmers. Finally NZ's Industrial Organization (I.O.) (farmers, companies and NZDB, completely vertically integrated) eliminates the additional cost of having predominantly even year round milk production and having a lower reception & elaboration (processing) capacity.Finally the research shows Chilean disadvantages: the political economic environment and the Industrial Organization. The first disadvantage is related the use of the exchange rate as an economic tool, which has reduced its real value by 40% since 1990. And the second disadvantage is the pressure on farmers from elaborating companies to produce more during the winter in order to avoid a larger plant reception/elaboration capacity investment, which has a high cost if the seasonal production system were predominantly used instead. Another disadvantage for Chilean farmers is that companies keep farmers convinced this is the best production system, and that they are not able to compete with countries such as New Zealand. Companies like Soprole (controlled by the NZDB) and Nestle, greatly benefit out of the winter production system, by having lower infrastructure costs and by having all the imports controlled in their hands. This creates monopolic powers in the final product market. NZDB and the NZ I.O. benefit by maintaining through Soprole the beliefs of Chilean farmers that they are unable to compete, otherwise they would be a threat in the International Market.

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  • Capitalism with a conscience : SMEs and community engagement : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Management in Management at Massey University

    Yates, Angela Patricia

    Thesis
    Massey University

    It is commonly acknowledged that business organisations are expected to demonstrate ethical and moral conduct, yet throughout the last half century the bar has been raised. Not only are organisations expected to behave ethically; they are being summoned to exercise Business Social Responsibility (BSR). While there is a growing amount of literature on BSR, research in this field has largely confined itself to corporations. As such, especially in the New Zealand space, it has neglected prolific Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs). The aim of this study was to explore SME owner-managers' perceptions of community engagement. To accomplish this aim an exploratory, qualitative study involving semi-structured interviews with 10 SME owner-managers was conducted. SME owner-managers interviewed perceive business as having a highly integrated function in society. The owner-managers engage with their communities in significantly diverse ways, covering an extensive range of stakeholders. Primarily influenced by values pertaining to religion, family, and moral orientation, many owner-managers overlook economic gain, yet consider peripheral benefits to accrue nonetheless.

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  • Blind people can do anything but not in my company : employer attitudes towards employing blind and vision-impaired people : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business Studies at Massey University

    Inglis, Christine

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Previous international research has shown blind and vision-impaired people to be in the less favoured groups of employees employers are willing to hire. None of the research has addressed why this is the case. The present study was undertaken firstly to see if in New Zealand also, blind and vision-impaired people were less favoured in comparison with other disability groups as potential employees; and secondly, to determine employer attitudes and perceptions towards employing blind people, and how or why these attitudes and perceptions influence employers to overlook the blind and vision-impaired when employing staff. One hundred and two employers (sample 200) participated in a telephone survey and, of those, six were interviewed again in an in-depth face-to-face interview. A combination of attitudinal and perception survey instruments were used. The research found participants had mainly favourable attitudes towards blind and vision-impaired people. However, in total contrast, blind and vision-impaired people (alongside those with moderate to severe intellectual disabilities) were regarded the least suitable or least employable for positions most and second most often available in firms across all industries. The results were congruent with earlier findings (Gilbride, Stensrud, Ehlers, Evans & Peterson, 2000) in that of all of the disability groups, blindness and persons with moderate or severe (mental retardation) intellectual handicap were perceived as the hardest to employ in comparison with other disability groups. Lastly, this report comments on how potential hiring practices (employers' potential behaviour) can be changed to better match their apparent positive attitudes towards blind and vision-impaired people. A range of recommendations are made such as the need for education programmes in schools, media campaigns and cultivating positive media relationships, workplace training and education, employer mentoring programmes, the development of government policies and strategies and the need for work experience programmes.

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  • Change management : structural change-- a case study in the Maldives : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Educational Administration at Massey University

    Qasim, Mizna

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Changes to schools structure is a common practice in the Maldives. Structural change impacts on people at every level of the organisation. It is essential to identify how change is managed at different levels in schools in order to implement change successfully. This study is based in a secondary school in the Republic of Maldives. This research examines the processes, school systems and practices, that facilitate change in structure. It seeks to understand how processes facilitate structural change at the various levels of school organisation, namely senior management (principal, assistant principals, supervisors), middle management (heads of departments) and teachers. In this inquiry, the structure selected to examine processes of change is the 'Organisation Chart'; in particular, changes to the roles and responsibilities of individuals. To understand aspects involved in managing change, a review of literature focused on change and change management, leadership, structures of organisations, change agents and culture. This provided the researcher insight into the processes, aspects and issues in managing change. A qualitative case study was undertaken for this research. A qualitative approach allowed the researcher to understand multiple realities, interpretations and perspectives of individuals associated with structural change. Data collection incorporated individual interviews, focus group discussions, document analysis and observations. Data was analysed using the, 'constant comparative method' (Merriam, 1998). Evidence from this study suggests that equal attention needs to be given to the systems, change agents and culture of the school to facilitate and manage change.

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  • Case studies in rural co-operatives: three studies of the organisation and management or rural co-operatives providing post-harvest facilities in the kiwifruit industry: a research report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Business and Administration at Massey University

    Beattie, Michael Ian

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The co-operative ownership structure is one that is commonly encountered in New Zealand's agricultural industry. This type of organisation would appear to have a number of natural advantages that should make it very competitive in modern agri-business. However it is apparent at least some co-operatives have not lived up to their members' expectations. This research project has been undertaken to identify some of the problems of co-operative enterprise and to provide some possible strategies to improve their operation. This report examines the management and organisational practices of three co-operative enterprises providing post-harvest facilities in the Kiwifruit industry. The research follows a longitudinal case study approach, with each co-operative described in terms of the six dimensions of history, facilities, shareholding, direction, operation and finance. The material generated by the study is discussed within a framework of central issues, established from evidence of other co-operative activity, both in New Zealand and overseas. The report concludes with a description of some 14 common problems, and a discussion concerning the effectiveness of management and organisational measures that have been implemented as possible solutions. It then goes on to outline 10 general strategies that could be of significance in the improved operation of rural co-operatives.

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  • The influence of sex-typing and social status on children's occupational preferences and occupational stereotypes : an examination of Gottfredson's theory of occupational choice : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Henderson, Susan Mary

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The present study examined Gottfredson's theory (1981) of vocational development, which suggests that occupational preferences and occupational stereotypes are influenced firstly by sex-typing, between the ages of six and eight, and secondly by social background, between the ages of nine and thirteen. A large, heterogenous sample (396) of New Zealand school pupils, aged between five and fourteen were asked about the occupations they would like to do, using free and forced choice formats, and these responses were then tested for their relationship with gender, age, parental socio-economic status and ability. A forced choice Occupational Card Sort, comprising 15 occupations, was used to measure sex-type and status dimensions of occupational stereotypes and effects for age and gender were investigated. Data were analysed using discriminant analysis and contingency analysis. Results indicated that gender was a strong influence on the sex-typing of occupational preferences and occupational stereotypes from the age of five (younger than the age suggested by Gottfredson), with males demonstrating more rigid sex-typing than females. Consistent with Gottfredson's theory, socio-economic background and ability were significant influences on status level of occupational preferences for respondents aged over nine years, with results suggesting that ability had a more direct influence on the status level of occupational preferences than did parental socio-economic status. The developmental pattern for the formation of occupational stereotypes was not as predicted by Gottfredson's theory, as both the sex-type and status level elements of occupational stereotypes were evident from the age of five. Results further suggested a weakening of sex-typing of occupational stereotypes with increasing age. The inconsistencies of present findings with Gottfredson's theory were discussed in the context of previous research and the developmental literature, and the usefulness of the theory in relation to occupational choice was evaluated. Implications of the present findings for careers awareness and education programmes were considered. It was concluded that Gottfredson's theory provides a useful framework for examining early vocational development, but that the failure of the theory to explain deviant developmental patterns limits the theory's explanatory power. It was suggested that the theory's usefulness would be enhanced by recognising the impact of environmental influences such as campaigns to encourage women into non-traditional careers and by incorporating more psychological influences such as self-cognitions.

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  • Hitler's death squads : an historiographical and bibliographical analysis of the Einsatzgruppen : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in History at Massey University

    Semmens, Mark

    Thesis
    Massey University

    On 30 January 1933, Adolf Hitler became German chancellor. Hitler and the party Nazi's (or Nationalsozialistische Arbeiterpartei) arrival in power ushered in a brutally repressive period in Germany history, especially for Jews. The Nazis began with the 1935 Nuremberg Race Laws which classified the population, according to a three tier system. "Aryans", who were ascribed full German citizenship and rights, were at the top. "Mischlinge", or persons of mixed descent who did not practice the Jewish faith, received limited rights and formed the middle tier. "Jews" formed the bottom tier and had three Jewish grandparents, or had two grandparents who practiced the Jewish faith. They formed the bottom tier. They were deprived of German citizenship on the basis that only persons of German blood could be citizens. Over the next four years, the state forced Jews out of various vocations and professions and a series of decrees in 1937 resulted in the forced "aryanisation" of many Jewish businesses. The Kristallnacht followed this in 1938 when thugs destroyed and looted Jewish synagogues and shops. German Jews were fined for the resulting damage which effectively stripped many of their remaining assets. By the end of 1940, Germany had conquered most of Europe and took advantage of this to forcibly move large numbers of Jews from both Germany and occupied countries to Poland. With a seemingly endless need for Lebensraum. Germany began its ill fated Operation Barbarossa in the summer of 1941. This is generally believed to have marked the beginning of the "Final Solution" or extermination phase. The primitive part of the extermination phase is commonly accepted to have begun with special motorised units called Einsatzgruppen.. These units rounded up Jews, forced them to dig pits and then executed them with either single shots or automatic fire. Numbering approximately 3,000 personnel and divided into four units, they policed the Russian front from the Baltic to the Black Sea. The Einsatzgruppen were ad hoc groups which bought together personnel from different security organisations and the Waffen SS. The psychological difficulties experienced by Einsatzgruppen personnel in killing women and children resulted in the use of gas vans. These gas vans are widely believed to be the precursor to the Polish extermination camps and their gas chambers. Thus, the Einsatzgruppen play a pivotal role in the Holocaust. The difficulties they experienced resulted in the setting up of the infamous camps in Poland.

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  • The influence of end-users on strategic information systems planning in a NZ polytechnic : a case study : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Information Systems at Massey University

    Skelton, David

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This study reports research about the management of information technology and the experience of computer users at the Eastern Institute of Technology, Hawke's Bay in New Zealand. The context of the study is New Zealand tertiary institutional use and professional practice of information technology management in the early 2000's. It reports and analyses planning meetings of the information technology department and user groups and activities related to the inforslice-of-lifemation technology strategic planning process in the years 2001/2002. The investigation of the relationship between the desires and expectations of user groups and the influence these have on the setting of strategic information technology plans is the object of the study. Literature describing other organisations' approach to strategic information technology planning is reviewed in terms of its relevance to the study. In addition selected literature about end-user computing and the approach to information systems planning from the viewpoint of the user is presented. From this literature emerged some patterns of information technology management, which included user group participation and a modern approach to strategic planning using emerging technologies at tertiary institutes. A justification for the selection of the particular research approach is explained and data collection, organisation and analysis are described. The study uses Eastern Institute of Technology corporate records, meetings minutes, interviews with managers and users, and results from staff and student surveys on information technology planning. This is a case study which examines and analyses the complex dimensions of organisational change and planning, so is rich in detail and provides a "slice-of-life" example of a tertiary organisation grappling with the many demands of information technology and user demands The results of the data analysis are presented in terms of the key plans and aims of the information technology department and user groups. From this analysis conclusions are drawn in relation to the research questions that underpin the study and in terms of information technology and management planning methodologies. In particular, conclusions draw a relationship between the quality of information technology strategic planning and the level of consultation and involvement of computer users at various levels within the organisation; key organisational processes helping to allow user involvement and the articulation of a shared vision through published information technology planning documents. The conclusions also view the information technology planning process as a move towards a learning organisation with the characteristics of the context of change and new technology. Flowing from the research findings, recommendations are made for professional information technology management practice and for changes in non-IT managers' involvement in the information technology planning process.

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  • Influences on practice in the mathematics classroom : an investigation into the beliefs and practices of beginning teachers : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Educational Studies in Mathematics at Massey University

    Haynes, Maggie

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This study reports on an investigation into some of the issues impacting on the provision of equitable classroom programmes in mathematics by beginning teachers, and focuses in particular, on the ways in which the teachers were able to cater for both the girls and boys in their classes. Due to the constructivist environment within which their pre-service mathematics education courses had been presented, constructivist principles formed the belief-framework for the teachers. The initial aim was to explore the relationship between the beliefs and practices of beginning teachers but during the course of the study, it became apparent that teacher-belief is only one of the many factors influencing practice. Therefore, a case study approach was used, to explore what life is really like, for six teachers in their first year of primary teaching. The findings from the study confirmed the complexity of classroom research and identified, in particular, three crucial issues of influence on practice: the teachers' own beliefs about mathematics and mathematics teaching; the mathematics curriculum and its philosophy; and the process of socialisation into their school culture as it affected their professional survival as teachers. The results of the study have implications for all involved in the support of beginning teachers and in particular, for pre-service educators.

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  • Helplessness or self care? : a study of nursing practice with depressed patients in an in-care setting : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Nursing Studies at Massey University

    Butterfield, Shona

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This study was conducted to investigate the practice of nurses when working with depressed patients in an in care setting. A survey of the literature shows that the role commonly prescribed for nurses who work in psychiatric settings is one that emphasises a one-to-one relationship based on models of psychotherapy and focusses on individual illness, pathology, symptoms and psycho-dynamics. It is suggested that this is not a role which most nurses working in New Zealand psychiatric settings would be able to implement in practice. Three perspectives of nursing practice were explored in the study: what nurses were seen to do in practice; what they thought they should do as evidenced in results of an exercise to rank different possible interventions; and what patients said were helpful nursing interventions. A framework was developed for the study which depicts the process of helplessness (depression) as the negative 'mirror-image' of the process of self care. Results were analysed within this framework to determine whether or not nurses tended to support behaviours which were indicative of movement towards helplessness or encourage those which indicated progress towards self care. Results suggest that nurses in this study sample did not encourage progress towards self care by their interventions. There was little evidence of positive reinforcement for independent or coping behaviours with patients in the study sample. Further, the nursing practice showed little relationship to the role prescribed in the literature. The nurses did demonstrate a warm, caring, friendly approach that seemed to stem from a more traditional 'succouring' or 'mothering' view of the nurse's role.

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  • "A damned dangerous act" : New Zealand prisoners of war on the run in Europe during the Second World War : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Masters in History at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Tilbury, Alisha

    Thesis
    Massey University

    During the Second World War thousands of New Zealand servicemen found themselves behind barbed wire as prisoners of war. The vast majority of them were taken captive in failed campaigns in Greece, Crete and North Africa. This thesis will analyse the journey taken by those who dared to escape in the European theatre of war. It will begin by analysing the impact that the unsuccessful campaigns in the Mediterranean and North Africa had on motivating servicemen to escape. From there it will begin to analyse the many different ways in which men attempted escape; starting with those who slipped away in the heat of battle, to those who jumped from moving trains en route to prison camps, to those who planned elaborate get-­‐aways under the noses of prison guards in Italy and Germany. The final section of this thesis will examine what it was like for escaped prisoners on the run in enemy occupied territory, including those who could not get back to their own lines and ended up fighting with partisan groups in Greece, Yugoslavia and Italy.

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  • Fluoride inhibition of wine yeasts : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degress of Master of Science in Microbiology at Massey University

    Clayton, Miranda Gaye

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Stuck or slowed fermentations are costly in time and money to winemakers. There are many variables that can interrupt fermentation. One of the lesser known factors is the effect of fluoride on grape juice fermentations. Winemakers in California have had problems with slow or stuck fermentations with grapes that have been treated with the insecticide Cryolite, which contains fluoride. A selection of 6 yeasts, 3 commercial strains and 3 natural strains, commonly associated with winemaking were used in this study. Preliminary experiments investigated a wide range of fluoride challenge with different pH and cell densities on solid and liquid media. The effectiveness of fluoride was compared between sodium fluoride and Cryolite, as the fluoride source. The effect of fluoride was more potent with sodium fluoride, as the fluoride source. The minimum inhibitory concentration of fluoride for the yeast strains was recorded. The most sensitive commercial yeast was Saccharomyces cerevisiae RS1, the most resistant commercial yeast was Saccharomyces bayanus RS2. The most sensitive yeast overall was Hansenula saturnus AWRI-354. The next stage examined the effect of fluoride on the selected yeast in small scale grape juice fermentations. Within this investigation the effect of different media sources and heat treatments was included. Fluoride concentrations reflected levels of fluoride found in grape musts and wines. During this study we found that the effect of fluoride on yeasts is increased with lower pH and lower cell densities. The effect of fluoride on yeast growth and fermentation was also strain dependent.

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  • The hand drawn web editor : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Computer Science at Massey University

    Cui, Meihua

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The Web is increasingly the most important part of the Internet for many users. Millions of new Web pages are being posted in the Internet everyday. The Internet has also become a mass-medium for lecturers distributing the lecture notes. Most of the Web editors currently available in the market can not provide the users, especially the lecturers, with a convenient way to handle special scientific symbols or characters that are not on the keyboard directly. It always takes several steps to insert or edit those special characters. It slows down the data input dramatically. Hand Drawn Web Editor (HDWE) is a stand-alone electronic publishing application. It is designed to provide the user with the integrated environment to edit and browse Html documents. It can also provide a user with a Hand Drawn Panel (HDP) so that he or she can input and edit special scientific symbols and characters freely upon the request. The development environment, frameworks, tools have been discussed in detail. The full development life cycle has been documented using Rational Rose. Some problems have been encountered and their solutions have been described.

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  • The extent of imagery in New Zealand company annual reports : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business Studies in Accountancy at Massey University

    Simpson, Linda Louise

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Imagery, and in particular photography, has become a regular and sometimes spectacular feature of company annual reports. From a broad perspective, photography can be seen to have a multiplicity of functions in society including the presentation of a factual, documentary view of the world, providing an interpretative art form, being used as advertising, and even being seen as pure entertainment. Photography can be seen to reflect the nature of society, while simultaneously altering and constructing society values. As the New Zealand Government continues to advocate free-market policies, resulting in more and more decisions about the nature of New Zealand society being put into corporate hands, concerns are being voiced regarding the degree to which New Zealand citizens have a democratic vote on how their society is constructed. These concerns relate specifically to the nature of corporate values, and how they impact on New Zealand society. A logical place for a statement of corporate values to be found is the company annual report. This study explores and investigates the use of imagery in company annual reports by using the imperatives contained in the political economy of accounting: be normative, be descriptive and be critical. Two questions are specifically addressed. Firstly, an empirical investigation is made of the extent to which imagery has been present in some New Zealand company annual reports for the period 1970 - 1997. Secondly, these annual reports are examined to determine whether, from the perspective of the researcher, company values that inspire and underlie company activities are reported by the use of imagery. In this way, imagery in annual reports may highlight a direct link between company values and social values in general. This study is important in that if companies use imagery, and in particular photography, to report their company values it may contribute to further understanding of the constitutive nature of the company annual report from a broad societal perspective, rather than from that reflected only in the accounting and financial numbers. This also has consequences for the nature of the corporate social report, an area growing in importance in the accounting field. This study may also reveal previously unknown features regarding the role accounting plays when it attempts to represent some aspect of a company's activities. Key Words: Annual Reports, Imagery, Corporate Social Report.

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  • Ideal procurement system for New Zealand private sector construction clients : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Construction at Massey University

    Wan Ismail, Wan Norizan Binti

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Making the right choice of a procurement system at the onset ensures successful project delivery, a satisfied client, a successful service provider, and a reputable construction industry. Research has shown that client's requirements have not been properly addressed due largely to wrong choice of procurement systems. This research aims to identify the priority needs of clients and the appropriate procurement system that can ensure the delivery of satisfactory outcomes. Investigations were limited to the views expressed by private sector construction clients, consultants and contractors, registered with their respective umbrella organizations in New Zealand. The descriptive survey method was used, which involved pilot interviews and structured questionnaire surveys. Content analysis, multi-attribute analysis and rank correlation tests were used in the analysis of the data. Results showed that clients' would prefer a procurement system that can ensure the delivery of the project within time, budget and quality/specification targets. Other priority needs include fixed price tender, competitive/ lowest price tenders, separate service provider for the design and management of the construction, life cycle cost, risk preference and to accommodate variation orders without incurring financial penalties. Construction management type of procurement system offering responsibilities for monitoring and coordinating the construction process is the ideal procurement route that could best meet the needs of the New Zealand construction clients. However, the sequential traditional procurement system is the most commonly used; clients are not prepared to adopt any other system that could better meet their procurement needs. The most influential reason for this is the perceived risk evasiveness of clients in the adoption of other systems which are not tried and tested. The use of partnering clause in the prevailing sequential traditional system is recommended to ensure win-win outcomes for all stakeholders and to motivate service providers to deliver more satisfactory outcomes to their clients. Keywords Construction clients, construction industry, clients' needs, construction management, procurement system.

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