88,788 results

  • He kawa oranga : Māori achievement in the 21st century : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Māori Studies at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Durie, Meihana Kākatārau

    Thesis
    Massey University

    He Kawa Oranga, Māori Achievement in the 21st Century, investigates the relevance of kawa to modern times. The thesis is essentially about Māori engagement with society and the ways in which kawa can be applied to a range of situations and events in Te Ao Hurihuri, the changing world. But although the focus is on kawa in contemporary times, the origins of kawa are ancient and are embedded in a Māori knowledge system, Mātauranga Māori. For that reason the research methodology adopted in the thesis is based on a Mātauranga Maori epistemology and an associated research paradigm that draws on Māori concepts of knowledge, Knowledge transfer, and the expansion of knowledge. Insights from exponents of kawa, observations on marae, together with an examination of kawa in three contemporary situations contributed to and understanding of the several dimensions of kawa. An important finding was that the outward expressions of kawa have little meaning if they are detached from the kaupapa, the values, that underlie the kawa. The values contained in kawa reflect Māori world views and especially the relationships between people and between people and the environment. Maintaining the values in environments where Māori world views are not the prevailing norm is one of the dilemmas addressed in He Kawa Oranga. The thesis concludes, however, that kawa provides a useful values-based approach to the encounters that will increasingly confront young Māori in a rapidly changing world. It does not suggest a return to the past, but by linking values and actions in ways that make sense to Māori, kawa is seen as an enabling process that can enhance performance, generate cohesion, inspire achievement and provide a measure of certainty.

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  • Establishment and early regrowth of sheep's burnet (Sanguisorba minor SSP. Muricata (Spach) Briq.) examined multivariately : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Douglas, Grant Brodie

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Factors affecting establishment and early regrowth of the low growing perennial herb, sheep's burnet (Sanguisorba minor ssp. muricaia (Spach) Briq.), were investigated in field and controlled environment studies. Lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) and sometimes birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.), were included as dryland standards in the establishment studies. Sheep's burnet emerged more slowly than lucerne and birdsfoot trefoil, but early vegetative growth was similar to that of lucerne and faster than birdsfoot trefoil. Under lower North Island field conditions, spring sown sheep's burnet established and tolerated three partial defoliations (5-7 cm stubble) as well as the legumes and averaged a total of 6.3 t DM ha-1. Regrowth in the autumn indicated that a defoliation frequency of four weeks was suitable. Field emergence of sheep's burnet was influenced markedly by temperature and was 66% on relatively warm, sandy soils at Flock House compared with 27% at Riverside. Seedlings emerged approximately 3-4 days earlier at Flock House. At constant temperatures of 10, 15, 20 and 25°C, final emergences of sheep's burnet were similar and averaged 70.4% but rates of emergence were again faster at higher temperatures. The minimum temperature for satisfactory (50%) emergence of sheep's burnet was 4.9°C and this was discussed in relation to sowing time. Temperature also had a pronounced effect on times to reach various seedling growth stages. Large (>2.8 mm) seeds occasionally provided faster seedling emergence than small (50%) per hypanthium ("seed") than small seeds (9%), which may have advantages for rate of ground cover and perhaps earlier provision of forage. Field sowings of unseparated seed averaged 30% seedling pairs. Large seeds frequently produced superior seedlings and seed growers should be encouraged to produce similar seed. Material from Oregon, USA was generally superior to that evaluated in early New Zealand trials but this depended of the evaluation environment, particularly temperature. Foliar regrowth from a range of partially defoliated glasshouse grown plants was superior to that of plants defoliated completely. Reduction in root mass was the most important morphological effect of complete defoliation. The results indicated thet current photosynthates from residual leaves were important in supplying energy for regrowth and this was discussed in relation to possible stand management. Osmotic adjustment was suggested as accounting for satisfactory growth of sheep's burnet in dry environments.

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  • The use of music therapy to support speech and expressive language development for pre-school children with special needs : an exegesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Music Therapy at New Zealand School of Music, Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

    Ludlam, Shari K

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Client-centred music therapy with individual pre-school children, involving playful but focused songs, behaviours and instrumental play, can enhance their speech and expressive language development. Four constructs were inductively created using the principles of grounded theory to represent how music therapy was used to support speech and expressive language development for pre-school children with special needs. Secondary analysis was undertaken of qualitative data drawn from usual clinical practice including clinical notes, reflective journal, audiovisual recordings, and notes from communications regarding two children from a student music therapist’s caseload at a specialist centre in New Zealand. A case vignette is presented to illustrate these four meaningful constructs of individual music therapy and concepts that constitute each are presented, along with sample quotations from the data, and are theoretically integrated within wider music therapy literature. A tree model was used to capture these findings, which further suggested ‘playfulness’ may be a central aspect of the work. Implications for my developing and future clinical practice of music therapy are discussed, along with directions indicated for future research.

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  • Studies of Marssonina and Drepanopeziza species pathogenic to poplars : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Massey University

    Spiers, Adrian

    Thesis
    Massey University

    A taxonomic study was conducted of Marssonina species pathogenic to poplars. From descriptions of conidial morphology in the literature and examination of type material 3 species were recognised viz: M. populi, M. castagnei and M. brunnea. Study of worldwide collections of 280 herbarium specimens confirmed the existence of the three species and further established the validity of type specimens as species representatives. The stability of selected differential taxonomic criteria was evaluated both in the laboratory and field under varying environmental conditions. Subsequent comparative morphological studies under defined laboratory conditions established that features of conidium morphology (shape, mean dimensions and septum location) were valid differential taxonomic criteria. Further, the existence of 'large-conidium variants' was demonstrated. Microconidia were of no value in species delimitation. Host range and pathogenicity tests revealed two host specific forms of M. brunnea: (i) M. brunnea f. sp. trepidae pathogenic to P. tremula and P. tremuloides, (ii) M. brunnea f. sp. brunnea pathogenic to P. deltoides and P. X euramericana. Conidium and microconidium ontogeny of the three Marssonina species was annellidic and not phialidic as previously reported. A taxonomic study of Drepanopeziza species pathogenic to poplars established the synonymy of D. tremulae and D. punctiformis and the close morphological similarity of D. tremulae, D. populorum and D. populi-albae. Production of apothecia of D. tremulae was induced in the laboratory and the rate of maturation shown to be temperature dependent. Incubation temperature had no significant effect on dimensions of asci and ascospores. Seed transmission studies established that M. brunnea was transmitted on imported poplar seedlines as a contaminant. Seed-borne contamination was effectively controlled by dusting seed with a number of fungicides, the benzimidazole derived compounds being particularly effective. Studies on the pathogenesis of Marssonina species to poplars showed that germtubes penetrated poplar leaves directed by enzymatic activity, the infection peg being naked. Within host tissue hyphae ramified indiscriminately and completely disrupted cellular contents. The resistance of leaves to infection increased significantly with maturity, this being attributed to the ultrastructure of the mature cell wall. In depth host range studies of New Zealand and overseas isolates of M. brunnea established the wide host range and strong pathogenicity of this species. In many instances gross differences in pathogenicity were revealed between isolates. The solution to this disease as seen in the breeding of resistant material is discussed.

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  • Arms control in New Zealand, 1854-1861 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in History at Massey University

    Innes, Craig

    Thesis
    Massey University

    No abstract

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  • Epidemiological investigations of the New Zealand horse population and the control of equine influenza : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Veterinary Epidemiology, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Rosanowski, Sarah Margaret

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The aim of this thesis was to develop a disease model to evaluate the effectiveness of movement restriction and vaccination for the control of equine influenza in the New Zealand horse population. In order to achieve this aim, a series of epidemiological investigations into the characteristics, movement behaviour and biosecurity practices of the New Zealand horse population were conducted. The New Zealand equine population has never experienced an outbreak of the highly infectious, respiratory virus, equine influenza (EI). As such, New Zealand horses are naїve to the virus and completely susceptible to infection. Disease models are one tool that can be used to examine the effectiveness of control strategies and can be used to initiate informed discussion regarding potential control options. In order to develop an EI InterSpread plus model, data were required regarding the New Zealand equine population. Data were collected via cross-sectional survey regarding the non-commercial horse population, through face-to-face interviews with stud managers and through the analysis of data regarding race meetings. Properties keeping horses for competition, recreation or racing were more likely to report a movement event than properties that did not. Movement events and the frequency of movement increased with increasing numbers of mares and stallions on a stud farm and with the presence of a shuttle stallion. There were significant differences between Standardbreds and Thoroughbreds travelling to race meetings and horses travelled further to attend premier race meetings. The level of biosecurity practiced was low and unlikely to be effective at preventing EI transmission during an outbreak. The disease model investigated three vaccination strategies in conjunction with movement restriction, compared to movement restriction alone. Additionally, the timeliness of vaccination strategies and enhanced surveillance were investigated. The results of the InterSpread plus model showed that the predicted length of an EI epidemic and the number of properties infected were fewer, if vaccination was implemented. The vaccination strategy that predicted the fewest number of infected properties, and the shortest epidemic duration, was implemented on day seven after official detection at a three kilometre radius around an infected property. This thesis highlights the complexity inherent in developing disease models to support decision making.

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  • Genetic improvement in a Texel breeding operation : a case study & Maximising pedigree accuracy for genetic gain : a comparison of DNA-assigned parentage and lambing-book assigned parentage : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agriscience in Animal Breeding and Genetics at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Andrews, Nicole Fay

    Thesis
    Massey University

    There were two main aims to this research. The first was to carry out an investigation of the genetic gain of Landcorp Farming Limited's Waikite Texel breeding operation. This was in order to identify factors that may have been limiting ΔG and the financial return of the system and make recommendations for improvement. It was found that the achieved mean ΔG of 33¢/ewe/year was less (P<0.05) than that predicted for the Innervalue Fat Index at 97¢/ewe/year. Financially the system was found to have made a net return over the course of the studied period; however, this was less than what was predicted as possible. The main cause of this shortfall was the majority of genetic selection being imposed on live-weight BVs rather than Index values. This investigation also found that there was little room for improvement in the ewe and ram generation intervals with hogget mating and maintenance of current levels being recommended for L. While the ram selection intensity had little room for improvement, the ewe selection intensity did and this is achievable by imposing less selection pressure on structural traits and more on genetic merit. The second aim of this research was to compare lambing-book dam records and DNA-assigned dam records in order to identify management practices that would target the minimisation of pedigree identification error. Triplets and lambs born to older dams were found to be the groups most at risk of having incorrect lambing-book data, while singles had a lower mean probability that the DNA identified dam was correct. Although DNA parentage testing was not found to financially benefit a system, it did offer the opportunity to reduce pedigree error through the use of a variety of practices. These practices include: single sire mating of ewes, lambing ewes in mobs of equal or near equal proportions from each sire group, lambing in mobs based on scanning rank, carrying out two or more checks per day on ewes during lambing, and increase the number of markers used in the DNA parentage assignments of groups most at risk from incorrect parentage assignment if financially feasible.

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  • Listening in early childhood : a clinical investigation of the listening process in three- and four-year old children : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Education at Massey University

    Gillion, Gordon Mervyn

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The purpose of the study was to investigate some aspects of the listening process in early childhood education. The investigation was based on the premise that listening was a cognitive activity displaying cognitive-structural features similar to the development of knowledge. The review of the literature revealed that the listening process as a cognitive activity in early childhood had not been sufficiently considered. In order to investigate the listening process a Piagetian theoretical perspective was developed. Inherent in this perspective was the relation of listening to the structuralist position as elucidated by Piaget. Inherent in Piaget's principles was the clinical interview as the method of inquiry. As the methodology selected for the study, it was determined to be more penetrating in the discovery of underlying cognitive-structural features of listening. The clinical interviews involved 20 subjects, ten three-year olds and ten four-year olds, each encountering four different stimulus situations developed specifically for the investigation. The four interviews with each child were recorded for later transcription. The analysis of the interview protocols, preceded by formal coding, investigated the listening process across the four stimulus situations by the central process of equilibration. The exemplification of the constructs of equilibrium which included the cognitive structures of listening facilitated the explanation of the listening process in three-and four-year old children. The conclusions of the study relate to the corroboration of the postulates for each Piagetian theoretical construct. First, a model of the listening process was suggested involving the equilibration of cognitive structures. Second, the study indicated that the clinical interview is a useful method for the inquiry of listening in early childhood. Also, since the methodology has been utilized successfully in the investigation of listening it is suggested this procedure constitutes a useful method for the inquiry of other phenomena in early childhood education. Finally, the study indicated educational implications for the curriculum ana suggested areas for further research.

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  • A study of the leaching of non-reactive solutes and nitrate under laboratory and field conditions : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Soil Science at Massey University

    Magesan, Gujjaiah Nanjaiah

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Leaching of solutes such as nitrate from soil to surface water and groundwater is of environmental and economic concern. Leaching experiments were conducted both in the laboratory using large intact soil cores (230 mm diameter; 250 mm depth) and in the field using a mole-pipe drained Tokomaru silt loam soil under pasture. In the laboratory experiments 'tracers' (tritium, bromide or chloride) were applied as pulse or step-change inputs to the soil surface during steady flow. A transfer function model, based on a probability density function (pdf), which characterised solute travel between inlet and outlet surfaces in terms of cumulative drainage, was used to predict solute movement. Using tracer model parameters, leaching of indigenous chloride was reasonably predicted, but the leaching of indigenous nitrate could not be modelled satisfactorily. This was apparently due to the dynamic nature and spatial variability of the biological transformations to which nitrate is subject in soil. In the field experiment solid sodium bromide and urea were applied in autumn 1990 to adjacent drained paddocks, each 0.125 ha in area. Soil, suction-cup and drainage samples were collected regularly during the drainage seasons of 1990 and 1991. The average amounts of drainage collected were 250 mm in 1990 and 320 mm in 1991, but the average amounts of nitrate leached were 47 and 20 kg N/ha, respectively. The results indicate the importance of source-strength for nitrate in N leaching loss. The nitrate-N concentration was around 35 g N m-3 in the early drainage, well above the WHO limit of 10 g N m-3, but dropped to around 2 g N m-3 later in the drainage season. About 8 % of the applied N, but 52 % of the applied bromide, was leached during the 1990 drainage season. This shows the important effect that biological reactions such as immobilization can have in reducing nitrate leaching. Comparisons were made between solute concentrations of suction-cup solution, soil extracted solution, and the drainage. For non-reactive solutes such as bromide (an applied solute) and chloride (an indigenous solute) die suction cup data provided better estimates of the solute concentration in the drainage than did the soil solution data. For nitrate, neither of these two measurements could estimate accurately solute concentrations in the drainage. The solute leaching data obtained in the field were modelled using transfer functions. The bromide and chloride data were used to calculate the pdf of solute travel times. For chloride, an exponential pdf fitted the data slightly better than a lognormal pdf, despite it having only one rather than two fitted parameters. The chloride pdf appeared to be similar for both 1990 and 1991. For bromide, the inferred pdf conformed to a log-normal distribution and was quite different from the pdf derived from the chloride data. It seems that assuming a pulse (Dirac delta) flux input for a surface-applied solid fertilizer is not valid, and that this is the reason for the discrepancy between the pdfs obtained using the bromide and chloride data. When the pdf derived from the chloride data was used to model nitrate leaching, the result was generally disappointing.

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  • The prevalence of lameness on New Zealand dairy farms : a comparison of farmer perception and mobility scoring : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Veterinary Studies, Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Fabian, Jessica

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Several studies have compared the prevalence of lameness as perceived by farmers with the prevalence of lameness assessed using locomotion or mobility scoring. However all of these studies have been undertaken in housed cows; cows at pasture have not been studied. This study was designed to identify the difference between farmer perception of lameness and that identified by mobility scoring under New Zealand conditions in cows kept at pasture. Data were collected from 60 herds, 27 in the South Island and 33 in the North Island. All farms were visited on one occasion at the expected peak time for lameness, i.e. October/November for North Island farms and January / February for South Island farms. Data were collected via a questionnaire which included details on farm size, productivity and reproduction as well as general health. The latter included a farmer estimate of the number of lame cows which were currently on-farm. Whole herd mobility scoring, using the DairyCo 0 – 3 scale, was then used to estimate herd lameness prevalence. In the North Island, average herd size was 294 and average production was 357 kgMS/cow/year, while in the South Island the figures were 580 and 406 kgMS/cow/year, respectively. Of the 60 farms, lame cows were treated by farm staff only on 38 farms, by a combination of veterinarian and farm staff on 21 farms, and on one farm by veterinarians only. On average, farmers estimated that 2.2% of their herd was lame (range 0 to 20%), while mobility scoring identified that, on average, 8.1% of the herd was lame (mobility score =2) (range 1.2 to 36%). This means that on a herd basis, only 27.3 % (range 0 to 95%) of the cows with reduced mobility had been identified as lame by farm staff. There was no significant effect on herd size on this percentage (P=0.8), nor was there a significant differences between the two islands (South Island 28% ± SEM 4.2; North Island 23% ± 2.6). The prevalence of lameness in this study was much lower than that reported in housed cattle, but the percentage of cows with reduced mobility recognised as lame was very similar, even though in pasture-based cattle, farmers spend more time watching cows walk (to and from milking). This study shows that there is significant room for improvement in the detection of lameness on New Zealand farms, and suggests that routine mobility scoring, particularly at critical periods, could be a valuable tool for identifying lame cows.

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  • A two-dimensional extensible bus technology and protocol for VLSI processor core : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Engineering in Computer and Electronic Engineering at School of Engineering and Advanced Technology, Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Loke, Chun Eng

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Intellectual property (IP) core design modularity and reuse in Very-Large-Scale-Integration (VLSI) silicon have been the key focus areas in design productivity improvement in order to shorten product development lead time as well as minimize design error on new product [11]. The System-On-Chip (SoC) design approach has been adopted in microprocessor design flow with many functional blocks reuse in silicon. SoC has the advantage of cost efficiency and higher fabrication yield. The fundamental building block of SoC is the interconnection of intellectual property (IP) core through a shared bus to establish an on-chip communication. As IP core integration is severely constraint by silicon wafer sizes (cost per die), the right level of integration is never an easy decision. System-in-Package (SiP) addresses this drawback with package level IP core integration. However, SiP has the drawback of lower fabrication yield which results in higher manufacturing cost [6]. In order to address these issues, a new level of integration has been suggested in order to reduce the drawbacks of SiP and SoC approaches. This new integration methodology is also known as System-in-System (SiS) which emulates SoC and SiP at the system level. The thesis contains a detailed treatment on the processor architecture and SoC used. The design methodologies have been discussed too. The thesis also contains treatment on the verification methodologies and technologies that are used in design validation. Research includes the design of two dimensional XBUS system for external IP core integration on SoC. The thesis proposed a system level bus for IP integration through the XBUS. As there are multiple ways of integrating IP core at the system level, the XBUS is limited to two channels (hence two dimensional) in order to simplify implementation complexities. Based on experimental results, the proposed method can be introduced as a very promising method for the design of SoC and various other high-performance computer systems.

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  • Preparation of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide particles from New Zealand ilmenite : a thesis submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Engineering in Chemical Engineering and Nanotechnology at Massey University, New Zealand, May 2011

    Rajashekar, Ranjeeth Kumar

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Titanium dioxide being one of the most important composite precursors has wide range of application due to the unique properties that it exhibits. TiO2 with varying amount of anatase and rutile phases were prepared by controlled hydrolysis of dissolved liquor (Ti—Fe—Cl solution) from dissolution of New Zealand ilmenite followed by calcination of the hydrate sample at different temperatures. The kinetics of ilmenite digestion is examined based on the factors affecting the ilmenite dissolution rate such as acid/ilmenite ratio, additive (iron powder) and optimum dissolution temperature. In hydrolysis, the use of structure determining agents (SDA) that alters the morphology of TiO2 fine particles is analyzed. Samples without SDA have resulted in rutile phase formation at 110°C, while samples with SDA (phosphoric acid/tri-sodium citrate/citric acid) resulted in either anatase phase or mixed phase (both anatase and rutile) at 110°C. The phosphate and citrate ions (0.35% P2O5 and 0.4% citrate) helps in promoting an anatase phase of TiO2 particles. Along with SDA, parameter such as hydrolysis temperature and percentage seed also affects the intermediate product. The influence of calcination temperature ranging from 925°C—1000°C on anatase-rutile phase transformation and variation in crystallite size was studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to characterize the resultant TiO2 phase, crystallite size and particle size and shape. The degree of conversion to rutile was higher at higher calcination temperature. Introducing potassium additive (0—2 mass% K2O) in the hydrate sample enhanced the anatase-rutile phase transformation at higher calcination temperature. However, the potassium content in the hydrate sample has a negligible effect on the crystallite size of anatase and rutile after calcination. The XRD pattern shows an increase in the rutile peak intensity and a decrease in the anatase peak intensity with higher calcination temperature. SEM images show that the particle size of the calcined product at 975°C with 1% K2O ranges from 230nm—300nm.

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  • Aspects of growth control in kiwifruit and blackcurrant : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Massey University

    Lawes, George Stephen

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This study emphasized the interplay of several types of growth regulator in the control of growth and development in the kiwifruit plant. Hence different parts of the plant are seen to contribute to this control, the plant appearing as a fully-integrated system with the shoots and roots interacting with each other. The gibberellins were active in the promotion of stem elongation, and it is considered stem growth is dependent on the photosynthate supply, and that this is mediated by the growth regulators. A leaf had a dominant effect on internode growth, and therefore shoot length, at a very early stage of its development - but the effect of an individual leaf was very localised. The plant roots were not clearly shown to be essential for breaking dormancy, bud burst, or early shoot growth. However it was found the roots could be supplying gibberellins as one of the factors required to maintain normal shoot growth. Cytokinins for early bud growth could have been supplied in the bleeding sap either from the roots or the stem tissue. Reservations are expressed about the need for high spring sap flows for plant growth. High sap flows may be a result of a combination of circumstances at the time, and not a necessary pre-requisite to growth. SADH and maleic hydrazide are effective shoot growth retardants, and may find commercial acceptance, except their apparent effect in enhancing post-harvest fruit respiration must receive further study. Bud dormancy was greatest before leaf fall, and dormancy was broken by about 700 hours below 7.2°C, although warm temperatures were just as effective in overcoming this dormant condition. Winter dormancy appeared to be basically the same type of condition as correlative inhibition, and it is suggested that each is, in large part a result of an inability to utilise cytokinins or other growth promoters. It is considered that the juvenile-like condition in blackcurrant is distinct from true juvenility,and the former did not appear to be the result of proximity to gibberellins from the roots. Further, it could not be shown for true juvenility that it was likely to be due to the production of inhibitory levels of gibberellin by the roots.

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  • An appraisal of sex-role development in New Zealand boys: A dissertation presented to the Faculty of Social Science, Massey University, New Zealand, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree Doctor of Philosophy

    Houston, Hugh Stewart

    Thesis
    Massey University

    A growing literature attests to the importance of sex-role identification as a crucial component in the structuring of personality. Much has been written, too, concerning the significance of interpersonal relationships in the development of sex-role. Surprisingly, however, little has been done to examine the process of the acquisition of a sex-role identity in either males or females. Past research has been heavily committed to the study of parent effects on children's sex-role development at a variety of ages. The parent-affects-child paradigm is viewed, for present purposes, as conceptually threadbare, for within the numerous approaches which it has embraced, the influence - even the existence - of any model other than the parent has been consistently ignored. The study is devoted to some aspects of sex-role development in a sample of New Zealand boys of primary school age i.e. between ages five and twelve. It breaks with the conventional; for it reports upon sex-role identification (a) in a familial context and (b) at three different age-levels. The work is presented in three parts. Part A deals with theoretical considerations which are relevant to the present study. Prior to an examination of sex-role identification, problems which arise from the diverse uses to which the term 'identification' is put are discussed. There is good reason for this ordering: identification is conceptualised as generic, sex-role identification as one of its derivatives. Although it is the derivative which is of primary concern in this study, discussion of the overarching concept cannot be precluded.

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  • Telehealth practice in eight countries : New Zealand, Australia, the USA, Canada, UK, Malaysia, China and India : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements of degree of Master in Information Science at Massey University, Albany campus, Auckland, New Zealand

    Altharthi, Mansour Saeed

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This research examines the telehealth adoptions and developments in eight selected countries: New Zealand, Australia, the United States, Canada, UK, Malaysia, China and India. An array of methods has been employed into this research, such as PEST, SWOT, and CSF analysis. Each country has been studied individually and then all eight countries have been discussed together through comparisons from various perspectives. Thereafter, the conclusions summarize the key findings and then some recommendations are offered. The studied countries all have certain needs of telehealth; however, these needs vary due to every country’s particular conditions of demographic features, economic development, social and cultural diversity. The development of telehealth in these countries heavily depends on the countries’ healthcare system, countries’ priorities of healthcare needs, decision makers’ vision in telehealth; as well as the development of telecommunication networks and the training level of end users. It is believed that telehealth will help to improve the healthcare service in all of the eight countries. Through the comparison and discussion, the eight countries are found to share some points in common, which can be highlighted as general CSFs: standardization, legislation and regulation, business modelling and program evaluation, financial constraints, and need of more trained professionals into telehealth. While giving some recommendations to each country’s development of telehealth, this thesis also suggested that future development of telehealth may have three priorities: further and continuous improving design and research in technical perspective, re-examination of the current healthcare system thus adjust it to suit telehealth development, and staying with an international perspective. This topic is suggested for further research, with particular interest in extending to some country/region with very small territory and high population density.

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  • Vitality and burnout of employees in Christian humanitarian organisations : the role of need satisfaction at work and religious beliefs : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Williams, Tamara Joanne

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Humanitarian workers are at relatively high risk of developing a range of negative outcomes in response to stress. For individual employees, the organisations they represent, and the people they serve, it is important to examine workplace wellbeing. This research analysed vitality and burnout as constructs of wellbeing in employees of international, Christian humanitarian organisations based in Chennai, India. This wellbeing dichotomy was explored through two main factors: basic psychological need satisfaction at work, and religious beliefs. These two factors were examined through a Self-Determination Theory framework. Data was collected via a questionnaire comprised of psychometrically established measures and six open-ended questions for supplementary qualitative data. There were 99 respondents. The results demonstrated the importance of supporting autonomy, competence and relatedness (basic psychological needs) in employees of humanitarian organisations. Workplace support leading to basic need satisfaction was associated with increased vitality and decreased levels of burnout. Autonomous motivations for religious beliefs were positively associated with vitality, and non-autonomous motivations for religious beliefs were linked with decreased burnout. The use of religious coping was not as clearly linked with these wellbeing constructs except that the presence of negative religious coping was positively related to burnout. The findings are pertinent for humanitarian organisations, particularly those with a Christian foundation, to understand and facilitate factors that increase vitality and decrease burnout in the workplace.

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  • Development of a probiotics rich yogurt dry mix : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Food Technology, Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Kosasih, Maureen Febriani

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM has been scientifically studied to confer health benefits in humans when consumed in sufficiently high numbers. The incorporation of the NCFM strain in yogurt has been widely applied due to the popularity of the fermented product. Probiotics and other yogurt microorganisms (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus) can remain viable in high concentration when present in liquid or in high water activity products. However, such products are not convenient as they can not be stored at ambient temperature and have limited shelf life. The development of dehydrated yogurt base (DYB) has created opportunities for the delivery of probiotics. DYB is unique to the current market and provides the convenience of ambient storage and long term shelf life. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a stable DYB formulation with shelf life of up to 18 months at ambient storage and 2 weeks at 4°C in its ready-to-eat (RTE) form. Full experimental design was used to formulate the DYB. Characterization of DYB and RTE was analysed for physical, microbiological and chemical properties. The Arhenius model was used to predict the shelf-life of DYB. Liquid yogurt was prepared using selected DYB and the products were analysed by sensory consumers. Results showed that the level of oxygen, moisture, fat, sugar and the storage temperature affected the survival of NCFM in DYB. The cell counts of the NCFM however were above 106 cfu/g throughout storage. In liquid yogurt (RTE form), acidity and the initial level of microorganisms used were important in the stability of the NCFM cells during storage. The growth of the starter microorganisms and the NCFM was symbiotic. Based on this information and the sensory analysis, the developed DYB formulation in the current study showed good potential for commercialization.

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  • A system of meal planning for self-improvement of the diet of villagers in northeastern Thailand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Food Technology at Massey University

    Ngarmsak, Tipvanna

    Thesis
    Massey University

    A method for self-improvement of nutritional status was developed for the villagers in Northeastern Thailand using the raw materials already available in the villages with cowpeas as a protein supplement. A low cost and nutritionally balanced 7-Day menu was designed for a family unit; it was based on the foods and food dishes already eaten in the villages, the present eating pattern of the villagers and protein maximised dishes. It was designed and introduced using a three stage system - study of the present foods eaten, development of the cowpea dishes and the 7-Day menu and introduction of the 7-Day menu to the villages. A survey of eating habits was conducted in ten villages in Khon Kaen Province, to find information on the types of food raw materials available in the villages, the types of foods and food dishes eaten throughout the year, the legumes and legume foods eaten in the villages. Twenty five cowpea recipes were developed from the traditional dishes and protein maximised using linear programming. They were highly acceptable to a taste panel of villagers. The protein content of 22 commonly eaten food dishes were also maximised using linear programming. These protein maximised dishes together with the other foods eaten by the villagers were used to develop a 7-Day menu in the traditional village meal pattern. A system was developed using mixed integer programming to select an acceptable daily menu pattern which could supply an adequate quantity of food for a family of 7 persons and meet their requirements for 26 essential nutrients. The 7-Day menu consisted of 6 daily menus of 29 foods and food dishes including 11 cowpea dishes and steamed glutinous rice. The 7-Day menu was found highly acceptable by the villagers. Three Introduction Models fitting with the village life style were developed for introducing the 7-Day menu and the cowpeas to 6 villages in Khon Kaen Province. Each model was tested in two villages during a 21 week introduction period. The most successful introduction method was to firstly explain the whole menu to the village headman, and then with his help organise a party for the villagers to introduce the menu and the cowpeas and to give nutritional information. Video demonstrations were used to teach the cooking methods for the various dishes and a cooking competition encouraged the villagers to cook the dishes and to follow the menu. This method of introduction created a large increase in the number of villagers using cowpeas.

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  • A study of competitive relationships between selected grasses during the establishment phase : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Massey University

    Sangakkara, Upatissa Ravindranath

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Competition has been identified as a major phenomenon affecting the growth of pasture species in mixtures. Thus a study comprising of field, glasshouse and climate laboratory experiments was conducted to identify the occurrence and the nature of competitive relationships during establishment and early growth of three common grass species used in the pastoral industry of New Zealand. Simple models of competitive situations were created by the use of the de Wit replacement series principle, in order to carry out these studies. The results of all experiments demonstrated that the selected species, namely perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) "Grasslands Nui"; prairie grass (Bromus catharticus Vahl) "Grasslands Matua" and cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L.) "Grasslands Apanui" compete for the same environmental resources. The competitive abilities of the three species were in the order of prairie grass > ryegrass > cocksfoot. The superior performance of the more competitive species when compared with its monoculture was associated with a corresponding proportional decrease in the performance of the weaker species in a mixture. These relationships were observed within 3-4 weeks after planting and did not alter under the adopted experimental conditions. In addition, the field experiment illustrated that these relationships were persistant in the second year, under an infrequent cutting regime, although seasonal growth patterns of the three species were identified. Initial and subsequent plant size had a deterministic effect on the respective competitive abilities of the selected grasses. This was assisted by their growth patterns and earlier germination of the more competitive species. Seed characters also showed a positive relationship with the plant size and competitive abilities of the selected grasses. Yields of the mixtures lay between those of the respective monocultures in all experiments, irrespective of seasonal growth patterns of the species. Simulated spring and autumn temperatures within the climate laboratories did not change the pattern of yield or the competitive abilities and relationships of these three species. Evaluation of the effects of competition on the growth of individual plants of these species when grown in mixtures revealed that both tiller appearance rate and to a greater extent the rate of leaf appearance on the main stem in all species were affected by competition during early growth. These effects were associated with the dry matter accumulation patterns of the selected species in mixtures. Root competition began earlier and had a greater impact on the overall competitive relationships between the selected species than shoot competition. This was attributed to the earlier and greater intermingling of the root systems than shoot systems. Evaluation of the root growth of species both as single plants and in mixtures supported this conclusion. However, the mechanisms of root competition were not elucidated. In order to identify the pasture establishment practices of farmers and thereby relate the results of these studies to the practical situation, a survey was carried out among farmers in central New Zealand. The results highlighted that farmers use seed mixtures containing 2-4 grasses to establish their pastures. The grasses selected for this study were shown to be those most commonly used by farmers. The results of the experiments of this study are discussed in relation to the pastoral industry of New Zealand.

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  • Testing the concept of the 'good employer' in a small enterprise context : central North Island : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Management in Human Resource Management at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Coetzee, Deirdre

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The assumption that small enterprise (SE) employers are paternalistic and favour an individualistic approach to managing the employment relationship and occupational health and safety (OHS) risk and, consequently, that SE terms and conditions of work are generally inferior to large enterprises (LEs) has not been tested in SEs in New Zealand. This study examined the concept of a 'good employer' regarding employment relations (ER) and OHS practices in SEs in New Zealand. It explored this concept through a framework developed from the International Labour Organization's (ILO) socially Decent Work Index (DWI) (Bonnet, Figueiredo & Standing, 2003; Standing, 1997) and the work that was carried out by Bewley (2006), Boxall (1991), and Hull and Read (2003). A qualitative approach was adopted which involved conducting semi-structured interviews with 12 SE employers. In an attempt to capture high and low OHS risk industries, as well as a range of unskilled to highly skilled jobs, three employers from: the construction, manufacturing, service, and retail industry sectors were interviewed between July and August 2010. The interview schedule was developed from the Workplace Employment Relations Survey 2004 (WERS) (Kersley, Alpin, Forth, Bryson, Bewley, Dix, et al, 2006) to explore the key dimensions of a 'good employer': employment security, voice security, income security, skill reproduction security, and work security. The employers predominantly perceived the need to: promote a collaborative culture, adopt fair and understanding employment practices and provide a good work environment. How these 'good employer' perceptions, attitudes and beliefs were implemented in practice were explored by testing the adapted ILO framework of socially decent work. The main themes emerging from the employers' perceptions corresponded with the two dimensions of the 'good employer' prioritized by the ILO (Bonnet, et al, 2003): employee voice security and work security, which are embedded in the Employment Relations Act (ERA) and Health and Safety in Employment Act (HSEA). Overall, these employers were considered as 'good employers' relative to arguments that a 'good employer' complies with the statutory employment minimum. However, when the characteristics of a 'good employer' were examined more closely subtle differences appeared between employers and these are best described on a continuum. At the one end employers appeared to be just compliant with basic statutory requirements while employers at the other end demonstrated higher levels of the characteristics that fitted with the concepts developed in large enterprises and the public sector.

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