89,483 results

  • The New Zealand Designer Fashion Industry: Making industries and co-constituting political projects

    Lewis, Nicolas; Larner, W; Le Heron, RB (2008)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper uses the New Zealand designer fashion industry as an analytical lens through which to examine the co-constitution of political projects in what we label ???after-neoliberalism???. The paper begins by tracing the making of New Zealand designer fashion as an industry, and relates this process to four political projects in which designer fashion is understood to have different possibilities ??? globalisation, the knowledge economy, creative cities and social development. We examine two key sites of the constitution of the industry ??? the scoping reports that created it, and New Zealand Fashion Week, when designer fashion can be seen to mobilise the different political projects and to be harnessed to them. We show how ???the designer fashion industry??? is expected to articulate diverse state aspirations. Our emphasis on the co-constitution of political projects highlights a new style of post-structural political economic analysis, as does our concern with industry as a space in which political projects become mobilised.

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  • Health Reality Show: Regular Celebrities, High Stakes, New Game. Integrated care in two general practices: a future model for managing complex patients in primary health care

    Sheridan, Nicolette; Kenealy, Timothy; Parsons, Matthew; Rea, Harold (2009)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Aim To evaluate a collaborative model that integrates secondary care support into general practice, targeting the main health problems of patients with long-term conditions. Methods The model was tested in two general practices in an area of high deprivation. Eligible patients were high users of the Middlemore Hospital Adult Medical Service. Model elements included nurse home visiting, record review, interprofessional case conference, and assertive follow-up and intervention. Data were collected from clinical records and interviews with patients and clinicians. Interviews were analysed using a general inductive approach. Results Record review and home visiting uncovered clinical and social information buried in the ???systems records??? or unknown. Inter-professional case conferences resulted in prioritising interventions before assigning to practitioners for follow-up. Home visiting led to advocacy for social services, not possible in earlier general practice or emergency department (ED) consultations. Specialist hospital physician support in accessing hospital services strengthened the relationship with general practice. Case finding was an unexpected outcome of home visiting with individuals from the same household as the index patient assisted to access services. Conclusion All model elements???nurse home visiting, record review, interprofessional case conference, and assertive follow-up and intervention???were essential to resolving problems seriously impacting health status.

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  • Stratification and synaptogenesis in the mushroom body of the honeybee, Apis mellifera.

    Ganeshina, Olga (2010-07)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Stratification is a basic anatomical feature of central brain in both vertebrates and many invertebrates. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between stratification and synaptogenesis in the developing mushroom bodies of the honeybee. During metamorphosis, the vertical lobe of mushroom body shows progressive stratification with three thick primary strata and more secondary strata and laminae. Three primary strata are formed at the metamorphic stage P1, before the youngest generation of the mushroom body intrinsic neurons, Kenyon cells, is produced. Thus, the primary strata within the lobe are unlikely to represent three major subpopulations of the Kenyon cells sequentially produced in the mushroom bodies. Formation of laminae starts at the stage P2 and culminates at the end of metamorphosis. The laminae appear within the lobe rather than being added sequentially from the ingrowth stratum. Alternating dark and light lamina (lamina doublets) are formed in the vertical lobe in late metamorphosis (stages P6-P9), but they are not visible in adults. The pattern of stratification is not continuous along the vertical lobe at the same developmental stage, and resorting of axons of the Kenyon cells is likely to occur within dark laminae. In the developing vertical lobe, dark laminae show lower synaptic density and exhibit an ultra structure that is indicative for a delay in synaptogenesis relative to the primary strata. A local transient block of synaptogenesis within the dark laminae may provide correct targeting of Kenyon cells by extrinsic mushroom body neurons.

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  • Comparison of stem cell properties in cell populations isolated from human central and limbal corneal epithelium.

    Chang, CY; McGhee, Jennifer; Green, Colin; Sherwin, Trevor (2011-10)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The limbus of the cornea is said to be the niche for limbal stem cells (LSCs) and the primary source of corneal epithelial maintenance. Previously, we aimed to have shown that central human epithelial cells are capable of corneal regeneration after wounding. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether central epithelial cells in human corneas have LSC properties.

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  • Roles for KCC transporters in the maintenance of lens transparency

    Chee, KN; Kistler, Joerg; Donaldson, Paul (2006)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Purpose. To determine whether the potassium chloride cotransporter (KCC) family is expressed in the rat lens and to ascertain whether the transporters are involved in the regulation of lens volume and transparency. methods. RT-PCR was performed on RNA extracted from fiber cells to identify members of the KCC family expressed in the lens. Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry, using KCC isoform-specific antibodies, were used to verify expression at the protein level and to localize KCC isoform expression. Organ-cultured rat lenses were incubated in isotonic artificial aqueous humor (AAH) that contained either the KCC-specific inhibitor [(dihydronindenyl)oxy] alkanoic acid (DIOA), the KCC activator N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), or the chloride channel inhibitor 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB) for up to 18 hours. Lens wet weight was monitored, and lens transparency and tissue morphology were recorded with dark-field and confocal microscopy, respectively. results. Molecular experiments to characterize KCC isoform expression showed that KCC1, -3, and -4 were all expressed in the lens at both the transcript and protein levels and that KCC2 was not. Immunocytochemistry indicated that the three KCC isoforms exhibited distinct differentiation-dependent expression patterns, with KCC1 and -3 being restricted to the lens cortex, whereas KCC4 was found throughout the entire lens, including the lens core. In the lens cortex, most of the labeling for all KCC isoforms was cytoplasmic, whereas in the lens core, KCC4 labeling was associated with the membrane. Incubation of lenses in 100 ??M DIOA for 18 hours caused lenses to increase their wet weight and induced a cortical opacity that was caused by extensive damage to peripheral fiber cells located up to 150 ??m in from the lens capsule, whereas deeper fiber cells appeared unaffected by DIOA exposure. Lower concentrations of DIOA (10 ??M) revealed that this damage was initiated primarily by the swelling of peripheral fiber cells. In contrast, NPPB-treated lenses exhibited a deeper zone (>100 ??m) of cell damage that was initiated by the dilation of the extracellular space between fiber cells. Exposure of lenses to the KCC activator NEM caused cell shrinkage in peripheral fiber cells but extensive cell swelling in deeper fiber cells. Peripheral cell swelling caused a differential recruitment of KCC isoforms from a cytoplasmic pool to the plasma membrane. DIOA-induced cell swelling increased the association of KCC4 with membrane, whereas hypotonic cell swelling dramatically increased the association of KCC1 with the membrane. conclusions. The rat lens expresses three KCC transporter isoforms (KCC1, -3, and -4) in a differentiation-dependent manner. Modulation of transporter activity and subcellular localization suggests that multiple KCC transporters mediate KCl efflux in peripheral fiber cells in a dynamic fashion. These results indicate that, in addition to Cl??? channels, KCC transporters play a role in mediating a circulating flux of Cl??? ions, which contributes to the maintenance of lens transparency through controlling the steady state volume of lens fiber cells.

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  • T??rangawaewae, A place to stand. A discourse of cultural awareness or hope for governance and management by a Marae organistion.

    Kepa, Tangiwai (2007)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Through the discursive project of t??rangawaewae (a place where one has the right to stand and be heard), the writer critiques some of the trials, errors, differences of opinion and possibilities in developing and advancing the place of te tangata whenua (the indigenous people of the land) knowledges while taking care of taonga (prized natural resources) within contested boundaries and spaces. In so doing, Patuharakeke Te Iwi Trust Board???s (Inc.) concurrent responsibilities of governance and management will be clarified by bringing forth ancient and complex narratives. Throughout the paper, a M??ori cultural discourse of collectivity and the Western scientific discourse that individualises or separates people, heaven and the earth, will be compared and contrasted.. Before going any further though, the reader is advised of the writer???s personal and political interest in writing about governance and management as interrelated responsibilities. In truth, the writer???s critique is grounded in the knowledge that she is made in the likeness/whakapapa (genealogy) of Patuharakeke hap?? (sub tribe) and their t??rangawaewae. More to the point, the writer is an elected trustee and the secretary of the board; thus, a discourse of cultural awareness or hope for a marae organisation to govern and manage the t??rangawaewae is a concurrent and political action.

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  • Opportunities and constraints for intensive agriculture in the Hawaiian archipelago prior to European contact

    Ladefoged, Thegn; Kirch, PV; Gon, SO; Chadwick, OA; Hartshorn, AS; Vitousek, PM (2009)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Intensive agricultural systems interact strongly and reciprocally with features of the lands they occupy, and with features of the societies that they support. We modeled the distribution of two forms of preEuropean contact intensive agriculture ??? irrigated pond???elds and rain-fed dryland systems ??? across the Hawaiian archipelago using a GIS approach based on climate, hydrology, topography, substrate age, and soil fertility. Model results closely match the archaeological evidence in de???ned locations. On a broader scale, we calculate that the youngest island, Hawai???i, could have supported 572 km2 of intensive agriculture, 97% as rain-fed dryland ???eld systems, while Kaua???i, the oldest island, could have supported 58 km2 , all as irrigated wetland systems. Irrigated systems have higher, more reliable yields and lower labor requirements than rain-fed dryland systems, so the total potential yield from Kaua???i (w49k metric tons) was almost half that of Hawai???i (w97k metric tons), although Kaua???i systems required only w0.05 of the agricultural labor (w8400 workers, versus w165,000 on Hawai???i) to produce the crops. We conclude that environmental constraints to intensive agriculture across the archipelago created asymmetric production ef???ciencies, and therefore varying potentials for agricultural surplus. The implications both for the emergence of complex sociopolitical formations and for anthropogenic transformation of Hawaiian ecosystems are substantial.

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  • Role of the urate transporter SLC2A9 gene in susceptibility to gout in New Zealand Maori, Pacific Island, and Caucasian case-control sample sets

    Hollis-Moffatt, JE; Xu, X; Dalbeth, Nicola; Merriman, ME; Topless, R; Waddell, Chloe; Gow, PJ; Harrison, AA; Highton, J; Jones, Peter; Stamp, Lisa; Merriman, TR (2009)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the role of genetic variation in the renal urate transporter SLC2A9 in gout in New Zealand sample sets of Maori, Pacific Island, and Caucasian ancestry and to determine if the Maori and Pacific Island samples could be useful for fine-mapping. METHODS: Patients (n= 56 Maori, 69 Pacific Island, and 131 Caucasian) were recruited from rheumatology outpatient clinics and satisfied the American College of Rheumatology criteria for gout. The control samples comprised 125 Maori subjects, 41 Pacific Island subjects, and 568 Caucasian subjects without arthritis. SLC2A9 single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs16890979 (V253I), rs5028843, rs11942223, and rs12510549 were genotyped (possible etiologic variants in Caucasians). RESULTS: Association of the major allele of rs16890979, rs11942223, and rs5028843 with gout was observed in all sample sets (P = 3.7 x 10(-7), 1.6 x 10(-6), and 7.6 x 10(-5) for rs11942223 in the Maori, Pacific Island, and Caucasian samples, respectively). One 4-marker haplotype (1/1/2/1; more prevalent in the Maori and Pacific Island control samples) was not observed in a single gout case. CONCLUSION: Our data confirm a role of SLC2A9 in gout susceptibility in a New Zealand Caucasian sample set, with the effect on risk (odds ratio >2.0) greater than previous estimates. We also demonstrate association of SLC2A9 with gout in samples of Maori and Pacific Island ancestry and a consistent pattern of haplotype association. The presence of both alleles of rs16890979 on susceptibility and protective haplotypes in the Maori and Pacific Island sample is evidence against a role for this nonsynonymous variant as the sole etiologic agent. More extensive linkage disequilibrium in Maori and Pacific Island samples suggests that Caucasian samples may be more useful for fine-mapping.

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  • Variable development of dryland agriculture in Hawai,i: A fine-grained chronology from the Leeward Kohala field system, Hawai,i Island

    Ladefoged, Thegn; Graves, MW (2008)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Research in the leeward Kohala dryland agricultural ???eld system on Hawai???i Island provides the opportunity to develop a ???ne-grained chronology for its development???both expansion and intensi???cation???using a combination of chronometric and relative dating. Two pathways for agricultural development are identi???ed for this ???eld system, the ???rst beginning as early as the fourteenth century and the second after the mid-seventeenth century. This chronology, combined with dating for residential features, religious sites, and territorial boundaries, makes it possible to link agricultural change with social and political dynamics in the late prehistoric period. This sequence is compared to four other relatively well-dated dryland ???eld systems on the islands of Maui, Moloka???i, and Hawai???i. These systems can be assigned to either of the two pathways identi???ed for Kohala, suggesting that dryland agricultural strategies can be sorted into (1) an earlier expansion and subsequent intensi- ???cation in areas where conditions were better suited for such practices and (2) a later, more rapid expansion into and more limited intensi???cation of areas associated with greater costs or risks. The second and later pathway for agricultural development is linked to earlier increases in populations living in more optimal locations, movement or expansion of these populations into marginal zones, regional population integration, and increasing surplus demands to fund chie???y ambitions involving territorial expansion.

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  • Pulmonary fibroblasts from COPD patients show an impaired response of elastin synthesis to TGF-??1

    Zhang, J; Wu, L; Feng, MX; Sexton, Paul; Bai, CX; Qu, JM; Merrilees, M; Black, PN (2011)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Insufficiency of tissue repair by pulmonary fibroblasts may contribute to the decrease in elastic fibres in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this study, the repair function of COPD fibroblasts was assessed by examining the response to transforming growth factor (TGF)-??1. Primary pulmonary fibroblasts were cultured from lung tissue of COPD patients and smoking control subjects. Cellular proliferation was measured with Alamar Blue reduction method. Levels of tropoelastin mRNA and soluble elastin was measured using real-time RT-PCR and Fastin elastin assay respectively. The percentage of increase in proliferation and elastin production after TGF-??1 (1 ng/ml) treatment was calculated for fibroblasts from each subject. COPD fibroblasts showed slower proliferation than control fibroblasts, and a reduced response to TGF-??1 stimulation. The promotive effect of TGF-??1 on elastin synthesis in control fibroblasts was significantly diminished in fibroblasts from COPD patients. Our findings indicate that COPD lung fibroblasts have a significantly decreased response to TGF-??1 in terms of proliferation and elastin production.

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  • Differential membrane redistribution of P2X receptor isoforms in response to osmotic and hyperglycemic stress in the rat lens

    Suzuki, Haruna; Lim, Julie; Vlajkovic, Srdjan; Donaldson, Paul (2009)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    P2X(1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 7) are all expressed in a differentiation-dependent manner in the rat lens. However, in the lens outer cortex the subcellular distribution of all P2X isoforms is predominantly associated with a pool of receptors located in cytoplasmic vesicles. Here we investigate whether osmotic and hyperglycemic stress can alter the subcellular distribution of this cytoplasmic pool of P2X receptors. We show that in a discrete zone of the deeper outer cortex an isoform and stimulus-specific shift in the subcellular distribution of P2X receptors occurs from the cytoplasm to defined membrane domains. In response to hypertonic stress P2X(1) and P2X(4) isoforms became more closely associated with the broad sides of fiber cells, while under hypotonic conditions P2X(4) and P2X(6) isoforms associate with the narrow side membranes. No such changes in subcellular distribution were observed for P2X(2,3 and 7) isoforms. Lens cultured in 50 mM glucose exhibited cell swelling in this zone but only P2X(4) associated with narrow side membranes. Our results indicate P2X receptors can be differentially recruited to specific membrane domains of lens fiber cells by osmotic and hyperglycemic stress. Furthermore they suggest the involvement of specific P2X isoforms in the regulation of fiber cell volume and the initiation of diabetic cataract.

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  • Agricultural potential and actualized development in Hawai'i: An airborne LiDAR survey of the leeward Kohala field system (Hawai'i Island)

    Ladefoged, Thegn; McCoy, MD; Asner, GP; Kirch, PV; Puleston, CO; Chadwick, OA; Vitousek, PM (2011)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Archaeological investigations of Hawaiian agriculture have relied on relatively coarse-grained data to investigate archipelago-wide processes, or on ???ne-grained data to examine patterning within localized zones of agricultural production. These trade-offs between spatial coverage and data resolution have inhibited understanding of both spatial patterns and temporal trends. Our analysis of 173 km2 of highresolution airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for leeward Kohala, Hawai???i Island identi???es spatial and temporal patterning in regional agricultural development. Differential densities of alignments suggest variable levels of agricultural intensity. Agricultural processes of expansion, segmentation, and intensi???cation can also be discriminated, with distinct zones of the ???eld system having undergone different mixes of development. Areas within the ???eld system with moderate to high levels of both average production and variability in production (determined using a climate-driven productivity model) were utilized relatively early in a highly intensi???ed manner; these areas often underwent processes of segmentation and intensi???cation. Less productive areas were developed later and exhibit evidence of expansion with lower amounts of segmentation and intensi???cation, at set levels of intensity. The spatial and temporal variability in agricultural activities was in???uenced by the diverse environmental conditions across the landscape as well as variation in cultivars and cultivation techniques. Combining the high-resolution LiDAR data from a large area with potential productivity modeling allows for a more ???ne-grained understanding of agricultural development in this region of the Hawaiian archipelago.

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  • G protein-Coupled receptor 30 in tumor development

    Wang, DF; Hu, L; Zhang, GN; Zhang, Lin; Chen, C (2010)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Estrogen plays several important physiological and pathological functions in not only reproductive system but many other systems as well. Its transcriptional activation has been traditionally described as being mediated by classic nuclear estrogen receptors (ERs). It is however established recently that a novel functional estrogen transmembrane receptor, G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), modulates both rapid non-genomic events and genomic transcriptional events of estrogen. It has been demonstrated that GPR30 promotes the progress of estrogen-related tumors through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. Effects mediated by GPR30 are maintained when classic ERs are absent or blocked. In addition, GPR30 is involved in drug resistance, which is often occurring during cancer treatments. All these new findings strongly imply that GPR30 may be an important therapeutic target for estrogen-related tumors. Simultaneously blocking both GPR30 and classic ERs may be a better strategy for the treatment of estrogen-related tumors.

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  • Heterogeneity of muscle sizes in the lower limbs of children with cerebral palsy

    Handsfield, Geoffrey; Meyer, CH; Abel, MF; Blemker, SS (2016-06)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Introduction Cerebral palsy (CP) is associated with reduced muscle volumes, but previous studies have reported deficits in only a small number of muscles. The extent of volume deficits across lower limb muscles is not known. This study presents an imaging-based assessment of muscle volume and length deficits in 35 lower limb muscles. Methods We imaged and segmented 35 muscles in 10 subjects with CP and 8 typically developing (TD) controls using MRI. Muscle volumes were normalized, and Z-scores were computed using TD data. Volume Z-scores and percent deficits in volume, length, and cross-sectional area are reported. Results Muscle volumes are 20% lower, on average, for subjects with CP. Volume deficits differ significantly between muscles (12%???43%) and display significant heterogeneity across subjects. Distal muscles, especially the soleus, are commonly and severely small. Conclusions Heterogeneity across muscles and across subjects reinforces the subject specificity of CP and the need for individualized treatment planning.

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  • Validation of PHQ-2 and PHQ-9 to Screen for Major Depression in the Primary Care Population

    Arroll, Bruce; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Crengle, Suzanne; Gunn, J; Kerse, Ngaire; Fishman, Tana; Falloon, Karen; Hatcher, Simon (2010-07)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    PURPOSE Although screening for unipolar depression is controversial, it is potentially an efficient way to find undetected cases and improve diagnostic acumen. Using a reference standard, we aimed to validate the 2- and 9-question Patient Health Questionnaires (PHQ-2 and PHQ-9) in primary care settings. The PHQ-2 comprises the first 2 questions of the PHQ-9. METHODS Consecutive adult patients attending Auckland family practices completed the PHQ-9, after which they completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) depression reference standard. Sensitivities and specificities for PHQ-2 and PHQ-9 were analyzed. RESULTS There were 2,642 patients who completed both the PHQ-9 and the CIDI. Sensitivity and specificity of the PHQ-2 for diagnosing major depression were 86% and 78%, respectively, with a score of 2 or higher and 61% and 92% with a score 3 or higher; for the PHQ-9, they were 74% and 91%, respectively, with a score of 10 or higher. For the PHQ-2 a score of 2 or higher detected more cases of depression than a score of 3 or higher. For the PHQ-9 a score of 10 or higher detected more cases of major depression than the PHQ determination of major depression originally described by Spitzer et al in 1999. CONCLUSIONS We report the largest validation study of the PHQ-2 and PHQ-9, compared with a reference standard interview, undertaken in an exclusively primary care population. The PHQ-2 score or 2 or higher had good sensitivity but poor specificity in detecting major depression. Using a PHQ-2 threshold score of 2 or higher rather than 3 or higher resulted in more depressed patients being correctly identified. A PHQ-9 score of 10 or higher appears to detect more depressed patients than the originally described PHQ-9 scoring for major depression.

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  • A role for neuroglobin: Resetting the trigger level for apoptosis in neuronal and retinal cells

    Fago, A; Mathews, AJ; Brittain, Tom (2008-06)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    We propose a new hypothesis for the molecular mechanism by which neuroglobin exerts its protective effect in hypoxia-induced cell death. Our recent observation of a very rapid electron-transfer reaction between ferrous neuroglobin and ferric cytochrome c is central to this hypothesis. In contrast to previously suggested roles for neuroglobin, related to its putative but unlikely oxygen storage/transport properties or its ability to react with nitrogen oxides, we suggest that ferrous neuroglobin exerts its protective effect via modulation of the early events in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. We suggest this is achieved by the rapid reduction of cytosolic ferric cytochrome c by neuroglobin. The maintenance of cytochrome c in the nonapoptotic ferrous oxidation state and the concomitant generation of ferric neuroglobin in this reaction fit well with known feedback processes in the early events of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Our hypothesis also fits well with a number of previously uncorrelated findings, including the localization of neuroglobin in close proximity to mitochondria, the high concentration of neuroglobin in cells whose basal rates of aerobic metabolism are extremely high, and the cell types which are subject to large calcium ion fluxes in their normal physiology. (C) 2008 IUBMB.

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  • A new case-finding tool for anxiety: a pragmatic diagnostic validity study in primary care

    Puddifoot, Sophie; Arroll, Bruce; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Kerse, Ngaire; Fishman, Tana; Gunn, J (2007)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Objective: Anxiety is common in the community and in family practice (FP) patients. It is a treatable condition but often not diagnosed. The aim of this study was to determine the validity of two written questions to aid family physicians in the identification of anxiety. The first question asks the patient whether they have been worrying a lot during the past month; and the second question asks whether the patient would like help with this problem. Methods: The study was a pragmatic cross sectional validity study conducted with 19 family physicians in six clinics in New Zealand. The outcomes were the sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios compared with the HADS anxiety score 11 as a gold standard. Results: The study recruited 982 consecutive patients receiving no psychotropic drugs. The FP diagnosis had a sensitivity of 58% (95% CI 45% to 69%) and a specificity of 87% (95% CI 85 to 89). The worry question alone had a sensitivity of 76% (95% CI 64% to 85%) and a specificity of 82% (95% CI 79% to 84%). The positive likelihood ratio for patients wanting help today was 9.29 (95% CI 5.62 to 15.36). The likelihood ratio for patients worrying but not wanting help was 2.29 (95% CI 1.48 to 3.55). The likelihood ratio (negative) for those not worrying was 0.29(95% CI 0.18 to 0.46). Conclusions: The use of a case-finding question for anxiety and a question asking whether help is wanted increases the positive likelihood ratio indicating that the use of the two questions may aid family physicians in identifying cases of anxiety.

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  • Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of Chlorambucil delivered in parental emulsion

    Ganta, Srinivas; Paxton, James; Baguley, Bruce; Garg, Sanjay (2008)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The aim was to assess the pharmacokinetics and anticancer activity of chlorambucil (CHL) incorporated in a parenteral emulsion (PE). A chlorambucil-loaded PE was prepared by a high energy ultrasonication method. Soybean oil was chosen as a triglyceride oil core and egg phosphatidylcholine as an emulsifier in the formulation. The particle size distribution and zeta potential were measured using Zetasizer. The results showed that the average encapsulation efficiency of chlorambucil-loaded parenteral emulsion (CHL-PE) was 98.6 ?? 3.2% with a particle size of 182.7 ?? 0.8 nm, and a zeta-potential of ???37.2 ?? 1.1 mV. Osmolality and pH of the formulation were 305.6 ?? 2.3 mOsm/kg and 7.4, respectively. The chlorambucil was stable in the PE for at least 6 months stored at 4???8 ??C. The pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and anticancer activity of CHL-PE and chlorambucil solution were studied after intravenous administration to C57 BL/6 male mice. CHL-PE exhibited a significantly greater AUC0?????? (32.4 ?? 0.1 ??g/ml h vs. 16.9 ?? 0.1 ??g/ml h), mean residence time (MRT) (1.32 ?? 0.01 h vs. 0.30 ?? 0.01 h), volume of distribution (409 ?? 15 ml/kg vs. 180 ?? 7 ml/kg) and elimination half-life (1.83 ?? 0.1 h vs. 0.27 ?? 0.02 h) (all P < 0.01), and a significantly reduced plasma clearance (309 ?? 16 ml/(h kg) vs. 591 ?? 4 ml/(h kg), P < 0.01) compared to the CHL. In addition CHL-PE treatment caused significantly greater tumour growth suppression rate (% T/C) of the colon-38 adenocarcinoma in the mouse compared to CHL treatment (% T/C, 75 ?? 3.4% vs. 49 ?? 7.4%, P < 0.01). These results suggest that CHL-PE could be an effective parenteral carrier for chlorambucil delivery in cancer treatment.

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  • The impact of single substitutions on multiple sequence alignments

    Klaere, Steffen; Gesell, Tanja; von Haeseler, Arndt (2008)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Quantifying sympathetic nerve activity; problems and pitfalls, the need for standardization

    Guild, Sarah-Jane; Barrett, Carolyn; McBryde, Fiona; Van Vliet, B; Head, GA; Burke, SL; Malpas, Simon (2009)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Since the first recording of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) early last century numerous methods for presentation of the resulting data have developed. In this paper, we discuss the common ways to describe SNA and their application to chronic recordings. Suggestions on assessing the quality of SNA are made including the use of arterial pressure wave triggered averages and nasopharyngeal stimuli. Calculation of the zero level of the SNA signal from recordings during ganglionic blockade, the average level between bursts and the minimum of arterial pressure wave triggered averages are compared and shown to be equivalent. The use of normalisation between zero and maximal SNA levels to allow comparison between groups is discussed. We recommend that actual microvolt levels of integrated SNA be presented (with the zero/noise level subtracted) along with burst amplitude and frequency information whenever possible. We propose that standardisation of the quantifying/reporting of SNA will allow better comparison between disease models between research groups and ultimately allow data to be more reflective of the human situation.

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