89,483 results

  • W. E. Gudgeon : his contribution to the annexation of the Cook Islands.

    Currie, Ernest Rowland (1963)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    v, 90 leaves ; 30 cm. Bibliography: leaf iv-v.

    View record details
  • Immediate reactions in Otago to the movement for the abolition of the provincial government, 1874-1876

    Cowan, Linda M (1972)

    Other thesis
    University of Otago

    Physical description: 89 leaves ; 26 cm. A long essay submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Post graduate Diploma in Arts at the University Otago.

    View record details
  • An Approach to Embedding ITSs into Existing Systems

    Amalathas, Sagaya Sabestinal (2012)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) have proven their effectiveness in many domains, but very few attempts have been made to embed them with existing systems. This area of research has a lot of potential in providing life-long learning and work place training. This PhD project makes several significant contributions. This is the first attempt to embed a Constraint-Based Tutor (CBT) with an existing system, in order to investigate the benefits of providing on-the-job training. We also propose a framework for embedded ITSs, and develop DM-Tutor (Decision-Making Tutor) embedded with the MIS for palm oil. DM-Tutor is the first ITS for the domain of oil palm plantation decision making, and was developed in the ASPIRE authoring system. Our hypothesis was that DM-Tutor embedded with the MIS for palm oil would provide effective instruction and training for oil palm plantation decision making. We also wanted to investigate the role of feedback messages in helping to provide effective training.

    View record details
  • Lesions of the Dorsal Medial Hippocampus induce different forms of Repetitive Behaviour in the rat

    Haq, Sahina (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The dorsal dentate gyrus (DDG) of the hippocampus plays a role in the expression of different forms of flexible behaviour mainly due to its ability to sustain neurogenesis throughout life. In the present thesis, we examined the role that the DDG and its adjacent areas, both collectively referred to as dorsal medial hippocampus (DMH), play in flexible, adaptive behaviour and cognitive processing. We used the neurotoxin, colchicine, to induce lesions of the DDG, which were found to affect neighbouring areas. Thus these lesions will be referred to as lesions of the DMH. In the first experiment, rats were tested for (1) perseverative behaviour before and after receiving chronic methamphetamine (METH) treatment, (2) METH-induced locomotor activity and stereotypy in an open field, and (3) working memory in a T-maze. The results showed that rats with lesions of the DMH exhibited perseveration and supersensitivity to the locomotor- and stereotypy-inducing effects of METH (0, 0.1, 0.3, 1 mg/kg i.p.) as well as increased long-term METH sensitization. Rats with DMH lesions also showed significant working memory deficits. Taken together, these results reveal specific forms of behavioural inflexibility in rats with lesions of the DMH that are mainly associated with perseveration, drug-related behaviours, including stimulant motor supersensitivity and drug sensitization, and impaired working memory functions.

    View record details
  • Developing alternative SCDDP implementations for hydro-thermal scheduling in New Zealand.

    Read, Rosemary Anne (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In a hydro-dominated system, such as New Zealand, the continual improvement and development of effective optimization and simulation software to inform decision making is necessary for effective resource management. Stochastic Constructive Dual Dynamic Programming (SCDDP) is a technique which has been effectively applied to the New Zealand system for optimization and simulation. This variant of Dynamic Programming (DP) allows optimization to occur in the dual space reducing the computational complexity and allows solutions from a single run to be formed as price signal surfaces and trajectories. However, any application of this method suffers from issues with computational tractability for higher reservoir numbers. Furthermore, New Zealand specific applications currently provide limited information on the system as they all use the same two-reservoir approximation of the New Zealand system. This limitation is of increasing importance with the decentralization of the New Zealand electricity sector. In this thesis we develop this theory with respect to two key goals: • To advance the theory surrounding SCDDP to be generalizable to higher reservoir numbers through the application of the point-wise algorithm explored in R. A. Read, Dye, S. & Read, E.G. (2012) to the stochastic case. • To develop at least two new and distinct two-reservoir SCDDP representations of the New Zealand system to provide a theoretical basis for greater flexibility in simulation and optimization of hydro-thermal scheduling in the New Zealand context.

    View record details
  • Moving beyond sustainability: To what extent does the Cradle to Cradle framework play a role within New Zealand's fashion industry?

    Dransfeld, Josephine Gisela (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Our planet is threatened by a rapidly changing climate, alarming resource depletion and a steadily rising population growth. This calls for intensified sustainable practices within businesses of all sizes and industries. In recent years this resulted in a wholly new model called the circular economy. Inherent to this is the Cradle to Cradle framework which seeks to design and create commodities in such a way that the impact on the environment, i.e. the carbon footprint is neutralised. Significant efforts are currently being undertaken in Europe and the United States in various sectors with a recent focus on transforming the fashion industry. The literature finds that that there is generally still little known in this area, there was barely any evidence of this change taking in New Zealand. The objective of this research is to explore this and to eventually build a theoretical understanding to what extent Cradle to Cradle plays a role within the fashion industry. This was achieved by employing the grounded theory method. Data was collected by conducting semi-structured interviews with owners-managers supplemented by secondary data such as sustainability reports. In line with grounded theory principles, open and selective coding, theoretical sampling and constant comparison were used to analyse all data within the Nvivo 10 Software. The theory showed that somewhat severe resource constraints and an occurring loss of transparency by outsourcing manufacturing operations to overseas locations impede the shift towards the circular economy at present. This research contributes to sustainable development literature by providing a comprehensive model of how the uptake of sustainable practices is influenced and dependent on multiple aspects and therefore fosters the understanding of a complex, intertwined and intransparent industry. Furthermore, this research benefits companies and business networks alike.

    View record details
  • Safe, effective, and patient-specific glycaemic control in neonatal intensive care.

    Dickson, Jennifer Launa (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Very premature infants often experience high blood sugar levels as a result of incomplete metabolic development, illness, and stress. High blood sugar levels have been associated with a range of worsened outcomes and increased mortality, but debate exists as to whether high blood sugar levels are a cause of, or marker for, these worsened outcomes. Insulin can be used to lower blood sugar levels, but there is no standard protocol for its use in neonates, and the few clinical studies of insulin use in neonatal intensive care are relatively small and/or have resulted in high incidence of dangerously low blood sugar levels. Hence, there is a need for a safe and effective protocol for controlling blood sugar levels to a normal range in order that potential clinical benefits can be successfully studied in this clinical cohort. This thesis adapted a glucose-insulin model successfully used in adult intensive care for the unique physiology and situation of the very premature infant. The model aims to reflect known physiology. As such, sources and disposal of glucose and insulin within the body are examined using both published data and unique data sets from a study here in New Zealand. In addition, the absorption of glucose from milk feeds is examined. This glucose-insulin physiological model is then used alongside statistical forecasting to develop a protocol for selecting an appropriate insulin dose based on targeting of likely outcomes to a specified target normal range. The protocol is tested in silico using virtual trials, and then clinically implemented, with results showing improved performance over current clinical practice and other published studies. In particular, ~77% of blood glucose is observed within the specified target range across the cohort, and there has been no incidence of dangerously low blood glucose levels. This protocol is thus safe and effective, accounting for inter- and intra- patient variability, and thus enabling patient-specific care.

    View record details
  • Usability Assessment of a Powered Wheelchair Controller: How Impairments Affect Human Computer Interaction Based Tasks

    Horne, Rory Michael (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Problem: Designing the user experience is a growing trend in product design; however this trend has not greatly benefited people with impairments and disabilities. There are no practical tools to broadly assist with this issue. There is a need for standardized measures to quantify impairment, a model to predict how designs may perform and a need for data regarding how people with impairments interact with consumer technology. Purpose: To conduct a usability analysis with an industry partner on their powered wheelchair controller using participants with varying impairments. The industry partner was seeking better insight into the benefits of formal user testing. Method: Forty consenting adults were given a score representing their level of impairment using six measures from the International Classification of Functioning (ICF). These measures were identified by the researcher to affect interaction with a device. Performance was measured by time taken to complete tasks, errors made, reported task difficulty and reported controller usability. Results: Performance was reduced in participants with a higher ICF score and age. An ICF score less than or equal to 2 was 117 times more likely to not complete the tasks, greater than or equal to 3 was not able to complete the experiment. Age >50 years took an average 79 seconds longer than <35 years to complete a task and reported greater difficulty, more errors and a lower usability for the controller. Implications: Low to moderate levels of impairment has a significantly negative effect on the usability of common devices. Difficulties were mostly cognitive with participants unable to create an accurate mental model of the system. Participants with lower performance tended to be overly optimistic about their abilities. Mistakes were the greatest source of error followed by lapses and almost no reported or observed slip errors. Original Contribution: The ICF has never been used as a metric for usability testing. This study successfully applied the ICF alongside other measures to prove its validity. Based on the results and current literature the Task Process Model was created to provide a simple and practical way to describe the interaction of people completing a task of basic to moderate complexity.

    View record details
  • Hearing aid satisfaction among adults with hearing impairment in New Zealand.

    Kengmana, Caitlin (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Introduction: This study investigated hearing aid (HA) satisfaction among adult with hearing impairment (HI) in New Zealand. This study aimed to answer three questions: 1) What are the current HA satisfaction levels amongst adult HA users in New Zealand? 2) How do the satisfaction findings of this study compare with other HA satisfaction data? 3) What client factors are related to HA satisfaction? Method: Participants were recruited prospectively. They completed a questionnaire prior to HA fitting and a questionnaire three months post-fitting. Information was collected on: age, gender, HA experience, HI severity, hearing ability, change in hearing ability, hearing handicap, communication self-efficacy, change in communication self-efficacy, HA self-efficacy, HA usage, and number of appointments. HA satisfaction was measured via the Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life questionnaire (SADL; Cox & Alexander, 1999). Results: Data were collected for 47 participants. Of these, 91.5% fell within or above the normative range for global satisfaction established by Cox & Alexander (1999). The mean SADL scores were predominantly high compared to previous research. Satisfaction with negative features of HAs was especially high in this study. However satisfaction with the service and cost of HAs was low compared to other research. SADL scores were found to significantly relate to age, gender, change in hearing ability, hearing handicap, communication self-efficacy, change in communication self-efficacy, and HA self-efficacy. Conclusions: Results differed from previous research indicating that HA satisfaction may differ over time and across countries. Assessing HA satisfaction in a comprehensive standardised way, as opposed to with a single-item measure, can help identify important related factors. Targeting identified variables such as communication and HA self-efficacy may lead to improved treatment efficacy.  

    View record details
  • Covalently anchored polymerisation initiator monolayers for polymer brush growth.

    Lankshear, Ethan Robert (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis describes the covalent modification of carbon electrodes with a monolayer of polymerisation initiators and the growth of polymer brushes by surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerisation (SI-ATRP). Monolayer modification was sought to preserve the underlying electrode properties and topography and to produce a well-organised layer from which the polymer brushes can be grown. This work investigated two approaches for immobilising a monolayer of polymerisation initiators. Firstly, the electrochemical grafting of protected aryl diazonium salts produced a covalently anchored monolayer of tether groups that can participate in subsequent amide coupling and click reactions, to covalently anchor the polymerisation initiator. Secondly, specific reactions between the electrode surface and appropriate polymerisation initiator derivatives have been used to covalently anchor the initiators. For most systems, electro-active ferrocene (Fc) groups were reacted with modified surfaces as model reactants to enable the electrochemical estimation of the surface concentration of the polymer initiator groups. Film thickness measurements of the ethynylaryl (Ar-Eth) monolayer were carried out using atomic force microscopy confirming a monolayer. XPS analysis confirmed the presence of bromine on most of the polymerisation initiator modified samples. Modification of surfaces with polymer brushes can introduce new surface properties, such as switchable wettability, while maintaining the underlying bulk substrate properties. This work focused on examining SI-ATRP at each of the polymerisation initiator monolayers, with the aim to identify the most promising system(s) for further investigation. Polymer brushes of poly(3-(methacryloylamino)propyl)-N,N’-dimethyl(3-sulfopropyl)-ammonium hydroxide) (PMPDSAH) were grown from initiators tethered through the aryl diazonium salts modification procedure. Redox probe voltammetry and XPS analysis indicated that the grafting from polymerisation by the copper catalysed SI-ATRP was successful. Polymer brushes of poly(methyl methacrylate) PMMA were grown from the Ar-Eth modified monolayer by three SI-ATRP procedures: a standard procedure, an electrochemically mediated SI-ATRP method and a one-pot copper catalysed azide-alkyne click (CuAAC) reaction and SI-ATRP reaction from the Ar-Eth monolayer. Redox probe voltammetry and AFM images provided evidence for the growth of polymer brushes by these three methods. The successful one-pot CuAAC/SI-ATRP reaction for simultaneous coupling of the polymerisation initiator to the surface and polymerisation is a new approach for the production of polymer brushes and it minimises the number of surface modification steps needed. This method appears most promising for further development.

    View record details
  • Progesterone and the striatal 6-hydroxydopamine model of Parkinson’s disease

    Perry, James Colin (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder that is characterised by akinesia, muscular rigidity, and postural instability, due primarily to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and depletion of upstream dopamine in the striatum. Current dopaminergic treatments reduce motor symptoms, but have diminishing benefits as the disease progresses. Treatment with the neuroactive steroid natural progesterone (PROG) improves outcomes in many experimental models of brain injury due to its pleiotropic mechanisms of neuroprotection, many of which may also benefit PD. This thesis investigated the influence of PROG on motor impairments in the unilateral intrastriatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion model of PD in rats. We established a PD-like impairment with a d-amphetamine induced rotation test at day 7 after large lesions and then administered PROG (4 mg/kg or 8 mg/kg) once daily for 7 days starting at day 8. Both PROG doses markedly improved the primary outcome measure, forelimb akinesia on the adjusting steps test, with improvement sustained for six weeks after treatment had stopped. In a second study the beneficial influence of PROG (8 mg/kg) on akinesia was replicated for rats with large lesions and was extended to rats with small lesions so that the latter rats were now similar to sham operated controls. We also found that PROG modestly improved postural instability of the ipsilateral forelimb on the postural instability test, and sensorimotor integration on the whisker test, but did not improve skilled reaching accuracy on a single-pellet reaching task, forelimb use asymmetry on the cylinder test, sensory neglect on the corridor test, or rotation bias after apomorphine. Furthermore, PROG did not change striatal tyrosine hydroxylase density when assessed in rats with large lesions. This study has provided the most thorough examination to date regarding PROG’s influence on motor skills in an animal model of PD. Furthermore, this study has produced novel evidence of the beneficial effects of PROG treatment on forelimb akinesia. These initial promising findings suggest that PROG is an effective therapy for akinesia and thus provides an impetus to further investigate PROG’s efficacy for the treatment of PD.

    View record details
  • Accounting for thinking with reference to the deaf

    Long, D. S. (1975)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Faced with an apparent conflict between two approaches to the teaching of deaf children : (i) that we should teach deaf children a language so that they can think, and (ii) that we should teach deaf children to think so that they can then acquire a language - I have examined the assumptions about thinking assumed by these two schools of thought. Reductionists hold that thinking is nothing but such things as inner speech (they identify thinking with its expression). Duplicationists argue that this is an inadequate explication of the concept of thinking (that it is only half the story) and they argue that thinking is something else as well as its expression. If successful Duplicationism becomes an objection to Reductionism. Unfortunately it results in an infinite regress. A third alternative account of thinking (Ryle's Adverbial account) regards thinking as an adverbial characterization: thinking is the way or circumstances in which we perform certain diverse and neutral (vis-a-vis thinking) activities. By such an account the elements of thinking which Duplicationists accuse Reductionist of ignoring become conditional dispositions. I argue that they should be regarded as categorical dispositional ascriptions. Additionally Ryle assumes a "process" account of thinking when in point of fact an "episodic" account is required. The thesis concludes by arguing that we need an ontology sufficiently large to take in all the aspects of thinking and that in turn this will generate not one precept but a matrix of precepts for the education of the deaf.

    View record details
  • The criminalisation of intentionally harmful digital communications - Encouraging the responsible use of cyberspace or an offence of unnecessarily limited application?

    Laing, Cameron James (2014)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The Harmful Digital Communications Bill has recently been reported back from the Justice and Electoral Select Committee. The Bill seeks to deter, prevent and mitigate the harm caused to individuals through digital communications and to provide victims of harmful digital communications with a quick and efficient means of redress. In addition to modernising existing legislation and establishing a new civil enforcement regime, the Bill controversially introduces a new criminal offence of posting a harmful communication with the intent that the communication causes harm to a victim. Surprisingly, the offence differs significantly from comparable legislation abroad where neither a mens rea standard of intent is present nor a requirement that a victim must suffer serious emotional distress in order for an offender to be liable. This paper critiques the likely application of the offence and ultimately concludes that in light of differing legislation abroad and cases which have arisen since the enactment of the Communications Act in the United Kingdom, that the mens rea standard should be modified to include subjective recklessness, and the requirement that an intended victim must suffer actual harm should be removed.

    View record details
  • Safe harbour: Should we be worried? An analysis of Clause 20 of the Harmful Digital Communications Bill, and its application to the law of defamation

    Lipski, Jordan (2014)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Liability of internet intermediaries for content created by third parties is a contentious area of defamation law. Recently, the law in New Zealand has begun to depart from English law, and move closer to strict liability. Parliament has responded with a ‘safe harbour’ in clause 20 of the Harmful Digital Communications Bill, which will provide online content hosts with conditional immunity from liability for content created by others. The author supports the creation of a legislative safe harbour for internet intermediaries, but highlights a number of deficiencies with clause 20 as currently drafted. This paper analyses the existing law, including possible defences, and clause 20. It also looks to other jurisdictions’ safe harbours, and concludes with recommendations on how clause 20 ought to be improved.

    View record details
  • How principals manage ethnocultural diversity: learnings from three countries

    Billot, J; Goddard, JT; Cranston, N (2013-11-07)

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Global movements of people are resulting in increasingly diverse societies and principals are encountering more complex and challenging school communities. This paper presents the results of a tri-national study that sought to identify how principals manage ethnocultural diversity in schools in New Zealand, Australia and Canada. The research context of the three cities is provided by describing their ethnocultural diversity, relevant literature is examined and the research methodology discussed. Two major themes of the study findings are identified. Firstly, there appear to be similarities in the ethnocultural diversity evident in contemporary high schools in all three locations and how principals identified the effect of such diversity on their school. The second identifies similarities in how principals perceived and managed the resultant challenges in the three ethnoculturally diverse locations. Implications and conclusions from the findings are discussed, with suggestions for further research in this domain.

    View record details
  • Creating Creatures: Dumont and the metaphysics of evil

    Jackson, ML (2012-04-21)

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    Since the late 1990s Bruno Dumont has produced six feature films, approximately one every three years. His cinema has been highly praised and is recognized by Martine Beugnet, in Cinema and Sensation, as exemplary of a new cinema that radically challenges the understanding of cinematic affect: a cinema of sensibility rather than sense. Dumont was himself a philosopher, now turned filmmaker, though this is not the particular axis or focus for this paper. Rather, what is particularly challenging in his cinema is a fundamental concern with evil, a concern that does not moralize, that does not condemn, that does not even ask for an account of or economy of evil. I want to explore this cinema that shows the human essentially as a be-coming ‘longing’, a be-longing to being as that which comes not to a particular time or a particular language, to an articulation of its existence, but rather shows a coming to temporality, to the possibility of being-in ‘time’ and to an opening to ‘language’, to the word as the becoming it-self of the existent. In this I want to engage a reading of Schelling’s Treatise on the Essence of Human Freedom, and a particularly Heideggerian reading of this treatise as a “metaphysics of evil,” wherein, for Schelling, evil in its actuality, in its existing, is necessary for human freedom.

    View record details
  • Lost in translation: aligning strategies for research

    Billot, JM; Codling, A (2013-11-07)

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    In New Zealand, the funding of higher education research has been influenced by revised policy-driven imperatives. Amidst the institutional reactions to newer criteria for governmental funding, individual academics are being asked to increase their productivity in order for their employing institution to access public funding. For this to occur, these three essential stakeholders, namely the government, the institution and the individual academic, need to have a reasonable understanding of one another’s core research objectives, and reasonable alignment of the strategies they employ to achieve them. This alignment of effort is not without challenges, for inevitably ambiguity occurs when interactions are not effectively dovetailed and clearly communicated. In addition, individual academics may perceive a lack of support within an environment of increased pressure to perform. Ambivalence as one form of disengagement may result as staff resort to behaviours that contest institutional powers over their changing roles and responsibilities. We contend that in order to address these challenges, there needs to be further reflection on how the efforts of all parties can be better aligned and collaboratively integrated. While our point of reference for this paper is New Zealand, similar issues are evident in higher education institutions internationally and so strategies for overcoming them can be applicable across varied contexts.

    View record details
  • Fully automated VLBI analysis with c5++ for ultra-rapid determination of UT1

    Hobiger, T; Otsubo, T; Sekido, M; Gotoh, T; Kubooka, T; Takiguchi, H (2012-04-23)

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    VLBI is the only space-geodetic technique which gives direct access to the Earth's phase of rotation, i.e. universal time UT1. Beside multi-baseline sessions, regular single baseline VLBI experiments are scheduled in order to provide estimates of UT1 for the international space community. Although the turn-around time of such sessions is usually much shorter and results are available within one day after the data were recorded, lower latency of UT1 results is still requested. Based on the experience gained over the last two years, an automated analysis procedure was established. The main goal was to realize fully unattended operation and robust estimation of UT1. Our new analysis software, named c5++, is capable of interfacing directly with the correlator output, carries out all processing stages without human interaction and provides the results for the scientific community or dedicated space applications. Moreover, the concept of ultra-rapid VLBI sessions can be extended to include further well-distributed stations, in order to obtain the polar motion parameters with the same latency and provide an up-to-date complete set of Earth orientation parameters for navigation of space and satellite missions.

    View record details
  • VLBI measurements for frequency transfer

    Takiguchi, H; Koyama, Y; Ichikawa, R; Gotoh, T; Ishii, A; Hobiger, T; Hosokawa, M (2012-04-23)

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    We carried out the intercomparison experiment between VLBI and GPS to show that VLBI can measure the correct time difference. We produced an artificial delay change by stretching the Coaxial Phase Shifter which was inserted in the path of the reference signal from Hydrogen maser to the Kashima 11m antenna. Concerning the artificial changes, VLBI and the nominal value of Coaxial Phase Shifter show good agreement, i. e. less than 10ps. Thus it is concluded that the geodetic VLBI technique can measure the time differences correctly.

    View record details
  • Intercomparison between VLBI frequency transfer and other techniques

    Takiguchi, H; Koyama, Y; Ichikawa, R; Gotoh, T; Ishii, A; Hobiger, T; Fujieda, M; Amagai, J; Hosokawa, M (2012-04-23)

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    No abstract

    View record details