82,947 results

  • Resolving photoisomerization dynamics via ultrafast UV-visible transient absorption spectroscopy

    Prasad, Shyamal (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Transient absorption spectroscopy has been employed to investigate three photo–active compounds; azobenzene, foldamer controlled by azobenzene, and oxazine. These compounds all have absorption in the ultra–violet regions responsible for their photo–active behavior. Due to this, the current transient absorption setup has been modified to extend the probing wavelength range to 320–650 nm, with the possibility of exciting the photo–active molecule in the ultra–violet. Azobenzene is valuable in benchmarking and optimizing the transient absorption setup, it shows that the detection window has been extended out to 320 nm. By resolving the ground state bleach we have added support for the assignment of the final decay to thermalization in the ground state. Comparison of relaxation lifetime in acetonitrile and tetrahydrofuran shows no noticeable change in the photophysics of isomerization between the two solvents. The foldamer family excited state relaxation is similar to azobenzene. There is an extension in the S₁ branching lifetime from 1.1 ps in azobenzene to 1.7 ps for foldamer 1 and 4.2 ps for foldamer 2. The separation of branching on the S₁ surface and relaxation through the S₁ to electronic ground state intersection was possible by comparison of azobenzene and foldamer family. The solvent effects show little difference for all members of the foldamer family expect for foldamer 2, suggesting that the dynamics of the azobenzene moiety are not affected by the larger macro–structure of the foldamer. For oxazine it has been established, by varying solvent polarity, that isomerization happens through three states; bond breakage, transfer to a dark state, and the final photo–isomer. This is confirmed by further studies completed after the introduction of electron withdrawing fluorine atoms. Carbon–oxygen bond cleavage occurs on the picosecond timescale, with solvent dependent rotation occurring in hundreds of picoseconds. Fluorinated oxazine shows a strong solvent dependence with rotation suppressed for all but the most polar of solvents.

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  • The New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme: A step in the right direction?

    Bullock, David (2009)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper examines the development, features, merits and likely impacts of the New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme (as implemented by amendments the Climate Change Response Act 2002). First, the paper explores the history and debate surrounding selection of policy instruments to reduce New Zealand’s greenhouse gas emissions with a particular focus on the New Zealand emissions trading scheme. Second, the paper describes the consultation processes that have been used in the development of the climate change policy in New Zealand. Third, the paper examines the sectoral requirements and effects of participation in the scheme and looks at the modelling of economic and environmental impacts that has been carried out by various organisations. Finally, some brief comparisons are made with schemes in other jurisdictions.

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  • Towards a comprehensive model for the positive electrode system of a lead-acid traction cell : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Production Technology at Massey University

    Nilson, Ross Richard (1989)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis develops a detailed model for the positive electrode system of an industrial lead-acid traction cell. This is referred to as the VIAM model since it relates the positive electrode voltage (V) and cell current (I) to internal distributions of current, potential, acid concentration and active mass (AM). The model can simulate both discharge and charge for a wide range of practical currents. The model takes account of microstructure, macrostructure and non-reactive structure in the positive active mas (AM). It also takes account of other cell components that affect the supply of acid to the positive electrode. The model has direct application to fundamental cell design (for example AM development) and cell systems design (for example cell charger design). The model is based on established experimental studies, theories of electro chemical interface reactions and theories of ionic transport in electrolyte solution. From this base, three elemental models and an aggregate model are developed. The elemental models represent details of the microstructure of the positive electrode AM. The aggregate model represents the electrolyte mass (acid) and charge transport system within the positive electrode and other cell components. The combination of the elemental and aggregate models make up the VIAM model. The performance of the VIAM model (and underlying models) is assessed by comparing model results with findings from experimental studies in the literature. In addition, experiments undertaken as part of this work are used to test the model. The model and experimental results are in close agreement.

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  • Leaving useful traces when working with matrices

    Vehkalahti, Kimmo (2005)

    Journal article
    Massey University

    We consider the documentation of the working process in the context of matrix computations and multivariate statistical analyses. Our focus is on the way of working: how well does the working process get documented dynamically, or what sort of traces are left behind. These questions are relevant in any area of research. Leaving useful traces while working may save a considerable amount of time, and provide better possibilities for other researchers to comprehend the points of a study. These principles are demonstrated with examples using Survo software and its matrix interpreter.

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  • Foreword

    Hunter, Jeffrey J.; Styan, George P.H. (2005)

    Unclassified
    Massey University

    N/A

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  • Third State Intervention before the International Court of Justice in International Environmental Law Cases

    Liebelt, Franziska (2013)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Third state intervention before international institutions originated in international arbitration around 1875 and has been included in the statute of the International Court since the foundation of the Permanent Court of International Justice (PCIJ) and is therefore no new phenomenon. Today, most systems of international dispute settlement provide for the possibility of third state intervention. Nevertheless intervention before the International Court of Justice (ICJ) has been used by states sparsely and seems underdeveloped. The statute of the ICJ provides for two ways of intervention in its arts 62 and 63. There have been few applications under these provisions. Looking at the court’s orders in these few cases, the court seems to have adopted a restrictive approach towards allowing applications to intervene. This paper looks at the institution of intervention in the area of international environmental law disputes. There have been two relevant disputes of this kind before the ICJ: the Nuclear Tests litigation and the recent litigation of Whaling in the Antarctic. Both of these cases dealt with the question of state obligations towards the protection of the environment. The applications to intervene in Nuclear Tests failed for reasons that will be explained in more detail below. New Zealand’s application to intervene in Whaling in the Antarctic was authorized by the ICJ on the 6 February 2013 under art 63 of the Statute of the ICJ. The case is exceptional in that it is only the second time the ICJ allowed intervention under art 63. Both cases demonstrate that there are environmental issues that concern more than only the nations that are parties to the dispute. They indicate that intervention plays a particularly strong role in environmental issues because these issues by their nature often affect more than just two states. This paper analyses how the shared environmental concern of the international community might lead to an extension of intervention before the ICJ. It further more looks at the issues that arose before the court in connection with the intervention in Whaling in the Antarctic and how these issues were dealt with.

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  • Tyco and Vollmer : an exegesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Fine Arts at Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

    Heynes, Mike (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    No abstract

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  • When the Empire calls : patriotic organisations in New Zealand during the Great War : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in History at Massey University

    Hucker, Graham (1979)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    One noticeable feature of theses completed in New Zealand in recent years has been the absence of studies dealing explicitly with aspects of the Great War. Some thesis writers have used the War years as convenient departura and initiation points for their particular topics of study. Others have spanned the war years using a wider chrohological context with the result that a limited number of studies have been presented on the watershed years 1914 to 1918. Upon researching this topic, maps were constructed to plot the location of patriotic organisations and kindred bodies active during the War in an attempt to achieve some sort of illustrative perspective. The ensuing result virtually left no corner of New Zealand untouched. The situation is quite different today however. At present there exist fourteen provincial patriotic councils which focus primarily on the Second world War. The only exception being the Otago Provincial Patriotic Council which has retained files covering the Great War. These files have recently passed into the possession of the Hocken Library

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  • Native and adventive detritivores in forests of Manawatu-Whanganui : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Ecology at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Parker, Amie (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Little is known about many New Zealand invertebrates, including detritivores which have a key role in the functioning of ecosystems and are threatened by habitat modification and the addition of adventive species. Detritivores are an abundant group, and, like many other New Zealand taxa, they contain a high level of endemism that needs conserving. Detritivores are so scarcely studied, that it remains unknown how their forest communities are influenced by changes to New Zealand’s forest habitats. This study aimed to increase knowledge on the identity, abundance, and distribution of detritivores in forests of Manawatu-Whanganui. Four main questions were addressed: (1) are adventive detritivores capable of invading native forests?, (2) can pine forests provide an alternative forest habitat for native detritivores?, (3) does proximity to forest edge affect native and adventive detritivores?, (4) are native and adventive detritivores co-occurring in the same habitats? Three detritivore groups (Diplopoda, Isopoda, and Amphipoda) were collected from edge and centre plots in six pine forests and ten native forests (including those that are small and close to urban areas) in Manawatu-Whanganui region of New Zealand. The results show that a number of adventive taxa have spread throughout native forests in Manawatu-Whanganui, which does not support the hypothesis that native forests are resistant to adventive detritivores. Adventive Diplopoda were actually more abundant in native forests, and abundance of adventive Amphipoda and adventive Isopoda was high in both native and pine forests. Some native taxa were less dominant or absent in pine forests, and forest type influenced the community structure of Diplopoda and possibly Isopoda. The likelihood that a randomly collected detritivore would be an adventive was also influenced by forest type in all three detritivore groups. Human disturbance may have facilitated the invasion and establishment of adventive species, because small, urban, and highly modified native remnants appeared to have higher abundance and diversity of adventive species. Edge proximity had little influence on abundance of detritivores, but did affect the predicted likelihood of encountering an adventive individual in all three groups. Adventive and native detritivores co-occurred in all forest habitats and it is possible that adventive detritivores will be influencing native species. Native Amphipoda appear to be under the most immediate threat in Manawatu-Whanganui, with adventive Amphipoda having higher abundance and higher probability of being found throughout all investigated forest habitats; there is evidence that adventive Arcitalitrus is displacing native species. The presence of adventive species could alter the functioning of native forest ecosystems and further research into the effect of adventive species in native forest is recommended. The data also revealed that for all three investigated taxa pine forests can support as many native detritivores as native forests, suggesting that pine forests contribute to preserving native biodiversity. Pine forests may be used as a tool to conserve native detritivores, but the conditions which promote the establishment of native species need further investigation.

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  • Attorney fees in repeated relationships

    Graham, Brad; Robles, Jack (2016)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    We investigate contracts between a law firm and a corporate client involved in a repeated relationship. In contrast to the previous literature pertaining to one-time interactions between clients and attorneys, we find that the contingent fee is not the best arrangement. Rather, the contingent fee is dominated by a contract which, we argue, an outside observer could not distinguish from simple hourly fee contract. This contract includes an hourly fee equal to the law firm’s opportunity cost, a lump sum, and a retention function. The lump sum payment is independent of the number of hours worked by the law firm and the outcome of the case. The repeated nature of the relationship allows the client to create a contract where the desire to maintain the relationship induces the law firm to exert the optimal level of effort in the current case.

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  • When cultural heritage goes digital: Exploring the user experience of the Chinese Digital Community website

    Foo, Samantha (2014)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The aim of the study is to investigate user experience of the Chinese Digital Community website as an online resource. This study uses a qualitative method which the researcher interviews the participants through face-to-face interviews. The data collected from the interview allow the researcher to understand challenges and issues faced by users accessing the Chinese Digital Community website. The key findings from the study shed some light on the users’ overall satisfaction towards the Chinese Digital Community website, reasons why they access the website, issues and difficulties they experience when accessing the website and the importance of the website in online cultural engagement to the Chinese community and the New Zealand public. The results of the study will allow libraries and cultural associations to understand how online resources can be improved to ensure their abilities to deliver information effectively to users and identify gaps in user accessibility. The study will also provide suggestions for future research into user experience of online resources in New Zealand.

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  • No soul to damn? Revisiting the case for corporate manslaughter in New Zealand

    Spence, Mitchell (2014)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Currently a corporation cannot be convicted of manslaughter in New Zealand. Increasingly, this distinction demarcated between individuals and corporations seems out of touch, particularly in light of legislation passed in cognate jurisdictions and the ascendance of a plethora of industrial disasters both in New Zealand and abroad. Taking as its focus the Report of the Independent Taskforce on Workplace Health and Safety (2013), this paper contemplates the above issues, concluding that the offence’s alignment with fundamental criminal law principles makes a strong case for its introduction in New Zealand. Consideration is also given to the format and rules of attribution that should accompany a resolve to prosecute corporate manslaughter, finding that a more comprehensive discussion, going beyond the recommendations of the Taskforce, is necessary before any legislation is settled on.

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  • Molecular mechanism of xylose utilization in a plant growth-promoting bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 : a thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Genetics at Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand

    Liu, Yunhao (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Appendix I removed from digital copy due to copyright reasons: Liu, J., Rainey, P. B., & Zhang, X.-X. (2014). Mini-Tn7 vectors for studying post-transcriptional gene expression in Pseudomonas. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 107, 182-185. doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet.2014.10.015

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  • Black Hole Radiation, Greybody Factors, and Generalised Wick Rotation

    Gray, Finnian (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In this thesis we look at the intersection of quantum field theory and general relativity. We focus on Hawking radiation from black holes and its implications. This is done on two fronts. In the first we consider the greybody factors arising from a Schwarzschild black hole. We develop a new way to numerically calculate these greybody factors using the transfer matrix formalism and the product calculus. We use this technique to calculate some of the relevant physical quantities and consider their effect on the radiation process. The second front considers a generalisation of Wick rotation. This is motivated by the success of Wick rotation and Euclidean quantum field theory techniques to calculate the Hawking temperature. We find that, while an analytic continuation of the coordinates is not well defined and highly coordinate dependent, a direct continuation of the Lorentzian signature metric to Euclidean signature has promising results. It reproduces the Hawking temperature and is coordinate independent. However for consistency, we propose a new action for the Euclidean theory which cannot be simply the Euclidean Einstein-Hilbert action.

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  • The history and development of the choice principle

    Luxford, Stephanie Lie (2014)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    “The History and Development of the Choice Principle” is split into different categories of Australian and New Zealand cases in relation to the choice principle: dividend stripping, tax loss grouping provisions, inflated deductions, and income splitting. It considers the official position of the Inland Revenue Department on the choice principle, and sets out arguments for and against the advantages of adopting the principle in New Zealand.

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  • Paths to the Market: Distribution Channels for Community-Based Tourism. A Case Study of Banteay Chhmar CBT, Cambodia

    Nhem, Sochea (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This study is to investigate the structure of distribution channels for community-based tourism (CBT) in Banteay Chhmar commune. It explores the factors influencing the distribution channel structure and then examines and discusses the implications of these factors as a means to help improve CBT sales. This study takes both the demand and supply side perspectives into account in order to understand the issues being investigated more comprehensively. Taking a case study approach, this study is based on in-depth interviews with the community and other relevant key channel members, and a survey is employed to collect information from visitors to the community. The examination of the distribution channel structure for CBT reveals considerable channel diversity. The Banteay Chhmar community is found to utilize a distribution mix which includes a wide range of both direct and indirect channels to enable them to reach broader markets. The findings suggest that the CBT direct distribution channel is relatively short and straightforward while the indirect distribution channels are rather diverse and lengthy. Given the diversity of intermediaries involved, indirect distribution channels for the CBT are complex and often multi-levelled. The majority of visitors who travel to the community purchase their packages through ground travel operators making indirect distribution more prevalent in the CBT distribution structure. The study also reveals that there is very limited connection among local channel members, such as, accommodation providers, transportation service providers and souvenir shops. This limitation inhibits CBT product sales. Regarding the domestic market, (mainly school groups), the findings show that the direct channel is more prevalent. There are a number of factors that influence the structure of the distribution channels for CBT. These include commissionable products, product characteristics and market access, information communication and technology, partnership issues and the nature of the operators, capacity issues, and lastly, but most importantly market trends. This study identifies several implications for the Banteay Chhmar community. However, growth (increased sales volume), looks promising if the community develop sound distribution strategies and implement them accordingly; essentially bringing the community and the market together. In addition, the strategies could also help the community to have more control over the development process and opportunity to minimize adverse impacts.

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  • Making Way for the Car: Minimum Parking Requirements and Porirua City Centre

    Hulme-Moir, Angus (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Minimum parking requirements (MPRs) mandate that each new development provides enough parking to ensure ample provision at the time of peak demand. This approach tends to oversupply parking above the optimal level, and by bundling parking into the development costs, ensures that parking is free to the user. As a result, land-use and transport decisions are distorted. A case study of Porirua central business district (CBD) was undertaken to investigate the use of MPRs in the New Zealand context, and to assess their impacts on transport and land-use patterns. Findings indicate that MPRs tend to oversupply parking relative to weekly mean and peak occupancies. Land use mapping found that 24 percent of CBD land is allocated to car parking and MPRs were shown to contribute to dispersed development patterns. Stated choice data and a cost recovery model for car parking highlight how free and ample car parking provision favours car driving and has distortionary impacts on travel decisions.

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  • Beyond Pa Hill : a photographic synthesis of remembrance & construction : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Fine Arts at Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

    Stewart-MacDonald, Bonny (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    How can archival and constructed photographs be synthesised to make the sensual and spatial memories of home tangible? Drawing on phenomenological memories of a particular domestic space, the unification of varying photographic practices is examined for the purposes of achieving a synthesis of remembrance and construction, relative to the original home and within the context of the contemporary still life.

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  • Does Emotion Talk and Emotion Knowledge Effect Children's Recall of a Staged Event?

    Mackay, Katherine (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The current study compared children's memory for information accompanied by emotional or non-emotional talk, and also investigated the utility of emotion knowledge in prediction of recall. Seventy-five children aged 5-6 years participated in a staged event that involved visiting separate stations containing connected, causal information of an emotional or non-emotional theme. Children were assessed with a memory interview one week later. Children reported significantly more correct information from stations with an emotional focus. Children's emotion knowledge did not predict recall, however. Results show children better recall emotion-related information even when causality and connectedness is controlled for. Implications of the finding are discussed.

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  • Managers Matter: Who Manages New Zealand's Volunteers?

    Smith, Karen; Dutton, Nicholas; Cordery, Carolyn Joy (2010)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In partnership with Volunteering New Zealand, Victoria University of Wellington undertook a nationwide survey of volunteer managers between December 2009 and February 2010. The research was funded by a Tindall Foundation grant. The online survey was open to anyone involved in the management of volunteers. Over 800 individuals participated from a diverse range of sectors and positions across New Zealand. To benchmark the New Zealand volunteer management profession, selected findings are compared to similar overseas studies, from Canada (Zarinpoush et al., 2004), the UK (Machin and Ellis Paine, 2008), and globally (People First - Total Solutions, 2008).

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