82,974 results

  • The endless book - exploring the online, offline : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Design, Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

    Brown, Anna E. (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    "The intent of this Masters of Design is twofold: the first is an exploration of the form (and future) of the #book and the second an investigation of given #affordances of #social media. This project seeks to visualise contemporary approaches to #online communication, in particular social media, and explore those actions (affordances) associated with it — time, locality, endlessness — in a experimental and performative process mediated via the form of a book."

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  • Facing the Past: Looking Back at Refugee Childhood in New Zealand

    Beaglehole, Ann (1990)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The experiences of child refugees and children of refugees from Hitler growing up in New Zealand in the period from the late 1930s to the end of the 1960s are the subject of this study. By means of tape-recorded conversations with the former children, now men and women in their thirties, forties and fifties, the study focuses, in particular, on two issues. First, the lingering legacy of Nazi persecution, whether it was experienced directly or indirectly by the children or their parents; second, the effects of growing up, often isolated from others of a similar background, in a monocultural country by and large free from overt anti-Semitism but intolerant of cultural differences. The first chapter is concerned with the aims of the study, with methodology and with a survey of relevant literature. Some aspects of recent Jewish history and the Central and Eastern European refugee world are examined in Chapter 2. The features of New Zealand society most closely interwoven with the interviewees' experiences are also considered in that chapter. The third chapter turns to the memories, interpretations and explanations of the former refugees and children of refugees. It introduces the people in the study and some of the main concerns and preoccupations of their childhood. Chapter 4 is about refugee children and children of refugees at school, Chapter 5 about some aspects of a refugee adolescence and Chapter 6 about language, culture and identity. Chapter 7 looks specifically at the impact of a traumatic history on the people in the study. Chapter 8 is concerned with adult issues in the lives of the interviewees. It examines ethnic identity, cultural transmission and assimilation. The study concludes with biographical information about the interviewees which fill in some of the details not covered in the text.

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  • Ordovician Biostratigraphy of North-West Nelson

    Cooper, Roger Alan (1969)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Eleven graptolite zones are recognized in New Zealand and are considered to represent most of the Ordovician Period. The most complete fossiliferous section, at Aorangi Mine in Northwest Nelson, is described in detail. New fossiliferous Ordovician sections at Wangapeka Valley and Hailes Knob, in Northwest Nelson, are described and the previously Known sections at Cobb Valley (Northwest Nelson) and the Cape Providence - Preservation Inlet region (Southwest Otago) are discussed The New Zealand zones are correlated with those of Victoria, Australia, and the Victorian stage nomenclature is adopted for New Zealand. In upward sequence the stages and zones are: Lancefieldian (zones 1, Adelograptus, and 2, T.approximatus), Bendigonian (zone 3, T.fruticosus), Chewtonian (zone 4, D.protobifidus), Castlemainian (zones 5, I.c.lunata, and 6, I.c.maximodivergens), Yapeenian (zone 7,Oncograptus), Darriwilian (zones 8, P.etheridgei, and 9, D.decoratus), Gisbornian (zone 10, N.gracilis), Eastonian (zone 11, Orthograptus - lower part) and Bolindian (zone 11, Orthograptus - upper part?). Fossils of lowermost Lancefieldian and uppermost Bolindian age are not yet known in New Zealand. Diagnostic Silurian fossils are also unknown and the next youngest New Zealand fossils are Lower Devonian (Gedinnian?). Previous Work in the Aorangi Mine area is outlined, the geology illustrated by a map, and the stratigraphic column shown to include both older, and younger beds than were previously known. About 8500ft thick, the column comprises, in upward sequence, Webb Formation, Aorangi Mine Formation (with four informal members), Formation A (new and informal, with three members), and Formation B (new and informal). Graptolites are confined to the three younger formations and represent zones 1 to 10, ranging in age from Lancefieldian to Gisbornian. The structure is outlined and illustrated by cross-sections. In Wangapeka Valley, argillites of the Wangapeka Formation contain zone 11 graptolites of Eastonian and lower Bolindian age, and are overlain by 1500ft of quartzite of the Ellis Formation, which has yielded no diagnostic fossils but which is inferred to represent at least part of the Silurian Period. Lower Devonian brachiopods, bivalves, corals and trilobites are known from the uppermost beds of the Ellis Formation, about 1550ft above its base. At Hailes knob, Mount Arthur Marble with fossils of uppermost Ordovician age is overlain by Hailes Knob Quartzite of probable Silurian age. From the Aorangi Mine and Wangapeka areas, one hundred and thirteen graptolite species and subspecies, representing 35 geners, are described. They include one named new species and 49 new records for New Zealand. Stratigraphic and geographic distribution elsewhere in the world is noted. The geners Isograptus Moberg and Paraglossograptus Mu are reviewed, and their New Zealand members described and discussed in detail. The important zonal species and subspecies are also described in detail; the remainder are briefly discussed. One hundred and six taxa are figured. Fossil localities in the areas described are listed with their fossils in appendix I, and details of measured sections are given in appendix II. A summary of Lower Paleozoic fossil localities of Northwest Nelson is given in a supporting paper.

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  • Removing Redundancy and Reducing Fitness Evaluation Costs in Genetic Programming

    Wong, Phillip Lee-Ming (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    One of the greater issues in Genetic Programming (GP) is the computational effort required to run the evolution and discover a good solution. Phenomena such as program bloating (where genetic programs rapidly grow in size) can quickly exhaust available memory resources and slow down the evolutionary process, while the heavy cost of performing fitness evaluation can make problems which have a lot of available data very slow to solve. These issues may limit GP in some tasks it can appropriately be applied to, as well as inhibit its applications in time/space sensitive environments. In this thesis, we look at developing solutions to some of these issues in GP computational cost. First, we develop an algebraic program simplification method based on simple rules and hashing techniques, and use this method in conjunction with the standard GP on a variety of tasks. Our results suggest that program simplification can lead to a significant reduction in program size, while not significantly changing the effectiveness of the systems in finding solution programs. Secondly, we analyse the effects of program simplification on the internal GP "building blocks" to investigate whether simplification is a destructive or constructive force. Using two models for building blocks (numerical-nodes and the more complex fixed-depth subtree), we track building blocks through GP runs on a symbolic regression problem, both with and without using simplification. We find that the program simplification process can both disrupt and construct building blocks in the GP populations. However, GP systems using simplification appear to retain important building blocks, and the simplification process appears to lead to an increase in genetic diversity. These may help explain why using simplification does not reduce the effectiveness of GP systems in solving tasks. Lastly, we develop two methods of reducing the cost of fitness evaluation by reducing the number of node evaluations performed. The first method is elitism avoidance, which avoids re-evaluating programs which have been placed in the population using elitismreproduction. Thismethod reduces the CPU time for evolving solutions for six different GP tasks. The second method is a subtree caching mechanism which store fitness evaluations for subtrees in a cache so that they may be fetched when these subtrees are encountered in future fitness evaluations. Results suggest that using this mechanism can significantly reduce both the number of node evaluations and the overall CPU time used in evolving solutions, without reducing the fitness of the solutions produced.

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  • Key College, a school for homeless youth : a follow-up of ex-students : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of MEdPsych in Educational Psychology at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Martin, Abby V F (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Homelessness has a detrimental impact on health, social, and economical outcomes. Although homelessness affects all groups, young people have the highest rates and are the age group most at risk of experiencing homelessness. Interventions which seek to address youth homelessness are varied and many have not undergone rigorous evaluation. One approach to intervention is to improve homeless youths’ ability to engage with society and through employment. Employment improves economic resources which in turn supports housing stability. However homeless youth may lack the skills to obtain and maintain employment and therefore education and training is an important step towards this goal. This study sought to follow up ex-students of an alternative education programme for homeless youth located in Sydney Australia. Thirty one participants consented to their involvement and were administered an online survey. The survey examined ex-students’ current situations in terms of employment/education, housing, finances, life satisfaction, and their perspectives of their time at Key College. The results show 38% of those surveyed are still homeless, 64% are unemployed, 55% are living below the poverty line, 73% are satisfied with their lives overall, and almost all participants expressed positive perspectives of Key College. The results were compared to data sets of comparable populations. It was concluded that although the ex-students remain disadvantaged, they have made considerable progress towards stabilising their lives.

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  • The 'exclusion' of autism : how does music therapy aid the psychological, social and educational difficulties confronted by children with autism in a special education setting? : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Music Therapy at Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

    Travaglia, Rebecca Anne (2006)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This research project explores how music therapy can provide opportunities for inclusion and exclusion for children with autism. It draws attention to the various psychological, social and education difficulties faced by children with autism regarding social inclusion and social exclusion. The project also considers current attitudes towards social exclusion documented within the fields of special education and child welfare and rights. The research was conducted using a qualitative and naturalistic enquiry approach. The therapeutic method was client centred. Case material is presented for three children with autism who attended individual music therapy sessions once a week for a period of five weeks. Characteristic narratives of each music therapy session are included in the body of the text. From these, the researcher highlighted moments of inclusion and exclusion observed in the music therapy sessions for each child. These were collaborated and presented in classification tables designed by the researcher from her observations. Music therapy sessions reveal evidence of opportunities for both social interaction and social isolation for three children with autism. Moments were categorised as Inclusion Moments and Exclusion Moments. Inclusion Moments were grouped under four headings: Client Initiated Moments, VerbalNocal Communication Moments, Engaged In Music Non Verbal Moments and Therapist Supported Inclusion. Exclusion Moments were grouped under four headings: Inappropriate Social Behaviours, Purposeful Removal from Musical and Social Interaction, Withdrawal and Therapist Supported Exclusion. Techniques to support inclusion included listening, playing, improvising, singing and movement, adapting the level of attention demanded from the child. Exclusion could be supported by allowing the child to withdrawal from verbal interaction and providing them with a safe and non-demanding environment. This research project concludes that there are patterns of inclusion and exclusion in music therapy sessions and suggests that exclusion does play a role in music therapy for children with autism. The researcher highlights the difficulty for therapists to find a position that satisfies the child 's right to social inclusion, while still respecting the child 's lack of a need for social connectedness.

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  • The Kapitean Stage (Upper Miocene) of New Zealand

    Kennett, James Peter (1965)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The ten chapters in this thesis are presented in the form of nine independent papers and a note. A separate abstract is given below for each chapter. I. The type section of the Kapitean Stage and four other sections in north Westland were examined in detail. The stratigraphy of each section is described and the distribution of 300 species of Foraminifera and 38 species of Mollusca from the Upper Tongaporutuan and Kapitean is discussed. Neogene sediments, previously classed as "Blue Bottom" are separated into four formations. Six zones based on Foraminifera form an essentially continuous sequence ranging from Upper Miocene to Pliocene in age. Four zones based on Mollusca correspond to four of the foraminiferal zones. Depth of deposition for each formation is inferred from paleoecology and a geological history is inferred for the Upper Miocene and Pliocene in north Westland. The type Kapitean and the Kapitean throughout north Westland consists of relatively shallow-water facies. From this study it could not be correlated satisfactorily with deep-water facies elsewhere in New Zealand and its relationship to the Bolivinita compressa Zone could not be determined. The taxonomy of one hundred and five species of Foraminifera is discussed and seven species are described as new: Textularia barnwelli, Quinqueloculina waimea, Virgulina vellai, Florilus olsoni, Notorotalia macinnesi, Globorotalia conomiozea and Cibicides gibsoni. A gradational bioseries of Hofkeruva is described and the evolution and first occurrence of Globorotalia crassaformis (Galloway & Wissler) is discussed. II. About 350 ft. of Kapitean beds exposed in sea cliffs at Cape Foulwind, West Coast, are conformably overlain by Opoitian and Conformably underlain by Tongaporutuan. Seven foraminiferal samples were collected from a uniform and continuous section of marine siltstone. A lithological column and a foraminiferal range chart are presented. Paleoecology and stratigraphic paleontology are discussed. III. At Cape Foulwind specimens of Textularia kapitea Finlay from Six samples show a well defined evolutionary change with time. Two subspecies, one of early to middle Kapitean and one of late Kapitean to early Opoitian age, are established Textularia miozea appears to be the ancestor of T. kapitea. IV. Upper Miocene to Pliocene strata in north Westland and Marlborough contain abundant fossils representing a bioseries of planktonic Foraminifera showing gradual progressive morphological changes. The bioseries commenced with Globorotalia miozea Finlay and ended with Globorotalia crassformis (Galloway and Wissler). The form representing the intermediate stage of the bioseries at Marlborough, differs slightly from the corresponding form at north Westland, 150 miles to the south-west, but the end form is the same in both areas. V. In Marlborough, two stratigraphic sections ranging from Middle Tongaporutuan to Opoitian (Upper Miocene to Lower Pliocene) in age were examined. They lie only 5 miles apart, but one is predominantly deep-water facies and the other is predominantly shallow water facies. Ranges of Foraminifera and Mollusca are shown on charts and local foraminiferal and molluscan zones are established. By correlating key horizons in these sections it has been possible to determine relative stratigraphic ranges of important deep-water and shallow-water fossils, including key Foraminifera and the Kapitean key Mollusca. The base of the Kapitean Stage in the shallow-water section is marked by the first appearance of the key Kapitean Mollusca. The corresponding horizon in the deep-water section can be defined by an evolutionary stage of the Globorotalia crassaformis bioseries. The Kapitean Stage is shown to be relatively thin and to be equivalent to about the upper half of the Bolivinita compressa Zone that is found only in deep-water facies. Paleoecological changes indicate significant changes in depth of deposition in both sections and these depth changes were almost certainly synchronous. The sea was relatively shallow during the Kapitean Age. The biostratigraphic divisions are closely related to the changes in depth of deposition. VI. Six sections through the Upper Miocene and Lower Pliocene in Wairarapa and southern Hawkes Bay were examined in detail. Ranges of Foraminifera and Mollusca are given for each section and lithologies are shown on columnar sections. For the stratigraphic interval from Upper Tongaporutuan to Opoitian, two parallel sets of zones are recognized. One set of zones is based of Foraminifera and is applicable mainly to deep-water facies and the other is based on Mollusca and is applicable only to shallow-water facies. Diagnostic species for each zone are listed. In shallow-water facies the Kapitean Stage is determined mainly by the presence of Sectipecten wollastoni. In deep-water facies which lack the key Mollusca, it is determined by means of the Globorotalia crassaformis bioseries. The absence of the Kapitean in two of the sections is shown mainly by the absence of the characteristic Kapitean parts of the G. crassaformis bioseries and the Siphotextularia wairoana bioseries. The paleoecology throughout each section is described, and indicates that at most places the sea was relatively shallow during the Kapitean Age. VII. Four eastern North Island sections through the Upper Miocene and Lower Pliocene were examined: at Maraetotara River, central Hawkes Bay; at Ruakituri River, northern Hawkes Bay; at Waimata river, Gisborne; and near Te Araroa, East Cape. Distribution of Foraminifera is shown on charts, and lithologies are shown on columnar sections. Four well defined biostratigraphic units can be recognised for the Foraminifera, from oldest to youngest; Pohana Zone, Compressa Zone, Conomiozea Zone, and Crassaformis Zone. Diagnostic Species are listed for each of these zones. In one section the Kapitean Stage is represented by shallow-water facies and is marked by the key Kapitean Mollusca. In two sections it is represented by deep-water facies and is determined by means of the Globorotalia crassaformis bioseries. In the fourth section, the absence of uppermost Upper Tongaporutuan, Kapitean and basal Opoitian is shown by the absence of part of the G. crassaformis bioseries. The paleoecology throughout each section is described, and indicates that the sea shallowed near the end of the Tongaporutuan Age, remained shallow during the Kapitean Age and deepened again at the beginning of the Opoitian Age. VIII. The stratigraphic ranges in inland Taranaki are given for some important Foraminifera relative to those of the Mollusca Sectipecten grangei and S. wollastoni. IX. The following fourteen new species of fossil Foraminifera are described and illustrated from the Upper Miocene and Lower Pliocene of New Zealand: Textularia crater, Siphotextularia dawesi, Ruakituria pseudorobusta, Karreriella fasigatus, Arenodosaria turris, Vaginulinopsis carinata, Bolivinita finlayi, Brizalina srinivasani, Kolesnikovella zealandica, Discorbinella hamasuturalis, Notorotalia mammiligera, Cibicides porrodeliquatus, Cibicides teararus and Pleurostomella parviapertura. Known stratigrahic ranges and inferred depth ranges are given for each species. The new genus Ruakituria (Ataxophragmiidae) is erected for the species formerly know as Dorothia robusta Keyzer. X. The salient features of New Zealand Upper Miocene and Lower Pliocene microfaunas are outlined, and criteria for recognising the Kapitean Stage are summarized. Paleoecology suggests that he Kapitean Stage represents an interval of time when seas were relatively shallow, that the shallowing took place in the latest part of the Tongaporutuan Age and that deepening took place in the earliest part of the Opoitian Age. The changes in depth of sea caused many temporary "facies" changes in fossil faunas at any particular places, but the Kapitean Stage is soundly based on a few permanent changes of both macrofauna and microfauna. The Kapitean Stage is represented by fairly shallow-water facies at many places but by fairly deep-water facies at other places. Shallow-water and deep-water facies contain very few age diagnostic fossils in common, but can be correlated by means of the Globorotalia crassaformis bioseries, a sequence of planktonic Foraminifera showing gradual progressive morphological change. In nearly all sections the Kapitean Stage is thin compared with the overlying Opoitian and underlying Upper Tongaporutuan, and this is attributed to a decreased rate of deposition due to shallowing and increased by-passing of sediment. Kapitean microfaunas show a slight but distinct change from north to south, this being attributed to latitudinal temperature difference. The previously suggested correlation of the Kapitean Stage with the Pontian Stage of Europe is probably correct. The shallow seas during the Kapitean Age in New Zealand appear to have coincided with a phase of regression in Europe and in other parts of the world and may have a eustatic rather than a tectonic cause.

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  • The saline Interface of a Shallow Unconfined Aquifer, Rangitikei Delta

    Craig, Desiree S A (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The coastal communities of Tangimoana and Scott's Ferry have a long history of using shallow groundwater bores. The cumulative effect of pumping over decades could influence the saline interface given the close proximity of the communities to the seashore and river estuary. It is important to quantify the effects of pumping on both the shallow groundwater system and the dynamics of the saline interface. This is necessary to protect the groundwater system against saline intrusion especially given the increasing number of high volume groundwater consents to support dairying. Resistivity soundings and traverses, coupled with chemical analyses of groundwater samples, were found to be an effective method for defining the saline interface of the shallow groundwater aquifer under the Rangitikei delta. The saline interface extends from the salt marsh to beneath the farmland north of Tangimoana. The interface is a zone of diffusion with freshwater and brackish water mixing from the estuary. The interface is currently located on the outskirts of Tangimoana, and it is likely to extend beneath the township. The infiltration of brackish surface waters into sediments of the salt marsh form a surficial mixing zone that decreases with distance from the salt marsh. There is no indication of salinity in the area to the north of the Rangitikei delta. This area is most at risk of contamination from saline intrusion because of high volume groundwater abstractions, even though these abstractions are from deeper aquifers. The shallow groundwater beneath Tangimoana showed high concentrations of Ca and HCO3 ions. This may be a result of carbonate dissolution, which can occur when saline and freshwater mix. This creates groundwater that is under-saturated with calcium. The mixing water dissolves carbonates and increases the concentrations of Ca and HCO3. The major source of sodium and chloride was likely rainwater with evaporated solutes from seawater. The saline interface near Tangimoana appears to be relatively static, but the estuary and salt marsh are areas of low relief. There are preferential flows paths across the salt marsh to the farmland. These factors make the shallow groundwater in the Rangitikei delta vulnerable to saline intrusion.

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  • On Ballance: a Biography of John Ballance, Journalist and Politician, 1839-1893

    McIvor, Timothy J (1984)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis is a biography of John Ballance, New Zealand's first Liberal Premier. It examines his career as journalist and politician, from his arrival in New Zealand and Wanganui in 1866 until his death in 1893. Ballance is viewed from a number of different perspectives: as editor and owner of a 'frontier' town's newspaper, as a prominent Wanganui personality closely involved in promoting local development, as Member of the House of Representatives and, finally, as a national political leader. The first chapter looks briefly at Ballance's early life in the north of Ireland and Birmingham. Chapter two then discusses his arrival in Wanganui, the establishment of the Evening Herald, and his participation in the war against Titokowaru. The following chapter begins with an examination of Ballance's attitude to political and economic issues of the 1870s, in particular his opposition to the provincial system, and ends with his entering Parliament for the first time in 1875. A little over two years later he became Colonial Treasurer in the Grey Government (chapter four). Chapter five covers the period 1879 to 1884, and Ballance's only electoral defeat, in 1881. Chapter six examines the broad base of his liberal philosophy, and shows how its different strands are inter-related, all pointing to a democratic, secular society, with considerable emphasis on individual and national self-reliance. In 1884 Ballance re-entered Parliament, and became Minister of Lands and Native Minister in the Stout-Vogel Government. His activities and initiatives when holding these two portfolios are the subject of chapter seven. Chapters eight and nine lead up to the crucial election of 1890. Ballance, after some initial hesitation, accepted the leadership of the Opposition in 1889. Land reform predominated his campaign at the election. Chapters ten to twelve discuss Ballance in power (1891-93). His major problem was to secure and consolidate the new Liberal regime, in the face of opposition to government measures from the Legislative Council and an alleged withdrawal of capital from the country. Ballance's reaction was to pursue a non-borrowing, self-reliant policy, and to establish a Liberal Federation to organise support for the Government at grass roots level. The conclusion discusses the 'Ballance tradition'.

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  • Collection-based research in museums : understanding, structure, visibility : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master in Arts in Museum Studies at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Wells, Megan Rosemary (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis questions whether collection-based research in museums is misconceived and if so, in what ways can it be improved to benefit practitioners. It argues that concern about collection-based research in the literature is unjustified. Current definitions of research are overly broad or focus on academic outputs that do not reflect current museum practice. Public research undertaken in medium-sized museums cannot be judged using ill-fitting academic frameworks. Instead, this thesis develops a research framework that is museum specific. This thesis carries out an in-depth case study of The Nelson Provincial Museum and The Suter Art Gallery. It interviews staff to gather data showing that practitioners in the two institutions undertake wide-ranging and diverse collection-based research. The interviews also observe that collection-based research has varying levels of visibility, fragmented structure and is not always well understood. This thesis uses both the strengths and realities of current practice to create models and suggest methods to improve visibility, structure and understanding of collection-based research for the benefit of practitioners. The strengths and realities of current practice are combined with a theoretical grounding in object research, provided by material culture and museum studies, to create a definition and a set of research principles and processes. The definition, principles and processes are tested by application to two object case studies – a watercolour by John Gully and a sample of dunite rock. Research into these objects covers both the object file and exhibition development. The results are broad and informative and show how, with greater understanding, structure and visibility, research can benefit practitioners through increased usefulness, accessibility and accountability.

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  • The effect of observers' mood on level of processing of emotional schematic faces : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology at Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand

    Mokhtari, Setareh (2012)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    The thesis examined the effect of mood on the processing of local details of emotional faces. In a series of experiments, this effect was investigated in different mood valences, intensities, and persistency. Happy, neutral and sad schematic faces were presented to happy or sad participants, who were asked to count particular features of the presented faces. It was assumed that the time needed to count the parts of each facial expression would reveal the ease of attentional resources allocation to the local elements of that facial emotion. The results showed that counting the parts of sad faces needed more time; it is likely that the global level processing of sad faces captured attention and interfered with fast access to local elements. The results also showed that higher intensity mood inductions (using music clips and recall tasks) and longer exposure to mood inductions might guide attention in different ways. Data showed that when happy and sad mood were induced in low intensity, attending to the local details was faster in happy mood compared to sad mood. On the contrary, when happy mood was experienced for a longer time, local processing was slower, although local processing was enhanced as the sad mood intensified or was experienced for longer period. This research concluded that the global interference effect is not a fixed phenomenon, but is influenced by contextual factors. Moreover, it was suggested that mood attributes (e.g., valence, intensity, or persistency) influence attentional strategies in processing of a compound shape.

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  • Ngamotu me Kihitu nga whenua, Ngamotu me Kihitu nga turangawaewae : "Aue Te Ariki aue", kei whea ra nga tangata o te hau kainga nei? : a personal journey : where have all the people gone? : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of requirement[s] for the degree of Masters of Philosophy, a major in Social Work, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Webber-Dreadon, Emma Te Paea (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Enclosed to the north and west by hills, edged by the Pacific Ocean and the Wairoa Hopupu-Hongenge Matangirau River, it seemed to me as a six year old that Ngamotu, Kihitu and Wairoa were the only places that existed in the world. It was then, and will always be, the ‘centre of my Universe’. NGAMOTU TE WHENUA, NGAMOTU TE TURANGAWAEWAE "AUE TE ARIKI AUE", KEI WHEA RA NGA TANGATA O TE HAU KAINGA NEI? The purpose of this research was to explore why the whenua of Ngamotu, and additionally Kihitu, are almost deserted of her people, and why there is so little use of her agriculturally or horticulturally. The inclusion of Kihitu within this thesis is because it is a 15 acres block of land located in the centre of Ngamotu. Whatever happens to either ‘block’ must surely impact on the other in some way. The use of tikanga and kaupapa Maori as the ‘pou’ of this research is what determines the mauri (well being) of nga whenua o Ngamotu and Kihitu, and their people. These are used because they are the most appropriate techniques and tools to use to explore and ascertain the mauri (well being) of Ngamotu and Kihitu, and her people. The study is an oral and recorded history, as told by seven purposively chosen mokopuna, who willingly shared their experiences and their knowledge of Ngamotu and Kihitu. In their own words, they shared their stories about Ngamotu and Kihitu, their history, their current status, and the influences that they have had on them, and what if any, are their moemoea (dreams) for Ngamotu and Kihitu. By naming Ngamotu and Kihitu as our turangawaewae acknowledges and provides a ‘chiefly’ place for us all to stand, which contributes to the importance and the ‘mauri ora’ (wellbeing) of Ngamotu and Kihitu as a whenua, which then enables us as mana-whenua (people of the land) to determine, define and strengthen our world views about and around Ngamotu and Kihitu, which in turn reflects the concept of being Maori and being a mokopuna of Ngamotu and Kihitu.

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  • The Effect of Stormwater Discharge on the Nearshore Benthic Environment of Inner Wellington Harbour

    Bolton-Ritchie, Lesley Anne (2003)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    To investigate the spatial and temporal effects of stormwater discharge on the nearshore benthic environment of inner Wellington Harbour, sediment grain size, organic matter content, concentrations of As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn and the presence and abundance of the benthic macrobiota were measured at a number of stations at both stormwater outlets and at control sites. Correlations between the biological and the sedimentological and chemical variables were also investigated. In the vicinity of some outlets the sediment grain size distribution was altered and the sediment organic matter content was up to 5.5 times higher and metal concentrations were up to 11 times higher, than that at control sites. In general organic matter content and metal concentrations were highest close to an outlet and decreased with increasing distance seaward. With increasing distance from outlets the biological communities changed and there were significant differences in one or more of total, polychaete, arthropod and mollusc taxa, polychaete and mollusc individuals, diversity and the abundance of 12 taxa. The spatial extent of the impact of stormwater discharge on the benthic environment ranged from l0 to more than 45 metres from an outlet. Over time the largest range in organic matter content at an outlet was 6.1-42.8% while at a control it was 4-9%. For As, Cu, Pb and Zn the range in concentration over time was larger at stations closer to than those further from the outlet and larger at outlet than control site stations e.g. at 2 m in front of one outlet the Pb concentration range was 25l-1367 ppm, at 20 m from the outlet it was 15-22 ppm and at the associated control site 2 m station it was 15-20 ppm. Over time the direction of change in the biological community was different, and there were significant differences in the number of total, mollusc, polychaete and arthropod taxa and individuals and diversity, between that at the outlet and the associated control site. 27 taxa were more abundant at outlet than control sites and 45 taxa were more abundant at control than outlet sites over time. The biological community at outlet and control sites was best correlated to combinations of 2-5 of the sedimentological/chemical variables. Of these variables, organic matter content was the only commonly occurring variable at outlet sites and did not occur as one of the variables at the control sites. Where the organic matter content was >22% there were a low number of taxa and individuals, and with an increase in organic matter content there was a significant decrease in the number of total and arthropod taxa. The abundance of two taxa was significantly correlated to organic matter content and the abundance of six taxa was significantly correlated to metal concentrations.

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  • Generic closed control loop of a high efficiency low volume bioethanol distillery : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of Master of Engineering in Mechatronics at Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand

    Pearson, Andrew (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Bioethanol is a type of biofuel that is created by fermenting organic materials into a solution called mash. This mash contains water, dead yeast cells, feed stock solids, and 10% - 15% bioethanol (alcohol). The bioethanol is extracted by heating the mash above the boiling point of ethanol to create a vapour which is then condensed in to a liquid that is greater than 93% bioethanol in a process called distillation. bioethanol is a viable replacement for petrol, however comparisons between the two fuel types show that with the current processes used petrol has a higher net energy yield. Bioethanol contains 30% less energy than petrol, so to compete with petrol bioethanol must be created in a way that greatly reduces its total energy cost. The most energy intensive process in the production of bioethanol is distillation, an Advanced Process Control algorithm (APC) must be implemented to make this process more efficient. My project is based on the implementation of an APC to increase the efficiency of a bioethanol still. By using a Siemens PLC (Programmable Logic Controller), combined with their PID (Proportional, Integral, and Differential) control algorithms I intend to monitor and control the distillation of a mash containing 14% bioethanol. With this approach I have been able to manufacture a low volume still that can produce high quality bioethanol consistently. This approach increased the total bioethanol yield by 10%, also producing a solution that is consistently above 93% ethanol which can be fed straight into a molecular sieve for dehydration, producing 100% bioethanol that can be used as a biofuel.

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  • Studies on the Development and Osteology of Some New Zealand Inshore Fishes

    Ruck, J G (1976)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This study deals principally with the problems involved in the identification of the early stages of tripterygiid, clinid and gobiesocid fish in the Cook Strait region, New Zealand. The nomenclature of 7 tripterygiid and 4 clinid species is reviewed to assist in the identification of the developmental stages. Those species reviewed are preceded by an asterisk in the list included later in this abstract. The adult osteology of Forsterygion varium (Forster in Bloch and Schneider, 1801) is described and illustrated in detail, together with the osteology of the larvae and prejuveniles at different stages of development. The adult osteology is compared with that of other blennioid fishes. In F. varium the skeletal elements begin to form over a wide range of larval sizes and full adult osteological characters are acquired at a variable time after prejuvenile development is reached. Functionally related elements tend to attain their adult form at about the same size. There is no correlation between the size at initial ossification and the endochondral or dermal origin of a bone. Elements of the vertebral column and median fins develop sequentially and therefore provide (in tripterygiids) an index of development which is useful in comparing the larval stages of different species. The embryological stages of 5 tripterygiid and 3 gobiesocid fish are described and illustrated in detail. Species studied are: Forsterygion capito (Tripterygion capito) (Jenyns, 1842), Forsterygion nigripenne (Tripterygion robustum) (Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1836), Forsterygion varium (Forster in Bloch and Schneider, 180I), Gilloblennius decemdigitatus (Clarke, 1879), G. tripennis (Forster in Bloch and Schneider, 1801), Trachelochisnus melobesia Phillipps, 1927, T. pinnulatus (Forster in Bloch and Schneider, 1801), Diplocrepis puniceus (Richardson, 1846). The eggs of all species are laid on submerged objects in clusters of 20-3000 eggs in shallow coastal water. Eggs are attended by an adult fish until hatching occurs. Prolarvae are well developed with fully pigmented eyes, functional jaws and reduced yolk-sacs, and are therefore useful in linking later larval stages with adults. An assessment of the general problems encountered in the identification of larvae and prejuveniles is presented with attention given to the fish in this study. The larval and prejuvenile stages of 1O tripterygiid, 4 clinid and 9 gobiesocid species are described and illustrated in detail. Those described are -Tripterygiidae:*Forsterygion variun (Forster in Bloch and Schneider, 1801), *F. nigripenne (Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1836), *F. capito (Jenyns, 1842), *Tripterygion segmentatum McCulloch and Phillipps, 1923, *Gilloblennius decemdigitatus (Clarke, 1879), *G. tripennis (Forster in Bloch and Schneider, 1801), *Helcogramma medium (in part Gunther, 1861), two Helcogramma species, new tripterygiid species (genus not certain); Clinidae: *Notoclinus compressus (Hutton, 1872), *N. fenestratus (Forster in Bloch and Schneider, 1801), *Ericentrusrubrus (Hutton, 1872), *Cologrammus flavescens (Hutton, 1872); Gobiesocidae: Trachelochismus melobesia Phillipps, 1927, T. pinnulatus (Forster in Bloch and Schneider, 1801), Diplocrepis puniceus (Richardson, 1846), Diplocrepis puniceus (South Island form), Gastroscyphus hectoris (Gunther, 1876), Gastroscyphus species, Gastrocyathus gracilis Briggs, 1955, Dellichthys morelandi Briggs, 1955, Haplocylix littoreus (Forster in Bloch and Schneider, 1801). A key to the larvae and prejuveniles of the above species is included. Closely related tripterygiid species with very similar larval stages were identified mainly, by considering myomere counts and by consistent differences in size (standard length) at given stages of development. In contrast clinid and gobiesocid larvae from unrelated adults were readily distinguished by a wide range of characteristics. Larvae and prejuveniles were collected using standard equipment such as nylon mesh plankton nets and light-traps. A light-trap designed specifically for collecting larvae is described in detail in the appendix. An annotated bibliography of New Zealand teleost eggs and larvae is presented in the appendix with reference to 70 marine and freshwater species.

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  • Learning about teachers' resilience : perceptions, challenges and strategies of policy implementation in two secondary schools in Malaysia : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Education at Massey University, Palmerston North, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Razak, Ahmad Zabidi Abdul (2013)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Between 1996 and 2010 the Ministry of Education in Malaysia implemented several policies to ensure that the education system in Malaysia was able to fulfill current national and international demands. The Ministry argued that the policies being implemented had many potential benefits. However, changes in education also create new challenges for teachers because, while concentrating on teaching and learning, they are also required to focus on implementing the new policies. These unavoidable challenges can influence the nature and quality of teachers’ practice. To ensure the success of important policy changes, the Malaysian education system needs resilient teachers, who are able to face all the challenges successfully. In the school context, educational leadership is expected to play a key role in supporting teachers in this challenging situation. The intent of this study was to explore educators’ and parents’ views and experiences in these areas, including educational leadership practices which aimed to ensure that teachers sustain their resilience in times of facing real pressure. Data was collected through interviews with (i) members of Senior Management Teams (ii) selected teachers and (iii) selected members from committees of Parent and Teachers Associations in two secondary schools in Malaysia. In total 46 participants were involved in this study. Data analysis was carried out through analytic categories based on hermeneutics philosophy. The findings indicated that teachers faced various challenges during the implementation of national education policy, but teachers’ own inner strength, the role of PTA members, colleagues’ collegiality and the location of teachers’ schools in their hometown assisted them to sustain their resilience. All groups of participants claimed that educational leaders, as represented by members of Senior Management Teams at their schools, have played the main role in assisting teachers to face challenges and, indirectly, sustaining their resilience. Five approaches were utilised by the educational leaders: they provided a congenial working environment that did not place undue pressure on teachers, eased the burden for teachers in implementing the policy, provided encouraging monitoring, showed continuing appreciation; and promoted school success.

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  • Employee homogeneity and perceptions of organisational fit : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Marshall, Beverley Anne (1991)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Popular management literature suggests that a strong culture is important for the success of an organisation. A logical outcome of this belief is that it is important that employees should 'fit' - that is, employees' values should be congruent with those of the organisation. Schneider's (1987) Attraction-Selection-Attrition (ASA) theory argues that, over time, forces operate to ensure that an increasingly more homogeneous group of employees make up an organisation. In a test of ASA theory, the present study used the Work Aspect Preference Scale (Pryor, 1983) to assess the homogeneity of the managerial staff of a manufacturing organisation (N = 35) and a comparison group of 42 executive MBA students. As an extension of the attrition component of the model, it was hypothesised that those employees who remain in the organisation would be perceived as having better organisational fit. Kelly's (1955) repertory grid technique was used to identify those characteristics the organisation believed essential for success. These constructs were used to develop an Organisational Fit scale which was then applied to a group of 34 managers. Some marginal support was found for Schneider's ASA theory, and analysis of differences between the two groups did reveal significant differences on three work aspects. The hypothesis that employees of longer tenure would rate more highly on the Organisational Fit scale was not supported. Implications for the homogeneity hypothesis are discussed, and suggestions are made for further research on this concept, and for further study of organisational fit.

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  • Using Web 2.0 technology to support humanitarian assistance and disaster relief operations : applying the lessons learnt from the United States Military response to the 2010 Haiti Earthquake to improve the utilisation of the New Zealand Defence Force's communications and information systems during humanitarian assistance and disaster relief operations : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Arts in Defence and Strategic Studies at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Jones, Liam Stewart (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HA/DR) Operations are complex multidimensional environments requiring the deployment of a military force. These operations will have multiple agencies responding including military forces, emergency responders, United Nations agencies, None Government Organisations (NGOs) and Private Volunteer Organisations all of which specialising in the provision of the necessities of life to survive a disaster including food, shelter, water, sanitation, medical and logistics support. The coordination of the relief effort and ensuring resources are applied where they can achieve maximum impact is a significant challenge. Information and communications technology, and in particular the Internet, has matured to a level now where this technology can be used to aid with the coordination challenges facing the multiple responders in a HA/DR operation. This paper examines the command and control arrangements that the New Zealand Defence Force has in place to support deployment on HA/DR operations and looks at modern commercial information technology trends, labelled broadly as Web 2.0, and proposes ways that these trends in information and communications technology might be utilised to increase the effectiveness of a New Zealand Defence Force Deployment. It examines the use of Web 2.0 type technology that was used by the United States Military during their deployment to Haiti and compares this with the use of information and communications technology by the New Zealand Defence Force during a response to a major earthquake in Christchurch and on an HA/DR exercise in the South Pacific. It seeks to highlight ways that the New Zealand Defence Force might use information and communications technology to enhance responses to HA/DR incidents in the future.

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  • Differences between attitudes, ability, physical well-being and social involvement of people with Parkinson's disease who join the Parkinson's society and those who do not join : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in psychology at Massey University

    Humphries, Sharon Mary (1992)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    An investigation was undertaken to compare demographic, physical disability, and some personality differences between members and non-members of the Parkinson's Disease Society. In addition, the leisure activities of subjects were investigated, and levels of activity before and after onset of illness were compared. Eighty-seven patients were interviewed using a structured interview, while the Psychological Adjustment to Illness Scale was used to measure differences in adjustment to the illness between the member and non-member groups. While few differences were found between members and non-members, a trend in the amount of leisure activities the two groups enjoyed was discovered, whether these differences were there prior to joining the Society, or whether the Society membership mediated the differences could not be ascertained from a correlational study, and the implications of this are considered. Of the activities provided by the Parkinson's Disease Society, members appreciated the information contained in the newsletter the most.

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  • Tamana: a Study of a Reef Island Community

    Lawrence, Roger James (1984)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis is an exploration of the factors which give the tiny reef island of Tamana, in what is today the nation of Kiribati, its particular character. The research falls into three main sections. The first reviews the available documentary sources in order to build up an understanding of the settlement of the region by Micronesian peoples, the character of the island environment they encountered and the economy and society that developed. The changes resulting from the expansion of western capitalism into the region are then described. This material provides the context for the contemporary household-based study presented in the second section. This presents the findings of twelve month's field study of sixteen Tamana households. It considers household structure and, organisation, access to resources, patterns of tine allocation as well as the character of the subsistence and cash economies, their relationship to each other and the extent to which the household economy has become incorporated into the market economy of the outside world. The third section draws both sets of material together to consider issues of change and development and the likely future character of Tamana. The initial settlement of Tamana by Micronesian people led to some environmental modification and the introduction of new plant species. However, the system that evolved could be considered an autarkic man/environment system where a fluctuating balance between man and resources was maintained through drought-associated mortality. With the arrival of the whalers, traders, missionaries and colonial officials Tamana ceased to operate as an isolated entity and the changes which ensued resulted in the external relationships, through trade, employment and aid becoming increasingly important in determining the character of economic life on Tamana. In several important respects the process of incorporation into the market economy evident on Tamana differs from that encounted in other subsistence economies subject to similar influences. Colonial policy, in recognition of the high population densities and, obviously limited resources, discouraged the establishment of a plantation economy. The limiting atoll environment restricted the choice of cash crops to the coconut which was already an important element in the vegetation and whose productivity could be maintained with little intensification of labour inputs. The subsistence economy thus was able to maintain its vitality and enabled the islanders to oscillate between the subsistence and market economy as market conditions dictated. This is reinforced by the fact that some 45 percent of household income comes from outside the village economy through remittances and gifts, thus underlining the significance of Tamana as a "straddled economy" where the household depends on local production and wages earned in employment in either the phosphate workings or urban employment away from the island. For these reasons the commitment to the cash economy on Tamana is not strong. Because of the heavy emphasis of government spending on welfare and service spending and the emergence of a large, aid-dependent bureaucracy at the administrative centre on Tarawa, the aspirations of most Tamana peoples are towards wage employment which implies migration to the urban centre as an alternative to rural life. Unless these trends are rectified rural outmigration can be expected, to increase.

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