82,937 results

  • Guiding Light: The Architecture of Sleep for Dementia

    Kluger, Scott (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Disruptive sleeping behaviours are a key symptom of dementia that accelerates transition from the home towards full time institutional care. For thousands of families in New Zealand, respite facilities offer a temporary relief from this symptom in an attempt to prolong care at home. However the predominant use of pharmaceutical therapy coupled with unstimulating care environments leads to sleeping behaviours deteriorating upon returning home. In order to provide an alternative approach to pharmaceutical therapy and research towards treating disruptive sleep behaviour, this thesis addresses pre-existing inter-disciplinary literature, field trips, international precedents and an iterative method of design to investigate: How can the architecture of a respite facility improve sleeping behaviours and instigate meaningful environmental research within dementia care? Environmental strategies involving light, movement and community were identified as key objectives towards improving sleep behaviour within the design. Introducing a shared courtyard with the public that facilitated continuous movement alongside the circadian rhythms of the sun, allowed a design that would engage with all three objectives in order to improve sleep behaviour of residents with mild symptoms of dementia. As symptoms progress, the adoption of an artificial lighting environment in a purpose built sleep lab allowed a space for scientific enquiry to the nature and treatment of sleep for those with later stages of dementia. The final design integrates both natural and artificial environments into a single respite facility, strengthening its therapeutic potential to prolong home care for the thousands of families affected by dementia in New Zealand.

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  • Collaborative music therapy; Determining the benefits and challenges of collaborative work from a student’s perspective

    Macdonald, Jamie (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This study describes the benefits and challenges experienced by a student music therapist on placement at a special school in New Zealand. While working alongside an experienced music therapist at the school, and taking external supervision from another, I was able to reflect the challenges and benefits of this unique collaboration. The process of collaboration is complex especially when collaborating parties have differing roles that potentially create power differentials. Findings have been generated from secondary analysis of my reflective journal and clinical data collected while on placement. The findings explore the diverse range of possible benefits and challenges of the interactions that the collaboration enabled. The study concludes that despite the many challenges in maintaining a successful collaboration, it provides therapists with many extra opportunities for our participants, as well as a flexible learning environment for a student music therapist.

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  • Economic development and intergenerational earnings mobility: Evidence from Taiwan

    Chu, Luke Yu-Wei; Lin, Ming-Jen (2016)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    How economic development affects intergenerational earnings elasticity is not well-documented. In this paper, we estimate intergenerational earnings elasticities between fathers and sons in two periods. In the current period, 2005–2010, Taiwan is already a developed economy with slower economic growth. We apply the two-sample approach developed by Björklund and Jäntti (1997) and find that intergenerational earnings elasticity is around 0.4–0.5 in this period. In the earlier period, 1990–1994, Taiwan was still a developing economy with fast economic growth. We mimic the Björklund-Jäntti two-sample approach and use average earnings by occupation as a proxy for fathers’ earnings. To quantify potential bias, we apply the same method to the 2005–2010 data. Our proxy method yields similar estimates in both the early 1990s and late 2000s. These results suggest stable intergenerational transmission of economic status in Taiwan, despite its rapid economic development.

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  • The development of animal models for autism: A gene-environment approach

    Ranger, Peter (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by social, communicative, and behavioural deficits. Despite decades of research in this field, effective pharmacological treatments for ASD are still lacking and better animal models for this disorder are urgently needed. Although it is now well understood that both genetic and environmental influences play a role in the aetiology of ASD, most existing animal models for this disorder only take into account one of these aetiological contributors and have largely ignored investigating an interaction. The main aim of this thesis was to develop a novel animal model for ASD that demonstrated higher construct validity than traditional models by using a gene-environment approach. To this aim, two previously established environmental risk factor-based models for ASD were each combined with a genetic rat model that mimicked a genotype associated with ASD. Specifically, a maternal immune activation model (modelled via prenatal administration of lipopolysaccharide) and a prenatal exposure to valproate model (modelled via prenatal administration of valproate) were both combined with a serotonin transporter (SERT) knockout rat model. Next, experimental rats were investigated in a variety of paradigms designed to detect behavioural, biochemical, and immunological outcomes related to ASD. This thesis tested the hypothesis that rats with a genetically compromised SERT function would be more vulnerable to the impacts of the two environmental risk factors. Collectively, the data from this thesis show that rats with a genetically compromised SERT function are not more vulnerable to the impacts of a maternal immune activation or prenatal exposure to VPA. In fact, at least with regards to prenatal exposure to valproate, rats with a compromised SERT function actually appeared more resilient to ASD-like outcomes.

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  • The Monetary Nexus

    Zanetti, Giovanni Norton (1974)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Recent debate on monetary theory has probed increasingly into its fundamental conceptualisations, and some far-reaching proposals for reform have emerged. This study is an attempt to contribute towards such a reform. It begins with an appraisal of the theory in order to evaluate its status as an empirical theory, and finds that the ideas of money as a nexus between producer and user, of economic processes as occurring through time, and of the absence of general equilibrating tendencies, need substantial reformulation if the processes of a modern pecuniary economy are to be adequately represented. The study devotes its major effort to structuring these ideas into a form capable of sustaining the required theoretical development while maintaining contact with the world of experience.

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  • New Zealand information on the Internet: the Power to Find the Knowledge

    Smith, Alastair G. (2011)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In a world of apparently ubiquitous information, does knowledge still equal power? Whatever the answer to this question, we will not have power unless we can retrieve our knowledge. Despite the advances of the last decades, issues remain in finding information on the Web relating to Aotearoa. These include: the efficiency with which the global search engines index the NZ web space, searching for macronised words, the quality of Wikipedia information about NZ, and the availability of open access NZ research.

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  • Do Dolls and HFDs Assist in Eliciting Information about Touch in Interviews with Children?

    Malloy, Alana (2009)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The current study aimed to investigate the utility of HFDs and dolls in memory interviews about a touch event. Fifty-three children aged 5 to 7 years experienced a staged event involving innocuous touch. They were interviewed 7 to 11 days later either with a purely verbal interview, the assistance of HFDs, or the assistance of dolls. No significant differences were found in the amount or accuracy of information reported in each interview type, though information was highly accurate in all conditions. This indicates that although props did not offer any additional facilitation to eliciting information from children than verbal interview alone, they also were not harmful to the children's reports. Limitations of the current study and directions for future research are discussed.

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  • Laryngospasm during general anaesthesia in the cat : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Veterinary Science at Massey University

    Rex, Michael Albert Edward (1969)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    One of the many hazards of general anaesthesia is spasm of the muscles of the air passages - that is laryngospasm, tracheal spasm and bronchospasm. When any one of these is severe, it can lead to hypoxia or anoxia and death, in addition to less serious sequelae such as the formation of ulcers and granulomata in the larynx and trachea. This thesis is concerned with one of these conditions - laryngospasm, which nay be defined as an occlusion of the aditus laryngis by the action of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles. The investigation has been in the nature of en experimental study on the induction of and the mechanisms involved in laryngospasm. A clearer definition of these mechanism is essential if the occurrence of this condition during anaesthesia is to be prevented. In particular, attempts have been made to define both the sites of stimulation, and the afferent and efferent limbs of the laryngeal reflex responses stimulated by the inhalation of anaesthetic vapours. The work is an extension as well as a confirmation of preliminary communications (Rex, 1966, 1967), reprints of which are provided as appendices 1 and 2. Interest in this study arose from clinical experience and an awareness of the problem laryngospasm presents in anaesthesia.

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  • How Can a Music Therapy Student Facilitate Contributions by Adolescent Clients Who Have Psychiatric Disorders in Group Music Therapy?

    Wong, Chit Yu (2009)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This study explored ways in which a music therapy student could modify and improve her own clinical practice in order to facilitate client contribution in group music therapy in an acute adolescent inpatient unit. Through cycles of observation, evaluation, planning, and action, the music therapy student was able to examine her facilitation techniques in detail and modified them accordingly. There were six fortnightly cycles and in each cycle, the research journal, research notes, and video-recording were systematically reviewed by the music therapy student herself, and themes were drawn out to contribute to the planning of the next cycle. The results suggested that while direct questions predominated at the start of study, the music therapy student was able to adopt a variety of other techniques by the end of the research period, including self-disclosure, appropriate eye contact, and the shifting of responsibility. The music therapy student also found that her own anxiety level, which was often caused by periods of silence in music groups, also had an important impact on her ability to facilitate. The discussion addressed other factors that are believed to have contributed to the student's ability to facilitate in group music therapy.

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  • Stationary distributions and mean first passage times of perturbed Markov chains

    Hunter, Jeffrey J. (2002)

    Journal article
    Massey University

    Stationary distributions of perturbed finite irreducible discrete time Markov chains are intimately connected with the behaviour of associated mean first passage times. This interconnection is explored through the use of generalized matrix inverses. Some interesting qualitative results regarding the nature of the relative and absolute changes to the stationary probabilities are obtained together with some improved bounds.

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  • Suburban/Absurd: Subjects of Anxiety in the Fiction of John Cheever and Richard Ford.

    Clark, Fiona (2009)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    One aspect of the common ground between the work of Richard Ford and John Cheever is their careful depiction of domestic life. It was this attention to the middle class suburbs of America that led some of Cheever's contemporary critics to dismiss his work, seeing his subject matter as inappropriate to serious critical enquiry. By altering the terms on which Cheever's work is approached, and reading Cheever's and Ford's suburban fiction in light of some of the tenets of existentialism, post-structuralism, and neo-pragmatism, it is possible to affirm their works as central to contemporary concerns surrounding subjectivity, identity, and agency.

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  • Equity trend prediction with neural networks

    Halliday, R. (2004)

    Journal article
    Massey University

    This paper presents results of neural network based trend prediction for equity markets. Raw equity exchange data is pre-processed before being fed into a series of neural networks. The use of Self Organising Maps (SOM) is investigated as a data classification method to limit neural network inputs and training data requirements. The resulting primary simulation is a neural network that can prediction whether the next trading period will be, on average, higher or lower than the current. Combinations of pre-processing and feature extracting SOM’s are investigated to determine the more optimal system configuration.

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  • Comparative pathology of inflammation in the sheep : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Vegad, Jawahar Lal (1967)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    The inflammatory reaction is fundamental to the survival of the organism. It cannot be over-emphasised that without it there could be no protection against the effects of noxious external stimuli nor repair of damaged tissue (see Ebert, 1965). The inflammatory response, however, has attracted renewed interest in recent years with the realisation that inflammation may become aberrant and considerably more harmful to the body than the noxious stimulus which initiated the reaction. Thus, in some diseases a large portion of tissue damage results from the inflammatory response itself. Allergic and rheumatic diseases fall into this category (see Spector and Willoughby, 1963a). Ebert (1965) suggests that " ...... within certain limits the inflammatory reaction is stereotyped and it cannot distinguish between those instances in which the process protects the host and those in which the host is harmed". Inflammation is difficult to define. Spector and Willoughby (1963a) have suggested that, "In vertebrates it could perhaps be described as the local reaction to injury of the living microcirculation and its associated tissues, in which would be included blood leucocytes and such features of perivascular tissue as mast cells and histiocytes". More recently, Ebert (1965) in an attempt to define inflammation pointed out that "It is difficult to give a definition which is neither so all-inclusive as to be meaningless nor so specific that it is too restrictive.", and suggested that "Inflammation is a process which begins following a sublethal injury to tissue and ends with complete healing".

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  • A study of some factors affecting reproduction in one- and two-year-old ewes : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Animal Science at Massey University

    McMillan, William Henry (1981)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Experiment I: Reproductive performance was investigated in 176 one-year-old Romney and Border Leicester x Romney (F1) ewes following joinings with entire or vasectomized rams in 1977. Two-year-old performance of these ewes was investigated in 1978. First service conception rate was 74.6% in 1977 and the regression on liveweight gain over joining was negative (P < 0.01). Overall, 81.4% of marked ewe lambs conceived with 80.3% of the lambs born surviving to weaning. Delaying weaning from 8 to 11 weeks of age resulted in small improvements in lamb growth but penalized ewe growth. Suckled ewe lambs were lighter at the two-year-old mating but weaned more lambs per ewe joined due to a large improvement in lamb survival. Fleece production was temporarily reduced. Commercial applications of early joining are discussed. Experiment II: One hundred and nine 7 - 8 month old Romney ewe lambs and 108 adult Romney ewes were included in an ova transfer study to investigate age of ewe effects on ovum viability. Each of 48 owe lambs received two 8 - 16 cell ova, one from a ewe lamb (homologous transfers) and one from an adult ewe. The source of ova were identifiable by birth coat colour markings of the lambs born. Ovum recovery and fertilization rates were high and similar in both ages of ewe. However, only 25% of ewe lamb ova were represented by lambs at term compared to 52.1% of adult ewe ova (P < 0.01). Possible causes of this difference are discussed.

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  • Mapping the mind with broken theodolites : contributions to multidimensional scaling methodology, with special application to triadic data, and the sorting and hierarchical sorting methods : a dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Human Development Studies at Massey University

    Bimler, D L (1995)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis focuses on the psychological applications of Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) theory and methodology. The results are investigated of treating certain kinds of dissimilarity data (triadic data, to begin with) as comparisons between dissimilarities. This is a familiar idea but many of its implications are unexplored. First, when data are available from more than one subject, it becomes possible to apply models of individual variation, in non-metric form. The Weighted Euclidean (or INDSCAL) model is the one used most often in this thesis, but the more general IDIOSCAL model is used to investigate individual differences in the case of colour vision. The data sets need not be complete. This is important when the size of the stimulus set means that there are too many comparisons for a single subject to respond to them all. Second, Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) becomes a straightforward generalisation of the standard hill-descent algorithm for minimising Stress. Third, data collected with the sorting and hierarchical sorting methods can also be regarded as dissimilarity comparisons. The convenience of the sorting method and the lesser demands it makes on subjects when the number of stimuli is large have led to its widespread use, but the best way of analysing such data is uncertain. A 'reconstructed dyad' analysis is described and shown to be better than the usual co-occurence approach in a number of examples in which evidence about the true perceptual or conceptual space is available independently. Finally, when the data are interpreted as dissimilarity comparisons, an interactive method of scaling large stimulus sets becomes possible, in which one selectively acquires incomplete data, concentrating on comparisons which are expected to contain most information about the configuration. This approach has been applied twice, with the stimuli being simple synthesised sounds in one example, and complex natural sounds (canine heartbeats) in the second, working well in both cases. The potential applications for training people to recognise sounds are briefly considered. Some possibilities for future research arising from this work are described.

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  • Studies on the absorption of volatile fatty acids in calves : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Animal Nutrition at Massey University of Manawatu

    Khouri, Ramsay Hanna (1966)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Ruminants subsist on fibrous plant feeds not normally consumed by man. They transform inedible and undigestible plant material into palatable and digestible human food. Their meat and milk are rich sources of essential amino-acids, vitamins and minerals. These foods are natural supplements to the human diet which is predominantly of plant origin. Interest in the nutrition and digestive physiology of ruminants has resulted in the accumulation of a voluminous literature which has been reviewed by Annison and Lewis (1959), Barnett and Reid (1961), Blaxter (1962) and Kay and Hobson (1963). This interest has also prompted two recent international symposia, the proceedings of which have been edited by Lewis (1961), and Dougherty, Allen, Burroughs, Jacobson and McGilliard (1965). Mature ruminants are assumed to have the same basic nutritional requirements for energy, amino-acids, vitamins, minerals and water as do the simple-stomached animals. Their digestive juices, like those of all other mammals, do not contain any cellulases. An extensive microbial population, located largely within the rumen, and to a lesser extent in the caecum and colon, enables them to thrive on fibrous plant feeds that are frequently deficient in some of the essential amino-acids and water-soluble vitamins.

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  • A near touch user interface for touch screen based systems : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Engineering in Electronics and Computer Systems Engineering at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Taylor, Nicholas John (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Industry has been heavily pushing for new methods of human-computer interaction in the last several years and this has seen many different technologies move into the mainstream, from infrared sensors[1] and z-cameras[2] to touch screens[3]. Because touch screens are a more mature and developed technology they provide an ideal platform for mainstream technology development, but their level of interactiveness is limited, and these limitations must be overcome or compensated for with clever interface design. In this thesis, a solution to these inherent limitations in touch screen interface design is proposed by augmenting the touch screens interaction capabilities with one or two cameras to enable a near touch user experience on top of the standard touch screen. This offers flexibility in system design (the near touch is implemented as an extra layer, and can be activated only if present) as well as providing an inexpensive solution. Several Image processing algorithms relevant to this task are also discussed and their implementation evaluated.

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  • A knowledge-based system that gives better price recommendations than a good manager : a dissertation submitted to the Faculty of Business Studies, Massey University in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy

    Tse, Ching Biu (1991)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    The objective of this research was to investigate whether it is possible to construct a computer system that provides good price recommendations for marketers in the export wool industry. The computer system is a program that stores and makes use of expert knowledge in the course of providing recommendations to a user. "Good" price recommendations are ones that closely resemble those of a consensus of experts. Fuzzy logic, a method of inexact reasoning, is used to derive recommendations from inexact rules in the system. The system allows users to input vague expressions used in natural language, translates them into nonfuzzy values and then performs a set of operations on them to produce a nonfuzzy recommended price. The effectiveness of the system in making good price decisions was tested by comparing the system's recommendations with consensus recommendations from a panel of experts. The correlation coefficient between the system's recommendations and the consensus recommendations was found to be higher than any of the correlation coefficients between the individual manager's first recommendations and the consensus recommendations. This suggests that the system constructed is capable of providing good price recommendations.

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  • Guardians of the state or the regime? : examining the behaviour of the Egyptian military during the 2011 uprising : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Politics at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Yousef, Nadia (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The Arab military has long been a key player within the institutions of the state, particularly in Egypt. It was no surprise then that when the Arab Spring took hold in Cairo in January 2011 and President Hosni Mubarak was overthrown, that the military stepped in to fill the power vacuum. This thesis investigates the role of the Egyptian military in the 2011 uprising. To understand how this situation eventuated, it provides an in depth analysis of the role of the military in the Egyptian state since 1952 when Egypt first became a republic. It explores the deep roots that the military has set throughout the institutions of the state under the guidance of three authoritarian Presidents. By examining the modern institutional history of the Egyptian military, it provides tools for understanding why it is now behaving in the way it is. Primarily this is based on its attempts to either remain in power, or entrench itself further in Egyptian politics so that it is able to maintain its position of privilege once a democratically elected President comes to power.

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  • A critical biography of Maurice Duggan, 1922-1974 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of PhD in English at Massey University

    Richards, Ian Murray (1995)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    'A Critical Biography of Maurice Duggan, 1922-1974' aims to provide a detailed and fully researched picture of Maurice Duggan's life and its interrelationship with his literary output. It describes Duggan's personal history, and intersperses these chapters with sections giving New Critical 'close readings' of his stories. The thesis also goes some way towards providing a portrait of a literary generation, of the remarkable, 'larger than life' writers who lived on the North Shore of Auckland in the middle of this century, during a crucial period of New Zealand's literary history. Duggan died tragically young at the age of fifty two, and much of his life was dogged by ill health. Osteomyelitis led to the amputation of a leg at seventeen. He contracted tuberculosis while travelling in Spain and suffered a severe relapse after his return to New Zealand. Later he became an alcoholic, and it was only a short time after going into recovery that the cancer which ended his life was diagnosed. Duggan was one of the most talented writers New Zealand has produced. James K. Baxter shrewdly described him as 'our finest poet writing in prose'. Duggan's output was small, and his oeuvre is considered difficult to read. Most of Duggan's troubled inner world remained hidden, both in his public and private life, despite the evidence that much of the material in his stories is based on self-analysis of aspects of his history and psychology. Thus his stories become clearer, and more satisfying for the prospective reader, when approached with a knowledge of the writer's life.

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