82,974 results

  • Placental birth : a history : thesis submitted to Massey University of Palmerston North in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Midwifery

    Stojanovic, Jane Ellen Esther (2012)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    This mixed method historical research uses both written material and topical oral history interviewswith medical and midwifery practitioners, to offer a signal contribution to midwifery knowledge. It fills a void in midwifery history concerning the management of the birth of the placenta. Because placental birth is not a discrete entity but is part of the birth continuum, the research has also contributed to the historical knowledge of birth in seventeenth and eighteenth century Britain and Europe and Maori birthing prior to European settlement. It also illuminates birthing practices and their contexts for both Maori and European from the early nineteenth century to the present day. In the early years of the twentieth century a ‘cause and effect’ cycle of three synergistic and catalytic factors, medicalisation, hospitalisation and nursification produced clinical and political changes that created a weave into which changes to the management of the birth of the placenta could be woven. It took time for modern midwives practising alternative birthing to unlearn their medicalised training and regain their trust in women’s ability to birth. The reintroduction of midwifery autonomy and the passing of legislation concerning consumer choice and consent in health care facilitated the introduction of alternative midwifery practices into hospitals, exposing more midwives and doctors to physiological placental birth. A theoretical model based on comparative obstetrics and reproductive physiology was used to analyse the management of placental birth over time, and in the varying contexts studied. This model is offered as a tool for clinical decision-­‐making, and for educating women and maternity practitioners in facilitating the birth of the placenta. This New Zealand research supports the use of physiological placental birth, in well women having normal pregnancies and labours, as safe and beneficial to women and their babies.

    View record details
  • Investigation into the relationship between aluminium treatment and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme system in Lolium perenne (L. perenne cv. Nui) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science (with Honours) in Plant Biology at Massey University

    Gregory, Samuel James (2009)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Lolium perenne cv. Nui is a cultivar of ryegrass grown throughout New Zealand in pastures due to favourable traits such as high palatability for livestock and its ability to withstand intensive grazing. However, the productivity of pastures is reduced when levels of aluminium and other metals accumulate in soils to toxic levels, a phenomenon referred to as the ‘acid soil syndrome’. In response to this toxicity, plants activate a series of antioxidant reactions, with one catalysed by the superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymatic system. The enzyme system comprises three isoenzymes, a Cu/ZnSOD, FeSOD and a MnSOD which catalyse the same reaction but differ in amino acid sequence, molecular mass and the metal ion co-factor (hence Cu/ZnSOD, FeSOD and MnSOD). Together these isoenzymes combat the damaging effect of superoxide radicals which accumulate due to metal toxicity. In this thesis, the isolation of genes encoding isoenzymes of the SOD enzyme from L. perenne cv. Nui is described. As well, the growth of L. perenne cv. Nui and changes in expression of the SOD genes encoding each isoenzyme in response to aluminium treatment (0.2mM AlCl3) is investigated. A 1072 bp FeSOD gene sequence and a 705 bp MnSOD gene sequence were isolated from shoot tissue of L. perenne cv. Nui using a combination of RT-PCR with degenerate primers and 3'-RACE. The FeSOD gene comprised 572 bp of the coding sequence and 500 bp of 3'-UTR while the MnSOD gene comprised 508 bp of coding sequence and a 197 bp 3'-UTR. By alignment of each sequence with the gene from the database with highest identity it was predicted that the translation start codon (ATG) is located a further 196 bp upstream for the FeSOD gene (aligned with an Oryza sativa FeSOD sequence as a reference) and a further 152 bp upstream for the MnSOD sequence (aligned with a Triticum aestivum MnSOD sequence as a reference). Using RT-PCR with degenerate primers, a 313 bp CuSOD sequence was predominantly cloned from shoot tissue of L. perenne cv. Nui, but it was not possible to generate the 3'-UTR using 3'-RACE. For growth analysis, seedlings of L. perenne cv. Nui were germinated and acclimatised in Hoagland’s solution, and then subjected to either aluminium treatment (0.2mM AlCl3) or no treatment to act as a control over a designated time course of 0, 4, 8, or 24 hours. Two growth trials were conducted that differed in the age of seedlings used and plant tissues were separated into root and shoot tissues. Similar growth trends were observed in both trials, but the sampling regime in the second growth trial meant that statistical analysis could be carried out. In this trial, analysis revealed that over a time course of 24 hours exposure to 0.2mM aluminium, both root and shoot tissue fresh weight did not significantly differ when compared to the control (no aluminium). A general trend of an increase in root and shoot fresh weight was observed in plants treated with aluminium, but this trend was not significant at P=0.05. No significant change in fresh weight partitioning from shoot to root, or root to shoot in response to aluminium was also observed. Using semi-quantitative Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (sqRTPCR) and primers based around the 3'-UTR with RNA isolated from plants grown in the second hydroponic trial, it was determined that under the conditions used, expression of the FeSOD and MnSOD genes isolated in this study were neither up-regulated or downregulated in response to aluminium treatment in both shoot and root tissue. Further, using degenerate primers to detect expression of one or more genes encoding the Cu/ZnSOD isoenzyme, total expression of the Cu/ZnSOD isoenzyme was also unresponsive to aluminium treatment.

    View record details
  • Commercialisation of the supply of organs for transplantation

    Thomas, Cordelia (2001)

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    Internationally, there is a shortage of organs available for organ donation. Human tissue and cells are becoming increasingly valuable as part of commercially valuable biotechnological research. The developments have outstripped the existing legal controls and have led to concerns about the use of human tissue retained after post mortems in England and Australia and the growth of black markets dealing in human organs and tissue. There is a need for ethical discourse about the extent to which such developments should be recognised and controlled by the law. Further, if the supply of organs available for transplantation is to be increased, the systems of consent in many countries are unsuitable. Development of a system in which benefits are available to the donors or their families may increase the supply of organs. If financial benefits are available from biotechnological advances, the people providing the necessary materials in the form of human tissue or organs may believe they have a right to share in the resultant benefits. This paper considers the ethical issues arising from the various systems of consent to organ donation that have been adopted in different jurisdictions. Fundamental to any such debate is the issue of property rights- whether a living person has property rights over their own body and whether there exist property rights to a human body following death. The role of the State is fundamental to such a debate. This paper considers the potential for the commercialisation of the supply of organs and some approaches that might facilitate commercialisation. Aspects of the law contract that might arise are outlined. Overall, the conclusion is that these issues must be addressed by way of legislation. If commercialisation is permitted in some form, this must be carefully controlled to ensure that the vulnerable members of Society are not disadvantaged. It is suggested that any benefit should be provided by the State rather than by way of individual contracts between donor and recipient, to avoid the situation arising where only the financially advantaged could afford treatment.

    View record details
  • The Comparative Metabolism of Some Substituted Phenyl-N-Methylcarbamate Insecticides

    Douch, Philip Geoffrey Charles (1971)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    1. The metabolism of the N-methylcarbamates of 3-tertbutylphenol; 3,5-ditertbutylphenol; and 2-isopropoxyphenol was investigated in insects and mammals. 2. The major degradative pathway in enzyme systems from insects and mice was oxidative. The major metabolites from tertbutyl substituted phenyl-N-methylcarbamates were N-hydroxymethyl derivatives and tertbutanol derivatives. Baygon yielded N-hydroxymethyl, ring hydroxyl and O-dealkyl derivatives as major metabolites. 3. The rates of oxidation of the three insecticides in each enzyme system were similar. 4. Oxidation was inhibited by piperonyl butoxide and Metopirone, apparent I50 for singly oxidised metabolites was 10-4 M, and for metabolites with two oxidations 10-5M. 5. Enzymic hydrolysis of carbamate insecticides required reduced cofactor in insect and mouse systems. Mouse blood did not effect hydrolysis. 6. A wide variation of oxidising ability was found in live insects. Musca domestica was most active, Tenebrio molitor and Costelytra zealandica were least active. 7. Insecticide synergists reduce insects' ability to oxidise Baygon to acetone. 8. Musca domestica and Lucilia sericata larvae oxidised carbamate insecticides slower than the adult forms. 9. Mice excrete 3-tertbutylphenyl-N-methylcarbamate as phenolic metabolites, with only minor oxidative products. 10. Different rates of metabolism among insects could account for the selective toxicity of aryl-N-methylcarbamates.

    View record details
  • Genes, beats and traits: A multi-marker exploration of personality

    Lee, Anna Sian (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This research explores associations between genetic polymorphisms in dopamine and serotonin systems (DAT1, DRD4 and 5HTTLPR polymorphisms), physiological and environmental variables and multiple personality traits. 113 participants were genotyped, participated in a stressful cross-cultural negotiation exercise and completed personality scales while wearing heart-rate monitors. Heart-rate variability and stressful life events were associated with conscientiousness and neuroticism traits. Contradicting previous research, no reliable gene x stressful life event interactions were found. Gender and ethnicity masked genetic effects on neurotic and sensation-seeking traits, particularly for DAT1 and 5HTTLPR. The DRD4-7R allele was associated with higher agreeableness and lower neuroticism, and contrary to prediction, with lower sensation-seeking. Gene-trait relations are complex, interactionist and multiply-determined, suggesting that personality variation is influenced by – but not reducible to – genetic variation.

    View record details
  • Investigations on growth and P uptake characteristics of maize and sweet corn as influenced by soil P status : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. D.) (Plant & soil science), Institute of Natural Resources, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Aslam, Tehseen (2005)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Despite being different cultivars of the same plant species (Zea mays L.), maize and sweet corn have contrasting P fertiliser recommendations in New Zealand, that are reflected in different target Olsen P values of 10-15 mg P/kg soil for optimum maize growth and 26-35 mg P/kg soil for optimum sweet corn growth. Three key hypotheses were developed in this study to explain why these differences may exist: i) maize and sweet corn differ in their responsiveness to P fertiliser i.e. maize is more internally P efficient and requires less P than sweet corn to grow, ii) both cultivars differ in external P efficiency i.e. their ability to take P up from soil iii) both cultivars differ in external P efficiency because they have different root system structure. Two field experiments evaluated the growth and yield responses of maize and sweet to different rates of P fertiliser application. The first experiment was conducted in Hawke's Bay (2001-02) and second in the Manawatu (2002-03) with P application rates of 0, 100 and 200 kg P/ha in the Hawke's Bay and 0, 15 and 70 kg P/ha in the Manawatu. Both experiments were conducted on soils of low available P status. The Olsen P test values of 13 mg P/kg soil in the Hawke's Bay and 11 mg P/kg soil in the Manawatu were far below the recommended values for sweet corn (25-35 mg P/kg soil). In both experiments and across all P treatments maize produced significantly higher dry matter yields than sweet corn during all sampling stages. In the Hawke's Bay experiment at 100 days after sowing (DAS), the maize (87719 plants/ha, 20.9 t/ha) produced 43% more dry matter than sweet corn (71124 plants/ha, 14.6 t/ha), whereas, in the Manawatu experiment (140 DAS), maize (71124 plants/ha, 15.2 t/ha) had a 39% higher dry matter yield than sweet corn (71124 plants/ha, 10.9 t/ha). In both the field experiments, the sweet corn fresh cob yield of 27 and 28 t/ha in the Hawke's Bay and the Manawatu regions and maize grain yields of 16 and 10 t/ha, respectively, were within the range of the reported commercial yields for each region. In both experiments, the P fertiliser application raised the soil P status (Olsen P test values) but caused no significant increases in either maize or sweet corn yields (total dry matter, sweet corn fresh cob or maize grain). Commercially viable yields of both cultivars were able to be achieved without P fertiliser application with Olsen P soil test in the range of 10-15 mg P/kg soil. Sweet corn reached harvestable maturity at 115 DAS in the Hawke's Bay and 140 DAS in the Manawatu experiments. By this time maize had produced 4-6 t/ha more total dry matter yield than sweet corn, yet maize and sweet corn had achieved similar total P uptake (32-37 kg P/ha at 100 DAS in the Hawke's Bay and 18-19 kg P/ha at 140 DAS in the Manawatu). At silking (after 75 DAS in the Hawke's Bay and approximately 110 DAS in the Manawatu), both cultivar's total leaf P concentrations (0.21-0.25%) were within the sufficiency range values for maize crops in New Zealand (0.18-0.33 %). Maize, however was more internally P efficient growing more dry matter per unit P taken up, which was more noticeable in the drier season. Fertiliser P application increased P uptake with both cultivars under moist conditions in the Hawke's Bay experiment (2001-02). However, the dry conditions in the Manawatu (2002-03) limited P uptake as well as restricted dry matter yields with both cultivars. Further, there were no significant differences between maize and sweet corn P uptake efficiency (kg P/kg root) despite significant differences in the root system structure (biomass) for both cultivars at all stages, which lead to different temporal patterns of P uptake. The lack of maize yield response to fertiliser P in both field experiments is consistent with the New Zealand recommendations for growing a maize grain crop (because soil Olsen P was in the range of 10-15 mg P/kg). However, the lack of sweet corn yield response in both field experiments does not support the New Zealand recommendations for growing sweet corn (which assume optimal Olsen P values are 26-35 mg P/kg).

    View record details
  • Formulas, Sequences, and the Composition of Beowulf, lines 2200-3182

    Wright, Frank William Nielsen (1973)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    During the last twenty years Anglo-Saxon scholars have sought to discover in the Anglo-Saxon verse corpus something comparable to the FORMULAS in Homer as described by Parry [see Note 1]. In Homer formulas are recognised as expressions which are characteristically of no less than four words or five syllables, repeated in the corpus, and often used uniquely when the same needs of meaning, grammar and metre arise. In the Anglo-Saxon verse corpus repetitions as close as Homer's are rarer in occurrence and shorter in scope. The current view is that formulas as found in Homer are not matched by anything fully comparable in the Anglo-Saxon verse corpus.

    View record details
  • A Sociology of Maori Education - Beyond Mediating Structures

    Penetito, Walter Takaha (2005)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The history of the relationship between Maori (the indigenous minority) and Pakeha (the dominant majority) is one that is encapsulated in processes of mediation. Pakeha resolve issues that favour kawanatanga solutions (article 1 of the Treaty) while Maori recommendations almost always line up with solutions that uphold questions to do with tino rangatiratanga (article 2 of the Treaty). Each takes into account forms of accommodation of the other but these compromise positions are usually the tasks for the public servants who are by definition, working for the government of the day, and therefore, on the side of kawanatanga. The point of articulation is critical in the nature of the relationship between Maori and Pakeha. The legal academic, Alex Frame (2002) describes this position as important for those New Zealanders "who have tried to walk in both worlds, thereby not only honouring and strengthening their own and each other's cultures, but also bringing to life a third and co-existing culture of interaction in Aotearoa". A study of a variety of mediating structures, explores the relationship between Maori and Pakeha and analyses the effects these have on both parties, especially as these pertain to developments in Maori education. An approach to settling the conundrum of prioritising one agenda without creating new grievances for redress is argued throughout the study. It is argued, further, that a major re-think is needed of what an education will mean in order to meet the requirements of a contemporary Polynesian/Western society that both honours the tenets of its foundation document as well as providing a rational basis for meeting commitments in the modern global society.

    View record details
  • Time-Varying Market Leverage and the Market Risk Premium in New Zealand

    Bao, Danyi (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper applies the Ibbotson and Sinquefield (1976) method and the Lally (2002) method to New Zealand data over the period 1960-2005 in order to estimate the market risk premium (MRP) in two versions of the capital asset pricing model (CAPM). With respect to the standard CAPM, the resulting Ibbotson estimate of the MRP for New Zealand was 6.11%. The resulting Lally estimate of the MRP ranged from 5.52% (in 1970) to 18.40% (in 1990), with an average of 7.95%, and was 6.40% for 2005. With respect to the simplified Brennan-Lally CAPM, the resulting Ibbotson estimate of the MRP for New Zealand was 8.49%. The resulting Lally estimate of the MRP ranged from 7.91% (in 1970) to 20.79% (in 1990), with an average of 10.33%, and was 8.78% for 2005. The Lally and the Ibbotson estimates of the MRP are similar in general. However, when market leverage is unusually high or low, they diverge significantly. In future, practitioners may need to choose between the estimates from the two methods when market leverage goes beyond the normal level.

    View record details
  • Social Aspects of Discussions Affect Capitulation and Susceptibility to False Memories

    French, Lauren Yseult (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    People talk. People talk to entertain each other, to divulge news, and to gain support. Additionally, people talk about shared experiences to figure out what "really" happened. But does talking about the past change what we remember? That is the overarching question of the research presented in this thesis. People remember the same events in different ways; consequently, when people discuss the past, they might come across new information. To examine how discussion affects people's memories, we must know what happened during a target event and must create conflicts in the discussion to see how those conflicts affect people's memories. To overcome these challenges, I used the MORI technique to present different viewers with different movies on the same screen at the same time (Mori, 2003; 2007). The MORI technique allows people to feel that they have shared an experience--they sit side-by-side and ostensibly watch the same--yet systematic differences are introduced into their memories, and the effect of those differences can be tracked through discussion. I report a series of experiments that examine the efficacy of the MORI technique and investigate how different social factors contribute to false memories. Each experiment used a variation of the same basic three-stage procedure. First, pairs of people each unwittingly watched slightly different versions of an event. Next, pairs answered questions about the event together; some questions guided them to discuss details for which they had seen contradictory information. Finally, subjects completed a memory test individually to determine what each person really remembered about the event. In short, when people watched a movie via the MORI technique, they could see and remember the details of the movie (Experiments 1A and 1B), and they did not notice or implicitly remember details from the alternate (blocked) movie version--the version their partner saw (Experiments 3A and 3B). Additionally, discussion corrupted people's memories (Experiments 2A, 2B, 4, 5 and 6). 'People were influenced by their partner's suggestions: they falsely remembered details from their partner's version of the event, even though those details contradicted what they personally saw. Consistent with the Source Monitoring Framework, the corrupting influence of the discussion depended on social factors in the interaction (Johnson, Hashtroudi, & Lindsay, 1993; Lindsay, 2008). For instance, people were more likely to remember false details that their romantic partner suggested than false details that a stranger suggested (Experiment 4). Additionally, leading people to believe that their counterpart's vision was better or worse than their own led them to be more or less influenced by their counterpart's false suggestions (Experiment 6). In sum, when people share an experience and discuss it they can come to remember seeing things that they were only told about after the event. In other words, corroboration does not equal accuracy. I discuss the possible-beneficial-mechanisms underlying these memory errors; draw parallels between my research and research on social influence, group remembering and transactive memory systems; discuss theoretical, methodological and practical implications, and suggest potential applications of my findings and avenues for future research.

    View record details
  • Body Boundaries and Discursive Practices in Life Threatening Illness: Narratives of the Self

    McClunie-Trust, Patricia (2000)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis tells a story from within and between the boundaries of my professional work as a nurse and my private life as the wife of a patient with life threatening illness. The events related in the thesis are told using a technique I have called writing back to myself, where my own journals and stories of the experience of living with life threatening illness provide data for analysis. The reader is invited to participate in these representations and to consider the potential for the skilful practice of nursing which may be read in the stories, and the analysis I have developed from them. I have developed the theoretical and methodological positionings for the thesis from the work of Foucault (1975,1979,1982,1988), Deleuze (1988), Ellis (1995), Richardson (1998) and other writers who utilise genealogical or narrative approaches. The analysis of my own stories in the thesis explores the philosophical and contextual positionings of the nurse as a knowledge worker through genealogies of practice and the specific intellectual work of the nurse. Local and contextual epistemologies are considered as ways of theorising nursing practice through personal knowledge, which is surfaced through the critical analysis of contextual positionings and the process of writing as inquiry. The idea of harmonising nursing practice in the patient's local world through contingent and thinking responses, and the recognition of one's own agency as the nurse, are considered in terms of what might constitute ethical practice. The thinking nurse is a specific intellectual, who critically engages with the context of her/his own practice to form new discourses derived from local and contextual 'truths' about illness, suffering and dying. The capacities for vision that are developed through the stories in the thesis, are explored as having the potential to present new possibilities for the practice of professional nursing. Notions of what constitutes ethical practice are negotiated and contested through local conversations, which privilege the capacities of the patient and the nurse in taking up new discursive positionings as alternatives to those prescribed through the sovereignty of expert power. In the local and contextual world of the patient, visions for practice may be negotiated moment by moment through careful exploration of discursive tensions and the critical appraisal of the utility of alternative possibilities. This development of local knowledge relies on the ability of the nurse to explore and trust her/his own judgement and nursing responses in situations where visions for practice may not be clear. The 'un-picking' and 're-sewing' of stories related in the analysis of the discursive production of the cancer patient and the 'private nurse' present new possibilities for the ethical substance of nursing. This ethical substance creates the potential for new conceptualisations of practice, where nurses and other health professionals take responsibility for the effects of their activities with patients. In this 'un-picking' of the stories in the thesis, I am concerned with the discursive positionings that are taken up by the patient and the health professional in the story. I identify the means through which subjects become visible in discursive statements and the effects of these subject positionings on specific moments of practice with the patient. The 're-sewing' of events involves the telling of alternative stories, negotiated between the actors in the events, to produce a more ethically desirable outcome in the specific contexts of nursing practice.

    View record details
  • Integrating Renewable Energy in Pacific Island Countries

    Marconnet, Marie (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the entry of renewable energy technologies into Pacific Islands' electricity markets, with particular focus on a new technology: the Pelamis, a wave energy converter. Pacific Islands are endowed with various types of renewable energy resources, yet they remain highly dependent on expensive fuel imports for their energy requirements, using little renewable energy. This paradox is investigated by studying the characteristics of Pacific Islands' electricity markets, including a case study on the entry of a new renewable energy technology, the Pelamis, into the electricity market of Hawaii. The integration of renewable energy technologies into Pacific Islands' electricity systems is then analysed from the point of view of an energy planner. The recent application of portfolio analysis to energy planning has provided a new framework to evaluate the different electricity generating options available to energy planners. Taking both the generating cost and financial risk of each technology into account, portfolio theory has been applied to various European countries, by comparing actual generation portfolios to an efficient frontier showing the trade-off between energy security and the cost of electricity generation. This framework has clear relevance to Pacific Island Countries. However, the characteristics inherent to Pacific Island Countries have important implications on the operation of their electricity systems, which are not necessarily taken into account in portfolio analysis. In particular, geographical isolation inhibits these countries from connecting to larger intercontinental grids, which emphasizes the importance of reliability of supply. This thesis presents a mathematical model which establishes a method for computing an optimal intertemporal path for introducing renewable energy into a pre-existing electricity system. The model explicitly allows for the cost of maintaining reliability of supply as intermittent generators are integrated. The framework also incorporates concepts from Integrated Resource Planning and portfolio analysis. Finally, policies for accelerating renewable energy development are reviewed, and a discussion is provided on the policies which are likely to be most suitable to Pacific Islands. One of the main conclusions of this thesis is that the amount of backup capacity for renewable energy can be optimally minimized by diversifying the mix of renewable energy resources in each island. In practice, this would require studying the complementarities and loading curves of the various renewable resources available, and comparing their total potential production, and the variability of this production, to electricity demand. This would allow energy planners to model the inclusion of a maximum amount of renewable energy using a minimum of backup capacity to maintain system reliability, potentially leading to a more efficient implementation and formulation of policies aimed at developing renewable energy generation in Pacific Islands.

    View record details
  • This is a journey into sound/bring the noise : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Fine Arts at Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

    Cairns, Gregory John (2009)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The aim of this thesis is to survey the discussions around the position of sound art within the broader arts, and to explore strategies and research areas within fine art and my own practice, so as to identify new areas of enquiry and develop my work within this field. I investigate the phenomenology of vision and hearing and contrast the different ways these two senses operate as primary sources of perception. I analyse the privileging of sight and the dominance of the visual in art institutions. Ideas of the literal and model subject within installation art are explored and the convergence of these subjectivities is overlaid with this phenomenological research, in order to develop a direction within installation art. The lack of authoritative sources in this field, beyond the few relevant texts, has meant that my research has employed respected new media and the Internet as a second tier of sources. I also analyse my own practice as an example of how sound art activates extramusical ideas. My research concludes that sound art has much to reveal to the broader arts community about perception and the creation of meaning, and also that there are many prospective avenues of enquiry within fine arts for the inclusion and analysis of audio based work. Keywords: sound art; phenomenology; hearing; privileging of sight; subjectivities; extramusical; perception.

    View record details
  • Some Aspects of Western Taranaki Geology and Pedology

    Neall, Vincent Ernest (1973)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The North Island of New Zealand is the southern end of an island arc structure which stretches 3000 km northwards to Samoa. It comprises the Hikurangi Trench to the east of the North Island (Houtz, et.al. 1967), a central negative gravity anomaly (Robertson and Reilly 1958) and two volcanic zones to the west of the gravity anomaly (Cole 1967). The volcanic zones comprise the Ohakune-White Island zone of calc-alkaline volcanoes and a western zone of more alkaline volcanoes from Northland to Taranaki. The Taranaki volcanoes are principally high potash low magnesia hornblende-andesites (Hatherton 1968a) which extend 25 km south from New Plymouth to Mt. Egmont. Volcanological investigations on the Taranaki andesites have previously been limited to petrological, geomorphic and Recent tree-ring dating studies. The following work involves detailed studies on the tephrochronology, lahar stratigraphy, weathering and soil formation in western Taranaki together with a detailed interpretation of Quaternary volcanic and climatic events.

    View record details
  • Applied Geology of Wellington Rocks for Aggregate and Concrete

    Rowe, Graham Hamilton (1980)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This study was initiated to examine geological aspects of Wellington greywacke-suite rocks in relation to their end use as an engineering material - aggregate, particularly for concrete. An attempt has been made to map (at least in part), identify and categorise rocks for quarrying in the Wellington region, to evaluate and quantify their properties as aggregates and to appraise their qualities in concrete - in short to equate rock geology to aggregate and concrete performance as a tool for resource management. Study of bedding 1ed to a classification into three lithofacies and some 70 representative samples were examined petrographically. For engineering purposes, Wellington rocks may be divided into two categories, greywacke and argillite, each having separate and distinct mineralogies and chemistries which do not alter significantly between lithofacies. Greywacke is coarser and may be distinguished from argillite texturally at a mean grain size of 5 phi (0.031 mm). Rock properties, in particular strength, modulus, density, hardness and degradation tendencies, are linked directly or indirectly with mean grain size. Argillites, though more dense, are generally weaker, softer, less elastic and degrade more readily than greywackes, the latter property being readily assessed from a newly devised test based on the destruction of chlorite by hydrochloric acid. As aggregates, greywackes produce similar particle shapes irrespective of grading. Argillites, which are generally more angular, produce concretes which are more difficult to work. Physical properties of aggregate, inherently those of its parent rock, are reflected in concrete made from it. The possibility of laumontite promoting cement alkali-silicate reaction is obviated by the mode of occurrence of minerals within the rock. Although argillite aggregates are unsuitable in certain environments and return lower strength in concrete than do greywacke aggregates, they still have a place in low strength concrete applications.

    View record details
  • Bewhoherenow : philosophy of existing sense : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Ph. D. in Social Policy and Social Work at Massey University

    Goodwillie, Craig (1995)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    body is[born and sustained through] sacrifice. i see mind seek immortalityandomnipotence through sacrifice. i see mind over body - mind rooting divide in subtraction of orgasmic from being[beingintheworld] to body to part[orgasm] to non i see mind rage [Laing] - where there was once here - rapeing here. seeyouhere [appealing]. argument [syllogism]. i, bodimentofbeing [eg Laing] iam bewhoherenow lookdown. iambody in Pain. The mutual repulsion of profane and sacred [Gould on sacred Hindu law]. profanity [of body] is polluted in embodying [pollution in her] and the sacrifice [decay and death - of zeroing body] - purifies sacred. Based on Gould's summary of the underlying assumptions of Hindu sacred law in chapter four "Priests and Conrapriests" (1967) In Gould, Harold A. (1987) The Hindu Caste System: The Sacralization of a Social Order. Chanakya: Delhi. p. 111. Reprinted from Contributions to Indian Sociology. New Series, No. 1, pp 28-57. pain embodimentofbeing [eg Kierkegaard guilts] therefore pain splacematterenergytime [Zeno on splacematterenergytime] splacematterenergytime therefore physics [physics - enlightenment testing ground for cause and effect. Einstein is the light speed observer - observing as fast as impossible with all else in train[slaved]. Newton masters gravity. Chaos is unpredictable slave. Second law of thermodynamics is mastery of slavery. Determinism - master[cause] and slave[effect] - exposed.] physics therefore chemistry [cell bodies], biology [organic bodies], psychology [human body], sociology [human bodies] physics therefore economy [shop - supply of body mastered and demand of body slaved], therefore law [keep shop] and policy [shop front] physics therefore mathematics [dominating human language. the right angle [triangle, hypotenuse, point of view] from Pythagorus and the zeroing of infinity from Indian grammar as void shape [the view of] mind.] physics of mathematics therefore philosophy of mathematics [the form of Plato called first cause by Aristotle and named one by Parmenides and Ptolemy mythologise shape as truth.] mathematics therefore logic [proofing the dominance of mathematics as dominant perspective. Leibniz puts one[everything] and zero[nothing] in Aristotle's syllogism and Boole starts crunching medium of english.] language therefore body [language is metaphor - the naming of] therefore is am i [who] was seen before [then] and therefore pain is becoming in between being inbetweenbeing - etheranderos - heavenandearth and [therefore] creation becomes kill[determined] [sacrifice]. sense [evidence]. inaffinity i body being in words [sound] in paper [light] in hand [body] and water [blood] and inaffinity [analogy] i syllogism. i syllogism to immortality [aim of mind] and syllogism immortality to death [target]. i deal summarily with logic [Aristotle, Leibniz, Boole, Russell and others] language [Panini, Itkonen, Laing, Burke and others] law [Williams, Waddams and others] mathematics [Sarton, Kline, Weyl and others] physics [Zeno, Pythagorus, Newton, Einstein] chemistry [Van Helmont, Brock, Hoagland] biology [Malthus, Darwin, Carson] sociology [Milgram] psychology [Skinner] economy [Smith, Marx, Stigler, Mumford] policy [Machiavelli, Orwell] and mythology [Upanishads, Plato, da Vinci, Galileo, Kant]. i quote directly or quote quote from recognised source. i use subheadings. i sound wordsounds [eg bodyandsoul] i emotion for sound [errors abound]. conclusion [assumptions]. beingintheworld is[the way of the world]. body is mind is being. mind is grasping[knots] itself. mind is lost[without body]. presumption [prediction]. beingwhole [therefore] letgoofyourself [advice given] and shebehere. [500 words]

    View record details
  • Distribution of Modern Benthic Foraminifera of McMurdo Sound, Antarctica

    Ward, Barbara Lynne (1984)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis presents the results of a study of benthic foraminifera from McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. The sound is 50 km across and more than 900 m deep, and is ice-covered for at least 9 months of the year. However, salinity and temperature of the bottom waters are constant (35 per mil and -1.8 degrees C). Sea floor sediment is mainly fine sand and mud with a little ice-rafted gravel. The aim of the study was to document the distribution of living and dead foraminifera and to determine the factor(s) controlling it. The twenty-six sites in water from 76 to 856m deep were sampled by gravity corer and grab, and nearly 40,000 specimens (2334 living and 36,875 dead) were identified. Three present day assemblages can be recognised: 1. Shallow open water assemblage (SWA): Trochammina glabra, Cribrostomoides jeffreysii, Trifarina earlandi, Ehrenbergina glabra, Fursenkoina earlandi and Globocassidulina crassa. 2. Deep open water assemblage (DWA): Reophax pilulifer, Reophax subdentaliniformis, Portotrochammina antarctica, Textularia antarctica and Miliammina arenacea. 3. Harbour/enclosed basin assemblage (HA): Reophax subdentaliniformis, Portotrochammina antarctica, Textularia antarctica, Fursenkoina earlandi and Globocassidulina crassa. The composition of the assemblages is controlled largely by calcium carbonate compensation depth (CCD). Calcareous species are abundant and varied (84 calcareous species) in the SWA above 620m, but are virtually absent from the DWA, which is found in deeper water. The dominance of agglutinated foraminifera in the HA indicates an even shallower CCD (about 270m) in restricted coastal settings. Death assemblages have a similar species diversity to corresponding life assemblages and are reasonably representative of them, except for the 200m zone above the offshore CCD, where death assemblages are depleted in calcareous taxa. The diversity of the agglutinated component of each assemblage remains nearly constant in all habitats and at all water depths, even though shallow water samples include a range of calcareous species. Thus competition from calcareous species appears not to be a stress factor for agglutinated species, which are considered to have reached the limit of their evolutionary potential in these waters.

    View record details
  • His Brain Has Just Gone Haywire: the Development of Children and Young People's Concepts of Mental Illness

    Sedley, Benjamin Peter (2002)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis examines children and young people's ideas about mental illness. Frequently, previous research in this area has suffered from methodological flaws or a limited theoretical framework. Qualitative methodology was utilised in this thesis in order to both gather the range of ideas that children have about mental illness, and to propose a theoretical model to explain the development of these ideas. In the first study, 63 children (comprising 4 age groups: 6 - 7, 9 - 10, 12 - 13, and 16 - 18 years old) participated in focus group discussions. Groups were presented with 3 illustrated vignettes, each depicting a story about an adult with a mental health problem (schizophrenia, agoraphobia, or depression). A thematic analysis was used to examine the ideas that children expressed in these discussions. Analysis found that children have a wide range of ways of explaining the characters' behaviours. Children and young people's ideas were grouped into 5 main categories: 'medical explanationsà ¢ , 'psychiatric explanations', 'abnormal behaviour explanations', 'psychological explanations', and 'event explanations'. Following this, a second study was conducted to focus on children's ideas about causes and treatments for mental illness. 36 children (ages 9 - 10, 12 - 13, and 16 - 18) were interviewed individually. Participants were presented the same 3 vignettes and asked to create a story that explains why each character has their problem and how their problem is resolved. Grounded theory methods were used to analyse the stories, with 6 primary categories and 1 secondary category (' psychological explanations') emerging. All stories included a cause from one of the 6 primary categories, and sometimes that primary category also led to a thinking problem (from the secondary category). Resolutions to the stories either came from the same primary category as the suggested cause, or alternatively, treatment came from one of the treatments included in the secondary category ('think or act differently', 'counselling', or 'support from others'). The primary categories were 'event' (problem was due to an external event happening, and resolution comes from an external event occurring); 'physiological' (the problem is seen as a medical problem, and treatment came from doctors); 'neurological / psychiatric' (characters have problems with their brains or a diagnostic label, resolutions include psychiatric medication, hospitalisation, and negative outcomes); 'drug' problems; 'spiritual' (discussion related to ghosts or religion); and 'responsibility' (the character had done something wrong, and must fix it to resolve their problem). Further analysis then compared the data from both studies with previous theoretical literature. It is argued that as children grow older they develop a concept of mental illness, which they can then use when discussing vignettes or understanding abnormal behaviour. This domain-specific development occurs throughout late childhood and adolescence as children incorporate information they have learned from families, schools, and media, and build on pre-existing domains (in particular, naive psychology and naive biology). Evidence from the current study is used to support this proposed model, and implications for future research, school curriculum, and helping children with mentally ill relatives are discussed.

    View record details
  • Face validity : exploring the relationship between facial affect recognition and psychopathic traits with high-risk prisoners in New Zealand : a thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology at Massey University

    Tamatea, Armon James (2011)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Psychopathy, as a psychiatric entity, psychological construct, and social idea has suffered from conceptual vagueness and misuse for over two centuries. Currently, psychopathic individuals are considered to present as having a constellation of affective, interpersonal, and behavioural characteristics that typically incurs great social, economic, and human costs by virtue of repeated displays of extreme antisocial behaviour. As such, individuals who are considered ‘psychopathic’ tend to be over-represented in judicial and correctional settings, tend to re-offend faster and more often than nonpsychopathic offenders, and are also resistant to conventional treatment efforts – so much so, in fact, as to have the reputation of being ‘untreatable’. Historical and current conceptualisations of psychopathy have emphasised moral, behavioural, cognitive, neurocognitive, and even physiological differences. However, the various social and interpersonal contexts in which these individuals interact and indeed offend do not appear to have been fully explored in the literature. This study explored social cognitive aspects of violent offenders with psychopathic traits with a view towards informing intervention approaches with this high-risk and potentially dangerous group. Furthermore, the impact of psychopathy is largely evident in the social realm and suggests differences in social information-processing. The role of emotions, especially those of others, is an important construct across theories of social interactions and impairments in affective processing, such as low empathy, guilt, and fear that are common features of psychopathy. Given that recognising emotions from facial cues is an early developmental marker ofemotional and social development, it presents as an interface between behaviour and social cognitive processes. This study sought to investigate the basic relationships between psychopathy and social cognitive phenomena. Male prisoners (N = 68) from New Zealand prisons were invited to (1) identify facial expressions from Ekman and Friesen’s (1976) Pictures Of Facial Affect stimuli set; (2) discriminate emotions from displayed pairs of faces; and (3) repeat the tasks after being administered a frustrating task. It was hypothesised that men who presented with psychopathic traits (as measured on the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised; PPI-R; Lilienfeld & Widows, 2005) would reveal biased responding before and after the stress intervention. Contrary to expectations, the findings from this study did not – on the whole – support the hypothesis. However, the outcomes called into question the supposedly pervasive and apparently cognitively-impaired nature of psychopathic social information-processing.

    View record details
  • Design and development of a web roll-to-roll testing system with lateral dynamics control of displacement guide : a thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Masters of Engineering in Mechatronics, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Tsai, Sung-Yu (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Roll-to-Roll (R2R) systems have been widely used in the traditional paper printing and packaging industry. In addition, Roll-to-Roll systems are also considered as a cost effective mass production solution for printed electronics, such as RFID and Solar cells in the recent years [1]. In a Roll-to-Roll system, web material often experiences lateral motion during the transportation to processes [1]. This project presents the lateral dynamics control system integration using centred pivoted displacement guide for Roll-to-Roll application. An initial literature review of the project is carried out with supporting theory and web handling mechanism. The complete system design consists of four units, namely unwinder unit, load cell unit, guide unit and rewinder unit. In this project, two microcontrollers are proposed to control the four units with additional instrumentation and signal conditioning between sensors/actuators, and the controller. The Guide system dynamics are simulated using first order single degree-of-freedom oscillator model controlled with classical PID servo designs. Finally, the complete system is tested with different disturbances input to the system. The system lateral response is compared with and without the guide system. Results are shown to have reduced the lateral motion when media transport speeds are at 20m/min, 40m/min and 60m/min.

    View record details