88,686 results

  • New Zealand learning environments: The role of design and the design process

    Alsaif, Fatimah Mohammed (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Learning environments are important spaces because these are where primary school children spend many hours. These environments can vary from single cell classrooms to modern open plan learning studios. As the design of these learning environments can affect the learning outcomes of students, their design and the design process behind them are important fields of investigation. Involving the users of learning environments in the design process is an important factor to be considered. Studies overseas stress the importance of involving teachers and students in the design process of learning environments. However, studies about learning environments in New Zealand show less consideration for the internal layout of classrooms and the involvement of users in their design process. Thus, this thesis studies and compares the design process behind learning environments in New Zealand with those overseas and the effect of this involvement on the design of primary school internal learning spaces, specifically classrooms. The aim of this thesis is create an understanding of the design process behind primary school classroom learning environments in New Zealand. To achieve the aim, this thesis undertakes five phases of study. The first phase is surveying primary school teachers and architects who design educational spaces, about the design and design process of learning environments in New Zealand. The survey results show that both teachers and architects support participatory design in schools and wish for more student user involvement. The second phase is a trial using social media to encourage more teacher and student participation in designing learning environments. Wordpress and Facebook groups were used for this experiment and teachers and students of primary schools in New Zealand were invited to participate. The trial result appears to indicate that social media does not work in encouraging students and teachers in thinking about the design of learning environments in general without having a specific project as a focus. The third phase is a workshop gathering five teachers and one architect to discuss the detail of the design process behind learning environments in New Zealand. The workshop result suggests that again participants support participatory design but suggest the need for guidance on how to do this, possibly from the Ministry of Education. The fourth phase is a case study of the early stages of a re‐build project for Thorndon Primary School in Wellington city. The case study included interviews, focus groups, observations, and collecting documentation. The main conclusion from the case study is that all parties to the project were in support of participatory design but would have benefitted from guidance as the whole design process and user involvement in it is unclear. The last phase is also case studies but here the focus is on the design process for rearranging the internal layout of two classrooms in two primary schools in Wellington city. The case studies covered observing the involvement of students in the design process, some classroom and brainstorming sessions, and interviews with teachers. The main result of this phase is the observation that students enjoy working on the design of their own environments and that they are able and ready to work as part of such a design process. The key conclusions of this thesis are that all parties involved in this research supported user participation in the design process, but in all the cases investigated there is almost no proper participatory design; students enjoy designing their learning environments and that enjoyment makes them belong and connect to these more; and proper preliminary guidelines for participatory design in learning environments could improve and encourage user involvement in designing learning environments in New Zealand.

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  • Impact of changes in cartography and mapping on the selection of cartographic materials in New Zealand map libraries

    Bagnall, Mark James MacLaren (2002)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Changes to cartography and mapping in New Zealand have had impacts on map library identification, evaluation and selection of maps and other tools that convey spatial data. In semi-structured interviews, five map librarians gave their views on how changes to cartography and mapping affects the selection of cartographic materials. Data gathered from managers/technicians of geographic information systems laboratories were also used in the research. The results indicate that New Zealand's specialist map libraries are developing their collections and services to include electronic cartographic resources. This collection development tends not to be the result of forward looking collection policies that outline a vision and strategies for integrating hardcopy and electronic cartographic materials into collections and services. The results also indicate that map librarians are adapting their selection practices to cater for the special requirements of new cartographic information resources and to overcome some of the difficulties related to the reshaping of the mapping industry in New Zealand.

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  • A cost-effective EV charging method designed for residential homes with renewable energy

    Liang, X; Lie, TT; Haque, M

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    This paper presents a smart and cost effective EV (Electric Vehicle) charging methodology for residential dwellings which have renewable energy sources. The proposed method has many benefits, including reducing peak pressure on the grid, delivering cost savings to the consumer, as well as reducing battery degradation and preventing overcharge, increasing battery lifetime. The performance of the algorithm is verified by conducting simulation studies against running data of a Nissan Altra, which demonstrate that the charging time can be effectively shifted from peak time to off-peak time. The cost savings delivered by the algorithm are compared against data collected in the Beijing electricity market.

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  • The wretched refuse of your teeming (virtual) shore: Second Life as homeland to the socially isolated

    Sherman, Kevin

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This mixed methods research explores the attachment that individuals harbour for the virtual world of Second Life by comparing participants with strong feelings of attachment to Second Life with those with weak feelings of attachment. In order to identify these two groups of participants, this research employed an online questionnaire that included actual world national attachment scales and their virtual world counterparts. Based on the results of this questionnaire, these two groups of participants were identified and located and their further participation requested. Once individuals agreed to further participate in this research, the two groups of participants – the primary group comprised of those with strong, multi-dimensional attachment for Second life and the comparison group comprised of those with weak attachment for Second Life – were then interviewed using qualitative, semi-structured interviews. Based upon thematic analysis of the results of the qualitative interviews, it was found that participants who possess strong, multi-dimensional attachment for Second Life tended to be those who can be classified as Socially Isolated or, in other words, unable, for the most part, to experience social interaction in the actual world. Participants who possess weak attachment for Second Life tended to be those who can be classified as Socially Supported or, in other words, possessing, for the most part, the capacity for actual world social interaction. The results of the thematic analysis indicates that across six of seven identified themes, the Socially Isolated participants possessed a much more positive perception of Second Life while the Socially Supported possessed a much more dismissive perception of Second Life, one characterized by ambivalence, derision and/or embarrassment. The research concludes by suggesting that Socially Supported participants are put ill at ease by a virtual world that attempts to replicate the actual world in which they already live while the Socially Isolated are not only untroubled by such a world but they exhibit deep appreciation and attachment for Second Life. In fact, Second Life seems to play a critical role in determining the very quality of their lives; it provides them with many things that the Socially Supported take for granted, including opportunities for socializing and friendship, workplace interaction, recreational activities, and even things as banal as walking down the street, sitting at a bar and dancing with a stranger.

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  • Content based authentication of Visual Cryptography

    Wang, Guangyu

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Visual Cryptography (VC) is perceived and studied as a perfect combination of secret sharing and digital image processing. The basic idea of VC is to split original secret image into several partitions which are also called shares. VC schemes include basic VC, grayscale VC, colour VC and multi-secret VC etc. Despite the security nature of VC in secret sharing, one of the common problems of current application of VC shares is that it lacks authentication. Previous related researches have proven the possibility of VC cheating through different methods. Attackers are able to complete both cheating and modification on VC process without being noticed by VC participants. Currently available authentication schemes for VC are derived from the view of utilizing additional shares and blind authentication. This research analyses effective authentication methods using 2D barcodes and embedding binary codes into VC shares for authentication purpose. A scheme of embedding 2D barcodes into VC shares to prevent cheating will be presented to enhance the use of VC in implementation. The embedding process includes four steps: resolution adaption, image matching and replacement, barcode selection and secret recovery. The aim of this research is to propose a method of embedding 2D barcode into VC shares, thereby strengthening the cheat prevention ability of VC shares by applying the security feature of 2D barcode into VC. As an international standard of reading guidance for the blind people, Braille has been widely used as an effective communication channel. In this thesis, we will also explain Braille encoding and explain how it is applied to handle the authentication problem in VC. Similar to the use of 2D barcode in VC, the utilization of Braille in VC is also attributed to the similarity of structure and construction between Braille cells and VC shares. Even though the research of visual cryptography is based on the combination of image processing and cryptography, knowledge of VC authentication related to digital image processing and cryptography has not been fully utilized in the past years. In this thesis, the analysis of both visual features and cryptographic features of VC will be presented and utilized to assist VC authentication. The visual features of VC in this thesis include moments, histogram, centroid, entropy and Tamura Texture. Compared to those existing methods, the contribution of this research is to propose an authentication scheme of integrate those features with Hash code and digital signature so as to be embedded into VC shares.

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  • Journalistic integrity or arbiter of taste? The case study of restaurant critic Peter Calder

    Williamson, D; Goodsir, W; Neill, L; Brown, A

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    In these times of interactive IT it seems that ‘almost anyone’ has the potential to become a restaurant critic. However, with growing public interest in food and dining out, the opinions of dedicated food critics are important because they sidestep the opinions of friends, advertising and marketing, and can convince potential consumers to either participate voluntarily as customers, or avoid a potentially bad dining experience altogether. In light of this, our paper illuminates the critical perspective of Peter Calder, one of New Zealand's most well-known restaurant reviewers. The discussion reveals the style of review adopted by Calder, as well as his raison d’^etre. Because this paper reflects the views and opinions of a single research participant, its generalizability is limited however the research provides a ‘thick description’ of Calder's reviewing strategy. Calder's work is fuelled by journalistic integrity rather than a preoccupation with dining out or the hospitality industry. This makes Calder's perspective unique. This paper distils how Calder creates his narratives that have, over time, led to a loyal readership. This insight adds to our understanding of the importance of restaurant critics, and, within this case study, how critics view themselves.

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  • Cenozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks of New Zealand: A reference volume of lithology, age and paleoenvironments with maps (PMAPs) and database.

    Kamp, Peter J.J.; Vincent, Kirsty A.; Tayler, Michael J.S. (2015)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    This volume presents descriptive geological data and text about each Cenozoic sedimentary and volcanic geological unit to formation and member level (in some cases) exposed on land in New Zealand, including their lithology, stratigraphic age and inferred environment of deposition or emplacement. These data are illustrated as two types of PMAPS: a present-day paleoenvironment map of New Zealand; and as restored paleoenvironment maps, one for each million years from 65 Ma to the present. These information and data underpin the development of a new Cenozoic paleogeographical model of New Zealand.

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  • The Archives of Joseph William Mellor (1869-1938): Chemist, Ceramicist & Cartoonist

    Smith, Romilly (2015)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Joseph William Mellor (1869-1938) was an Otago graduate who became a ceramicist, a cartoonist, and, more importantly, a famous chemist. Indeed, his single-handed effort to complete his 16 volume definitive work A Comprehensive Treatise on Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry (1922-1937), which amounted to over 15,000 pages and 16 million words, has never been equalled. From very humble beginnings and self-initiated study, Mellor obtained a place at the University of Otago, and then won a scholarship to study for a research degree at Owens College, Manchester. He then moved to Stoke-on-Trent, where he became principal of the Technical College (now part of Staffordshire University). During the First World War, Mellor’s research was directed towards refractories, high-temperature ceramics relevant to the steel industry and thus the war effort. It was for this work that he was offered a peerage, which he turned down. In 1927 he was elected to the Royal Society for work related to ceramics, the only other being Josiah Wedgwood in the eighteenth century. Mellor retained a boyish sense of humour all his life, and he was dubbed by colleagues the ‘Peter Pan of Ceramics’. He was also a skilled cartoonist and his Uncle Joe’s Nonsense (1934) contains a collection of humorous stories illustrated with clever pen sketches. Just before Mellor died in May 1938, he received a C.B.E.

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  • Regulation of prediction markets under the Financial Markets Conduct Act 2013

    Farmer, Kelsey (2014)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The Financial Markets Conduct Act 2013 (FMC Act) represents the most substantial overhaul of New Zealand’s securities law in recent history. The regulation of derivatives in particular featured high on the agenda as an area in need of reform and, as a result, the FMC Act is much clearer than the Securities Markets Act 1988 with respect to typical derivative agreements. The focus of this paper, however, is on the atypical: the use of derivatives in prediction markets. With a study of New Zealand-based prediction market iPredict, this paper examines whether iPredict will be regulated under the FMC Act and, if so, how it will be regulated. The conclusion reached is that iPredict can operate under the FMC Act only if the Financial Markets Authority (FMA) declares that its contracts are derivatives and grants substantial exemptions from regulatory compliance. This paper then makes recommendations for a more coherent approach to the regulation of prediction markets under the FMC Act.

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  • “Migration with Dignity”: Towards a New Zealand Response to Climate Change Displacement in the Pacific

    Farquhar, Harriet (2014)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The impacts of climate change threaten to cause the displacement of millions of people worldwide by the middle of this century. In spite of this looming crisis, international law provides insufficient protection to those who will be forced to migrate. In most cases, those who are displaced will fall outside of current protection frameworks. This paper examines why this protection deficit should be of particular concern to New Zealand, and it argues that there are significant incentives for New Zealand to develop a response to the issue of climate change displacement in the Pacific. The paper concludes that in order to ensure Pacific peoples are able to migrate with dignity, pre-emptive, voluntary migration schemes should be put in place to facilitate migration flows. These should build upon the current immigration framework, and include the extension of current permanent and temporary migration schemes, as well as the introduction of labour-training migration schemes.

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  • Panoptic reality : a review of Citizenfour

    Tunnicliffe, Craig (2015-05-01)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    Movies, and perhaps more importantly documentary movies, need to be separated into good documentaries and important documentaries. Citizenfour would then fall squarely in this second category, and require viewing for its import rather than its simulation. Citizenfour documents the days preceding and during the release of information gained by Edward Snowden, which exposed the depth of surveillance activities conducted by the NSA and other security agencies. Directed by Laura Poitras and reporting by Glenn Greenwald, the film documents the process of information release, the technological capability of the spying agencies, and the person (Snowden) behind the release of this information. ...This film and its subject matter are important. They highlight the reality of information accessibility, the surveillance that is currently occurring, the scope and depth of this activity, and government’s complicity in this activity. Jeremy Bentham described a perfect prison where those who thought they were being watched modified their behaviour accordingly. Snowden, facilitated by Poitras and Greenwald, demonstrates in Citizenfour that this prison has already been built, and is present every time we log on to a computer system. For those involved in social change, a risk is that the threat of observation may change behaviour. This needs to be resisted.

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  • The Paradoxes of Leading Community Engagement

    Malcolm, Margy-Jean (2013)

    Conference item
    Unitec

    We bring to community conservation a wonderful, essential passion for 'what' we want to achieve. This presentation invites us to pause and consider 'how' we lead in this space of community-based engagement around conservation. What does it take to engage and grow the leadership of 'the many' around shared vision. mission and values? What might we need to let go of in terms of our ideas about what 'good' leadership is, to work within this context? A number of paradoxes will be explored, for example the tensions between leading out front with your vision; from behind with the messy, self-organising energy of communities ; and somewhere in the middle. shaping a shared vision together. Principles. qualities. competencies and practices that help us work with the paradoxes. uncertainties and complexities of community engagement will be offered as a way of thinking. acting and leading with communities.

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  • Encouraging Men into the ECE Sector. Having Informed Conversations.

    Williams, Alex (2013)

    Conference item
    Unitec

    In the ECE sector, & indeed in our wider society, there is a growing awareness that the current dearth of men teaching in the ECE context is neither ‘natural’ nor ‘as it should be’. The profound lack of men working in ECE merely reflects, & ultimately upholds, unhelpful, limiting & out-dated notions of what constitutes men’s & women’s work. This presentation draws on recent research to unpack some of the factors that might attract men into ECE, to consider some of the circumstances that may create opportunities for men to join ECE & to consider, from a distinctly male perspective, some of the intrinsic rewards found in a career in ECE. This information provides an informed platform from which to engage with men in conversations about ECE & to encourage men to consider ECE as a viable & attractive vocation.

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  • A Report on the Community Development Conference 2015

    Stansfield, John; Masih, Abishhek (2015-05-01)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    The Community Development Conference 2015 was an effort by the Department of Social Practice at Unitec and Community Development practitioners to bring together practitioners, academics and students to share their knowledge, research and stories about community development. Thirty-­‐five completed feedback forms were received - summary included.

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  • Pluvial Urbanism

    Bradbury, Matthew (2013)

    Conference item
    Unitec

    Waterfronts are a critical site for urban redevelopment in the early 21st century. However many waterfront sites have serious environmental problems, especially the management of contaminated stormwater, which contemporary models of waterfront development do little to remedy. Why? While there is a good understanding of techniques that are viable for the remediation of urban stormwater, they are often ignored or treated as a design novelty. The author suggests that the cause is to be found in the way market forces dominate waterfront development models. Contemporary urban theory such as new urbanism is complicit with these forces, advocating an urban planning model with a high FAR (Floor Area Ratio) and large areas of impervious surface. The author proposes the development of an alternative waterfront development strategy using GIS-based mapping. Focusing on how the remediation of urban stormwater could drive the development of a new model of urban development on the waterfront, the author uses GIS mapping to explore the effect of pervious and impervious surfaces on the production of stormwater in an urban catchment. In a similar way GIS mapping is used to simulate different urban densities. A case study project on the Wynyard Quarter, Auckland, New Zealand is used to explore these techniques. The result is the development of a GIS model that models the consequences of increased density on urban stormwater remediation within a catchment. The model helps planners and developers to conceive an environmental sustainable urban waterfront while ensuring an economically viable return.

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  • Te Pakihi o Matauranga Māori : The Business of Māori Education

    Molyneux, Ngaire (2013)

    Conference item
    Unitec

    “A great job for every graduate” This is a big promise and this promise is nigh on impossible given the growing number and diversity of students entering the New Zealand education system. In business to make a promise you can’t deliver can result in an epic fail. However we could have the capacity to do this for Maori students through building a robust foundation and pathway based on principles such as Potikitanga (Tapsell and Woods, 2008) Rangatiratanga, Kaitiakitanga and Nohokotaitanga. Where once Maori were the minority in the business class room this now applies to all New Zealanders on a large and rapidly growing scale. We live in a world of globalization, privatisation and corporatisation where rapid paced change is the norm, we need to be more nimble, resilient and proactive. In order to keep up with this pace an understanding of international business is necessary. In business, the best way to know what your customer values is to ask them so in education ask the students what they value, ask industry what they value and integrate these derivers into teaching. Bring Maori business, students and educators together to korero on a regular basis from a Maori social and economic perspective. The education system burdened with bureaucracy and institutional politics moves too slowly to take up entrepreneurial opportunities. The education sector can learn a great deal from small medium enterprise, if you don’t move quickly when opportunity knocks you will miss the waka.

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  • The Role of Health Profession Regulation in Health Services Improvement

    Allison, M. Jane (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This research investigates the role of health practitioner regulation in health service improvement. Over the last 25 years, service improvement has included management reforms, quality and redesign programmes, multidisciplinary teamwork, the integration of clinical information systems, and new roles for health professionals. Yet despite sustained effort, improvements tend to be localised rather than organisation or system-wide. Remedies have included attention to leadership, change management and service culture. Through the same period, there have been changes to expand and strengthen health practitioner regulation, but scant attention to whether this regulation could contribute to difficulties with health service improvement. A critical realist methodology was used to build an explanation of how regulatory policies could condition health professionals and health service organisations in ways that limit the progress of service improvement. A multilevel approach was used to discover the mechanisms that could operate among policy-makers and the health workforce, generating effects in health service organisations. The study concluded that this explanation contributes new insights to explain persistent difficulties in health service improvement. The research began with the 19th century to understand the social conditions in the construction of the health workforce and health service organisations. Next, it identified the network of modern regulatory stakeholders in healthcare, along with the potential for their policies to operate in conflict or concert depending on the circumstances. Deficiencies were identified in the traditional accounts of health practitioner regulation, which assumes a single profession and sole practice. ‘Regulatory privilege’ was developed as an alternative theory that describes the operation of nine historically constructed regulatory levers among the multiple health professions employed in health service organisations. This theory linked the regulatory and practice levels, to observe the interactions between health practitioner regulation and policies for health service improvement. Drawing on the recent history of health reforms, eight elements were identified that characterise directions for service improvement in healthcare. Investigation of interactions between these nine levers and eight elements identified sources for policy interactions through six sector levels. Interactive effects were identified in: policy design influenced by health practitioner regulation; the leadership and management capability in health service organisations, the design options for delivery of services, the means available to coordinate services, the role opportunities and practice arrangements for health professionals, and the experience of service fragmentation by consumers. This multilevel explanation shows how health practitioner regulation could contribute to difficulties with service improvement, even when health services have adopted best practice in their implementations. It shows how poor alignment between the regulatory and practice levels makes it unlikely that health service organisations could address certain difficulties in the ways suggested by some scholars. Given the sustained directions for health service improvement, these findings could contribute to policy thinking around how to better align the regulatory and practice levels to realise organisation or systemwide improvements in the delivery of healthcare.

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  • Symptoms of neglect: Trust claims under the Limitation Act 2010

    Comrie-Thomson, Paul (2014)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    New Zealand's limitation legislation was overhauled with the enacting of the Limitation Act 2010. Despite this comprehensive reform, the way in which trust claims are best to be addressed appears to have been largely overlooked in the reform process. Consequently, the multitude of historic issues that have plagued statutory provisions dealing with trust claims endure in the 2010 Act, with the few changes to the structure of drafting compounding these problems. This paper explores the policy considerations at work, and, by way of example, undertakes a thorough analysis of the exception for fraudulent breaches of trust in light of these policy considerations to illustrate some of the new problems that are bound to arise in practice. Given the numerous and significant difficulties, and the substantial implications for parties seeking to rely on these provisions, this paper argues that a broad reconsideration of the way in which trust claims are dealt with in the 2010 Act is urgently needed.

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  • Hung out to dry? Questioning the legality of Southland baby-farmer Minnie Dean's 1895 murder trial and execution

    Davis, Sophie (2014)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In 1895 Minnie Dean became the only New Zealand woman to receive the death penalty. In the Invercargill Supreme Court she was found guilty of the murder of Dorothy Edith Carter, a child Minnie had recently adopted, who was found buried in her garden alongside two other infants. Branded a vindictive baby-farmer, Minnie Dean was widely condemned by the New Zealand press and public during the four months between her arrest and execution. This paper will assess whether, amongst the mania, Minnie was afforded a fair criminal trial and sentencing. It will be argued that while Minnie’s fate was largely predetermined from the moment of her arrest, against 1895 legal standards, correct criminal procedure was generally followed. Despite this, when comparing her trial and sentencing with contemporaneous murder trials, it is evident that Minnie Dean received no procedural clemency.

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  • Exploring Mechanisms of Change in the Rehabilitation of High-Risk Offenders

    Yesberg, Julia A. (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The success or failure of many different types of treatment is often measured by one type of outcome. For example, treatment for substance abuse might be judged to have failed if a patient “goes on a bender” some time after completing the programme. The same is true for offender rehabilitation. Treatment success or failure is usually determined by whether or not an offender is reconvicted of a new offence in a specified follow-up period. We know from the literature that offender rehabilitation can have modest but significant effects on reducing recidivism. Yet we know little about what brings about these reductions (i.e., how the treatment worked). This thesis explores possible mechanisms of change in offender rehabilitation. I propose that although a reduction in recidivism is an important long-term outcome of treatment, there are a number of additional outcomes that have the potential to explain not only if but how treatment works and why it is unsuccessful in leading to a reduction in reoffending for some offenders. Study 1 is a typical outcome evaluation of New Zealand’s rehabilitation programmes for high-risk male offenders: the High Risk Special Treatment Units (HRSTUs). I compared the recidivism rates of a sample of HRSTU completers with a comparison sample of high-risk offenders who had not completed the programme (a between-subjects design). I found that relative to the comparison group, treatment completers had significantly lower rates of four different indices of recidivism, varying in severity. The remainder of the thesis explored possible mechanisms of change within the HRSTU sample (a within-subjects design). Study 2 examined immediate outcomes of treatment, which I defined as within-treatment change on dynamic risk factors. I found that offenders made significant change on the Violence Risk Scale during treatment, but there was no significant relationship between treatment change and recidivism. Studies 3 and 4 examined intermediate outcomes of treatment, which I defined as barriers (risk factors) and facilitators (protective factors) that influence the process of offender re-entry. Study 3 validated an instrument designed to measure these factors: the Dynamic Risk Assessment for Offender Re-entry (DRAOR). I found that the tool had good convergent validity and reliably predicted recidivism above a static risk estimate. Study 4 used the newly validated DRAOR to test an explanation for the lack of a direct relationship between treatment change and recidivism. I tested whether treatment change had an indirect relationship with recidivism through its influence on the re-entry process. I found that treatment change was related to a number of re-entry outcomes; however, only two models could be tested for mediation because the re-entry outcomes themselves lacked predictive ability. Nevertheless, findings from Study 4 suggest the re-entry process is an area worthy of further investigation. Taken together, the findings from this thesis highlight the importance of considering alternative treatment outcomes in addition to whether or not a programme leads to a reduction in long-term recidivism outcomes. Answering the question of how treatment works requires an exploration into possible mechanisms of change. This thesis was only a preliminary investigation into such mechanisms; however, the findings have both practical and theoretical implications for the way we conceptualise how treatment programmes work. Developing a greater understanding of mechanisms of change in offender rehabilitation has the potential to lead to the design and delivery of more effective programmes.

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