88,600 results

  • Infant and peer relationships in curriculum

    Redder, Bridgette Miriam (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The purpose of this thesis was to explore the relations between infants and their peers as they interacted intersubjectively with one another in an early childhood care and education environment and to investigate how the teacher was answerable through her engagement in these intersubjective events. Drawing upon a Bakhtinian methodological approach to research utterance was employed as my unit of analysis, providing a means to investigate the intersubjective interactions between infants and their peers in tandem with the teachers’ engagement in these interactions as answerable acts. This thesis builds on a previous pilot study which utilised dialogic methodology to investigate the nature of infant and teacher dialogue in an education and care context (White, Peter & Redder, 2015). The research that formed the basis for my subsequent analysis took place in a New Zealand education and care centre that catered for children less than two years of age. In the present study the same polyphonic video recording was used to capture infant and peer intersubjective interactions and the teacher’s engagement within these events. A mixed methods research approach was employed to qualitatively and quantitatively analyse the video data. The findings of this study suggest that infants are intersubjective agents in their relationships with peers and with teachers. Infants intentionally communicated with peers in lived relational experiences that were characterised by the fleeting, elongated or connected nature of their interactions. Mutual understanding, joint attention, attunement and the employment of synchronised language forms were features of infant ― peer intersubjective experiences. In addition, the findings revealed the capacity of infants and peers to relate with one another in social interactions that promote ‘dialogic spaces’ through which intersubjective relationships are sought. When teachers engaged in the infant ― peer intersubjective relations they either restrained by ‘shutting’ down or sustained by ‘opening up’ the intersubjective experience for the peers. The teacher’s body language was a feature of their engagement that contributed in a variety of ways to the infant ― peer intersubjective experience. Indeed how teachers engaged themselves in the interactions that were taking place between infants and their peers often determined the orientation of the teacher’s body positioning. The findings suggest when teachers restrained infant ― peer intersubjective dialogue, this form of engagement had the potential to alter how infants related to peers in subsequent interactions, highlighting the importance of sensitive, ‘in tune’ teacher engagement. Furthermore, the results highlight the pivotal role of the teacher as a ‘connecting’ feature within infant and peer intersubjective experiences, one who has the potential to ‘open up’ dialogic spaces for infants and their peer partners through engagement that is dialogic. These findings taken together may have implications for policymakers, educators and teacher education by ‘opening up’ dialogic spaces through which infants are seen as intersubjective agents and dialogic partners.

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  • A New Form of Authoritarianism? Rethinking Military Politics in Post-1999 Nigeria

    Adeakin, Ibikunle Edward (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    Despite the vast research that has been done on the Nigerian military, virtually all of these studies have failed to critically examine the accepted role of the military in the democratising phase. This is important because the relationship between the political elite and the military in post-military authoritarian states guarantees either democratic consolidation, or its reversal. In Nigeria, despite an appearance of significant progress in subordinating the military institution to democratic civilian authority, the military remains a crucial political actor in the polity. It appears that the military has yet to accept the core democratic principles of civilian oversight of the institution. This thesis, therefore, explores whether a new form of military authoritarianism is emerging in Nigeria, with the aim of understanding Nigeria’s military behaviour in a transitional phase, from prolonged military authoritarianism to democratisation. To examine this military behaviour, Alfred Stepan’s concept of military prerogatives that was used to understand the military’s behaviour in a transitional phase in Latin America is applied to Nigeria. A crucial understanding of authoritarianism in Nigeria is initially discussed in this study using mainly document analysis strategy to examine whether multi-ethnic states, such as Nigeria, tend to have authoritarian systems. Six hypotheses form the core analysis of this thesis: first, that the military has retained significant military prerogatives; second, that retired military officers are gaining influential political and economic positions; third, autonomous military involvement in human rights abuses since 1999; and fourth, that civilian government oversight remains weak, and facilitates military authoritarianism. These hypotheses are primarily analysed using the elite interview technique. During the first half of 2011, the author conducted field research where serving and retired military officers were interviewed. The fifth hypothesis is that the military has intervened in politics post-1999. The examination of this hypothesis relies primarily on key security-related media reports (mostly newspaper editorials) on the military after 1999. The examination of the final hypothesis, that increases in military expenditures might facilitate a new form of military authoritarianism, relies primarily on descriptive statistical analysis. In addition, this study collated relevant historical materials that relate to the military, utilising national archival collections. The empirical findings of this research did not identify a new form of military authoritarianism in Nigeria. The study, however, argues that the unrestricted institutional framework accorded the military has contributed significantly to authoritarian practices in the post-military era in Nigeria. This study discovered that there were similarities between the Brazilian and Nigerian militaries in regard to their military spending during their period in power. Both countries had lower defence budgets. Just as in Brazil, it appears that part of the reason the Nigerian military decided to relinquish power in 1999 had to do with its desire to gain a higher budget, something that was precluded in a military government struggling to retain a sense of legitimacy. The military needed a higher budget to modernise and re-professionalise its institution after more than a decade in power. This feature, which the Nigerian military shares with the Brazilian military, appears to justify the application to Nigeria of Alfred Stepan’s concept of military prerogatives.  

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  • In a field of their own : farm transfer and farmers' 'sense of place'

    Chapman, Craig Murray (1998)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    84 leaves, [14] leaves of plates :ill., ports. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 80-84). University of Otago department: Geography.

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  • Climate change and the water yield of snow tussock grasslands in the Upper Taieri Catchment

    Cameron, Janine (2004)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    iv, 66 leaves :ill., facsim., maps, ports. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 63-66). University of Otago department: Geography.

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  • On the edge : a history of adventure sports and adventure tourism in Queenstown

    Brown, Michael Neal Rowatt (1997)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    xvi, 219 leaves :col. ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references.

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  • Packing down the scrum: an historical analysis of the 1981 Springbok tour and the homosexuality issue in the Presbyterian Church of Aotearoa New Zealand

    Brown, Michael Neal Rowatt (1995)

    Honours Dissertation thesis
    University of Otago

    Physical description: iii, 68 leaves ; 30 cm. Covers the years 1981 through to 1995. Thesis (B.A. (Hons.))--University of Otago, 1995. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 66-68).

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  • For the lesser peoples : Woodrow Wilson, national self-determination and the Ottoman Empire.

    Flaherty, Timothy James (1997)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    66, [iv] leaves ; 29 cm. Bibliography: leaves 64-66.

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  • The Workers' Dwellings Acts : their implementation in Dunedin, 1905-1916

    Elworthy, Eve (1987)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    2 v. :ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. Typescript (photocopy).

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  • Black and white art' : the depiction of Maori in cartoons, 1900-1920.

    Custer, Erika K. (1994)

    Other thesis
    University of Otago

    Typescript (photocopied)

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  • Silent Sentinels : The War Trophies of the First New Zealand Expeditionary Force in War and Peace

    Fox, Aaron Patrick (1987)

    Honours Dissertation thesis
    University of Otago

    The author has made available an updated and illustrated version of this dissertation at: http://www.kiamatetoa.com/drathesis.php

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  • Towards Fused Terthiophene Monomers for Optoelectronic Applications

    Santoso, Bagus (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    In recent years, polythiophene derivatives have been on the front line of the conducting polymer industry. The most efficient polymer solar cell and the fastest polymer transistors are both polythiophene derivatives. The presence of the electron rich element sulfur has been suggested as an important pathway towards high performance organic semiconductor. Fused aromatic monomers are of particular interest as the extension of the π system allows for better π-π stacking. This results in a more crystalline structure and improves the charge transport of the resulting polymer. In this work, attempts were made towards an alkyl substituted fused terthiophene monomer. The backbone of the monomer was previously reported by Roncali et al. in 1994 and it has shown promising results. However, Roncali was unable to polymerise the monomer effectively and it continues to be undeveloped. Roncali did not report the details of his synthesis of the fused terthiophene and attempts made in this work to replicate the synthesis based on his brief description were unsuccessful. Alternative routes were explored towards the synthesis of Roncali’s fused terthiophene. The successful route found involved the Baylis-Hillman reaction of 2 thiophenecarboxyaldehye with methyl acrylate, followed by the oxidation of the Baylis-Hillman adduct and immediate Nazarov cyclisation of the resulting divinyl ketone. Ester hydrolysis of the resulting ketoester was able to synthesise thiaindanone in a large scale. The thiaindanone was then brominated and the resulting α-bromoketone was efficiently coupled with the ketoester precursor to synthesise an ester dimer. The ester dimer was hydrolysed to obtained a 1,4 diketone, which was cyclised using Lawesson’s reagent to form Roncali’s fused terthiophene. However, problems with solubility and stability found for this compound will need to be addressed prior to polymerisation. 

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  • National Household Survey of Energy and Transportation: Energy Cultures Two

    Wooliscroft, Ben (2015)

    Unclassified
    University of Otago

    Executive Summary Key findings: • A clear picture of the state of the energy efficiency of our housing stock, our household energy behaviours and our driving (and transport) behaviours has been collected. • Four clear clusters of energy consumers are identified: – The Energy Comfortable (23.7%) have less remedial (e.g. dehumidifier) energy use. They live in warm dry houses. – The Energy Poor (21.1%) not only have the lowest incomes, they also have the lowest number of energy efficiency household modifications and practise the least number of energy saving driving behaviours. – The Energy Average (24.6%) are exactly that, exceptional in very few attributes. There are significant opportunities for them to save energy. – The Energy Efficient (24.3%) earn a similar amount to the Energy Average and the Energy Comfortable but have power bills similar to the Energy Poor. • New Zealand’s housing stock is frequently not adequately insulated or efficiently heated • Many New Zealanders do not practise energy saving behaviours around the house, including behaviour as simple as turning off lights in un-occupied rooms. This research gives insight into the frequency with which behaviours are practised. • There is considerable opportunity to save money through efficient driving (most estimates are 15%) however many efficient driving behaviours are not practised by our sample. • The earthquake in Christchurch is clearly found in the results with regard to heating, transportation and traffic issues. • Poor energy behaviour in the house is strongly related to poor driving (from an energy point of view) and a low energy efficient house. • The results would suggest that a systems approach to improving energy consumption will reap the best rewards.

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  • Saudisation and Women’s Empowerment through Employment in the Health Care Sector

    Alghamdi, Fatemah (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The majority of studies concerning Saudisation policy as a solution to decrease the unemployment of nationals and reduce the reliance on expatriate. However, this study looks at Saudisation as a tool to empower Saudi women working in the health care sector. Saudi working women have been lacking opportunities of empowerment, due to challenges they face in their daily life that hinder the development and equality of those women. The thesis has been guided by the literature and qualitative evidence that suggests obstacles to women’s empowerment and development involve socially constructed norms, traditions, religion and culture that primarily favour men. The study, also, adopts feminist geography and gender perspective and focuses on the individual voices of women working in the health care sector. This research uses different empowerment frameworks of Kabeer, Rowland, Stromquist and Freire, which are relevant to women employment and empowerment. This research utilises feminist methodology in obtaining deep understanding of the reality and experience of women employed in the health care sector. Findings of this research reveal conditions that maintain disempowerment of women working in health care sector, as well as identifying the tools that might guarantee their empowerment. Findings also show those women necessities in the case of gender needs that revolve around their domestic and working responsibilities. This thesis provides some recommendations to government, policy makers, educational institutions and employers about how to contribute in empowering women and overcoming challenges that hinder their development and wellbeing. Ultimately, this study aimed to, first, contribute to the literature of women’s empowerment by exploring their employment in a Saudi context and second, to put the spotlight on Saudi women’s issues through development lens and enrich that field of study.

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  • The Political Economy of New Zealand’s Consumers Price Index

    Higgs, Corin (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The structure of New Zealand’s Consumers Price Index has changed many times over its 100 year history. As New Zealand’s most influential and consequential official statistic the CPI performs political and distributional functions that affects ‘who gets what and when’. Some observers suggest that change in the structure of the CPI is merely the consequence of technological improvement which in turn alters the conduct of policy-making and politics. This study turns that assumption on its head by demonstrating that it is politics that has altered the technology known as the CPI. Through the examination and evaluation of the changing political and economic context that the index operates within, this thesis work finds that the CPI was transformed by the very political forces it was designed to contain. This thesis argues that because the index functions as political decision-making tool that supports the setting of salaries and wages, benefit levels and interest rates, change in the form of the index is a result of struggle among interests affected by these highly political decisions. This thesis makes its case through analysis of primary sources and official documentation relating to the development of the index. The first case study tracks the origins of the first official index in 1914, devised in order to learn what it cost a ‘working’ family to meet its basic needs through its transformation into a tool that set wages and measured price change in the wider economy. This is reinforced by a study of change to the index since the 1970s, focusing on the use of the CPI in the conduct of monetary policy that resulted in a politically driven change to the measurement of household inflation. These case studies are further supported by examination of the secondary literature on price indexes, monetary policy and institutional change theory. This thesis adds to the body of knowledge on theories of institutional change by presenting evidence of the conflict that has caused political change to the technology of the CPI.

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  • Organised Functional Liquids for Photon Upconversion

    van den Kerkhof, Lia Catherine (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Photon upconversion is a process by which lower energy photons are converted to higher energy photons, which can be achieved by the interaction of two triplet excited states. This process holds potential for wavelength shifting solid films in photovoltaic cells. Not all wavelengths emitted by the sun have sufficient energy to be utilized by such devices. Typical solar cells have a band gap of around 1 µm, however there is a significant amount of energy output by the sun that falls below this threshold. Upconversion could lead to more efficient use of energy by converting these lower energy wavelengths to wavelengths that could be directly absorbed by the solar panel. Upconversion has thus far been harnessed in solution, where diffusion is the limiting factor for the efficiency of the process. However, for technological applications it would be better to create thin solid films. In these films, molecules would have to be brought within the distance on which upconversion occurs, as the process would no longer be defined by diffusion. One way to achieve this would be to create liquid crystalline derivatives of upconversion emitter molecules. This would provide ordering in the system, which would enhance electronic coupling and bring molecules within the scale on which upconversion occurs. The work of this thesis has focused on the synthesis of these organised functional liquids: liquid crystals of common upconversion emitter molecules. 9,10-diphenylanthracene (DPA) and 9,10-bis(phenylethynyl)anthracene (BPEA) are popular emitter molecules, and derivatives of these molecules were synthesized. A variety of alkyl chains were attached with or without phenyl linkers. The alkyl chains would provide entropy to the system in order to induce the formation of liquid crystalline phases. The resulting phase behaviour of these derivatives was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarised optical microscopy (POM). Eight novel derivatives of DPA and BPEA were synthesized. New information was gained as to the requirements of inducing liquid crystallinity in these dye molecules. Direct addition of chains symmetrically to the central dye molecules did not result in the formation of liquid crystalline phases. Through extension of the central core by an extra phenyl ring a liquid crystalline behaviour was observed. A synthesized derivative of DPA exhibited extreme supercooling, which is one of a few derivatives of 9,10-diphenylanthracene to exhibit a liquid state at room temperature. A derivative of BPEA was synthesized that exhibited formation of a mesophase (liquid crystal phase). These two derivatives were investigated for potential use as a material for upconversion.

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  • A naturalistic inquiry of the relationship between learner beliefs and learner autonomy

    Zhong, Qunyan (Maggie) (2013)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Learner autonomy has received increasing attention in the field of Second Language Acquisition (SLA). Many educators believe that the ultimate goal of teaching is to help students become life-long, independent learners. Holec, who was one of the first to explore the concept of learner autonomy, defines autonomy as ‘the ability to take charge of one’s own learning’ (1981: 3). Over the last few decades, in the field of SLA, considerable effort has been expended in identifying environmental and individual factors affecting learner autonomy and conditions for fostering it (Benson 2007). However, a review of the literature on learner autonomy indicates that studies examining the effects of learner beliefs on learner autonomy are less frequent. It can be argued that it is essential to discover and identify learners’ beliefs when promoting autonomous learning. This is simply because human beings are designers of their own actions (Argyris and Schön 1974). Behind all actions there are underpinning beliefs; hence, learners’ autonomous learning is also governed by their beliefs.

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  • Development of a Multi-Purpose Breakwater Reef at Maqai Eco Surf Resort, Qamea Island, Fiji. Coasts & Ports

    Mead, Shaw; Phillips, David; Prime, Arama (2013)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    A breakwater/reef and channel/lagoon development has been designed to alleviate the current ecological damage of the coral reef flat and lagoon, and the health and safety hazards involved with access to the Maqai Eco Surf Resort. At present, foot and boat traffic impact on large areas of the reef during access at both low and high tides, while wave penetration at high tide causes vigorous boat movement and makes it difficult and dangerous to board and leave boats (there is no road access to the resort). In addition, at low tide access is restricted with a landing bay located almost a kilometre from the resort, which is cause for concern should an emergency occur. Thus, the breakwater/reef development is aimed at focussing foot and boat traffic to protect the surrounding reef, providing a safe all-tide boat access, with the addition of providing a learner’s surfing break at higher tidal levels. To date, Stage 1 of this three stage project has been completed. This paper describes the design/impact aspects of the project and results of Stage 1 of the development.

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  • Learner Beliefs and Learner Autonomy : A Case Study of Two Chinese Migrant Learners in New Zealand.

    Zhong, Qunyan (Maggie) (2011)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Learner autonomy has received increasing attention in SLA. However, a literature review indicates that empirical studies focusing on the impact of individual learner factors on learner autonomy are scarce. This study employed a naturalistic inquiry (Lincoln & Guba, 1985) to investigate the relationship between two Chinese migrant learners’ beliefs about language learning and their levels of learner autonomy. A number of instruments (interviews, classroom observations, stimulated recall interviews and learning logs) were used to collect triangulated data over an 18-week period. Following standard procedures of qualitative data analysis, the study identified four categories of learners’ beliefs. The results reveal that the learners varied in the beliefs they held about language learning. Some of them were more conducive to learner autonomy while others were at odds. Their beliefs influenced their levels of autonomy. The study suggests that educators should take into account learners’ beliefs when promoting autonomous learning. The paper concludes with some practical instructional recommendations.

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  • Supporting Asian immigrant English language learners : teachers’ beliefs and practices.

    Che Mustafa, Mazlina (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This phenomenological study explores the beliefs and practices of New Zealand early childhood teachers in supporting English acquisition for Asian immigrant English language learners (ELLs). The focus of the study is on the analysis of early childhood teachers’ beliefs about how they can support English acquisition among Asian immigrant ELLs and how these beliefs influence the teachers’ practices in early childhood education (ECE) settings. The theoretical framework of this research draws on a range of sociocultural perspectives, including (i) the sociocultural positions initially defined by Lev Vygostky (1978), (ii) the notion of guided participation articulated by Barbara Rogoff (2003), (iii) theories of second language acquisition discussed by Lantolf and Thorne (2000), and by Krashen (1982, 1985), and (iv) acculturation as addressed by Berry (2001). The main participants of this study were seven early childhood teachers and six Asian immigrant ELLs from two ECE centres. Four Asian parents participated in interviews to ascertain the parents’ perspectives about their children’s learning of English and their maintenance of home language. Research methods for the teachers included observations and semi-structured pre- and post-observation interviews. For each centre, observations were carried out over a six week period which enabled a series of snapshots of how the teachers supported the ELLs as they acquired English. The findings were analysed using thematic analysis, and presented three themes: English dominance, social cultural adaptation, and guided participation. These themes impacted the learning experiences of the Asian immigrant ELLs and other children attending the ECE as well as the teaching approaches of the early childhood teachers. The findings revealed that there were dissonances between the teachers’ beliefs and their practices, as well as variation between individual teachers’ beliefs and practices. Because of a significant increase in the number of ELLs in New Zealand ECE centres, it is important for early childhood teachers to understand the emphasis upon sociocultural theories in the ECE curriculum, so that they can effectively apply these theories to their practices. This study will provide a basis from which to consider how early childhood teachers in New Zealand can draw upon sociocultural perspectives to better support ELLs as they acquire English, while valuing and supporting their linguistic and cultural backgrounds.

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  • The Microeconomics of Television Markets

    Hurren, Konrad (2014)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    I consider the literature surrounding the television market. Two important issues in the literature are: the market's two-sided nature, and bundling of channels. I discuss how an asymmetric pricing structure arises in television markets. The literature on bundling in the television market is reviewed, with some authors finding that bundling is a first best solution. Other authors show that a la carte pricing is socially optimal. Interestingly, there is consensus that mixed bundling is unambiguously worse than pure bundling and a la carte. Public service broadcasting is described in four English speaking countries to provide context. Failures in the television market are identified and some policy responses are discussed. I include literature analysing a price cap on basic cable packages and a domestic content requirement.

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